29 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-03

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-03.

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Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Connected car

Related Articles – Summarized

Connected Cars: What Is It? Features And Benefits

Team Acko.Nov 16, 2021.What is a Connected Car?In layman’s language, any vehicle/car which can connect to the internet is called a Connected Car.

How Does Connected Car Technology Work?Any vehicle which is equipped with internet connectivity can be called a connected car.

Features of Connected Vehicles:A connected vehicle comes equipped with a host of smart and convenient features.

The features of connected car technology improve the overall driving and ownership experience, and also adds a safety net with its advanced security features.

5G and Connected Cars:Self-driving cars or autonomous cars might be the future of mobility, but for now, it’s the connected vehicles which are breaking the barrier of conventional systems.

Connected Cars available in India:The connected vehicle technology is still in its infant stage in the Indian market.

Future of Connected Car Technology:The connected car technology will not be limited to conventional cars.

Connected Car. Its History, Stages And Terms.

Many of the challenges put forward by current and future megacities can only be dealt with by the Internet of Things, and the connected car is becoming a part of this concept.

Car manufacturers, politicians, judges and many other specialists still must solve a few questions along the way, though.

In the long term, vehicles will be fully integrated into our digital lives.

Smartphones, smartwatches, laptops and cars: Devices and services will not stand alone but integrate with one another.

Relevant information like the address of an upcoming appointment that is stored on a phone, will be shared directly with the car’s navigation system – to name just one example.

In this way networking can free the user of day-to-day burdens and provide greater comfort.

The autonomous vehicle of the future is difficult to imagine without the technologies of the connected car, and history shows just how quickly the innovations of tomorrow can develop into the standards of today.

Connected Car

A connected car is a car that can communicate bidirectionally with other systems outside of the car.

AA plc introduced Car Genie, the first piece of connected car technology in the UK that connects directly to a breakdown service, not only warning of issues with car health, but intervening directly with a phone call to customers to help them prevent a breakdown.

Typically, a connected car made after 2010 has a head-unit, in car entertainment unit, in-dash system with a screen from which the operations of the connections can be seen or managed by the driver.

Increasingly, connected cars are taking advantage of the rise of smartphones, and apps are available to interact with the car from any distance.

Future services include coaching on driving skills for fuel efficiency and safety reasons, the prediction of maintenance needs and providing advise to car owners regarding the best time to sell their car.

The following trends are strengthening the shift towards a fully developed connected cars industry, changing the concept of what is understood as a car and what are its functions.

In Germany and Brazil, 59% of car drivers are afraid to be hacked into their car if it is connected to the Internet.

Why The Future Of The Automotive Industry Is Connected Cars

The market for connected cars is predicted to soar to over $215 billion by 2027.

Connected cars are potentially safer for road users, and less harmful to the environment.

The market for connected cars is predicted to be worth over $215 billion by 2027.

With the demand for greater connectivity set to soar, 5G-enabled connected cars will become the new norm.

Connected cars have clear benefits, being potentially safer and less harmful for the environment.

5G connectivity is the future of the auto industry and will redefine mobility as we know it.

Driver demand for connectivity is increasing as people become more familiar with the benefits of staying connected.

Connected Car: Challenges And Opportunities For The Automotive Industry

The development of connected car technology accelerated digital disruption in the automotive industry.

While the development of connected car technology created a demand for connectivity solutions and drive-assistance systems, companies willing to build their position in this market have to face some significant challenges.

A Connected Car is a vehicle that can communicate bidirectionally with other systems outside the car, such as infrastructure, other vehicles, or home/office.

A vehicle equipped with connected car technology is not limited to communicating only with the cloud.

Another highly valuable type of communication provided by connected car technology is V2V – Vehicle to Vehicle.

By developing an environment in which numerous cars are able to wirelessly exchange data, the automotive industry offers a new experience – every vehicle can use the information provided by a car belonging to the network, which leads to a more effective communication covering traffic, car parking, alternative routes, issues on the road, or even some worth-seeing spots.

You can’t guarantee when your command to a car will be delivered, and if a car will respond in milliseconds or even at all.

What Is The Connected Car? Defined

A big buzz word in the automotive and car industry is now “Connected car.” Many people have asked us at AUTO Connected Car, “What is the connected car?” What was the first connected car? “What is the definition of the connected car?” “What is driving the connected car movement?” “Can I connect the Internet of things to my present un-connected car?”.

The connected car safety systems added capabilities over time including GPS locations and the ability to have voice and data at the same time.

Connected Car- the presence of devices in an automobile that connect the devices to other devices within the car/vehicles and or devices, networks and services outside the car including other cars, home, office or infrastructure.

BMW Connected NA. Connected car features fall into several categories, safety, navigation, infotainment, diagnostics/efficency and payments.

Typically, a connected car after 2010 or thereabouts has an head-unit, infotainment unit, in-dash system with a screen from which the operations of the connections can be seen or managed by the driver.

Traffic, safety and collision warnings – when the car is connected to navigation, city infrastructure or community mapping such as Waze, HERE or TomTom, the driver can be notified of car collisions, traffic jams, pot holes, debris on the road and more.

Leave alerts & text alerts – when connected to apps outside the car, the driver can receive notification of the best time to leave, while the car or apps notify friends or colleagues of the arrival time of the vehicle.

Connected Car Plans At AT&T Business.

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Post Idea #2: Bayerische Motoren Werke AG

Related Articles – Summarized

Historisches Lexikon Bayerns

Der größte Teil der Anlagen außerhalb Bayerns ging verloren, die beiden BMW-Werke in München wurden als Demontageobjekte eingestuft.

Mehr als ein Viertel aller in Bayern demontierten Maschinen stammten von BMW. Das Werk in Milbertshofen wurde nach 1945 der eigentliche Entwicklungs-, Produktions- und Umsatzträger der Firma.

1948 nahm BMW die Motorradproduktion wieder auf und profitierte bis Mitte der 1950er Jahre von der hervorragenden Motorradkonjunktur.

Ausdruck der verbesserten wirtschaftlichen Situation war die Eröffnung der neuen Konzernzentrale und des BMW-Museums 1973, deren moderne Architektur in der Nachbarschaft zum Olympiagelände zu einem Wahrzeichen für das Unternehmen und die Stadt München geworden ist.

Aufgrund der geringen Anzahl industrieller Großbetriebe in Bayern nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg und der Tatsache, dass BMW – zunächst als einziges Unternehmen – in einer Schlüsselbranche für den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg Deutschlands tätig war, hatten die bayerischen staatlichen Stellen stets großes Interesse an der positiven wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung des Unternehmens.

Die Palette der Maßnahmen reichte von der Vermittlung günstiger Kredite bis zum persönlichen Einsatz zur Schaffung neuer Produktionsstandorte BMWs in Bayern.

740.000 Automobile hergestellt, was 60% der Gesamtproduktion der BMW Group entsprach.


1932 folgte der erste „echte” BMW der BMW AM-Baureihe mit der Bezeichnung AM1, d. h. die erste BMW-eigene Automobilkonstruktion, die gegenüber dem BMW 3/15 größer und technisch fortschrittlicher ausfiel.

An diesem Aufschwung partizipierte auch BMW. Der Umsatz des Unternehmens betrug 32,5 Millionen Reichsmark im Jahr 1933 und steigerte sich bis 1939 auf 280 Millionen RM. Der Flugmotorenbau bei der 1934 neu gegründeten Tochtergesellschaft „BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH” erfolgte in der neuen BMW Flugmotorenfabrik Allach GmbH und der BMW Flugmotorenfabrik Eisenach GmbH. Dieser trug 1939 allein 190 Millionen RM zum Umsatz bei.

Mit der Übernahme der Brandenburgischen Motorenwerke in Berlin-Spandau im Jahr 1939, die anschließend als BMW Flugmotorenwerke Brandenburg GmbH firmierten und der Gründung der Niederbarnimer Flugmotorenwerke GmbH im Jahr 1941 mit Standorten in Zühlsdorf und Basdorf expandierte der Geschäftsbereich Flugmotoren auf 90 Prozent des gesamten Umsatzes.

60 Prozent und die Banken verloren ihren Einfluss bei BMW. Dadurch sowie durch die Übernahme der Hälfte der Anteile an der BMW-Tochtergesellschaft Triebwerkbau GmbH und ein Darlehen in Höhe von 20 Millionen DM durch die MAN bekam BMW ausreichende finanzielle Mittel für die Umsetzung des neuen Mittelklassemodells, das Limousinen-Charakter mit hoher Motorleistung vereinen sollte.

Im Zuge der gescheiterten Übernahme des britischen Automobilherstellers Rover Mitte der 1990er Jahre und der damit einhergehenden Finanzierungsprobleme wurde der 51-Prozent-Anteil von BMW dann allerdings an Rolls-Royce plc veräußert.

Zu den bekanntesten Ergebnissen von project i gehören der elektrisch angetriebene BMW i3, der Plug-in-Hybrid Supersportwagen BMW i8 sowie der Elektromotorroller BMW C evolution.

Eines der ersten Ergebnisse der M GmbH war der unter wesentlicher Mithilfe von Alpina gebaute BMW 3.0 CSL. Dieses deutlich erleichterte Modell des BMW E9 war ein erfolgreicher erster Schritt.


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BMW R 32 – das erste BMW Motorrad. Als BMW 1923 erstmals ein eigenes Motorrad, die R 32, vorstellt, sorgt dies für Aufsehen.

Die BMW AG und die BMW Flugmotorenbau GmbH gründen die Flugmotorenfabrik Allach GmbH. Bereits ein Jahr später treten sie ihre Anteile an die Luftfahrtkontor GmbH Berlin ab, die das BMW Werk Allach bei München mit staatlichen Geldern verdeckt subventioniert.

Ein Jahr später, kurz vor Beginn des Zweiten Weltkriegs, übernimmt BMW die Bramo und gliedert das Werk Spandau als BMW Flugmotorenwerke Brandenburg GmbH in die BMW AG ein.

Die BMW Kredit GmbH. Als neue BMW Tochtergesellschaft entsteht die BMW Kredit GmbH zur Finanzierung eigener und vor allem von Händlergeschäften.

Gründung der BMW Motorsport GmbH. Mit der BMW Motorsport GmbH bündelt BMW 1972 alle Motorsportaktivitäten in einer neuen Gesellschaft und schafft die Grundlage für die heutige BMW M GmbH. BMW Motorsport beschert BMW in den Folgejahren unzählige Motorsporterfolge.

Gemeinsam mit der Werkführung und dem BMW Museum bildet die BMW Welt ein Erlebnisensemble zu Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Vision der BMW Group.

Die BMW Group startet in eine neue Ära der Elektromobilität: Mit dem BMW i3 präsentiert die neue Marke BMW i das erste vollelektrisch angetriebene Großserienmodell der BMW Group.


The first car sold as a BMW was a rebadged Dixi called the BMW 3/15, following BMW’s acquisition of the car manufacturer Automobilwerk Eisenach.

The BMW 5 Series mid-size sedan range was introduced in 1972, followed by the BMW 3 Series compact sedans in 1975, the BMW 6 Series luxury coupes in 1976 and the BMW 7 Series large luxury sedans in 1978.

The first hybrid BMW was the 2010 BMW ActiveHybrid 7, and BMW’s first mass-production electric car was the BMW i3 city car, which was released in 2013,.

The origin of the logo as a portrayal of the movement of an aircraft propeller, the BMW logo with the white blades seeming to cut through a blue sky, is a myth which sprang from a 1929 BMW advertisement depicting the BMW emblem overlaid on a rotating propeller, with the quarters defined by strobe-light effect, a promotion of an aircraft engine then being built by BMW under license from Pratt & Whitney.

BMW announced the launch of two new BMW i all-electric models, the BMW iX3 SUV by late 2020, and the BMW i4 four-door sedan in 2021.

In golf, BMW has sponsored various events, including the PGA Championship since 2007, the Italian Open form 2009-2012, the BMW Masters in China from 2012 to 2015 and the BMW International Open in Munich since 1989.

Three unique models that BMW Motorsport created for the South African market were the E23 M745i, which used the M88 engine from the BMW M1, the BMW 333i, which added a six-cylinder 3.2-litre M30 engine to the E30, and the E30 BMW 325is which was powered by an Alpina-derived 2.7-litre engine.

The International BMW Website

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Post Idea #3: European Car of the Year

Related Articles – Summarized

Car Of The Year

The EV6 has obtained a first Car of the Year award for Kia.

The EV platform also enables the Kia EV6 pleasant performance, AWD capability and ultra-fast charging times.

Throughout the cabin, the Kia EV6 shows an unprecedented level of connectivity and safety, advanced driver assistance systems, besides a flat-floor interior with sustainable materials.

The heart of the Kia EV6 beats an energy-dense Nickel-Cobalt-Manganese battery pack, available in two sizes.

“The EV6 stands out by combining energy efficiency, a large capacity battery and ultra-fast charging”.

“Inside the roomy and well-finished passenger compartment, the technological innovation is applied to increase the quality of life on board. And once at the wheel, the EV6 offers a smooth and pleasant drive”.

“Excellent EV because of its fast charging and good range for the price. In comparison with the Hyundai the EV6 offers less body roll, more playful handling and tighter steering. A bit sportier overall”.

This Is The 2022 European Car Of The Year

Geneva – For the third time ever, a fully electric car has won the European Car of the Year competition.

With 279 points to its name, the Kia EV6 has won the overall prize.

The Kia EV6 is the Korean company’s first dedicated electric car to be built around the new E-GMP high-tech architecture for EVs.

“The EV6 is truly a landmark development that’s been designed from the outset to make electric mobility fun, convenient and accessible by combining a highly impressive real-world driving range, ultra-fast charging capabilities, a spacious high-tech interior and a truly rewarding driving experience,” said Kia Europe’s president Jason Jeong.

“The EV6 is an exciting sign of what’s still to come in our evolving electrified line-up.”

Who judges the competition? The European Car of the Year jury consists of 59 members, representing 22 European countries.

The objective is to find the best new car on sale, among those that were launched in the preceding year.

The Kia EV6 Is The 2022 European Car Of The Year In A First For The Korean Brand

The all-electric EV6 is the first car ever made by Kia to win the European Car of the Year award, the organization announced today.

It beat out six other competitors shortlisted for the award this year.

The EV6 is only the third all-electric vehicle to ever win the ECOTY award and did so with 279 points.

The closest competition for the award this year was all-electric.

The European Car of the Year panel is made up of members from nine automotive publications in nine countries and is independent from automakers.

The Car of the Year awards have been going on since 1964 when the Rover 2000 took the win.

The first electric car to win the award was the Nissan LEAF in 2011.

Kia EV6 Becomes First Korean Car To Be Named European Car Of The Year

Kia announced Tuesday that its first dedicated electric vehicle EV6 has become the first South Korean car to be named the Car of the Year in the European Car of the Year awards.

EV6 took the throne, beating out over 60 models launched in 2021 listed as candidates for the 2022 Car of the Year.

The Car of the Year was chosen by 61 auto journalists from 23 European countries after a thorough evaluation and voting process.

The European Car of the Year award, which began in 1964, is one of the most highly respected awards in the global auto market along with the North American Car and Truck of the Year awards.

Kia’s all-electric crossover had to compete not only with German, British, and French cars, but also with American and Japanese cars.

Korean automakers such as Hyundai and Kia had been previously named the Car of the Year by the North American Car and Truck of the Year awards, but never in Europe.

Other titles recently claimed include 2022 Irish Car of the Year and “Premium” winner in the German Car of the Year 2022 awards.

European Car Of The Year

The European Car of the Year award is an international Car of the Year award established in 1964, by a collective of automobile magazines from different countries in Europe.

The award is not restricted to European cars, but nominees must be available in at least five European countries, and have expected sales of 5,000 a year.

In 2011, the Nissan Leaf was the first electrically-powered vehicle to be awarded Car of the Year.

Sports cars have traditionally accounted for only a tiny percentage of car sales throughout Europe, but the European Car of the Year accolade was won by one for 1978, when the Porsche 928 sealed the award in the face of competition from the BMW 7 Series and Ford Granada.

19 years after the 504 gave Peugeot its first European Car of the Year, the French carmaker finally enjoyed its second triumph in the competition when its mid-range 405 saloon won the 1988 award by a wide margin.

Renault’s innovative compact MPV, the Scénic, won the ECOTY And Japan Import Car of the Year for 1997, while The Fiat subsidiary Alfa Romeo won the next year’s award for the first time with its 156 mid-range sports saloon.

A year later, a Japanese manufacturer – this time with a Japanese-built product – won the award when the Toyota Yaris Hatchback and Yaris Verso Mini MPV earned top marks in Car of the Year Japan and ECOTY ahead of the boldly-styled Fiat Multipla and the practical Vauxhall/Opel Zafira compact MPV. Alfa Romeo’s modern revival continued when its stylish 147 won the award for 2001, with the next winner being the Peugeot 307.

2022 Kia EV6 Wins 2022 European Car Of The Year Award

The 2022 Kia EV6 has won the 2022 European Car of the Year award.

The 2022 Kia EV6 is powered by single or dual-motor powertrains offering between 167 horsepower to 576 horsepower depending on the trim configuration.

The 2022 Kia EV6 has secured the ‘2022 European Car of the Year’ award.

The final list of vehicles that competed with 2022 Kia EV6 were the Hyundai Ioniq 5, Škoda Enyaq iV, Cupra Born, Renault Mégane E-Tech, Peugeot 308 and Ford Mustang Mach-E. Finally, the Kia EV6 emerged as a winner owing to its futuristic exterior design, well-designed interior, long-distance real-world driving range and ultra-fast charging technology.

The 2022 Kia EV6 is compatible with 800V ultra-fast charging and its battery can be charged from 10 percent to 80 percent in just 18 minutes.

The Kia EV6 shares its platform with Hyundai Ioniq 5 and is one the seven dedicated EV models that Kia plans to launch by 2026.

The 2022 Kia EV6 has also won the ‘Crossover of the Year’ at the TopGear.com 2021 awards; ‘Premium’ winner in the German Car of the Year 2022 awards; 2022 Irish Car of the Year; 2022 What Car? ‘Car of the Year’; and joint winner of the inaugural ‘Best Cars of the Year’ 2021/2022 awards.

Kia’S EV6 Wins 2022 European Car Of The Year

Kia’s EV6 has won the 2022 European Car of the Year award.

The EV6 from Kia was one of over sixty automotive models launched in 2021.

“It’s a great honour to have won the 2022 European Car of the Year with the EV6, the first ever Kia to win this prestigious award,” Jason Jeong, President of Kia Europe said.

“The EV6 is truly a landmark development that’s been designed from the outset to make electric mobility fun, convenient and accessible by combining a highly impressive real-world driving range, ultra-fast charging capabilities, a spacious high-tech interior and a truly rewarding driving experience. The EV6 is an exciting sign of what’s still to come in our evolving electrified line-up.”

Kia rolled out its new Electric-Global Modular Platform with the EV6.

The architecture “Ensures the EV6 eliminates the many compromises faced by EVs that are created on platforms initially designed to accommodate internal combustion engine vehicles,” Kia said.

Because of the Kia technology in the E-GMP, the EV6 has 800V ultra-fast charging capabilities and 328 miles of all-electric range.

Post Idea #4: Heating, ventilation, and air conditioning

Related Articles – Summarized

Heating, Ventilation And Air Conditioning In Intensive Care Unit

The aim of this review is to describe variation in standards and guidelines on ‘heating, ventilation and air-conditioning’ system maintenance in the intensive care units, across the world, which is required to maintain good ‘indoor air quality’ as an important non-pharmacological strategy in preventing hospital-acquired infections.

