39 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-03

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Post Idea #1: Nuclear power plant

Related Articles – Summarized

U.S. Energy Information Administration

Nuclear power plants use heat produced during nuclear fission to heat water.

In nuclear fission, atoms are split apart to form smaller atoms, releasing energy.

As of December 31, 2020, 94 nuclear reactors were operating at 56 nuclear power plants in 28 states.

Learn more about the U.S. nuclear energy industry.

In 2019, 31 countries had commercial nuclear power plants, and in 14 of the countries, nuclear energy supplied at least 20% of their total annual electricity generation.

The United States had the largest nuclear electricity generation capacity and generated more nuclear electricity than any other country.

France, with the second-largest nuclear electricity generation capacity and second-highest nuclear electricity generation, had the largest share-about 70%-of total annual electricity generation from nuclear energy.

What We Know About The Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant

Here’s what we know about the Zaporizhzhia power plant.

Still, Rafael Mariano Grossi, director of the International Atomic Energy Agency, told the Post on Wednesday that the conflict’s potential to threaten the security of the four operating nuclear power plants and other facilities in Ukraine should not be underestimated.

The member states of the IAEA unanimously agreed years ago that attacking a nuclear power plant “Constitutes a violation of the principles of the United Nations Charter, international law and the Statute of the Agency,” Matthew Bunn, the James R. Schlesinger Professor of the Practice of Energy, National Security, and Foreign Policy at the Harvard Kennedy School, tweeted Thursday.

Ukraine regulator tells IAEA there has been no change reported in #radiation levels at the #Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant site.

Ukraine tells IAEA that fire at site of #Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant has not affected “Essential” equipment, plant personnel taking mitigatory actions.

Russian army is firing from all sides upon Zaporizhzhia NPP, the largest nuclear power plant in Europe.

The largest nuclear power plant in Europe is on fire.

What Is Zaporizhzhya, Europe’S Largest Nuclear Power Plant?

Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhya nuclear power plant, which has six reactors and supplies a quarter of the country’s electricity, is the largest facility of its kind in Europe and one of the biggest on the planet.

Russian forces attacked the plant early Friday morning local time, according to Ukrainian authorities, who warned that a meltdown there could be up to 10 times larger than the one in Chernobyl in 1986.

It’s one of four active nuclear facilities in Ukraine and accounts for six of the country’s 15 total reactors.

Zaporizhzhya’s reactors were commissioned between 1984 and 1995, according to its website.

Construction on the first reactor began on April 1, 1980.

Officials added a sixth in 1995 after lifting a moratorium on further nuclear development.

The site also houses a spent-fuel storage facility underground.

Nuclear Power Plant

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

On June 27, 1954, the world’s first nuclear power station to generate electricity for a power grid, the Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, commenced operations in Obninsk, in the Soviet Union.

A nuclear power plant cannot explode like a nuclear weapon because the fuel for uranium reactors is not enriched enough, and nuclear weapons require precision explosives to force fuel into a small enough volume to go supercritical.

The nuclear power debate about the deployment and use of nuclear fission reactors to generate electricity from nuclear fuel for civilian purposes peaked during the 1970s and 1980s, when it “Reached an intensity unprecedented in the history of technology controversies,” in some countries.

Nuclear power works under an insurance framework that limits or structures accident liabilities in accordance with the Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy, the Brussels supplementary convention, and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage.

United States In the United States, insurance for nuclear or radiological incidents is covered by the Price-Anderson Nuclear Industries Indemnity Act.United Kingdom Under the energy policy of the United Kingdom through its 1965 Nuclear Installations Act, liability is governed for nuclear damage for which a UK nuclear licensee is responsible.

Nuclear power plants are routinely used in load following mode on a large scale in France, although “It is generally accepted that this is not an ideal economic situation for nuclear stations.” Unit A at the decommissioned German Biblis Nuclear Power Plant was designed to modulate its output 15% per minute between 40% to 100% of its nominal power.

Nuclear Power Plants

Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created when atoms are split within a nuclear reactor.

Uranium is the fuel most widely used in nuclear reactors at power plants.

Radioactive materials found at nuclear power plants include enriched uranium, low-level waste, and spent nuclear fuel.

During normal operation, nuclear power plants release very low amounts of radioactive materials into the air.

Releases from nuclear power plants must be less than federally defined limits for radioactive air emissions.

These releases must be monitored by the nuclear power plant operator and reported annually to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

Nuclear power plant operators are required to have plans to deal with emergencies at nuclear power plants and to practice them regularly.

Nuclear Power Plants

Nuclear power plants use the heat generated from nuclear fission in a contained environment to convert water to steam, which powers generators to produce electricity.

Although the construction and operation of these facilities are closely monitored and regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, accidents are possible.

An accident could result in dangerous levels of radiation that could affect the health and safety of the public living near the nuclear power plant.

Nuclear power plants operate in most states in the country and produce about 20 percent of the nation’s power.

Nearly 3 million Americans live within 10 miles of an operating nuclear power plant.

If an accident at a nuclear power plant were to release radiation in your area, local authorities would activate warning sirens or another approved alert method.

To find the nearest open shelter in your area, text SHELTER + your ZIP code to 43362, example: shelter 12345.

Structure Of Nuclear Power Plant

A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the primary source of energy generation is a nuclear reactor.

A nuclear reactor is a machine used to inculcate a nuclear chain reaction.