Keywords: Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning; Intensive care unit; Indoor air quality; Ventilation; Infection control.

Outdoor air intake and air exhaust ducts and controlsDampers are used to cut off central air-conditioning to unused rooms and for regulating the air supply room-by-room.

Air distribution systemsIt can be of full fresh air or single-pass system or the traditional re-circulation type systems, where recirculated air requires adequate filtration [3, , ]. Displacement ventilation has advantages like better acoustics and less noise, low pressure drops, and low energy consumption, requires a lower grade of filtration and has high ventilator efficiency as 100% fresh air is delivered to the occupants []. The effectiveness of 100% fresh air system combined with UVGI is almost similar to the use of re-circulated air coupled with the use of HEPA filtration, provided an adequate number of ACH were maintained.

Index of microbial air contamination which is performed using 1/1/1 scheme []. Estimation of microbial load is done by the formula: B = 1000/NRT, where B is the bacteria-containing particles/mm3, N number of colonies on the plate, R rate of sampling and T time given for sampling []. There are certain acceptable IMA limits, which vary according to the area of the hospital tested, such as the maximum acceptable IMA is 5 for ultra-clean rooms, isolation rooms and operating room for joint replacements, whereas in ICU and dialysis rooms, IMA is acceptable up to 25 []. Apart from testing for microbial loads, air is also tested for moisture content and its relation to air temperature and energy using a psychrometric chart.

An efficient HVAC system adjusts its various components such as heating, cooling, air filtration, air distribution, air flow rate and air exchange rates in accordance with the environment, clinician and patient needs.

Microbiological air quality in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of surgical and intensive care areas: the application of a disinfection procedure for dehumidification devices.

Heat Pump Equipment Air-source heat pumps The most common type of heat pump is the air-source heat pump, which serves as an air conditioner during the cooling season.

Air-source heat pumps should have outdoor thermostats, which prevent operation of the strip heaters at temperatures above 38°F. The International Energy Conservation Code requires controls to prevent strip heater operation during weather when the heat pump alone can provide adequate Chapter 7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning 129 heating.

Geothermal heat pumps Unlike an air-source heat pump with its outside coil and fan, a geothermal heat pump relies on fluidfilled pipes buried beneath the earth as a source of heating in winter and cooling in summer.

Measures of efficiency for heat pumps The heating efficiency of a heat pump is measured by its Heating Season Performance Factor, which is the ratio of heat provided in Btu per hour to watts of electricity used.

Chapter 7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning 133 Figure 7-6 Integrated Space and Water Heating System Supply ducts Cooling coil Blower Heating coil with pump Return duct Hot water for space heating Incoming cold water Hot water for domestic use High recovery, fuel-fired water heater or heat pump Gas-fired integrated systems One type of integrated space and water heater system uses a quick recovery, high efficiency gas water heater to provide 140°F water that provides space heating and hot water.

Chapter 7 Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning 135 Figure 7-7 Efficient Wood Heater Design Rated flue installed properly Radiant surfaces Flue damper Secondary combustion chamber Catalytic device to aid combustion Outside combustion air source All doors should be tight-fitting Some fireplace designs provide a means of heating room air by circulating it around the firebox where it is heated and then passed back into the house.

Design 3: Heat Recovery Ventilation System HRV systems draw fresh outside air through ducts into the heat exchange equipment and recaptures heating or cooling energy from stale room air as it is being exhausted.

Heating, Ventilation, And Air Conditioning

Ventilation removes unpleasant smells and excessive moisture, introduces outside air, keeps interior building air circulating, and prevents stagnation of the interior air.

Warm air systems distribute the heated air through ductwork systems of supply and return air through metal or fiberglass ducts.

An important component of natural ventilation is air change rate or air changes per hour: the hourly rate of ventilation divided by the volume of the space.

Outside, fresh air is generally drawn into the system by a vent into a mix air chamber for mixing with the space return air.

Then the mixture air enters an indoor or outdoor heat exchanger section where the air is to be cooled down, then be guided to the space creating positive air pressure.

In water heating systems the thermostats control zone valves, and in forced air systems they control zone dampers inside the vents which selectively block the flow of air.

Clean air delivery rate is the amount of clean air an air cleaner provides to a room or space.

Post Idea #5: Tesla, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

Tesla, Inc.

This was followed by the Tesla Model S sedan in 2012, the Tesla Model X SUV in 2015, the Tesla Model 3 sedan in 2017, and the Tesla Model Y crossover in 2020.

In April 2015, Tesla entered the energy storage market, unveiling its Tesla Powerwall and Tesla Powerpack battery packs.

Throughout 2020, the share price of Tesla increased 740%, and on January 26, 2021, its market capitalization reached $848 billion, more than the next nine largest automakers combined and making it the 5th most valuable company in the US. From 2015 to 2020, Tesla went on an acquisition spree, buying a handful of little-known companies: Riviera Tool, Grohmann Engineering, Perbix, Compass Automation, Hibar Systems, and German ATW Automation to advance Tesla’s expertise in automation, along with Maxwell Technologies and SilLion to add to Tesla’s abilities in battery technology.

Tesla Energy’s generation products include solar panels, the Tesla Solar Roof and the Tesla Solar Inverter.

As a result, AAA raised insurance rates on Tesla cars by 30%. Tesla said that the analysis is “Severely flawed and not reflective of reality” Tesla failed to provide any contradictory numbers.

In May 2010, Tesla and Toyota announced a deal in which Tesla purchased the former NUMMI factory from Toyota for $42 million, Toyota purchased $50 million in Tesla stock, and the two companies collaborated on an electric vehicle.

Tesla has sued former employees in the past for similar actions; for example, Guangzhi Cao, a Tesla engineer, was accused of uploading Tesla Autopilot source code to his iCloud account.

Tesla Inc. Stock Falls Thursday, Underperforms Market

COMPANY CLOSE UPDATES. Shares of Tesla Inc. slid 4.61% to $839.29 Thursday, on what proved to be an all-around poor trading session for the stock market, with the NASDAQ Composite Index falling 1.56% to 13,537.

Tesla Inc. closed $404.20 short of its 52-week high, which the company reached on November 4th. The stock underperformed when compared to some of its competitors Thursday, as Toyota Motor Corp. ADR fell 1.71% to $176.09, General Motors Co. fell 3.07% to $44.90, and Honda Motor Co. Ltd. ADR fell 2.63% to $28.83.

Trading volume remained 6.7 million below its 50-day average volume of 27.0 M. Microsoft and partners may be compensated if you purchase something through recommended links in this article.

Following A 15.16% Weekly Incline, Is It Still A Buy For Tesla Inc? – Marketing Sentinel

Tesla Inc.’s traded shares stood at 6.39 million during the latest session, with the company’s beta value hitting 2.07.

With these gigs, the year-to-date price performance is -16.74%. Short interest in Tesla Inc. saw shorts transact 25.82 million shares and set a 1.06 days time to cover.

Looking at statistics comparing Tesla Inc. share performance against respective industry, we note that the company has outperformed competitors.

Tesla Inc. shares are 19.60% up over the last 6 months, with its year-to-date growth rate higher than industry average at 40.71% against 8.80%. Revenue is forecast to grow 161.20% this quarter before jumping 114.00% for the next one.

Tesla Inc. has a forward dividend ratio of 0, with the share yield ticking at 0.00% to continue the rising pattern observed over the past year.

Tesla Inc. insiders hold 19.96% of total outstanding shares, with institutional holders owning 42.40% of the shares at 52.98% float percentage.

We also have Vanguard Total Stock Market Index Fund and Growth Fund Of America Inc as the top two Mutual Funds with the largest holdings of the Tesla Inc. shares.

Musk Invites UAW Union To Hold Vote At Tesla California Factory

Tesla Inc Chief Executive Officer Elon Musk said on Thursday he was inviting labor union United Auto Workers to hold a vote at the electric carmaker’s California factory.

“I’d like hereby to invite UAW to hold a union vote at their convenience. Tesla will do nothing to stop them,” he said bit.

Musk has also faced the ire of U.S. National Labor Relations Board, which last year ruled the company violated U.S. labor law and ordered Tesla to direct him to delete a 2018 tweet saying employees would lose their stock options if they formed a union.

U.S. President Joe Biden has often praised the electric-vehicle efforts made by Detroit automakers General Motors Co and Ford Motor Co, including during his State of the Union Speech on Tuesday, even though they sell fewer EVs than Tesla.

Last month, Biden, whom Musk earlier this year compared to a “Damp sock puppet,” acknowledged Tesla’s leadership role in making EVs after Musk repeatedly complained about being ignored.

UNION VOTE. The latest tweet could help Musk improve his image with the administration and workers, Harley Shaiken, labor professor emeritus at University of California Berkeley, said.

Experts say UAW could get a majority of workers to sign cards saying they want to be represented by the union and call on Musk to recognize a union without an election.

Tesla Inc.’S Volatility Reaches 7.25%: Don’T Be Comfortable – Stocks Register

Tesla Inc. price on Wednesday, March 02, rose 1.80% above its previous day’s close as an upside momentum from buyers pushed the stock’s value to $879.89.

Turning to the stock’s technical picture we see that short term indicators suggest on average that TSLA is a Hold.

A total of 11 analyst(s) rate the stock as a Hold, 18 recommend TSLA as a Buy and 4 give it an Overweight rating.

3 analyst(s) rate the stock as Underweight and 7 say it is a Sell.

The average rating for the stock is Overweight which could provide an opportunity for investors keen on increasing their holdings of the company’s stock.

The technical evaluation for the stock shows the PEG ratio is 8.24, with TSLA’s current price about 0.20% and -8.36% off the 20-day and 50-day simple moving averages respectively.

Current price change has pushed the stock -16.74% YTD, which shows the potential for further growth is there.

Tesla, Inc. engages in the design, development, manufacture, and sale of fully electric vehicles, energy generation and storage systems.

It also provides vehicle service centers, supercharger station, and self-driving capability.

The company operates through the following segments: Automotive and Energy Generation and Storage.

The Automotive segment includes the design, development, manufacture and sale of electric vehicles.

The Energy Generation and Storage segment includes the design, manufacture, installation, sale, and.

Lease of stationary energy storage products and solar energy systems, and sale of electricity generated by its solar energy systems to customers.

It develops energy storage products for use in homes, commercial facilities and utility sites.

Tesla Inc. Stock Quote

Tesla, Inc. engages in the design, development, manufacture, and sale of fully electric vehicles and energy generation and storage systems.

It also provides vehicle service centers, Supercharger stations, and self-driving capability.

The company operates through the following segments: Automotive and Energy Generation and Storage.

The Automotive segment includes the design, development, manufacture, sale, and lease of electric vehicles as well as sales of automotive regulatory credits.

The Energy Generation and Storage segment includes the design, manufacture, installation, sale, and lease of stationary energy storage products and solar energy systems, and sale of electricity generated by its solar energy systems to customers.

It develops energy storage products for use in homes, commercial facilities, and utility sites.

Post Idea #6: Royal Canadian Mounted Police

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Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The RCMP also had four officers killed in Saskatchewan and Alberta that year in the 1935 Royal Canadian Mounted Police Killings.

The RCMP mounted the King’s Life Guard at Horse Guards Parade in 1937 leading up to the coronation of King George VI. The RCMP mounted the Queen’s Life Guard in May 2012 during celebrations of Queen Elizabeth II’s Diamond Jubilee.

In 1975, the RCMP dedicated a memorial beside the Fred Light Museum in Battleford, Saskatchewan, consisting of a cemetery with gate, cairn and list of honour plaque to the members of the North-West Mounted Police and the RCMP. [edit].

The RCMP is organized under the authority of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act, an act of the Parliament of Canada.

Pursuant to sections 3 and 4 of the RCMP Act, the RCMP is a police force for Canada-namely, a federal police force.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police received an international licence on April 1, 1995, requiring those who use the RCMP to pay a licensing fee.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Band was the RCMP’s central musical ensemble.

What Does The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Do?

In 1920 it was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, but what exactly does it do?

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is responsible for federal law enforcement and police services in eight provinces.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police uniquely has jurisdiction at all three levels in different areas of Canada.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police External Review Committee is an independent arm of the Government of Canada.

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police Act established more parameters of law enforcement for the police, changed the location of headquarters to Ottawa and officially changed the name to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

There are 15 different divisions to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Only those persons who are citizens of Canada, of good moral character and in good physical fitness can apply to be a member of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police

The Royal Canadian Mounted Police is Canada’s national police force – providing an array of services from municipal policing to national security intelligence gathering.

In 1869 William McDougall, sent out as first Canadian lieutenant-governor of the North-West Territories, carried instructions to organize a police force under Captain D.R. Cameron.

The new police force, which gradually acquired the name North-West Mounted Police, was organized along the lines of a cavalry regiment and armed with pistols, carbines and a few small artillery pieces.

Royal NWMP. By this time the force was known as the Royal North-West Mounted Police – the “Royal” being added in 1904 in recognition of the service of many mounted policemen in the South African War.

In May 1919 he reported to Cabinet that the police could either be absorbed into the army or expanded into a national police force.

The first two were closely linked, and from the late 1940s onward there was growing evidence that illegal drug traffic was controlled by Canadian branches of American crime syndicates or “Families.” In 1961 the RCMP set up national crime intelligence units across the country to gather information on organized crime and improve co-operation with other police forces.

The RCMP’s formal primary mandate still remains the prevention of crime and the maintenance of “Peace and order.” It also provides police services to eight of the ten Canadian provinces,, as well as to the three northern territories, and more than 180 municipalities and Indigenous communities.

Canadian police have established an excellent reputation in international policing through their expertise, leadership, professionalism and dedication.

Gavin, a police officer in N.S., shares his knowledge and what’s giving him hope.

Today, the declaration of a public order emergency under the Emergencies Act was revoked.

The revocation of the public order emergency takes nothing away from our resolve to effectively enforce the law and keep communities safe.

Ca/72559(1/6) #FactCheck: Yes, it’s true that after the #GoC invokes the Emergencies Act, the measures are effective from the day they’re taken.

We are proud of the professional & collaborative response of Canadian police agencies, including the thousands of RCMP employees who are on the front lines as well as those supporting behind the scenes.

& provincial legislation provides significant authorities & powers to police services to maintain the rule of law.

Post Idea #7: Vancouver Island

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Vancouver Island

Vancouver Island is the world’s 43rd largest island, Canada’s 11th largest island, and Canada’s second most populous island after the Island of Montreal.

On Vancouver Island, Coast Salish peoples’ territory traditionally spans from the northern limit of the Gulf of Georgia on the east side of Vancouver Island and covering most of southern Vancouver Island.

A quarter of a century later, Vancouver Island had become such a well-known geographical feature that the founding of the Colony of Vancouver Island in 1849 gave this name full official status.

The highest point in these ranges and on the island is the Golden Hinde, at 2,195 m. Located near the centre of Vancouver Island in 2,500 km2 Strathcona Provincial Park, it is part of a group of peaks that include the only glaciers on the island, the largest of which is the Comox Glacier.

Among the more notable rivers are the Somass River in the Alberni Valley, the Nimpkish River in the North Island region, the Englishman River up island from Nanaimo near Parksville, and the Cowichan River whose basin forms the Cowichan Valley region in the South Island region.

The Forbidden Plateau, in the east of the Vancouver Island Ranges, was the epicentre of the 1946 Vancouver Island earthquake that registered 7.3 on the moment magnitude scale, the strongest ever recorded on land in Canada.

Vancouver Island does support most of Canada’s Roosevelt elk and several mammal species and subspecies, such as the Vancouver Island marmot are unique to the island.

Tesla Announces Plans To Launch First Dealership On Vancouver Island

Tesla has today announced plans to launch its first dealership on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Tesla North is reporting.

In an official announcement earlier this morning, Tesla and Langford revealed the new sales, service, and delivery center will be located at 2361 City Gate Blvd, across from Costco at a Seacliff Properties condo development.

The above concept shows a massive building with “Tesla” adorning the side.

According to Mayor Stew Young, Tesla’s new location in Greater Victoria is estimated to cost $40 to $50 million and will be completed by June 2023.

“This is the way of the future and a big part of Langford’s climate action plan,” Young added.

“By 2027, all our fire and police vehicles, all the city trucks and cars will be electric. Having Tesla here will help us with that.”

Mayor Young says construction on the 35,000 sqft facility starts next week and should wrap up by June 2023.

Vancouver Island Indie Rocker Set To Debut New Tracks At Char’S Landing In Port Alberni – Port Alberni Valley News

Vancouver Island indie roots rocker WiL is set to debut several tracks from his newest album at Char’s Landing in Port Alberni.

It’s been a little more than two years since WiL graced the stage of Char’s Landing.

With COVID-19 restrictions easing, WiL is shaking off the cobwebs with a brand new album on the horizon.

Known for playing mostly with “Just a drummer,” WiL mesmerizes listeners with his unusual strumming technique, while creating lush, fat and full acoustic guitar sounds that have become signature to his live experience.

WiL has been performing this way since before the launch of his debut album, Both Hands, and was nominated for three Western Canadian Music Awards, including Best Live Act.

Although the past two years have been tough for musicians and the musical community in general, the time away from playing-for WiL, at least-has yielded a whole new album’s worth of deeply personal material.

In mid-February, WiL hit the road for the first time since the summer to play a string of five shows with the aim of getting back into the swing of things.

3 New Vancouver Island Care Home Outbreaks Begin, 4 Others End – Victoria News

Six residents at The Heights at Mt. View long-term care home have tested positive for COVID-19 as of March 1, according to Island Health.

3 new Vancouver Island care home outbreaks begin, 4 others end New COVID-19 outbreaks in Saanich, Salt Spring Island.

Close to 30 Vancouver Island care home residents have tested positive for COVID-19 in the three latest outbreaks announced by Island Health March 1.

The largest outbreak is on Salt Spring Island, at Greenwoods long-term care home.

Island Health also declared four outbreaks over Tuesday.

In total, 22 residents and six staff members were infected at Glacier View Lodge in Courtenay, nine residents and four staff members got COVID at Sidney All Care, 41 residents and four staff members contracted the virus at Wexford Creek in Nanaimo, and 49 residents and 15 staff members had COVID at Veterans Memorial Lodge in Saanich.

Island Health says each of the new cases have been confirmed by a PCR test.

New Tesla Dealership In Langford The First For Vancouver Island

As gas prices soared to record highs Wednesday, Langford Mayor Stew Young said Tesla Motors’ plan to open Vancouver Island’s first sales, service and delivery centre in his community couldn’t have come at a better time.

Young will join Tesla’s Canadian executives this morning at the electric vehicle company’s new site at 2361 City Gate Blvd., part of a new condominium and business development by Seacliff Properties opposite Home Depot.

The mayor said he’s seen recent data showing there are more Tesla cars on southern Vancouver Island, per capita, than in any other region in Canada.

Dave Grove, president of the Victoria EV Association, said an Island Tesla store is good news and long overdue.

“We’ve got a lot of Tesla owners all over the Island and Langford is a great location close to the Island Highway, so the access would be perfect for Tesla owners here and in places like Nanaimo.”

Tesla has been servicing the Island for some time with its “Tesla Rangers,” a fleet of mechanics who can service the vehicles.

Young said Langford has been working with the developer and Tesla for about a year to bring in the new facility.

Vancouver Island’s newest and most novel attraction is a multi-tiered spiral tower with a lofty lookout and – we kid you not – a giant trampoline on top.

Despite its all-pervading surf culture, tiny Tofino retains a rugged, elemental feel thanks to its isolated location on Vancouver Island’s west coast surrounded by temperate rainforest.

Inhabiting the mountain’s southwestern slopes adjacent to the craggy wilderness of Strathcona Provincial Park, Mt Washington is Vancouver Island’s only major ski area coupling 500 vertical meters of downhill action with an attractive Nordic park that makes use of the extensive summer trail system on the so-called Forbidden Plateau.

Port Hardy is a small Alaskan look-alike town on Vancouver Island’s northeast shore and a primary embarkation point for car ferries navigating the narrow channels of the Inside Passage on BC’s fjord-indented west coast.

Today it’s part of the long-distance Trans-Canada trail, Vancouver Island trail and Cowichan Valley trail, although it can just as easily be incorporated in a short half-hour stroll from a car park one kilometre from the Trestle’s southern end.

The grizzlies, which are not resident on Vancouver Island, are visible on a brief boat trip to Knight Inlet on the mainland.

The Cowichan Valley is Vancouver Island’s gourmet garden where rolling hills and a balmy semi-Mediterranean climate has encouraged a blossoming of vineyards, tea plantations and an enthusiastic farm-to-table ethos.

Post Idea #8: Court of Justice of the European Union

Related Articles – Summarized

Court Of Justice Of The European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union interprets EU law to make sure it is applied in the same way in all EU countries, and settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions.

If a national court is in doubt about the interpretation or validity of an EU law, it can ask the Court for clarification.

Annulling EU legal acts – if an EU act is believed to violate EU treaties or fundamental rights, the Court can be asked to annul it – by an EU government, the Council of the EU, the European Commission or the European Parliament.

Court of Justice – deals with requests for preliminary rulings from national courts, certain actions for annulment and appeals.

In the Court of Justice, each case is assigned 1 judge and 1 advocate general.

Most cases are dealt with by 5 judges, and it is very rare for the whole Court to hear the case.

The judges then deliberate and give their verdict…General Court procedure is similar, except that most cases are heard by 3 judges and there are no advocates general.

The Court Of Justice Of The European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union is one of the EU’s seven institutions.

Articles 254 to 257 TFEU, Article 40 of the Euratom Treaty, and Title IV of Protocol No 3 annexed to the Treaties on the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

As part of an overall increase in the total number of judges of the Court of Justice, the Civil Service Tribunal was dissolved on 1 September 2016 and integrated into the General Court by Regulation 2016/1192 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 6 July 2016 on the transfer to the General Court of jurisdiction at first instance in disputes between the European Union and its servants.

As early as 1990, a Court of Justice ruling on a case brought by Parliament as part of the legislative procedure on the adoption of health measures to be taken following the Chernobyl nuclear accident granted Parliament the right to bring before the Court of Justice actions to have decisions declared void for the purpose of safeguarding its prerogatives under the legislative procedure.

Parliament and the Council are required to act by means of regulations either on a proposal from the Commission after consultation of the Court of Justice or at the request of the Court of Justice after consultation of the Commission.

According to Article 281 TFEU, the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union is amended by Parliament and the Council, which act in accordance with the ordinary legislative procedure.

An example of Parliament’s participation is the Court of Justice’s own proposal of 26 March 2018 to amend its Statute, which pertains to the possibility of certain changes to the division of jurisdiction between the Court of Justice and the General Court with regard to preliminary rulings.

Court Of Justice Of The European Union

The Court of Justice of the European Union is the judicial branch of the European Union.

Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court.

The Court of Justice, informally known as European Court of Justice, which hears applications from national courts for preliminary rulings, annulment and appeals.

The CJEU was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities and the Civil Service Tribunal was created in 2004.

With the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon in 2009, the court system obtained its current name, while the original court itself was renamed “Court of Justice”.

The working language of the Court of Justice of the European Union is French.

The Binding Force of the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union.

Court Of Justice Of The European Union – International Justice Resource Center

The Court of Justice of the European Union in Luxembourg encompasses three distinct courts that exercise the judicial functions of the European Union, which aims to achieve greater political and economic integration among EU Member States.

The CJEU has competence to hear individual complaints of alleged human rights violations, which are decided by the General Court and may be reviewed on appeal by the European Court of Justice.

Interpret European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.

Third, individuals may bring “Actions for failure to act” that can challenge an adverse failure of the EU to act, but “Only after the institution concerned has been called on to act. Where the failure to act is held to be unlawful, it is for the institution concerned to put an end to the failure by appropriate measures.” General Court judgments and rulings on an individual action may be appealed, only on points of law, to the Court of Justice.

The EU recognizes “Three sources of European Union law: primary law, secondary law and supplementary law. The main sources of primary law are the Treaties establishing the European Union. Secondary sources are legal instruments based on the Treaties and include unilateral secondary law and conventions and agreements. Supplementary sources are elements of law not provided for by the Treaties. This category includes Court of Justice case-law, international law and general principles of law.”

An essential, primary source of EU human rights law is the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, which covers the civil, political, economic and social rights protected within the EU. The Charter binds EU bodies, and also applies to domestic governments in their application of EU law, in accordance with the Treaty of Lisbon.

According to settled case-law, where national legislation falls within the field of application of Community law, the Court, when requested to give a preliminary ruling, must provide the national court with all the elements of interpretation which are necessary in order to enable it to assess the compatibility of that legislation with the fundamental rights – as laid down in particular in the European Convention of Human Rights – the observance of which the Court ensures.

History, Jurisdiction, & Composition

Court of Justice of the European Union CJEU , also called European Court of Justice, the judicial branch of the European Union.

In 1988 the Court of First Instance was established to reduce the existing court’s workload; it was renamed the General Court in 2009.

The General Court is now one of two courts comprised by the CJEU, the other being the Court of Justice.

The Court of Justice issues rulings on the interpretation of EU law for national courts of EU member states and hears various actions involving member states and institutions, including actions brought by the European Commission or by a member state for failure of a member state to fulfill its obligations under EU law; actions brought by a member state against the European Parliament or the European Commission, or by one EU institution against another, seeking annulment of a regulation, directive, or decision; and appeals on points of law of judgments of the General Court.

The General Court hears actions involving member states, institutions, and natural or legal persons, including actions brought by natural or legal persons against EU institutions for failure to act in accordance with EU law or brought by them to seek annulment of a regulation, directive, or decision; actions brought by a member state against the European Commission; and various actions against EU institutions concerning specific issues, such as state aid, trade, intellectual property, or employment relations.

The Court of Justice is made up of 27 judges, 1 from each member state, and 11 advocates general, all of whom are appointed to renewable six-year terms by consensus of the states.

The General Court is made up of 2 judges from each member state, also appointed by consensus of the states.

Court Of Justice Of The European Union

Definition(s)The judicial authority of the European Union which ensures in cooperation with the courts and tribunals of the EU Member States the uniform application and interpretation of European Union law; and which settles legal disputes between national governments and EU institutions.

FR: Cour de justice de l’Union européenne.

The institution was originally established in 1952 as a single court called the Court of Justice of the European Coal and Steel Communities, while the court itself was renamed “Court of Justice”.

The Court is based in Luxembourg and consists of two courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court.

The governments of EU Member States agree on whom they want to appoint.

The Court reviews the legality of the acts of the institutions of the European Union; ensures that the EU Member States comply with obligations under the Treaties; and interprets European Union law at the request of the national courts and tribunals.

LibGuides At University Of Illinois Law Library

The European Court of Justice is the highest tribunal in the EU court system and the court of final appeal on all matters of EU law.

It does not adjudicate claims arising under the national laws of the Member States, except to the extent that those laws conflict with EU law.

Advocates-General The judges of the ECJ are assisted by eight Advocates-General who prepare advisory opinions with respect to cases that raise novel points of law.

References for Preliminary Rulings made by national courts seeking clarification on points of EU law.

Actions for Failure to Fulfill an Obligation taken by the Commission or a Member State against another Member State for failing to live up to its obligations under EU law.

Actions for Annulment seeking to invalidate a regulation, directive or decision made by the EU. If the action is brought by a Member State or an EU institution, the ECJ has original jurisdiction.

If the action is initiated by a private party, it is heard by the General Court, subject to appeal to the ECJ. Appeals on points of law from decisions made by the General Court.

Post Idea #9: Natural environment

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Natural Environment

The natural environment or natural world encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

In contrast to the natural environment is the built environment.

Built environments are where humans have fundamentally transformed landscapes such as urban settings and agricultural land conversion, the natural environment is greatly changed into a simplified human environment.

People cannot find absolutely natural environments on Earth, and naturalness usually varies in a continuum, from 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other.

Natural environment is often used as a synonym for habitat when we say that the natural environment of giraffes is the savanna.

Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.

It is the common understanding of natural environment that underlies environmentalism – a broad political, social, and philosophical movement that advocates various actions and policies in the interest of protecting what nature remains in the natural environment, or restoring or expanding the role of nature in this environment.

ScienceDirect Topics

The axons of all OSNs expressing the same olfactory receptor converge upon one or two common neuropilar regions in the olfactory bulb input layer, termed glomeruli; the resulting high convergence ratios enable substantial improvement in the signal-to-noise ratios of olfactory sensory responses.

Extensive feedback interactions between the olfactory bulb and deeper olfactory cortices synchronize the activity of related circuits, providing a timebase for the representation and processing of olfactory information on short timescales.

Olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor project to a given glomerulus in the olfactory bulb, within which they make synaptic contacts with mitral cells, periglomerular and superficial short-axon cells, and external tufted cells.

Spike trains from mitral cells, the principal neurons of the olfactory bulb, are delivered to multiple secondary olfactory structures via the lateral olfactory tract.

Olfactory sensory neurons expressing the same olfactory receptor project to a given glomerulus in the olfactory bulb, within which they make synaptic contacts with mitral cells, periglomerular cells, and external tufted cells.

Many of the neural circuit elements comprising the olfactory system have been proposed to contribute to these processes in particular ways; in particular, multiple feedback and feed-forward interactions among olfactory structures, as well as between olfactory and nonolfactory areas, are thought to contribute to the filtering and construction of olfactory representations.

The olfactory bulb is believed to filter and transform these incoming sensory data, performing normalization, contrast enhancement, and similar operations before conveying the processed olfactory information to several different secondary olfactory structures via mitral cell axon collaterals.

What Does Natural Environment Mean?

The natural environment or natural world encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial.

The natural environment encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally on Earth or some region thereof.

The concept of the natural environment can be distinguished by components: ⁕Complete ecological units that function as natural systems without massive human intervention, including all vegetation, microorganisms, soil, rocks, atmosphere, and natural phenomena that occur within their boundaries.

The natural environment is contrasted with the built environment, which comprises the areas and components that are strongly influenced by humans.

It is difficult to find absolutely natural environments, and it is common that the naturalness varies in a continuum, from ideally 100% natural in one extreme to 0% natural in the other.

The numerical value of natural environment in Chaldean Numerology is: 8.Pythagorean Numerology.

The numerical value of natural environment in Pythagorean Numerology is: 2.Examples of natural environment in a Sentence.

Natural Environments

Natural environments help your child model the behavior and skills of family and peers.

These places qualify as natural environments, defined as “Settings that are natural or normal for the child’s age peers who have no disabilities” by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

Piper’s mother, Suzette Oltmanns, tries to have Piper’s IFSP services provided in natural environments whenever possible, because it’s important for her that Piper “Be treated just like any other child,” she says.

Providing a child with a disability with services in natural environments is beneficial not only for the child, but for parents, professionals and even the community.

Most importantly, providing a child with services in natural environments can bring families even closer together.

Natural environments are everywhere your child and family are!

Receiving early intervention services in natural environments benefits both your child and your family.

Our Built And Natural Environments

Decisions about how and where we build our communities have significant impacts on the natural environment and on human health.

In 2001, EPA published Our Built and Natural Environments: A Technical Review of the Interactions Between Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Quality to show how development patterns affect the environment and human health.

Articulates the current understanding of the relationship between the built environment and the quality of air, water, land resources, habitat, and human health.

Health: While data are lacking to determine whether the built environment determines levels of physical activity and/or obesity, nearly 90 percent of studies found a positive association, suggesting that the built environment is one of the many factors that could play a role in how much people exercise and levels of obesity.

Findings include: Development in and adjacent to already-developed areas can help protect natural resources like wetlands, streams, coastlines, and critical habitat.

Water-efficient household appliances and fixtures can yield significant water savings, and careful selection of construction materials can conserve natural resources and improve indoor air quality.

1Full citations for all of the findings are in Our Built and Natural Environments.

In a world where the vast majority of people make their living from their environments and where climate change increasingly places all of civilisation at risk, securing healthy, productive environments is not optional but, rather, foundational to all developmental transformation – especially for the most vulnerable countries and communities.

The report of the World Commission on Environment and Developmentviii consolidated several years’ of research, hearings, white papers, trends and concerns into a development plan based on tearing down the silos and working at development, environment, food security, economic stability and global relations simultaneously and collaboratively.

The environment is the source of production’ WV Somalia staff and community survey A robust, resilient environment is the foundation of well-being and prosperity for most developing communities.

The well-being of mothers, fathers, other caregivers and communities is intimately dependent upon the well-being of their own environments; it is possible to significantly and positively influence both of these major determinants of children’s well-being by securing or increasing the well-being of natural environments.

‘ World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future Directly, the natural environment influences children’s well-beingxvii – especially the well-being of children in developing and in poor contexts – by playing significant roles in: food and nutrition caring practices water purity and availability nutrient and toxin cycling disease and immunity sanitation physical and mental development hope and security.

In an industrialised context, it can be difficult to see the environment as fundamental to the provision of our needs: we may not as easily notice the role of the environment as do those whose daily activities more directly connect to the environment.

Xxiv For further thought on the varied definitions of ‘Environment’ see International Standardisation Organisation 14001, United Nations Environment Programme and United Nations Conference on Environment and Development resources, and the World Vision Theory of Change.

10 Of The Most Stunning Natural Environments On Planet Earth

World Environment Day allows us to reflect upon what we are lucky to have on behalf of the planet, but more importantly, to recognise the importance and urgency in continuing to protect it.

Areas of rainforest in Papua New Guinea remain relatively untouched by humans due to a spans of protected areas.

Found off the eastern coast of Africa, the local government has instituted many marine protected areas which have been successful in warding off illegal fishing.

To protect this special part of the world, we’re campaigning to create the largest protected area on Earth – an Antarctic Ocean Sanctuary.

The Bight is also a breeding ground for many unique species, and 85% of Great Australian Bight marine life is found nowhere else on earth.

Establishment of Wildlife Management Areas has helped to protect this elephant and many other species from poaching and habitat loss.

Bear Island, the southernmost island in the Norwegian Svalbard archipelago, is a federally protected area that is uninhabited and undeveloped by humans.

Post Idea #10: Volkswagen emissions scandal

Related Articles – Summarized

Volkswagen Emissions Scandal

The Volkswagen emissions scandal, sometimes known as Dieselgate or Emissionsgate, began in September 2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group.

Due to the good fuel economy provided by its diesel fleet, in 2014 Volkswagen was registered with an impressive Corporate Average Fuel Economy of 34 mpg‑US. The low emissions levels of Volkswagen vehicles tested with the defeat device in operation enabled the company to receive green car subsidies and tax exemptions in the US. [edit].

A group of scientists at West Virginia University submitted a proposal to ICCT, and John German awarded them a US$50,000 grant for a study to conduct tests on three diesel cars: a Volkswagen Passat, a Volkswagen Jetta, and a BMW X5. ICCT also purchased data from Emissions Analytics, a UK-based emissions consultancy, and from stakeholders in the Real Driving Emissions – Light Duty Vehicle working group in charge of amending Euro 6 regulations.

Formal acknowledgement of the deception was made by Volkswagen executives in Germany and the United States to EPA and California officials during a 3 September conference call, during which Volkswagen executives discussed written materials provided to the participants demonstrating how Volkswagen’s diesel engine software circumvented US emissions tests.

On 28 September 2015, it was reported that Volkswagen had suspended Heinz-Jakob Neusser, head of brand development at its core Volkswagen brand, Ulrich Hackenberg, the head of research and development at its brand Audi who oversees technical development across the Volkswagen group, and Wolfgang Hatz, research and development chief at its sports-car brand Porsche who also heads engine and transmissions development of the Volkswagen group.

On 9 November 2015, Volkswagen announced that, in addition to the US$2,000 it was offering current Volkswagen owners for trade-ins, 482,000 diesel Audi and Volkswagen owners in the United States would be eligible to receive US$1,000 in vouchers.

Another US survey by market researcher AutoPacific found that 64 percent of vehicle owners do not trust Volkswagen and only 25 percent of them have a positive view of Volkswagen following the scandal.

In September, the Environmental Protection Agency found that many VW cars being sold in America had a “Defeat device” – or software – in diesel engines that could detect when they were being tested, changing the performance accordingly to improve results.

The German car giant has since admitted cheating emissions tests in the US.VW has had a major push to sell diesel cars in the US, backed by a huge marketing campaign trumpeting its cars’ low emissions.

In November, VW said it had found “Irregularities” in tests to measure carbon dioxide emissions levels that could affect about 800,000 cars in Europe – including petrol vehicles.

The UK trade body for the car industry, the SMMT, said: “The EU operates a fundamentally different system to the US – with all European tests performed in strict conditions as required by EU law and witnessed by a government-appointed independent approval agency.”

“Diesel cars in Europe operate with worse technology on average than the US,” said Jos Dings, from the pressure group Transport & Environment.

“The revelations are likely to lead to a sharp fall in demand for diesel engine cars,” said Richard Gane, automotive expert at consultants Vendigital.

“In the US, the diesel car market currently represents around 1% of all new car sales and this is unlikely to increase in the short to medium term.”However, in Europe the impact could be much more significant, leading to a large tranche of the market switching to petrol engine cars virtually overnight.

The Volkswagen Diesel Emissions Scandal And Accountability

While the Volkswagen Golf TDI diesel was traversing the country in the summer of 2015, so were Volkswagen engineers, to meet with Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board officials.

The regulators wanted to know why real-time emissions monitoring conducted on Volkswagen diesel vehicles on the open road had revealed up to 35 times the amount of pollution recorded when the same cars were monitored in a government testing facility.

On September 18, 2015, the EPA issued a Notice of Violation to Volkswagen after determining that the company had manufactured and installed software that substantially reduced the effectiveness of the emissions control system of the diesel vehicles when on the open road. The violations spanned the course of six consecutive model years.

The day before the Notice of Violation, EPA and Volkswagen officials exchanged emails scheduling a high-level conference call the next morning at 9:00 a.m. The previous evening, Brooks, a veteran of the Justice Department’s Environmental Enforcement Section, sent Volkswagen an ominous follow-up to ensure its general counsel would be on the call: “Please note that this is a call that Mr. [David] Geanacopolus would probably want to make a priority.”

These costs were incurred because Volkswagen engaged in an elaborate fraud that included the installation of software in diesel vehicles to fool government emissions tests, false certification to government authorities that the vehicles were compliant, deceptive marketing of the vehicles to consumers as “Clean diesel,” and a brazen cover-up.

To date, none of the auditors and lawyers associated with Volkswagen has been publicly identified as being the subject of any investigation connected with the scandal.

Knowing that the diesel vehicles would evade U.S. emissions standards, Volkswagen misrepresented them for years in order to get EPA and CARB certifications that allowed the vehicles to be sold in the U.S. When EPA and CARB finally began to catch on, Volkswagen equivocated until regulators threatened to withhold certification of its 2016 model year diesels.

July 8, 2021.Germany’s three largest carmakers colluded illegally to limit the effectiveness of their emissions technology, leading to higher levels of harmful diesel pollution, European antitrust authorities said Thursday.

Daimler avoided a fine that would have totaled €727 million because it blew the whistle on the plot, the European Commission said.

The settlement is another blow to the image of the German automakers, which dominate the high end of the car market but have lost some of their luster after Volkswagen admitted in 2015 that millions of cars it produced were fitted with software designed to dupe official emissions testers.

The European Commission, the European Union’s administrative arm, did not accuse the carmakers of agreeing to deploy illegal technology.

“For over five years, the car manufacturers deliberately avoided to compete on cleaning better than what was required by E.U. emission standards,” Margrethe Vestager, the European Union’s competition commissioner, said in a statement.

Volkswagen has since paid well over $20 billion in fines and legal settlements related to its diesel emissions cheating.

“The European Commission explicitly found no evidence that there was any agreement regarding the use of prohibited defeat devices,” the company said in a statement.

Learn About Volkswagen Violations

The EPA has resolved a civil enforcement case against Volkswagen AG, Audi AG, Dr. Ing.

h.c. F. Porsche AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Volkswagen Group of America Chattanooga Operations, LLC, and Porsche Cars North America, Inc., subject to reservations set forth in three partial settlements.

This software is a “Defeat device” that is prohibited under the Clean Air Act.On September 18, 2015, EPA issued a Notice of Violation of the Clean Air Act to Volkswagen AG, Audi AG, and Volkswagen Group of America, Inc. The notice alleges that Volkswagen installed software in its model year 2009-2015 2.0 liter diesel cars that circumvents EPA emissions standards.

Subsequently, on November 19, 2015, Volkswagen officials informed EPA that the defeat device has existed in all of its U.S. 3.0 liter diesel models since 2009.

On January 4, 2016, the Department of Justice filed a complaint on behalf of EPA against Volkswagen AG, Audi AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Volkswagen Group of America Chattanooga Operations, LLC, Porsche AG, and Porsche Cars North America, Inc. for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act.. On June 28, 2016, Volkswagen entered into a multi-billion dollar settlement to partially resolve alleged Clean Air Act violations based on the sale of 2.0 liter diesel engines that were equipped with software designed to cheat on federal emissions tests, known as “Defeat devices.” The settlement was formally entered and took effect on October 25, 2016.

On December 20, 2016, Volkswagen entered into a second settlement to partially resolve alleged Clean Air Action violations based on the sale of 3.0 liter diesel engines that were equipped with software “Defeat devices” designed to cheat on federal emissions tests.

EPA is working closely with our partner California’s Air Resources Board to implement the settlement with Volkswagen.

CNBC gives a breakdown of the Volkswagen emissions scandal and what it means for the company, the U.S. government and you.

Volkswagen installed sophisticated software known as “Defeat devices” in the electronic control module of diesel vehicles issued between 2008 and 2015.

Volkswagen would foot the bill for any repairs, although the EPA claims affected diesel cars are still safe to drive.

Will VW face fire outside the US? The scandal has spread across the globe and Volkswagen now estimates 11 million vehicles worldwide are equipped with the defeat device software.

Germany, Volkswagen’s home country, is also planning to implement additional testing.

A research note from ratings agency Fitch says Volkswagen should be able to absorb potential penalties from a U.S. investigation, adding that it’s unlikely the company will face the maximum $18 billion fine.

Still, a number of analysts don’t seem worried, and banks such as UBS say they’re still positive on Volkswagen shares, despite showing major losses.

Everything You Need To Know About The VW Diesel Emissions Scandal

UPDATE 12/4/19: German prosecutors raided Volkswagen’s Wolfsburg, Germany, headquarters on December 3, as part of a fresh investigation into diesel VWs. This time, they are reportedly interested in the EA288 four-cylinder engine, successor to the EA189 diesel engine around which the Dieselgate investigation has centered.

Volkswagen installed emissions software on more than a half-million diesel cars in the U.S.-and roughly 10.5 million more worldwide-that allows them to sense the unique parameters of an emissions drive cycle set by the Environmental Protection Agency.

The following Volkswagen, Audi, and Porsche diesel models have been cited by the EPA for emissions violations.

Buybacks and compensation for 3.0-liter Volkswagen and Audi TDI and Porsche diesel models:As of December 21, 2016, Volkswagen reached a second settlement with the roughly 78,000 owners and lessees of 3.0-liter diesel models.

While heavy-duty diesel pickups, vans, trucks, and other commercial vehicles follow looser environmental standards, light-duty vehicles have it tough-and nowhere is it tougher to certify a diesel car or truck than in the U.S. In order to trap particulates and curb nitrogen oxide in practically all new diesel engines, selective catalytic reduction and urea injection must be used.

On January 4, 2016, the U.S. Department of Justice first sued Volkswagen on behalf of the EPA. Volkswagen will now pay $14.7 billion to settle with three federal agencies suing the automaker for its excessive diesel emissions, the highest ever paid by a company for violations under the Clean Air Act.

Aside from the $10 billion buyback program, another $2.7 billion will fund future state-level projects that reduce nitrogen-oxide emissions under the EPA’s Diesel Emissions Reduction Act, which are federal grants marked to replace old diesel engines and for retrofit kits for alternative-fuel powertrains and other similar vehicle hardware.

Post Idea #11: Pulse oximeter

Related Articles – Summarized

American Lung Association

If you have a symptom of shortness of breath or a known lung or heart condition, your doctor may recommend use of a pulse oximeter.

The pulse oximeter, or Pulse Ox, is an electronic device that measures the saturation of oxygen carried in your red blood cells.

Pulse oximeters can be attached to your fingers, forehead, nose, foot, ears or toes.

If you have poor circulation, dark skin pigmentation, thick skin, currently use tobacco, your skin temperature is cool, or you are wearing dark fingernail polish, long, artificial nails or if your fingers are not clean, the pulse oximeter may give inaccurate or inconsistent readings.

Read about COVID-19 and pulse oximetry in our Each Breath Blog: Pulse Oximetry – A Little Knowledge can be a Dangerous Thing.

The pulse oximeter uses a cold light source that shines a light through the fingertip, making the tip appear to be red.

The pulse oximeter observes a rapid measurement of oxygen saturation level in your body without using needles or taking a blood sample.

Pulse Oximetry > Fact Sheets > Yale Medicine

Basically, pulse oximetry is a painless, noninvasive method of measuring the saturation of oxygen in a person’s blood.

“It’s important to remember that not all changes in pulse oximetry are related to COVID-19,” says Denyse Lutchmansingh, MD, a Yale Medicine pulmonologist.

Pulse oximetry offers many advantages over traditional methods of measuring blood oxygen levels.

At the same time, pulse oximetry is less precise than conventional methods, such as arterial blood gas testing.

Pulse oximeters have become so widespread that blood oxygen saturation is often referred to as the “Fifth vital sign,” a piece of data collected alongside four other measurements-temperature, blood pressure, pulse, and respiration rate-to gain insight into a person’s health status.

Outside of general practice, pulse oximetry is most frequently used to monitor patients with lung and heart disorders, who are at risk of low levels of blood oxygen.

Recent evidence suggests that pulse oximetry more frequently fails to detect hypoxemia-low blood oxygen levels-in Black patients as compared to white patients.

Pulse Oximetry: Uses, Readings, And How It Works

Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive test that measures the oxygen saturation level of your blood.

These levels show how efficiently blood is carrying oxygen to the extremities furthest from your heart, including your arms and legs.

Medical professionals may use pulse oximeters to monitor the health of people with conditions that affect blood oxygen levels, especially while they’re in the hospital.

The pulse oximeter will be able to tell you your oxygen saturation levels along with your heart rate.

Pulse oximetry tests are an estimation of blood oxygen levels, but they’re typically precise.

If you’re evaluating how successful your oxygen supplementation therapy is, for example, a reading that’s still on the low side might indicate the need for more oxygen.

If you’re using pulse oximetry at home, they’ll let you know how often to take your readings and what to do if they go above or below certain levels.

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to advise pulse oximetry.

Ask your healthcare provider which risks apply most to you.

Your healthcare provider will explain the procedure to you.

Your healthcare provider may have other instructions for getting ready.

It depends on your condition and your healthcare provider’s methods.

You may go back to your normal diet and activities as instructed by your healthcare provider.

Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure.

The 6 Best Pulse Oximeters Of 2022

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Pulse Oximeter Accuracy And Limitations: FDA Safety Communication

Pulse oximeters are least accurate when oxygen saturations are less than 80%. Consider accuracy limitations when using the pulse oximeter to assist in diagnosis and treatment decisions.

A pulse oximeter saturation of 90% may represent an arterial blood saturation of 86-94%. When possible, make diagnosis and treatment decisions based on trends in pulse oximeter readings over time, rather than absolute thresholds.

This testing compares the pulse oximeter saturation readings to arterial blood gas saturation readings for values between 70-100%. The typical accuracy of recently FDA-cleared pulse oximeters is within 2 to 3% of arterial blood gas values.

If an FDA-cleared pulse oximeter reads 90%, then the true oxygen saturation in the blood is generally between 86-94%. Pulse oximeter accuracy is highest at saturations of 90-100%, intermediate at 80-90%, and lowest below 80%. Due to accuracy limitations at the individual level, SpO2 provides more utility for trends over time instead of absolute thresholds.

All premarket submissions for prescription use oximeters are reviewed by the FDA to ensure that clinical study samples are demographically representative of the U.S. population, as recommended by FDA guidance, Pulse Oximeters – Premarket Notification Submissions [510(k)s]: Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff.

The FDA is evaluating published literature pertaining to factors that may affect pulse oximeter accuracy and performance, with a focus on literature that evaluates whether products may be less accurate in individuals with darker skin pigmentation.

The FDA has been working on additional analysis of premarket data, as well as working with outside stakeholders, including manufacturers and testing laboratories, to analyze additional postmarket data to better understand how different factors including skin pigmentation may affect pulse oximeter accuracy.

Post Idea #12: Nonin Medical

Related Articles – Summarized

Pulse And Regional Oximeters, Capnographs, Sensors

Preventing infection during a pandemic means you need safety at every step.

Nonin single-patient sensors and wristbands reduce touchpoints to help limit exposure while capturing reliable, accurate patient data.

Working At Nonin Medical: Employee Reviews

Several calls, while answering questions for the technicians, and AR – as well as training a new person as there is no Learning and Development team on staff which is very frustrating.

I have learned to pay very close attention to detail, even more so than I did before, which was a necessity at other jobs as well.

Management is for the most part pleasant the communication is severely lacking, as not everyone is aware of the same information at all times like they should be to make sure we are able to provide the best support for internal and external customers.

Not having enough support at times, and not being able to train said support.

I enjoy working alone for the most part, and having the ability to make decisions when they need to be made without always having to consult a supervisor first.

Nonin Medical, Inc.

For more than 30 years, Nonin Medical has designed and manufactured noninvasive patient monitoring devices for healthcare professionals and individual users.

Nonin pulse oximeters, regional oximeters, capnographs, sensors, and software deliver dependable performance day after day, even in challenging environments.

Nonin’s exclusive technologies are clinically proven to deliver consistent measurements for a broad range of patients and conditions.

Post Idea #13: Photovoltaics

Related Articles – Summarized

Department Of Energy

Photovoltaic technologies – more commonly known as solar panels – generate power using devices that absorb energy from sunlight and convert it into electrical energy through semiconducting materials.

These devices, known as solar cells, are then connected to form larger power-generating units known as modules or panels.

The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Energy Technologies Office supports PV research and development projects that drive down the costs of solar-generated electricity by improving efficiency and reliability.

Approximately half the world’s solar cell efficiency records, which are tracked by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, were supported by the DOE, mostly by SETO PV research.

SETO is working toward a levelized cost of $0.02 per kilowatt-hour for utility-scale solar photovoltaics, $0.04 per kWh for commercial PV systems, and $0.05 per kWh for residential rooftop PV systems.

In September 2021, DOE released the Solar Futures Study, a report that explores the role of solar energy in achieving these goals as part of a decarbonized U.S. electric grid.

To see all PV projects funded by SETO, visit the Solar Energy Research Database.


Solar cell energy conversion efficiencies for commercially available photovoltaics are around 14-22%. Solar cell efficiencies are only 6% for amorphous silicon-based solar cells.

Overall the manufacturing process of creating solar photovoltaics is simple in that it does not require the culmination of many complex or moving parts.

Crystalline silicon photovoltaics are only one type of PV, and while they represent the majority of solar cells produced currently there are many new and promising technologies that have the potential to be scaled up to meet future energy needs.

In 2019 university labs at Oxford, Stanford and elsewhere reported perovskite solar cells with efficiencies of 20-25%. Other possible future PV technologies include organic, dye-sensitized and quantum-dot photovoltaics.

The application of solar photovoltaics is growing rapidly and worldwide installed capacity reached about 515 gigawatts by 2018.

A photovoltaic system, or solar PV system is a power system designed to supply usable solar power by means of photovoltaics.

While perovskite solar cells often contain lead, raising the concern of toxicity, lead-free perovskite inspired materials also show promise as indoor photovoltaics.

ScienceDirect Topics

Photochemical reaction, solar thermal energy, and solar photovoltaic energy are several of the different routes where solar energy can be operated.

Photovoltaic solar energy transforms solar energy into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect.

As a device, the solar cell is closer to a semiconductor diode, but it was the transistor know-how that led to the development of the first silicon solar cells less than 10 years later.

5.First Usable Solar Cell.Bell Laboratories announced what was effectively the first usable solar cell, made from silicon.

7.Maximum Efficiency of a Solar Cell.William Shockley and Hans-Joachim Queisser published a paper that determined the maximum achievable efficiency of a single junction solar cell based purely on the analysis of incident and emitted photon fluxes.

The efficiency of similar types of solar cell eventually exceeded 10%.10.Volume of Solar Cells Exceeds 1,000 MW.Sometime during this year the total cumulative volume of solar cells reached the peak power of 1,000 MW-the power of a large conventional power station.

Research into photovoltaics continued to gain momentum with the discovery of a new class of organic solar cells based on buckminsterfullerene, leading to a fully organic solar cell with 2.5% efficiency.

Science Mission Directorate

The diagram above illustrates the operation of a basic photovoltaic cell, also called a solar cell.

Solar cells are made of the same kinds of semiconductor materials, such as silicon, used in the microelectronics industry.

A number of solar cells electrically connected to each other and mounted in a support structure or frame is called a photovoltaic module.

In a single-junction PV cell, only photons whose energy is equal to or greater than the band gap of the cell material can free an electron for an electric circuit.

The top cell captures the high-energy photons and passes the rest of the photons on to be absorbed by lower-band-gap cells.

Much of today’s research in multijunction cells focuses on gallium arsenide as one of the component cells.

The multijunction device below uses a top cell of gallium indium phosphide, “a tunnel junction,” to aid the flow of electrons between the cells, and a bottom cell of gallium arsenide.

Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics

Today, electricity from solar cells has become cost competitive in many regions and photovoltaic systems are being deployed at large scales to help power the electric grid.

Another commonly used photovoltaic technology is known as thin-film solar cells because they are made from very thin layers of semiconductor material, such as cadmium telluride or copper indium gallium diselenide.

Thin-film solar cells can be flexible and lightweight, making them ideal for portable applications-such as in a soldier’s backpack-or for use in other products like windows that generate electricity from the sun.

Some types of thin-film solar cells also benefit from manufacturing techniques that require less energy and are easier to scale-up than the manufacturing techniques required by silicon solar cells.

These solar cells are generally much more expensive to manufacture than other technologies.

Solar cell researchers at NREL and elsewhere are also pursuing many new photovoltaic technologies-such as solar cells made from organic materials, quantum dots, and hybrid organic-inorganic materials.

Photovoltaic research is more than just making a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell.


Solar cells are not 100% efficient in crystalline silicon solar cells, in part because only certain light within the spectrum can be absorbed.

Diagram of a typical crystalline silicon solar cell.

The resulting structure creates a pathway for electrical current within and between the solar cells.

In 1954, Bell Labs in the U.S. introduced the first solar PV device that produced a useable amount of electricity, and by 1958, solar cells were being used in a variety of small-scale scientific and commercial applications.

The energy crisis of the 1970s saw the beginning of major interest in using solar cells to produce electricity in homes and businesses, but prohibitive prices made large-scale applications impractical.

Most modern solar cells are made from either crystalline silicon or thin-film semiconductor material.

A specialized category of solar cells – called multi-junction or tandem cells – are used in applications requiring very low weight and very high efficiencies, such as satellites and military applications.

U.S. Energy Information Administration

A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell, is a nonmechanical device that converts sunlight directly into electricity.

Only the absorbed photons provide energy to generate electricity.

Nearly all electricity is supplied as alternating current in electricity transmission and distribution systems.

Devices called inverters are used on PV modules or in arrays to convert the DC electricity to AC electricity.

Larger systems can provide electricity to pump water, to power communications equipment, to supply electricity for a single home or business, or to form large arrays that supply electricity to thousands of electricity consumers.

PV systems can supply electricity in locations where electricity distribution systems do not exist, and they can also supply electricity to an electric power grid.

The U.S. Energy Information Administration estimates that solar electricity generation at utility-scale PV power plants increased from 76 million kilowatthours in 2008 to about 88 billion kWh in 2020.

Post Idea #14: Solar energy

Related Articles – Summarized

Solar Energy

Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of technologies such as solar power to generate electricity, solar thermal energy including solar water heating, and solar architecture.

It is an essential source of renewable energy, and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power.

The potential solar energy that could be used by humans differs from the amount of solar energy present near the surface of the planet because factors such as geography, time variation, cloud cover, and the land available to humans limit the amount of solar energy that we can acquire.

In 1897, Frank Shuman, a US inventor, engineer and solar energy pioneer built a small demonstration solar engine that worked by reflecting solar energy onto square boxes filled with ether, which has a lower boiling point than water and were fitted internally with black pipes which in turn powered a steam engine.

Use of solar for heating can roughly be divided into passive solar concepts and active solar concepts, depending on whether active elements such as sun tracking and solar concentrator optics are used.

Molten salt can be employed as a thermal energy storage method to retain thermal energy collected by a solar tower or solar trough of a concentrated solar power plant so that it can be used to generate electricity in bad weather or at night.

In 2011, a report by the International Energy Agency found that solar energy technologies such as photovoltaics, solar hot water, and concentrated solar power could provide a third of the world’s energy by 2060 if politicians commit to limiting climate change and transitioning to renewable energy.

National Geographic Society

Solar energy is constantly flowing away from the sun and throughout the solar system.

Some solar energy technologies include photovoltaic cells and panels, concentrated solar energy, and solar architecture.

The methods use either active solar energy or passive solar energy.

Active solar technologies use electrical or mechanical devices to actively convert solar energy into another form of energy, most often heat or electricity.

Photovoltaic arrays usually involve solar panels, a collection of dozens or even hundreds of solar cells.

Another type of active solar technology is concentrated solar energy or concentrated solar power.

After the solar technology equipment is constructed and put in place, solar energy does not need fuel to work.

Department Of Energy

Solar energy is the fastest growing and most affordable source of new electricity in America.

Over 3 million installations have been built across the country-with 1 million being built in the last two years.

As the cost of solar energy systems dropped significantly, more Americans and businesses have taken advantage of clean energy.

Learn how you can start the process of getting a solar energy system on your roof or through a community solar system.

While there’s no one-size-fits-all solar solution, here are some resources that can help you figure out what’s best for you.

Solar Defined Pros And Cons

The most common form of solar energy is harnessed by solar panels, or photovoltaic cells.

Solar energy has far fewer carbon emissions than the standard forms of non-green energy that heavily rely on fossil fuels.

Maintenance usually only requires an annual cleaning, and the solar PV and solar thermal parts will need to be changed out about every 10 years.

Although there are many reasons to make the switch to an eco-friendly, renewable energy option, solar energy isn’t the best for everyone.

Solar eclipses can also have an impact on solar energy generators.

During an eclipse, those with solar systems will need to get power from other sources of electricity to supplement the decrease in solar power.

As energy customers turn towards more renewable and green energy options, it’s important to differentiate their pros and cons.

Solar Energy – Energy from the Sun Energy from the Sun Photovoltaic Energy Solar Thermal Energy Solar Thermal Power Plants – parabolic trough, solar dish, and solar power tower Links to Solar Materials Renewable Slide Show – watch and listen ENERGY FROM THE SUN The sun has produced energy for billions of years.

Solar energy can be converted to electricity in two ways: Photovoltaic or “Solar cells” – change sunlight directly into electricity.

Solar Power Plants – indirectly generate electricity when the heat from solar thermal collectors is used to heat a fluid which produces steam that is used to power generator.

A photovoltaic cell, commonly called a solar cell or PV, is the technology used to convert solar energy directly into electrical power.

SOLAR THERMAL HEAT Solar thermal(heat) energy is often used for heating swimming pools, heating water used in homes, and space heating of buildings.

SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANTS Solar thermal power plants use the sun’s rays to heat a fluid, from which heat transfer systems may be used to produce steam.

Solar dish Solar power tower SOLAR ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT Solar energy is free, and its supplies are unlimited.

Delta-Tsawwassen Solar Power

Vancouver Renewable Energy supplies and installs all of the equipment for both off-grid and grid-tie solar power systems in Delta and Tsawwassen.

We installed the first grid-tied photovoltaic systems in the districts of Vancouver, North Vancouver, Langley, and Mission.

BC Hydro’s Net Metering Program allows BC Hydro customers to connect their Delta-Tsawwassen solar power systems directly to the grid.

Before you buy or install a photovoltaic system, we recommend having an assessment to estimate the solar energy potential at your site.

Not only will a solar power system provide you with decades of green energy, it is a robost and excellent way to add home equity.

Solar power systems are an attractive selling feature should you ever decide to sell you house and should significantly increase its value.

Invest in home equity while reducing your electricty bills, solar power is a great option!

7.59kW Solar Panel Installation In Delta BC

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Feel free to reach out for a free no-obligation consult.

Post Idea #15: Solar cell

Related Articles – Summarized

Solar Cell

Other possible solar cell types are organic solar cells, dye sensitized solar cells, perovskite solar cells, quantum dot solar cells etc.

Although GaAs cells are very expensive, they hold the world’s record in efficiency for a single-junction solar cell at 28.8%. GaAs is more commonly used in multijunction photovoltaic cells for concentrated photovoltaics and for solar panels on spacecraft, as the industry favours efficiency over cost for space-based solar power.

A dual-junction solar cell with a band gap of 1.6-1.8 eV as a top cell can reduce thermalization loss, produce a high external radiative efficiency and achieve theoretical efficiencies over 45%. A tandem cell can be fabricated by growing the GaInP and Si cells.

This creates a cell with four electrical contacts and two junctions that demonstrated an efficiency of 18.1%. With a fill factor of 76.2%, the Si bottom cell reaches an efficiency of 11.7% in the tandem device, resulting in a cumulative tandem cell efficiency of 29.8%. This efficiency exceeds the theoretical limit of 29.4% and the record experimental efficiency value of a Si 1-sun solar cell, and is also higher than the record-efficiency 1-sun GaAs device.

The dye-sensitized solar cell depends on this mesoporous layer of nanoparticulate titanium dioxide to greatly amplify the surface area which allows for a greater number of dyes per solar cell area.

Thin-film solar cell is a cost-effective second generation solar cell with much reduced thickness at the expense of light absorption efficiency.

Multicrystalline silicon solar cells, due to poorer crystallographic quality, are less effective than single crystal solar cells, but mc-Si solar cells are still being used widely due to less manufacturing difficulties.

ScienceDirect Topics

The most recent and promising generation of solar cells consists of concentrated solar cells, polymer-based solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, nanocrystal-based solar cells, and perovskite-based solar cells.

Today, 80% of solar cell production is based on silicon-based solar cells of the first generation.

Solar cells of the first generation consist of solar cells of monocrystalline, polycrystalline, amorphous, and hybrid silicon.

The structure of the solar cell is layered, and the amount of material used is much less compared to crystalline silicon solar cells.

These solar cells include amorphous solar cells and two nonsilicon-based solar cells.

The latest technology of solar cells is third-generation solar cells.

The concept of ETA is similar to that of dye-sensitized solar cells except that the ETA solar cell is completely made up of inorganic semiconductors.

Solar Photovoltaic Cell Basics

When light shines on a photovoltaic cell – also called a solar cell – that light may be reflected, absorbed, or pass right through the cell.

The efficiency of a PV cell is simply the amount of electrical power coming out of the cell compared to the energy from the light shining on it, which indicates how effective the cell is at converting energy from one form to the other.

A thin-film solar cell is made by depositing one or more thin layers of PV material on a supporting material such as glass, plastic, or metal.

Perovskite solar cells are a type of thin-film cell and are named after their characteristic crystal structure.

Another strategy to improve PV cell efficiency is layering multiple semiconductors to make multijunction solar cells.

While all solar cells with more than one bandgap are multijunction solar cells, a solar cell with exactly two bandgaps is called a tandem solar cell.

Multijunction solar cells that combine semiconductors from columns III and V in the periodic table are called multijunction III-V solar cells.

Definition, Working Principle, & Development

Solar cells in much smaller configurations, commonly referred to as solar cell panels or simply solar panels, have been installed by homeowners on their rooftops to replace or augment their conventional electric supply.

Solar cell panels also are used to provide electric power in many remote terrestrial locations where conventional electric power sources are either unavailable or prohibitively expensive to install.

Light enters the device through an optical coating, or antireflection layer, that minimizes the loss of light by reflection; it effectively traps the light falling on the solar cell by promoting its transmission to the energy-conversion layers below.

Since most of the energy in sunlight and artificial light is in the visible range of electromagnetic radiation, a solar cell absorber should be efficient in absorbing radiation at those wavelengths.

Semiconductors in thicknesses of about one-hundredth of a centimetre or less can absorb all incident visible light; since the junction-forming and contact layers are much thinner, the thickness of a solar cell is essentially that of the absorber.

The materials used to construct the various layers of solar cells are essentially the same as those used to produce the diodes and transistors of solid-state electronics and microelectronics.

Since solar cells obviously cannot produce electric power in the dark, part of the energy they develop under light is stored, in many applications, for use when light is not available.

Solar Photovoltaic Technology Basics

Today, electricity from solar cells has become cost competitive in many regions and photovoltaic systems are being deployed at large scales to help power the electric grid.

Another commonly used photovoltaic technology is known as thin-film solar cells because they are made from very thin layers of semiconductor material, such as cadmium telluride or copper indium gallium diselenide.

Thin-film solar cells can be flexible and lightweight, making them ideal for portable applications-such as in a soldier’s backpack-or for use in other products like windows that generate electricity from the sun.

Some types of thin-film solar cells also benefit from manufacturing techniques that require less energy and are easier to scale-up than the manufacturing techniques required by silicon solar cells.

These solar cells are generally much more expensive to manufacture than other technologies.

Solar cell researchers at NREL and elsewhere are also pursuing many new photovoltaic technologies-such as solar cells made from organic materials, quantum dots, and hybrid organic-inorganic materials.

Photovoltaic research is more than just making a high-efficiency, low-cost solar cell.

How Solar Cells Work

An atom of sili­con has 14 electrons, arranged in three different shells.

A silicon atom will always look for ways to fill up its last shell, and to do this, it will share electrons with four nearby atoms.

The only problem is that pure crystalline silicon is a poor conductor of electricity because none of its electrons are free to move about, unlike the electrons in more optimum conductors like copper.

To address this issue, the silicon in a solar cell has impurities – other atoms purposefully mixed in with the silicon atoms – which changes the way things work a bit.

Consider silicon with an atom of phosphorous here and there, maybe one for every million silicon atoms.

N-type doped silicon is a much better conductor than pure silicon.

The other part of a typical solar cell is doped with the element boron, which has only three electrons in its outer shell instead of four, to become P-type silicon.

In conventional solar panels, the silicon that converts light into electricity is covered with a network of silver lines that conduct electrons and serve as connection points for soldering together the individual solar cells that make up a panel.

What’s more, the new electrode allowed Day4 to redesign solar cells to absorb more of the solar spectrum and convert this light into electricity more efficiently.

The top layer must be thick enough that the silver does not diffuse through it and create a short circuit between the layers of the solar cell.

Since the silver can damage the silicon, replacing it with the new electrode increases the solar cell’s power output.

Day4 has already started producing solar panels using its new electrode material-though not its new solar-cell designs.

The company recently announced that it has the capacity to produce enough solar panels every year to generate 47 megawatts of electricity.

These first-generation panels, which use conventional solar cells, have an efficiency of 14.7 percent.

Post Idea #16: EE Limited

Related Articles – Summarized

EE Limited

The company announced on 11 September 2012 that the EE brand would be used to identify its network on all of the company’s devices, alongside its 4G service and the company’s fibre optic broadband roll-out.

EE had early problems and issues of no signal across both its 3G and 4G networks with senior EE staff conceding they were facing ‘teething problems’.

Its 4G network now reaches more than 95% of the UK population, with double speed 4G reaching 80%. EE’s 3G network reaches 98% of the population while its 2G network reaches 99%. On 24 April 2016, it was announced that as part of a new strategy, EE are aiming to extend the geographic reach of its 4G network in the UK from the current 60% to 95% by 2020, which will increase the proportion of the UK’s population covered by the 4G network from 95% to 99.8%. In order to achieve this, EE will build more than 750 new sites.

Its 4G network was switched on today in Shetland and the Isles of Scilly, enabled by the fibre broadband links deployed by BT. Its 4G network at launch was only used for data connections, with customers moving to 3G while on a call, however EE are now rolling out 4G Calling across the UK to allow both voice and data over 4G as well as allowing customers to make calls in new areas of the network that are 4G-only.

On 11 September 2018, it was announced that EE are upgrading its 4G network by converting airwaves from 3G to 4G. It currently uses frequencies in the 2100 MHz band for 3G and is converting – or ‘refarming’ it for 4G. More than 500 sites will be upgraded in the next six months and are the busiest ‘hotspots’ in its network where there is the greatest demand for mobile data.

Virgin Mobile UK, The Co-operative Mobile and Asda Mobile operate on the EE network under a MVNO agreement, which was most recently renegotiated in December 2010 for Virgin, and November 2013 for Asda.

EE’s mobile network code is 234 30, which is technically EE T-Mobile as it was inherited by EE after the merger of T-Mobile and Orange.

Company EE Limited News, Employees And Funding Information, Hertfordshire

No press releases have been recorded for EE Limited.

No company initiative has been recorded for EE Limited.

No industry vertical has been recorded for EE Limited.

Search for a company or officer Registered office address Trident Place, Mosquito Way, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL10 9BW Company status Active Company type Private limited Company Incorporated on.

Next accounts made up to 31 March 2022 due by 31 December 2022.

Post Idea #17: Mobile phone

Related Articles – Summarized

Mobile Phone

The SIM card allows users to change phones by simply removing the SIM card from one mobile phone and inserting it into another mobile phone or broadband telephony device, provided that this is not prevented by a SIM lock.

The first SMS message was sent from a computer to a mobile phone in 1992 in the UK while the first person-to-person SMS from phone to phone was sent in Finland in 1993.

The TV industry has recently started using mobile phones to drive live TV viewing through mobile apps, advertising, social TV, and mobile TV. It is estimated that 86% of Americans use their mobile phone while watching TV. In some parts of the world, mobile phone sharing is common.

Some mobile phones can make mobile payments via direct mobile billing schemes, or through contactless payments if the phone and the point of sale support near field communication.

While the phone is turned on, the geographical location of a mobile phone can be determined easily using a technique known as multilateration to calculate the differences in time for a signal to travel from the mobile phone to each of several cell towers near the owner of the phone.

The effect of mobile phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent[when?] interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in mobile phone usage throughout the world.

On 31 May 2011, the World Health Organization stated that mobile phone use may possibly represent a long-term health risk, classifying mobile phone radiation as “Possibly carcinogenic to humans” after a team of scientists reviewed studies on mobile phone safety.

Cell Phones & Smartphones

Credit approval, deposit, qualifying service, and, in stores & on customer service calls, $30 assisted or upgrade support charge may be required.

Equipment Installment Plan: 0% APR. If you cancel wireless service, remaining balance on device becomes due.

Availability and amount of EIP financing subject to credit approval.

Down payment & unfinanced portion required at purchase.

Must remain on qualifying service in good standing for duration of EIP agreement.

Examples shown reflect the down payment & monthly payments of our most creditworthy customers; amounts for others will vary.

Cell Phones & Smartphones

Get yours today at Target! Whatever your favorite brand, we’ve got it, including Nokia, Blackberry, HTC, Virgin, Samsung, LG and Motorola.

Looking for cell phones with plans from AT&T, Sprint, T-Mobile or Verizon Wireless or maybe unlocked phones from top-selling brands? We’ve got you covered.

Target even has prepaid cell phones, perfect for sticking to your budget.

For those who love to explore apps, Android phones, like the Samsung Galaxy, are a great choice.

At Target, you’ll also find a whole range of accessories for mobile devices, such as Bluetooth headsets, chargers, adapters, screen protectors and more.

We know it’s exciting to own the latest smartphones on the market, and Target adds to the excitement with amazing online deals and discounts.

So why wait? Grab that must-have cell phone along with the right accessories, and get ready to explore the endless possibilities of the mobile world.

The Best Phones For 2022

Rather than purely choosing the phones with the highest ratings here, we’re trying to deliver a list of phones that are spread broadly across different price points.

You can find more 5G recommendations on our list of the best 5G phones.

In the past, unlocked phones typically worked on all the major carriers, but 5G phones are a different story.

Strictly interested in Android? Head over to our best Android phones roundup.

If you want to document the world around you with your phone, we’ve rounded up the best camera phones too.

For more, see our picks for the best phones for seniors.

For more on getting phones for less, see our list of the best cheap phones.

Buy Latest Mobiles Online At Best Prices In India

Owing to this, you can easily explore our vast catalogue and buy Mobile phones online, but we recommend it is best to experience them in store through one of our representatives to ensure you get the right one.

The beloved phone that you have now, and the ones that are yet to come, offer a ton of benefits, among which includes connecting you to the world, keeping you updated with all the latest happenings.

The latest smartphones come with foldable screens! A feature phone on the other hand is a simple phone that comes with button keys which people use mostly to make calls and, to some extent, to send messages.

The latest mobile phones offer powerful processors and amazing gaming experiences.

Thinking if you should buy Mobile phones online or from a Store?

Honestly, as long as you know exactly what you want, you can either buy mobile phones online or visit a store to do so.

While the mobile phone prices in India may vary from brand to brand and technology to feature, we strive hard to provide a wide catalogue of phones for every budget.

Post Idea #18: Alloy wheel

Related Articles – Summarized

Alloy Factory Wheels & Rims| Replacement, OEM-Style

If your factory wheels have deteriorated with time and mileage, and you’re looking for new reliable wheels, then you should turn your attention to these superior rims by Replace.

Tired of those old and dented factory wheels, but don’t want to pay an arm and a leg for a set of replacement wheels? Then Perfection Wheel refinished wheels are the way to go.

Tired of those old and dented factory wheels, but don’t want to pay an arm and a leg for a set of replacement wheels? Then Perfection Wheel refinished wheels are the way to go…. Perfect solution to enhance the appearance of your vehicle.

If you’re in need of high-quality wheels to give your vehicle a customized look, superior grade Factory Reproductions wheels are right up your alley.

The gravity method offers a budget-friendly production cost and allows for producing wheels that are usually stronger and lighter than steel wheels, yet heavier than other types of alloy rims.

Factory alloy wheels that are made using gravity casting are some of the most budget-friendly rims available on the market and are an affordable alternative to steel rims for lower-priced vehicles.

The most popular type of alloy wheels available on the market is low pressure cast wheels.

Discounted Wheel Warehouse

Alloy Wheels at wholesale prices! Discounted Wheel Warehouse offers online sales of some of the finest Alloy wheels.

Alloy wheels at blow-out prices, Discounted Wheel Warehouse has a lot to offer its valued customers.

We offer KMC alloy wheels, TSW alloy wheels, Diablo alloy wheels in chrome and polished.

Alloy wheels are our most popular product, we sell Alloy wheels for cars, trucks, and many sport utility vehicles.

We hope you enjoy the website and if you need any assistance with your purchase of alloy wheels, feel free to email us or call 1-800-901-6003 with any questions you may have on alloy wheels.

Bolt Patterns and a Wheel Fitment Guide to help you understand Plus Sizing.

Discounted Wheel Warehouse your best source for: Allow Wheels – Discount Alloy Wheels – Wholesale Prices Buy Alloy Wheels at discount prices, we sell alloy wheels with fast shipping.

Alloy Wheel Repair Specialists Of Columbus, OH

From minor repair to full restoration – We provide complete repair to curb rash, bends, corrosion and small cracks.

We also offer select custom coloring services and OEM replacements for wheels too damaged to be safely repaired.

We strive to provide high-quality service and offer a free lifetime warranty on workmanship.

Learn more about our wheel services and how we can make your scratched, gouged, bent wheels LOOK LIKE NEW!

Alloy Wheel

The most common material used in wheel production, is an alloy of iron and carbon, the term “Alloy wheel” is usually reserved for wheels made from nonferrous alloys.

Because light-alloy wheels at the time were often made of magnesium, these early wheel failures were later attributed to magnesium’s low ductility, when in many instances these wheels were poorly cast aluminium alloy wheels.

A sizable selection of alloy wheels are available to automobile owners who want lighter, more visually appealing, rarer, and/or larger wheels on their cars, going from a standard 14 and 15 inch wheels to 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 24, 26 and 28 inch wheel sizes.

With the larger alloy wheels came alloy Tru-Spinners that were integral to the alloy wheel that would free-spin and continue to free-spin after the alloy wheel itself came to rest.

Some Tru-Spinner alloy wheels would also spin backwards as the alloy wheel was rolling forward.

Although replacing standard steel wheel and tire combinations with lighter alloy wheels and potentially lower profile tires can result in increased performance and handling, this doesn’t necessarily hold when increasingly large wheels are employed.

Every piece is originally an alloy billet, which is further transformed into a wheel, in cases of one-piece forged wheels, or into a wheel part in cases of multi-piece wheels.

Post Idea #19: Thermal energy storage

Related Articles – Summarized

Thermal Energy Storage

In direct support of the E3 Initiative, GEB Initiative and Energy Storage Grand Challenge, the Building Technologies Office is focused on thermal storage research, development, demonstration, and deployment to accelerate the commercialization and utilization of next-generation energy storage technologies for building applications.

In the United States, buildings consume approximately 39% of all primary energy and 74% of all electricity.

Thermal end uses represent approximately 50% of building energy demand and is projected to increase in the years ahead. Thermal energy storage is a critical enabler for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy and transition to a decarbonized building stock and energy system by 2050.

Advances in thermal energy storage would lead to increased energy savings, higher performing and more affordable heat pumps, flexibility for shedding and shifting building loads, and improved thermal comfort of occupants.

Improvements in the temporal and spatial control of heat flows can further optimize the utilization of storage capacity and reduce overall system costs.

The objective of the TES subprogram is to enable shifting of 50% of thermal loads over four hours with a three-year installed cost payback.

Thermal Energy Storage

3.1.1 Liquid thermal energy storageSensible heat thermal energy storage.

The utility of thermal energy storage goes beyond converting inefficient peak demand electricity to more efficient baseline load. Solar energy storage is an example of the need for auxiliary heating can be partially eliminated.

6.1.2 Thermal Storage Costs for Solar Thermal Power GenerationThermal storage systems currently applied in commercial concentrating solar power plants include the dual-tank thermal storage system, which uses molten salt as the thermal storage medium, and steam thermal storage, which directly stores and extracts steam.

Expanding the thermal storage capacity of steam thermal storage may result in a sharp rise in the cost of thermal storage tanks.

The dual-tank thermal storage system uses molten salt as the thermal storage medium and is currently the most widely applied thermal storage method and the most mature technology.

It is mainly applied as an indirect thermal storage system for parabolic trough power plants that use synthetic oil as the thermal-absorbing and heat transfer fluid, and as a direct thermal storage system for tower power plants that use molten salt, which is the thermal storage medium for both systems.

Where Csthmin and Csthmax are the minimum capacity and the maximum capacity of thermal storage, respectively; rsthcharge and rsthdischarge denote charge rate and discharge rate of thermal storage; Pt+Δtsth and Ptsth specify the amount of stored energy in thermal storage at t+Δt and t, respectively.

Thermal Energy Storage

Other sources of thermal energy for storage include heat or cold produced with heat pumps from off-peak, lower cost electric power, a practice called peak shaving; heat from combined heat and power power plants; heat produced by renewable electrical energy that exceeds grid demand and waste heat from industrial processes.

The different kinds of thermal energy storage can be divided into three separate categories: sensible heat, latent heat, and thermo-chemical heat storage.

Molten silicon thermal energy storage is currently being developed by the Australian company 1414 Degrees as a more energy efficient storage technology, with a combined heat and power output.

A pilot cryogenic energy system that uses liquid air as the energy store, and low-grade waste heat to drive the thermal re-expansion of the air, operated at a power station in Slough, UK in 2010.

Because of the low temperature, and because the energy is stored as latent heat of adsorption, thus eliminating the insulation requirements of a molten salt storage system, costs are significantly lower.

The system has a higher energy density than heat stored in water and the capacity of the system can be designed to store energy from a few months to years.

There are a growing number of facilities that use seasonal thermal energy storage, enabling solar energy to be stored in summer for space heating use during winter.

Thermal Energy Storage Technology

Liquid Air Energy Storage, also referred to as Cryogenic Energy Storage, is a long duration, large scale energy storage technology that can be located at the point of demand.

Although novel at a system level, the LAES process uses components and sub-systems that are mature technologies available from major OEMs. The technology draws heavily on established processes from the power generation and industrial gas sectors, with known costs, performance and life cycles all ensuring a low technology risk.

Charging the systemThe charging system is an air liquefier, which uses electrical energy to draw air from the surrounding environment, clean it and then cool the air to subzero temperatures until the air liquefies.

700 litres of ambient air become 1 litre of liquid air.

Energy StoreThe liquid air is stored in an insulated tank at low pressure, which functions as the energy store.

Thermal store – The low boiling point of liquefied air means the round trip efficiencyof the system can be improved with the introduction of above ambient heat.

The system can also integrate waste heat from industrial processes, such as thermal power generation or steel mills, at stage 3, recovering additional energy.

Overview And Basic Principles

Due to its wide range of benefits, TES is used in many other applications as well – such as those found in CELSIUS demonstrators;to store heat in building structures, to couple waste heat and district heating systems and to couple heat pumps and combined heat and power generators in district heating networks.

Thermal Energy Storage in district heating and cooling systems serves as a reserve of thermal energy, which can be used to supply heat or cooling load in times of peak demand or in times of high electricity prices – when heat is produced through electric heaters or heat pumps.

Thermal energy storage smoothen constrains between heat load and operation of boilers, characteristically sized to cover daily peak load, or weekend heat usage, practical minimum boiler load or to time shift utilization of heat and electricity from combined heat and power plants and/or to minimize change of boiler operation.

Heat is being recovered from sewage water through heat exchangers coupled with heat pumps and heat buffer tanks.

The building can be “Loaded” and “Unloaded” with heat by installing equipment that allows the district heating network operator to adjust the amount of heat delivered to a building at certain times of the day, thus contributing to shift heat demand from peak hours to hours with lower heat demand.

In a building that is heated to the desired indoor temperature and at steady-state, i.e. the heat losses to the surroundings are balanced by the heat provided by the district heating via a space heating system, heat can only be unloaded by temporarily reducing the heat supply.

In order to reload the heat that was “Borrowed” from the building during peak hours, the district heating operator can increase the heat supply slightly during other parts of the day, thus maintaining the heat balance over the long run.

Thermal Energy Storage

Thermal energy is the energy that comes from the temperature of matter.

The hotter the substance, the more is the vibration of molecules and hence the higher is the thermal energy.

Thermal energy storage is defined as a technology that allows the transfer and storage of heat energy or energy from ice or water or cold air.

The thermal energy(either chilled or hot water) is produced in the periods of off-peak electrical demand or utilization and collected in a thermal energy storage tank, then withdrawn and distributed to the facility during peak periods.

On peak hours during the daytime, the glycol solution circulates via the ice storage tank to deliver the stored energy to the building to augment electric chiller cooling.

Thermal Energy Storage Applications: The thermal energy storage applications can be applied in the following fields.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to know more about Thermal energy storage systems and applications with detailed explanations.

25 Solar Collector What is the maximum temperature of this collector? Ignoring radiation back to the sun: CR is the concentration ratio.

33 Parasitic Power Assumed four heat transfer loops using H2. – Collector to HTTER – HTTER to engine – Engine to LTTER – LTTER to radiator Compressor with motor mass assumed to be 15 kg for all cases.

4/.6 = 2.5 m3 – Mass of water required: 2,500 kg – Mass of H2 required: 2 kg – Therefore we selected H2 for the base case in both the HTTER and LTTER. – Mass of H2 is neglected in system calculations 36 Piping Lengths Stirling & loop pump package LLTTR HTTR LHTTR LC LTTR Radiator LR Collector Solar collector to HTTR fluid loop pipe length: LC 2 HTTR to hot side of Stirling engine fluid loop: LHTTR Cold side of Stirling to LTTR fluid loop: LLTTR LTTR to radiator fluid loop: LR 2 37 Model formation Collector and HTTER described by T1. Radiator and LTTER described by T2. dT1 = Qcollector Qengine Qloss dt dT m2c2 2 =Qengine Qrad Qlossrad dt m1c1 Used an explicit approach to model heat transfer loops.

Found maximum power density for two cases: – TL > 270 K. Usual operation is TL≈ 323 K. – Any TL 39 Overall Power Density Each point represents an optimized power density with collector and radiator area as the independent variables.

CR =1, TH = 680 K. – CR=2, TH = 809 K – CR=4, TH = 962 K Larger HTTER masses require larger collectors, longer pipes, more insulation, but have less temperature drop and thus require lower radiator area 45 Power Density Discussion Power density = Power/Mass Carried Power is fixed as long as the engine can deliver it.

50 Heatup over Longer Times If heating is done over the summer months, a smaller collector can be used Goal: Smallest collector that will heat the HTTER to its maximum temperature in the heatup period.

Collector radiates back to space, cooling the HTTER. In practice, the flow would shut off, cooling only the collector, which has low thermal mass.

Post Idea #20: Rail transport

Related Articles – Summarized

Rail Transport

Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport.

Trevithick later demonstrated a locomotive operating upon a piece of circular rail track in Bloomsbury, London, the Catch Me Who Can, but never got beyond the experimental stage with railway locomotives, not least because his engines were too heavy for the cast-iron plateway track then in use.

The London Underground, the world’s oldest underground railway, opened in 1863, and it began operating electric services using a fourth rail system in 1890 on the City and South London Railway, now part of the London Underground Northern line.

Since 1980, rail transport has changed dramatically, but a number of heritage railways continue to operate as part of living history to preserve and maintain old railway lines for services of tourist trains.

High-speed rail are special inter-city trains that operate at much higher speeds than conventional railways, the limit being regarded at 200 to 350 kilometres per hour.

Due to their heightened speeds, route alignments for high-speed rail tend to have broader curves than conventional railways, but may have steeper grades that are more easily climbed by trains with large kinetic energy.

The world’s railways: the history and development of rail transport.

What Is Rail Transport? Definition Of Rail Transport, Rail Transport Meaning

Definition: Rail transport is also known as train transport.

Rail transport is also one of the fastest modes of land transport.

Description: Rail transport has emerged as one of the most dependable modes of transport in terms of safety.

Rail transport is better organised than any other medium of transport.

There are many advantages of road transport in comparison to other means of transport.

The investment required in road transport is very less compared to other modes of transport such as railways and air transport.

Sometimes road transport is the only way for carrying goods and people to and from rural areas which are not catered to by rail, water or air transport.

Bureau Of Transportation Statistics

USA Banner Site Notification Site Notification BTS highlights aspects of railroad transportation in the Transportation Statistics Annual Report and publishes numerous tables covering highway transportation in National Transportation Statistics, State Transportation Statistics, and County Transportation Profiles.

BTS publishes railroad network data in the National Transportation Atlas Database and related maps in the Map Gallery.

BTS publishes Tank Car Data on the use of various types of railroad tank cars for transporting flammable materials and the anticipated replacement of older tank cars with new rolling stock that meets enhanced safety standards.

The Federal Railroad Administration publishes railroad safety data.

The Surface Transportation Board produces carload waybill statistics on freight movement by rail.

The National Transportation Library repository includes research reports, policy documents, and historical materials related to railroad transportation.

What Is, Characteristics, History, Types, Advantages, Examples

Rail transport is an important means of transport in vehicles that are moved by track or rail.

Rail transport is also one of the fastest modes of land transport.

The first means of transport that used wheels mounted on rails was designed by the Englishman Richard Trevithick on February 24, 1804.

The construction of railroads spread throughout the world, because it was an effective, public and low-cost means of transport and allowed to transport different types of cargo and people to areas in the interior of the continents.

Trains have a high capacity to transport loads of all sizes regardless if they are large quantities of goods and if the journeys are short or long.

It is a means of transport that offers great flexibility so that, different types of goods can be transported.

Its main uses are the transport of materials and the transport of people to different places, either within the same territory or outside it.

Types Of Rail Transport

From high speed trains to funiculars, there are many different types of rail transport used around the world.

Rail transport has been around since ancient Greek times, in the 6th Century BC. Rail transport is ever-evolving, and accounts for a large percentage of ground transportation.

Urban rail transport is one of the overarching types of rail transport – e.g, it can be separated into other various types of rail transport, which are all laid out below in terms of specifics.

Urban rail transport is the term used for different types of local rail systems which provide a passenger service in and around urban or suburban areas.

Urban rail transport includes trams, rapid transport trains, monorails, light rail, cable cars, funiculars and commuter rail.

Commuter rail encompasses rail transport services within metropolitan areas, connecting commuters from towns and suburbs to cities for work purposes, first and foremost.

A plateway is one of the early types of rail transport in the UK. The rails were made from cast iron, and they were used for around 50 years between 1780 and 1830.

Intermodal Transportation

As your resource for domestic and international logistics solutions, the team here at BGI Worldwide Logistics wants to let you know that we are here and available to support you as we always do.

Even with the current environment, BGI’s innovative team has pulled together our best resources and capabilities to make sure that the entire team is available for you.

Whether it’s through our Online Tracking and real-time Warehouse Management System to give you visibility to your inventory, pull orders, and schedule deliveries, or to access your customer service team – no matter where they are – we are here.

Our team is making sure that we do our best to protect the health and safety of our employees at the same time provide seamless service to our partners.

With new challenges in the global supply chain, we are here to provide our expertise and access our best resources to help our customers.

Post Idea #21: Fatty acid

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Saturated fatty acids, such as stearic acid or palmitic acid are solid at room temperature whereas unsaturated fatty acids, like linoleic acid can be liquid.

Vegetable-based fatty acids normally consist in large part of mixtures of unsaturated fatty acids whereas animal-based fatty acids generally consist in large part of mixtures of various saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.

In acid form, the fatty acids are nearly insoluble in water but upon addition of alkalinity to elevate the pH the fatty acid transitions to form an essentially water-soluble fatty acid soap.

Fatty acids are carboxylic aliphatic acids with the general formula, H(CH2)nCOOH. Aliphatic fatty acids are named by dropping the final ‘e’ from the parent alkane, and then adding the term ‘-oic acid’ to the root.

With the exception of some specialized fatty acids produced by certain prokaryotes, the fatty acid residues in lipids are straight acyl chains with a carboxylic acid group at one end and a methyl group at the other end.

During fatty acid elongation, the length of the fatty acyl chain is extended by the addition of an acetyl group to the carboxyl end of the fatty acid; as a result, the position of preexisting double bonds moves relative to the carboxylic acid group.

Palmitic acid is a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid, oleic is an 18 carbon monounsaturated fatty acid, and linoleic acid is a C18 polyunsaturated fatty acid.

Fatty Acid

Thus linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid are all classified as “ω−6” fatty acids; meaning that their formula ends with -CH=CH-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3. Fatty acids with an odd number of carbon atoms are called odd-chain fatty acids, whereas the rest are even-chain fatty acids.

Lipid numbers 18:3.18:3n318:3, cis,cis,cis-Δ9,Δ12,Δ1518:3(9,12,15) Lipid numbers take the form C:D, where C is the number of carbon atoms in the fatty acid and D is the number of double bonds in the fatty acid.

Although α-Linolenic acid and γ-Linolenic acid are both 18:3, they may be unambiguously described as 18:3n3 and 18:3n6 fatty acids, respectively.

Cells in the central nervous system, although they possess mitochondria, cannot take free fatty acids up from the blood, as the blood-brain barrier is impervious to most free fatty acids, excluding short-chain fatty acids and medium-chain fatty acids.

Studies on bird fatty acid composition have noted similar proportions to mammals but with 1/3rd less omega-3 fatty acids as compared to omega-6 for a given body size.

In the final step, reaction with energy-rich oxygen releases a lot of energy, captured in the form of large quantities of ATP. Many cell types can use either glucose or fatty acids for this purpose, but fatty acids release more energy per gram because they contain less oxygen and therefore unlock the energy of more O2. Fatty acids are distributed to cells to serve as a fuel for muscular contraction and general metabolism.

Two essential fatty acids are linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.

Omega-3 fatty acids are a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of functions in the body.

The omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are found in seafood, such as fatty fish and shellfish.

A different kind of omega-3, called ALA, is found in other foods, including some vegetable oils.

Omega-3s are also available as dietary supplements; for example, fish oil supplements contain EPA and DHA, and flaxseed oil supplements contain ALA. Moderate evidence has emerged about the health benefits of consuming seafood.

The health benefits of omega-3 dietary supplements are unclear.

Here are 7 things you should know about omega-3s:..

Definition, Structure, Functions, Properties, & Examples

Fatty acid, important component of lipids in plants, animals, and microorganisms.

If the carbon-to-carbon bonds are all single, the acid is saturated; if any of the bonds is double or triple, the acid is unsaturated and is more reactive.

Among the most widely distributed fatty acids are the 16- and 18-carbon fatty acids, otherwise known as palmitic acid and stearic acid, respectively.

Many animals cannot synthesize linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid.

Omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids derived from linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively, are needed conditionally by many mammals-they are formed in the body from their parent fatty acids but not always at levels needed to maintain optimal health or development.

Human infants, for example, are thought to have a conditionally essential need for docosahexaenoic acid, which is derived from alpha-linolenic acid, and possibly also for arachidonic acid, which is derived from linoleic acid.

Fatty acids, particularly omega-3 fatty acids, are also commonly sold as dietary supplements.

Essential Fatty Acids Benefits, Sources & Recipes

You’ve probably heard quite a bit about saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids as well as their effects on health.

One analysis of clinical trials looked at 19 studies on the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on depression and showed that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids was effective at treating symptoms of depression.

You can also include a few servings of fatty fish into your diet each week or supplement with fish oil to increase your omega-3 fatty acid intake with DHA and EPA. Essential Fatty Acids vs. Non-Essential.

Looking to up your essential fatty acid intake and reap the health benefits of these nutritious fats? No problem! Essential fatty acids are plentiful in oils, nuts and seeds, so it’s easy to incorporate them into your diet.

Essential fatty acids are incredibly important to health and come with a variety of health benefits.

These fatty acids stand out from other types of fat because they can’t be produced in the body and need to be obtained through essential fatty acid foods such as nuts, seeds and oils.

Make sure you’re getting your essential fatty acids from whole food sources and include them as part of an overall well-balanced and nutritious diet to achieve the best results.

Fatty Acids: Definition, Structure, Function & Types

The metabolism of fatty acids involves the uptake of free fatty acids by cells via fatty acid-binding proteins which transport the fatty acids intracellularly from the plasma membrane.

When used as an energy source, fatty acids are released from triacylglycerol and processed into two-carbon molecules identical to those formed during the breakdown of glucose; moreover, the two-carbon molecules generated from the breakdown of both fatty acids and glucose are used to generate energy via the same pathways.

Fatty acids can also interact with various nuclear receptor proteins and promote gene expression, as several fatty acid-protein complexes function as transcription factors.

While short-chain fatty acids are formed from various precursors by anaerobic micro-organisms, carbohydrates are the most common progenitors of short-chain fatty acids.

The presence of the double bond will also influence the melting point, as unsaturated fatty acids have a lower melting point than saturated fatty acids.

Saturated fatty acids are highly stable, while unsaturated fatty acids are more susceptible to oxidation.

Unsaturated fatty acids contain at least one double bond, whereas saturated fatty acids are “Saturated” with hydrogen.

Functional Roles Of Fatty Acids And Their Effects On Human Health

A variety of fatty acids exists in the diet of humans, in the bloodstream of humans, and in cells and tissues of humans.

Fatty acids are energy sources and membrane constituents.

Through these effects, fatty acids influence health, well-being, and disease risk.

The effects of saturated, cis monounsaturated, ω-6 and ω-3 polyunsaturated, and trans fatty acids are discussed.

Although traditionally most interest in the health impact of fatty acids related to cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that fatty acids influence a range of other diseases, including metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and cancer.

Scientists, regulators, and communicators have described the biological effects and the health impacts of fatty acids according to fatty acid class.

Thus, it would seem more appropriate to describe biological effects and health impacts of individual named fatty acids, although it is recognized that this would be a challenge when communicating outside of an academic environment.

Post Idea #22: Positioning system

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Positioning System? The 4 Types

How quickly or how accurately this process is, largely depends on the type of positioning system the slitting section has.

Manual positioning systems are systems in which an operator positions the knives by hand.

Semi-automatic positioning systems: systems in which positioning the knives is under power however, the operator is in control.

Fully automatic positioning systems are systems in which: Knife positioning is under the power via recipe selection through a Dienes slitter control system.

As described above, Quick Set automatic positioning systems are systems in which positioning knives are via recipe selection.

Making use of the latest technologies available to the industry, Dienes Corporation designed an automatic positioning system.

Do you still have questions about this blog, what is a positioning system? Dienes is happy to help! Our team will help customers find the positioning system that best suits their needs.

GPS.Gov: GPS Overview

What is GPS? The Global Positioning System is a U.S.-owned utility that provides users with positioning, navigation, and timing services.

This system consists of three segments: the space segment, the control segment, and the user segment.

The U.S. Space Force develops, maintains, and operates the space and control segments.

GPS satellites provide service to civilian and military users.

The civilian service is freely available to all users on a continuous, worldwide basis.

The military service is available to U.S. and allied armed forces as well as approved Government agencies.

What Is Indoor Positioning Systems?

The easiest way to describe Indoor Positioning Systems is that it’s like a GPS for indoor environments.

For the best user experience – one that is both accurate and fast, IPS typically relies on three distinct elements: the underlying dynamic positioning system platform, the beacons that broadcast signals that are picked up by the smartphone and then fed to the positioning system, and the apps built on top of the positioning system that add value and make the systems indispensable to users.

Want to learn more about indoor positioning systems? Read our whitepaper on everything you need to know.

An indoor positioning system often acts as a kind of location engine, whirring in the background to pin-point the location of a device.

Office solutions based on indoor positioning enable employees to easier interact with the office environment, for example locating available rooms nearby or meeting up to collaborate with colleagues.

Indoor positioning enables shopping malls to deliver a unique shopping and leisure experience by removing friction, and increasing personalization on all touch-points.

Indoor Positioning Systems, on the other hand, provides a position for the entire area.

Topcon Positioning Systems, Inc.

LEARN MORE. Mining Topcon mining solutions create breakthroughs in productivity.

LEARN MORE. Forensics Forensics solutions to improve accuracy and speed up analysis.

LEARN MORE. Paving Paving solutions for asphalt and concrete.

LEARN MORE. Livestock Production We provide precision measurement technology for profitability and sustainability, designed to reduce inputs and increase production in livestock.

LEARN MORE. Crop Production Topcon provides precision measurement technology for profitability and sustainability, designed to reduce inputs and increase yield.

LEARN MORE. Education Education partnerships on leading technology.

As a world leader in precision measurement systems and technologies, Topcon recognizes the value of educating students in surveying, engineering, GIS, agriculture and construction.

Positioning Devices: How Do They Differ From Personal Fall Arrest?

When considering fall protection solutions, people often consider Personal Fall Arrest Systems and railings as the only two options available.

Positioning Device Systems are briefly mentioned in OSHA’s fall protection standard for Construction under fall protection and OSHA’s shipyard standards under personal protective equipment.

Travel Restraint is useful in areas where sufficient anchor points for fall arrest are not available or where a fall could cause other problems, such as causing a boom lift to tip.

This means that the forces incurred by the body in the event of a fall would be much less than those incurred while using a Personal Fall Arrest System.

A fall while using Fall Arrest could be feet first or head first and could result in swing.

Aside from the body belt and the allowable freefall distance, the requirements for a Positioning Device System are pretty much identical with those for a Personal Fall Arrest System.

Because of the inherent dangers of an actual fall, the Personal Fall Arrest System has many additional requirements, but the fact that almost everything found in the two sections is identical should make utilizing Positioning Devices simple, since most safety professionals are already very familiar with Fall Arrest.

Positioning System

A positioning system is a mechanism for determining the position of an object in space.

A local positioning system is a navigation system that provides location information in all weather, anywhere within the coverage of the network, where there is an unobstructed line of sight to three or more signaling beacons of which the exact position on Earth is known.

Examples are the Decca Navigator System and LORAN. Nowadays, local positioning systems are often used as complementary positioning technology to GPS, especially in areas where GPS does not reach or is weak, for example, inside buildings, or urban canyons.

High performance positioning system is used in manufacturing processes to move an object smoothly and accurately in six degrees of freedom, along a desired path, at a desired orientation, with high acceleration, high deceleration, high velocity and low settling time.

A system based on relative position changes like the inertial system needs periodic calibration against a system with absolute position measurement.

Hybrid positioning systems are systems for finding the location of a mobile device using several different positioning technologies.

Wi-Fi positioning systems may give very exact positioning, in urban areas with high Wi-Fi density – and depend on a comprehensive database of Wi-Fi access points.

Post Idea #23: Repetitive strain injury

Related Articles – Summarized

Repetitive Strain Injury

Repetitive strain injury is a general term used to describe the pain felt in muscles, nerves and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse.

Symptoms of RSI. The symptoms of RSI can range from mild to severe and usually develop gradually.

At first, you might only notice symptoms when you’re carrying out a particular repetitive action.

The symptoms of RSI may eventually become constant and cause longer periods of pain.

What to do if you think you have RSI. If you develop symptoms of RSI and think it may be related to your job, speak to your employer or occupational health representative.

The first step in treating RSI is usually to identify and modify the task or activity that is causing the symptoms.

See tips on preventing RSI for more detailed advice about using a mouse and keyboard at work.

Environmental Health & Safety

Repetitive strain injury is a general term used to describe the pain felt in muscles, nerves and tendons caused by repetitive movement and overuse.

Common Symptoms of RSI. The symptoms of RSI can range from mild to severe and usually develop gradually.

At first, you might only notice symptoms when you’re carrying out a particular repetitive action.

The symptoms of RSI may eventually become constant and cause longer periods of pain.

RSI is related to the overuse of muscles and tendons in the upper body.

Taking regular breaks from long or repetitive tasks – it’s better to take smaller, more frequent breaks than one long lunch break.

The ErgoCAT online evaluation tool in the UC Learning Center is the first step to setting up or improving the ergonomics of your computer workstation; however, additional help may be necessary to ensure prevention of repetitive motion injuries.

Repetitive strain injury, also known as RSI and repetitive motion disorder, is a term for damage to tissues caused by repeated physical actions.

The common factor in all types of repetitive strain injuries is repetitive movements causing injury to body parts.

Ulnar tunnel syndrome, also known as Guyon’s canal syndrome, is a form of repetitive strain injury where the ulnar nerve becomes compressed at the wrist.

Treatment for repetitive strain injuries generally follow the same guidelines, whatever the cause or location of the injury.

Repetitive movements are the main cause of repetitive strain injuries, so taking steps to prevent the injury or stopping it getting worse is important.

In the U.S., the extent of the injury, how severely it affects your activities and whether the employer took steps to prevent the injury are taken into account.

Q: Is repetitive strain injury permanent?A: Repetitive strain injury can be cured with appropriate treatment, which may range from rest to surgery.

Repetitive Strain Injury: Causes, Prevention, And More

A repetitive strain injury, sometimes referred to as repetitive stress injury, is a gradual buildup of damage to muscles, tendons, and nerves from repetitive motions.

If you have even mild discomfort completing certain tasks on your job or at home, it’s a good idea to see your doctor to talk about RSI. Your doctor will ask you questions about your work and other activities to try to identify any repetitive movements you do.

Your doctor and physical therapist can also suggest adjustments to your work station, such as readjusting your chair and desk if you work at a computer, or modifications to your movements and equipment to minimize muscle strain and stress.

You may be able to use conservative measures to modify your work routine and minimize pain and damage.

Adjust your work station to promote good posture and comfort.

Most occupations have been studied in detail and have guidelines for reducing worker stress while doing specific tasks.

The National Education Association, for example, has a handbook on RSI that provides tips for teachers, drivers, food workers, custodians, and others.

Repetitive Strain Injury

The term repetitive strain injury is used to describe a range of painful conditions of the muscles, tendons and other soft tissues.

Unlike a normal strain following a sudden injury, symptoms of RSI can persist well beyond the time it would take symptoms of a normal strain to ease.

Which areas of the body are affected by repetitive strain injury?

In most cases the symptoms develop in an arm, wrist or hand, as these parts of the body most commonly do repetitive tasks.

In recent years it is computer operators, typists, musicians and people doing repetitive tasks in factories who most commonly develop RSI. In wheelchair users it’s often the shoulders which are jerked when the chair is manually propelled.

In time the symptoms can be present all the time but tend to be made worse by doing the repetitive task.

Otherwise, the diagnosis is usually made on the basis that the condition developed only following a repetitive task and is relieved or partially relieved by rest from that task.

Repetitive Strain Injury

A repetitive strain injury is an injury to part of the musculoskeletal or nervous system caused by repetitive use, vibrations, compression or long periods in a fixed position.

Repetitive strain injury and associative trauma orders are umbrella terms used to refer to several discrete conditions that can be associated with repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression, sustained or awkward positions, or repetitive eccentric contractions.

A general worldwide increase since the 1970s in RSIs of the arms, hands, neck, and shoulder has been attributed to the widespread use in the workplace of keyboard entry devices, such as typewriters and computers, which require long periods of repetitive motions in a fixed posture.

Previous studies shown elevated urinary catecholamines in workers with RSI. Pain related to RSI may evolve into chronic pain syndrome particularly for workers who do not have supports from co-workers and supervisors.

Lifestyle choices such as smoking and alcohol consumption are recognizable risk factors for RSI. Recent scientific findings indicate that obesity and diabetes may predispose an individual to RSIs by creating a chronic low grade inflammatory response that prevents the body from effectively healing damaged tissues.

General exercise has been shown to decrease the risk of developing RSI. Doctors sometimes recommend that RSI sufferers engage in specific strengthening exercises, for example to improve sitting posture, reduce excessive kyphosis, and potentially thoracic outlet syndrome.

In 1700, the Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini first described RSI in more than 20 categories of industrial workers in Italy, including musicians and clerks.

Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

RSI is a term that covers several different causes of wrist pain, but all are exacerbated by certain repetitive movements, whether they’re from sport or from work.

We look in more detail at the causes and treatments of this wrist injury.

Symptoms of RSI. RSI symptoms develop gradually over time becoming more and more severe.

Symptoms include pain in the wrist, forearm, and hand which may be a sharp pain, a dull ache or throbbing sensation.

Wrist tendonitis which is inflammation or degeneration of the tendons which join muscles to bones in the wrist and hand.

A sprained wrist is an injury to any of the ligaments which connect bone to bone in the wrist.

Wrist tendonitis is inflammation of tendons in the wrist.

Post Idea #24: Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety

Related Articles – Summarized

Canadian Centre For Occupational Health And Safety

During the Coronavirus disease pandemic, we are working remotely to help you with your workplace health and safety needs.

Although we cannot provide help by phone, you can still contact us online with your health and safety questions, or for assistance with our products and services.

You can also search our fact sheets, access pandemic resources, and shop our online products and services.

Plus, access federal, provincial/territorial, and international guidance and resources on our Pandemics website.

The latest information and updates on COVID-19 are available from the Public Health Agency of Canada.

I want to What’s new Featured content Topics to explore.

The Canadian Centre For Occupational Health And Safety

The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety is Canada’s national resource for the advancement of workplace health and safety.

The Centre promotes the total well-being – physical, psychosocial, and mental health – of working people in Canada by providing information, education, tools, and solutions that encourage attitudes and methods that will lead to improved worker physical and mental health, and prevention of work-related injury and illness.

CCOHS makes a wide range of occupational health and safety information as well as training and educational courses readily available.

CCOHS partners and collaborates with agencies and organizations from Canada and around the world to improve the quality and quantity of its resources and programs, as well as expand the breadth of usage of occupational health and safety information to many different segments of society.

CCOHS is renowned as a credible and authoritative occupational health and safety resource and is a Collaborating Centre of the World Health Organization.

Free Webinar Series On Preventing Workplace Harassment And Violence

The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety will be presenting a free, two-part webinar, Preventing Workplace Harassment and Violence, to help workplaces address and develop policies on harassment and violence.

The webinar series will refer to the federal regulations under the Canada Labour Code Part II and is recommended for federally regulated workplaces, and anyone interested in workplace harassment and violence prevention.

The English events will be presented live and French language will be available as pre-recorded presentations, at different times.

Part 1: Roles, Responsibilities and Responding: This session will cover the definitions of workplace harassment and violence, and the roles and responsibilities involved.

French: Wednesday, March 9, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. EST. English live event: Wednesday, March 9, 2022, at 1:00 p.m. EST. Part 2: Civility, Respect and Communication: Participants will learn about reporting and receiving a notice of an occurrence, and preventative actions their workplaces can take.

They will also explore communication techniques that promote safe interactions through civility and respect and the psychological factors that can help support a healthy and safe workplace.

French: Thursday, March 10, 2022, at 11:00 a.m. EST. English live event: Thursday, March 10, 2022, at 1:00 p.m. EST. Additional information about the webinars and links to registration can be found on the CCOHS website.

CCOHS Is Looking To Raise Awareness For Repetitive Strain Injuries

HAMILTON, ONT.-In recognition of International Repetitive Strain Injury Awareness Day on Feb. 28, the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety reminded workplaces to raise awareness and promote the prevention of repetitive strain injuries.

RSI, also known as musculoskeletal disorders, is a term used to describe a group of disorders affecting tendons, muscles, nerves and joints in the neck, upper and lower back, chest, shoulders, arms and hands.

RSIs can happen to a variety of workers from various industries.

Ordinary movements such as gripping, holding, bending, twisting, clenching and reaching, which are not particularly harmful in the activities of our daily lives, may become hazardous in work situations due to the continual repetition of the movements, indicates a release.

Other contributing work factors can include awkward postures and fixed body positions, excessive force concentrated on small parts of the body such as the hand or wrist, a fast pace of work with insufficient breaks or recovery time, and psychosocial factors such as stress, adds the release.

CCOHS has infographics, social media cards, posters, and podcasts available for free to help workplaces.

Canadian Centre For Occupational Health And Safety

The Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety is an independent departmental corporation under Schedule II of the Financial Administration Act and is accountable to Parliament through the Minister of Labour.

Partial online list of occupational safety regulations in Canada and its provinces.

Safety InfoLine Service – the free, confidential, person-to-person information service for Canadians.

Health and Safety Report – free monthly electronic newsletter.

CANOSH website – a web portal of links to Canadian occupational health and safety information that is provided by federal, provincial and territorial government agencies, Workers’ Compensation Boards and the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

Canosh was created and is maintained by the Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety.

Health and safety pocket guides – CCOHS publications are offered in English and French and in several formats.

Post Idea #25: System integration

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is System Integration And How Do You Do It?

System Integration refers to the process by which multiple individual subsystems or sub-components are combined into one all-encompassing larger system thereby allowing the subsystems to function together.

Point-to-Point integration / connection is not system integration in its truest sense.

ADVANTAGES OF SYSTEM INTEGRATION. The pros of system integration might be clear for some entrepreneurs.

DISADVANTAGES OF SYSTEM INTEGRATION. Even though system integration is by all accounts an astounding answer for some issues identified with utilizing various software, it has a few disadvantages.

A Value-Added Reseller is usually a company that adds features to an existing product, or in this case, a system and then resells it as a form of system integration for which the VAR will charge its own margins.

For system integration to succeed the integrator may also build a complete new system from the ground up to achieve the same goals.

As the top Microsoft Dynamics implementation partner, Folio3’s project managers understand where things can go wrong and will therefore pre-emptively avoid the pitfalls and unpleasant surprises in systems integration process by using a tiered/phased approach focusing on the system integration process.

System Integration: Types, Methods, And Approaches

In this article, we’ll examine existing methods and technologies to meld separate pieces of software and hardware into a single ecosystem, touching on key integration steps and the role of a system integrator.

What is system integration and when do you need it?

More often than not, system integration comes at a lower cost than replacing all disjointed parts with a new single system.

Below, we’ll list the most common types of system integration that meet different business needs.

System integration is multifaceted and can be approached through different architectural models, depending on the number and nature of components that need to be connected.

Point-to-point integration is the architectural pattern in which every system is directly connected to all other systems and apps it needs to work in tandem and share information with.

In contrast to hub-and-spoke with a single centralized integration engine, in ESB, each system is supplied with a separate integration engine and an adapter that translates a message into the canonical format and back into the destination supported format.

System Integration

System integration is defined in engineering as the process of bringing together the component sub-systems into one system and ensuring that the subsystems function together as a system, and in information technology as the process of linking together different computing systems and software applications physically or functionally, to act as a coordinated whole.

System integration involves integrating existing, often disparate systems in such a way “That focuses on increasing value to the customer” while at the same time providing value to the company.

In the modern world connected by Internet, the role of system integration engineers is important: more and more systems are designed to connect, both within the system under construction and to systems that are already deployed.

Star integration, also known as spaghetti integration, is a process of systems integration where each system is interconnected to each of the remaining subsystems.

Industrial lifecycle integration is a system integration process that considers four categories or stages of integration: initial system implementation, engineering and design, project services, and operations.

A common data format is an integration method to avoid every adapter having to convert data to/from every other applications’ formats, Enterprise application integration systems usually stipulate an application-independent data format.

System integration can be challenging for organizations and these challenges can diminish their overall return on investment after implementing new software solutions.

What Is System Integration?

System integration is the process of linking together different systems.

With a good integration platform, the time span of even the most complex integration project can now be reduced from.

System integration is a cornerstone of digital transformation within organizations.

Besides the size and scope of integration projects ranging from clear and simple to massive and complex, there are also different types of system integration.

As discussed in the previous section, legacy system integration allows organization to connect legacy systems with other, newer systems.

Choosing the right integration platform or tool for your integration p.roject can also determine how likely you will be to succeed.

We provided an introduction to system integration, and explained how Be Informed can be used as an integration platform.

What Is System Integration? Definition, Benefits, And Real-Life Examples

System integration is becoming very popular nowadays.

Are you wondering what this process actually looks like in practice and what other benefits it brings? If you want to learn how system integration can help your business succeed and explore some real-life examples, keep on reading.

System integration is the process of linking many elements to one single IT system.

Integration creates a coordinated system with joined databases and data sources.

Many tools are used at work, the integration of which can bring many benefits.

Another interesting example where integration plays a significant role in the system’s efficiency is the integration of SetPin software.

We implemented an advanced API integration to make a functional system that works smoothly.

Planning System Integration? Here’S What You Need To Know

Ultimately, what systems integration software/systems integration solutions look to solve is each and every unique IT problem with customized and seamless ways to connect modern environments with legacy infrastructure.

In this system integration diagram above, you can see external trading partners communications and eCommerce data from Walmart, Target, Shopify, Amazon, and Magento being connected to Acumatica, a back-end ERP solution, through the use of an integration platform.

Before you decide on an integration platform, it is important to understand the different types of system integration.

What is vertical integration? The vertical integration definition under the construct of system integration is a process of connecting unrelated subsystems as one functional unit with each subsystem benefiting from another.

Asking the right questions before creating an IT system integration strategy and laying out system integration project steps are both critical to creating an efficient path to the finish line.

A single integration platform can provide the ability to connect and centralize the best-of-breed systems and applications that enable business processes and tackle software integration challenges.

The Cleo Integration Cloud platform helps businesses all over the world eliminate the system integration issues and complexities that hinder IT modernization projects.

Post Idea #26: Carbon nanotube

Related Articles – Summarized

So certainly carbon Nanotubes has a promising future! Key properties of Carbon Nanotubes Carbon Nanotubes are an example of true nanotechnology: they are less than 100 nanometers in diameter and can be as thin as 1 or 2 nm.

Single-walled carbon nanotube structure Single-walled carbon nanotubes can be formed in three different designs: Armchair, Chiral, and Zigzag.

In the Russian Doll model, a carbon nanotube contains another nanotube inside it.

Multi-walled carbon nanotubes have similar properties to singlewalled nanotubes, yet the outer walls on multi-walled nanotubes can protect the inner carbon nanotubes from chemical interactions with outside materials.

You can press on the tip of a nanotube and cause it to bend without damaging to the nanotube, and the nanotube will return to its original shape when the force is removed.

Conductivity in nanotubes is based on the degree of chirality – i.e. the degree of twist and size of the diameter of the actual nanotube – which results in a nanotube that is actually extremely conductive or non-conductive.

Electronic Heterogeneity One problem with nanotube production for electronics is that batches of nanotubes are heterogeneous mixtures of metallic and semiconducting tube types.

Carbon Nanotubes: Properties, Synthesis, Purification, And Medical Applications

In graphene, carbon atoms are densely organized in a regular sp2-bonded atomic-scale honeycomb pattern, and this pattern is a basic structure for other sp2 carbon bonded materials such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes.

Nanotubes with single well are described as single-wall carbon nanotubes and were first reported in 1993 , while the ones with more than one well are multiwall carbon nanotubes and were first discovered in 1991 by Iijima.

Table 1SWNTMWNTSingle layer of grapheneMultiple layers of grapheneCatalyst is required for synthesisCan be produced without catalystBulk synthesis is difficult as it requires proper control over growth and atmospheric conditionBulk synthesis is easyPurity is poorPurity is highA chance of defect is more during functionalizationA chance of defect is less but once occurred it is difficult to improveLess accumulation in the bodyMore accumulation in the bodyCharacterization and evaluation is easyIt has very complex structureIt can be easily twisted and is more pliableIt cannot be easily twistedSince carbon nanotubes have the sp2 bonds between the individual carbon atoms, they have a higher tensile strength than steel and Kevlar.

Chemical vapor depositionOne of standard methods for production of carbon nanotubes is chemical vapor deposition or CVD. There are many different types of CVD such as catalytic chemical vapor deposition-either thermal or plasma enhanced oxygen assisted CVD , water assisted CVD , microwave plasma , radiofrequency CVD , or hot-filament [26,]. But catalytic chemical vapor deposition is currently the standard technique for the synthesis of carbon nanotubes.

As discussed above, depending on nanotube synthesis way, there are many different methods for purification of carbon nanotubes, and therefore, existence of methods which are single-step processes and unaffected on properties of carbon nanotube products is essential for producing clean nanotubes and should be targeted in the future.

Biomedical applicationsThe properties of nanotubes are certainly amazing; in the last few years, many studies have suggested potential applications of CNTs and have shown innumerable applications that could be promising when these newly determined materials are combined with typical products [36,47-51]. Production of nanorods using CNTs as reacting templates [51-].Applications for nanotubes encompass many fields and disciplines such as medicine, nanotechnology, manufacturing, construction, electronics, and so on.

Before use of carbon nanotube in biological and biomedical environments, there are three barriers which must be overcome: functionalization, pharmacology, and toxicity of CNTs. One of the main disadvantages of carbon nanotubes is the lack of solubility in aqueous media, and to overcome this problem, scientists have been modifying the surface of CNTs, i.e., fictionalization with different hydrophilic molecules and chemistries that improve the water solubility and biocompatibility of CNT.Another barrier with carbon nanotube is the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of nanoparticles which are affected by many physicochemical characteristics such as shape, size, chemical composition, aggregation, solubility surface, and fictionalization.

Carbon Nanotube

There is no consensus on some terms describing carbon nanotubes in scientific literature: both “-wall” and “-walled” are being used in combination with “Single”, “Double”, “Triple”, or “Multi”, and the letter C is often omitted in the abbreviation, for example, multi-walled carbon nanotube.

A carbon peapod is a novel hybrid carbon material which traps fullerene inside a carbon nanotube.

Although the strength of individual CNT shells is extremely high, weak shear interactions between adjacent shells and tubes lead to significant reduction in the effective strength of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carbon nanotube bundles down to only a few GPa.

For a given nanotube, if n = m, the nanotube is metallic; if n m is a multiple of 3 and n m, then the nanotube is quasi-metallic with a very small band gap, otherwise the nanotube is a moderate semiconductor.

Utilizing carbon nanotubes as the channel material of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

The conference paper described carbon nanotubes as carbon fibers that were produced on carbon anodes during arc discharge.

Helping to create the initial excitement associated with carbon nanotubes were Iijima’s 1991 discovery of multi-walled carbon nanotubes in the insoluble material of arc-burned graphite rods; and Mintmire, Dunlap, and White’s independent prediction that if single-walled carbon nanotubes could be made, they would exhibit remarkable conducting properties.

ScienceDirect Topics

23.3.2 Effect of CNT volume fractionHigher CNT volume fraction results in better mechanical performance of the composites, according to the rule of mixtures.

To investigate the effect of CNT volume fraction on properties of CNT composites, we produced CNT/PVA and CNT/BMI composites with different CNT fractions by adjusting the solution concentration.

The growth process of CNT cotton involves chemical decomposition at high temperature, catalyst formation below a certain size, nucleation and growth of CNT, formation of CNT aerogel/sock, and finally formation of CNT cotton from dense aerogel.

The high aspect ratio of the CNTs makes addition of small amounts of CNTs to improve above mentioned properties drastically.

The high aspect ratio of CNTs also makes it difficult to obtain get uniform dispersions of CNTs in the ceramic matrix.

Functionalization of CNTs will be then underlined as well as the various transducers based on CNTs. A more recent approach concerning integration of CNTs sensors in microfluidic devices will be detailed with a special emphasis on the role of the confinement for enhancing sensitivity.

CNTs are classified on the basis of the number of walls into four categories: single-walled, double-walled, triple-walled, and multiwalled CNTs. CNTs have unique physicochemical properties explored in drug targeting, controlled drug delivery, and imaging.

What They Are, How They Are Made, What They Are Used For

Carbon nanotubes are cylindrical molecules that consist of rolled-up sheets of single-layer carbon atoms.

Schematic of how graphene could roll up to form a carbon nanotube.

The atomic arrangement of the catalyst forces the nanotube to quickly transition from zigzag to armchair, which ultimately grows a nanotube.

Carbon fibers have been used for decades to strengthen compound but they do not have the same lattice structure as CNTs. Instead, they consist of a combination of several forms of carbon and/or several layers of graphite, which are stacked at various angles on amorphous carbon.

Even though synthetic techniques have been improved to obtain high-purity carbon nanotubes, the formation of byproducts containing impurities such as metal encapsulated nanoparticles, metal particles in the tip of a carbon nanotube, and amorphous carbon has been an unavoidable phenomenon, because the metal nanoparticles are essential for the nanotube growth.

Carbon nanotubes have been widely used as electrodes for chemical and biological sensing applications and many other electrochemical studies.

Carbon nanotubes also have been used to demonstrate protective textiles with ultra breathable membranes.

SES Research Inc.

Carbon Nanotubes – molecular tubes about 10,000 times thinner than a human hair – consist of rolled up sheets of carbon hexagons.

These nanotubes are single molecules measuring a few nanometers in diameter and several microns in length.

Nanotubes can be found in several forms; single-wall, double-wall and multi-wall.

Depending on the growth process, single-wall, double-wall or multi-wall nanotubes can be selectively produced.

Carbon nanotubes come in a variety of diameters and lengths.

Depending on the growth process and treatment, nanotubes can be selectively produced with properties ranging from 1 to15 micrometers in length and diameters from 2 to 100 nanometers.

These nanotube powder comes in agglomerate and aligned bundles and can be put into dispersion using ultrasound process.

Carbon Nanotubes-The Route Toward Applications

Many potential applications have been proposed for carbon nanotubes, including conductive and high-strength composites; energy storage and energy conversion devices; sensors; field emission displays and radiation sources; hydrogen storage media; and nanometer-sized semiconductor devices, probes, and interconnects.

Some of these applications are now realized in products.

Others are demonstrated in early to advanced devices, and one, hydrogen storage, is clouded by controversy.

Nanotube cost, polydispersity in nanotube type, and limitations in processing and assembly methods are important barriers for some applications of single-walled nanotubes.

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We thank many researchers in the nanotube area for their insights, especially J. E. Fischer, S. Roth, R. Hoch, L. Crosthwait, and J. Robertson.

We also thank S. Collins, J. S. Lamba, and S. Lee for their contributions to the figures and the analysis using the SciFinder search system.

Post Idea #27: Autolus Therapeutics

Related Articles – Summarized

Developing CAR T Cell Therapies For Cancer Patients

The company’s lead therapeutic candidate, obe-cel, is a transformational treatment for adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Obe-cel is an autologous CD19 CAR T cell therapy with a unique CD19 CAR. The CAR is designed to have a “Fast-off” kinetic which mimics physiological T cell receptor interactions.

Clinical trials of obe-cel have demonstrated that this enhanced kinetic profile results in increased T cell persistence leading to high levels of durable remissions and remarkably low levels of cytokine release syndrome and other immunotoxicities.

Obe-cel is currently being evaluated in the potentially pivotal FELIX study in adult ALL and in phase 1 studies for other B-NHL indications.

Autolus Therapeutics Ltd. ADR Stock Quote

Autolus Therapeutics Plc is a biopharmaceutical company, which engages in the development and commercialization of gene therapies.

It uses proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies that are designed to recognize cancer cells, break down their defense mechanisms, and attack and kill these cells.

The company was founded by Martin Pule in September 2014 and is headquartered in London, the United Kingdom.

Autolus Therapeutics Announces Publication Describing Novel Cell Programming Technology

Publication describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one programming module relative to another programming module1.

Method for expressing stable low levels of a toxic gene – technology deployed in Autolus’ approach for the treatment of solid tumors.

LONDON, March 3, 2022 – Autolus Therapeutics plc, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation programmed T cell therapies, today announced the publication of an article in BioTechniques describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one gene module, while maintaining high levels of expression of other gene modules expressed from the same promotor1.

“Throughout the history of gene-therapy the primary focus was on engineering mammalian expression cassettes driving high levels of transgene expression,” said James Sillibourne, director of synthetic genomics at Autolus.

“Our approach to solid tumors combines multiple gene modules in CAR T cells to drive the desired set of properties we believe are essential to maximize anti-tumor activity without increasing toxicity. Selectively adjusting expression levels became an important technology to establish therapeutic windows,” added Martin Pule, chief scientific officer and founder of Autolus.

Autolus is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation, programmed T cell therapies for the treatment of cancer.

Using a broad suite of proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies, the Company is engineering precisely targeted, controlled and highly active T cell therapies that are designed to better recognize cancer cells, break down their defense mechanisms and eliminate these cells.

Autolus Therapeutics Announces Publication Describing Novel Cell Programming Technology

Publication describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one programming module relative to another programming module1.

Method for expressing stable low levels of a toxic gene – technology deployed in Autolus’ approach for the treatment of solid tumors.

LONDON, March 03, 2022 – Autolus plc, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation programmed T cell therapies, today announced the publication of an article in BioTechniques describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one gene module, while maintaining high levels of expression of other gene modules expressed from the same promotor1.

“Throughout the history of gene-therapy the primary focus was on engineering mammalian expression cassettes driving high levels of transgene expression,” said James Sillibourne, director of synthetic genomics at Autolus.

“Our approach to solid tumors combines multiple gene modules in CAR T cells to drive the desired set of properties we believe are essential to maximize anti-tumor activity without increasing toxicity. Selectively adjusting expression levels became an important technology to establish therapeutic windows,” added Martin Pule, chief scientific officer and founder of Autolus.

About Autolus Therapeutics plcAutolus is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation, programmed T cell therapies for the treatment of cancer.

Using a broad suite of proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies, the Company is engineering precisely targeted, controlled and highly active T cell therapies that are designed to better recognize cancer cells, break down their defense mechanisms and eliminate these cells.

Autolus Therapeutics’ CAR-T Cell Manufacturing Facility, Stevenage, UK

The facility is intended to provide good manufacturing practice capacity for the development and commercial supply of Autolus’ investigational CD19 CAR T-cell therapy, Obecabtagene autoleucel, with an initial manufacturing capacity of 2,000 batches a year.

The Cell and Gene Therapy Catapult facility, an existing cell and gene therapy manufacturing facility in Stevenage, will support the initial global commercial launch capacity for Obe-cel until the CAR T-cell production facility is opened.

Autolus Therapeutics received planning permission from Stevenage Borough Council for the development of the facility in September 2021, while the ground-breaking ceremony for the facility took place in November 2021.

Autolus Therapeutics’ CAR-T cell manufacturing facility details.

Autolus designed Obe-cel to improve the clinical activity and safety of existing CD19 CAR T cell therapies.

It has a fast target binding off-rate to reduce the overactivation of programmed T cells and can decrease toxicity and be less susceptible to T cell depletion, which may improve endurance and the ability of the programmed T cells to engage in the vigorous killing of target cancer cells.

The company uses a broad array of proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies for the development of precisely targeted, controlled and highly active T cell therapies to better identify and kill cancer cells.

Post Idea #28: Autolus Limited

Related Articles – Summarized

Developing CAR T Cell Therapies For Cancer Patients

The company’s lead therapeutic candidate, obe-cel, is a transformational treatment for adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Obe-cel is an autologous CD19 CAR T cell therapy with a unique CD19 CAR. The CAR is designed to have a “Fast-off” kinetic which mimics physiological T cell receptor interactions.

Clinical trials of obe-cel have demonstrated that this enhanced kinetic profile results in increased T cell persistence leading to high levels of durable remissions and remarkably low levels of cytokine release syndrome and other immunotoxicities.

Obe-cel is currently being evaluated in the potentially pivotal FELIX study in adult ALL and in phase 1 studies for other B-NHL indications.

Autolus Therapeutics Ltd. ADR Stock Quote

Autolus Therapeutics Plc is a biopharmaceutical company, which engages in the development and commercialization of gene therapies.

It uses proprietary and modular T cell programming technologies that are designed to recognize cancer cells, break down their defense mechanisms, and attack and kill these cells.

The company was founded by Martin Pule in September 2014 and is headquartered in London, the United Kingdom.

Autolus Therapeutics Sets U.S. HQ In Maryland, Will Create 170 Jobs

Autolus Therapeutics, based in London, UK, announced plans to locate its U.S. headquarters in Rockville, Maryland.

Autolus spun out of the University College of London in 2014, built on the advanced cell programming technology developed by Martin Pule.

To incentivize Autolus to set its U.S. operations in Maryland, the Maryland Department of Commerce approved a $525,000 conditional loan through the Advantage Maryland Fund.

Autolus is also eligible for various state and local tax credits, including the Job Creation Tax Credit and the More Jobs for Marylanders Tax Credit.

“Autolus’ decision to locate its new U.S. headquarters and create more than 170 jobs in our state underscores our administration’s promise to continue creating job opportunities for Marylanders, particularly in a field as close to my heart as cancer research,” stated Maryland Governor Larry Hogan.

“Our highly educated workforce and proximity to leading federal research labs and world-class universities makes Maryland an outstanding location for global companies looking to establish or grow their U.S. presence in the life sciences and technology sectors.”

Matthias Alder, Autolus senior vice president and chief business officer, told the Washington Business Journal that the new facility is part of the company’s plan to double its workforce from about 200 employees currently to almost 400 in the next 12 to 18 months.


In a tumour microenvironment, tumour cells and associated cells such as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tumour-associated macrophages are in competition with immune cells for nutrients.

The cells of the immune response, such as CAR-T cells may have a lower dependency than the tumour cells for the molecule either naturally, or because they are engineered either to make it or survive/proliferate without it.

Suitably, the amount or concentration of the molecule extracellular to the engineered cell may be reduced by at least 5%, at least 10%, at least 20%, at least 30%, at least 40%, at least 50%, at least 60%, at least 70%, at least 80%, at least 90%, at least 95% or at least 99% by expression of the one or more enzymes at the cell surface of the engineered cell according to the present invention, or by secretion of the one or more enzymes from the engineered cell according to the present invention.

Suitably, the amount or concentration of the molecule extracellular to the engineered cell may be completely eliminated by expression of the one or more enzymes at the cell surface of the engineered cell according to the present invention, or by secretion of the one or more enzymes from the engineered cell according to the present invention.

Methods for engineering cells are known in the art and include but are not limited to genetic modification of cells e.g. by transduction such as retroviral or lentiviral transduction, transfection including lipofection, polyethylene glycol, calcium phosphate and electroporation.

Cytolytic cells may kill cancerous cells; virally infected cells or other damaged cells.

The present invention provides an engineered cell which expresses an engineered T-cell receptor and one or more enzymes which, when secreted or expressed at the cell surface, causes depletion of a molecule extracellular to the engineered cell wherein said molecule is selected from: an amino acid; a nucleotide or nucleoside; or a lipid.

Post Idea #29: NASDAQ:AUTL

Related Articles – Summarized

Autolus Therapeutics Plc Stock Seems Like A Good Option – Stocks Register

Autolus Therapeutics plc shares, rose in value on Friday, 02/18/22, with the stock price down by -2.26% to the previous day’s close as strong demand from buyers drove the stock to $4.32.

Actively observing the price movement in the last trading, the stock closed the session at $4.42, falling within a range of $4.32 and $4.47.

Medium term indicators have put the stock in the category of 100% Sell while long term indicators on average have been pointing out that it is a 100% Sell.

The stock is rated as a Hold by 3 analyst(s), 8 recommend it as a Buy and 0 called the AUTL stock Overweight.

Thus, investors eager to increase their holdings of the company’s stock will have an opportunity to do so as the average rating for the stock is Overweight.

The company’s stock has been forecasted to trade at an average price of $12.72 over the course of the next 52 weeks, with a low of $6.50 and a high of $20.00.

The data on short interest also indicates that stock shorts accounted for 2.32 million shares as on Dec 14, 2021, resulting in a short ratio of 3.7.

Autolus Therapeutics To Report Fourth Quarter And Full Year 2021 Financial Results And Host Conference Call On March 10

LONDON, Feb. 21, 2022 – Autolus Therapeutics plc, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation programmed T cell therapies, today announced that it will release its fourth quarter and full year 2021 financial results and operational highlights before open of U.S. markets on Thursday, March 10, 2022.

Management will host a conference call and webcast at 8:30 am ET/1:30 pm GMT to discuss the company’s financial results and provide a general business update.

To listen to the webcast and view the accompanying slide presentation, please go to the events section of Autolus’ website.

The call may also be accessed by dialing 679-5407 for U.S. and Canada callers or 217-8320 for international callers.

After the conference call, a replay will be available for one week.

To access the replay, please dial 859-2056 for U.S. and Canada callers or 537-3406 for international callers.

Autolus Therapeutics Plc Stock Price, News & Info

Potential licensing agreements with Moderna are giving investors reasons to cheer.

AUTL earnings call for the period ending March 31, 2020.

AUTL earnings call for the period ending December 31, 2019.

Investors are reacting negatively to the biotech’s public stock offering.

AUTL earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2019.

Due to the explosion in immuno-oncology in recent years, what was once a small scientific meeting near the end of the year has become a go-to event for drug developers.

AUTL earnings call for the period ending June 30, 2019.

Autolus Therapeutics Announces Publication Describing Novel

Publication describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one programming module relative to another programming module1.

LONDON, March 03, 2022 – Autolus Therapeutics plc, a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation programmed T cell therapies, today announced the publication of an article in BioTechniques describing a novel technology that provides for very low levels of expression of one gene module, while maintaining high levels of expression of other gene modules expressed from the same promotor1.

“Throughout the history of gene-therapy the primary focus was on engineering mammalian expression cassettes driving high levels of transgene expression,” said James Sillibourne, director of synthetic genomics at Autolus.

“Our approach to solid tumors combines multiple gene modules in CAR T cells to drive the desired set of properties we believe are essential to maximize anti-tumor activity without increasing toxicity. Selectively adjusting expression levels became an important technology to establish therapeutic windows,” added Martin Pule, chief scientific officer and founder of Autolus.

About Autolus Therapeutics plcAutolus is a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company developing next-generation, programmed T cell therapies for the treatment of cancer.

Autolus has a pipeline of product candidates in development for the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors.

All information in this press release is as of the date of the release, and Autolus undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise, except as required by law.

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Larson succeeds Douglas Beck, who will remain as a consultant.

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