The generator in a nuclear power plant converts kinetic energy supplied by the turbine into electrical energy.

Most nuclear stations require two distinct sources of off site power feeding station service transformers that are sufficiently separated in the station’s switchyard and can receive power from multiple transmission lines.

In India, Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity.

There are 21 nuclear reactors in operation in 7 nuclear power plants.

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to get more information on nuclear reactors, nuclear power plants in India and other related topics.

Post Idea #2: D-Wave Systems

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The Practical Quantum Computing Company

Our customers are building quantum applications for problems as diverse as logistics, portfolio optimization, drug discovery, materials sciences, scheduling, fault detection, traffic congestion, and supply chain management.

Our singular focus is to help customers achieve real value by using quantum computing for practical business applications.

The powerful combination of the Advantage™ quantum system and the Leap™ hybrid solver services enable the first in-production quantum applications demonstrating business benefit.

Quantum applications ranging from chemistry and materials science, automotive and mobility to supply chain optimization and logistics have already been developed.

Quantum applications ranging from financial modeling, portfolio optimization, and risk management to fraud detection have already been developed.

Quantum applications ranging from drug discovery, clinical development, medical imaging, and early disease detection to genomics have already been developed.

D-Wave is the only quantum computing company solving real business problems and demonstrating quantum ROI. DEVELOPERS. We offer a cloud-based, full-stack of systems, software, developer tools, and services to enable enterprises, government agencies, national laboratories, and academic organizations to build real applications using the power of quantum computing.

D-Wave Systems

D-Wave Systems Inc. is a Canadian quantum computing company, based in Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.

On May 11, 2011, D-Wave Systems announced D-Wave One, described as “The world’s first commercially available quantum computer”, operating on a 128-qubit chipset using quantum annealing to solve optimization problems.

On August 20, 2015, D-Wave Systems announced the general availability of the D-Wave 2X system, a 1000+ qubit quantum computer.

On December 8, 2009, at the Neural Information Processing Systems conference, a Google research team led by Hartmut Neven used D-Wave’s processor to train a binary image classifier.

On May 11, 2011, D-Wave Systems announced the D-Wave One, an integrated quantum computer system running on a 128-qubit processor.

On May 25, 2011, Lockheed Martin signed a multi-year contract with D-Wave Systems to realize the benefits based upon a quantum annealing processor applied to some of Lockheed’s most challenging computation problems.

In early 2012, D-Wave Systems revealed a 512-qubit quantum computer, code-named Vesuvius, which was launched as a production processor in 2013.

Amazon Braket Quantum Computers

The D-Wave quantum computer leverages quantum dynamics to accelerate and enable new methods for solving complex discrete optimization, constraint satisfaction, artificial intelligence, machine learning, materials science, and simulation problems.

D-Wave technology uses quantum annealing to solve problems represented as mathematical functions by harnessing quantum mechanical effects, including superposition, entanglement, and tunneling, to find their global minima, corresponding to optimal or near optimal solutions.

Amazon Braket provides access to two D-Wave QPUs: the Advantage 4.1 quantum computer and the D-Wave 2000Q quantum computer.

AWS customers can easily use both QPUs and switch between them using the Braket SDK or the Braket plugin for the D-Wave Ocean SDK. The physical enclosures of D-Wave quantum computing systems house sophisticated cryogenic refrigeration, shielding, and I/O systems to support each quantum processing units.

Customers of Amazon Braket will have live, real-time access to D-Wave quantum computers.

Customers can use D-Wave via the Braket Ocean plugin, or use it directly via the Braket SDK. Using the Ocean plugin allows customers to have the extra tools available via Ocean for constructing annealing problems, as well as a unified sampler API. The Unified sampler API is an abstraction layer that represents the problem in a form that can be used by the quantum computer, and selection tools that allow the user to direct which of several methods to use to solve problems.

Because quantum computers are probabilistic rather than deterministic, multiple values can be returned, representing a set of good, if not optimal, solutions to a problem.

D-Wave, CaixaBank Group Collaborate On Quantum For Finance Industry

CaixaBank’s Life insurance and Pensions company, VidaCaixa, leveraged D-Wave’s Leap™ quantum cloud service and quantum hybrid solvers – which combine the strengths of classical and quantum computing – to build a quantum computing application within their investment portfolio selection and allocation, and within their portfolio hedging efforts.

“We have always been an innovation-first organization, and very early on we recognized that investing in quantum computing could help us more efficiently provide state-of-the art products and services in order to offer the best client experience. This has been the case with this proof of concept, which confirms the bank as the first one in Spain, and one of the first in the world, to incorporate quantum computing into its daily activity,” says Gonzalo Gortazar, CEO of CaixaBank.

During his participation in a commissioning ceremony in Jülich, Germany, in which D-Wave announced the first Leap quantum cloud-based system outside North America at Forschungszentrum Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Gortazar confirmed CaixaBank’s commitment to continue to explore the potential of quantum computing in the financial services industry: “We are very appreciative of seeing this industry growing and maturing, and we look forward to upping our investment and our efforts in quantum, which is surely going to be transformational for our industry. We are very keen to work with D-Wave in this process.”

“The finance industry is undergoing massive transformation at this moment in time, which is why the industry is poised for great business benefit from quantum computing investment. CaixaBank has a clear vision for implementing market-ready quantum applications to drive efficiency, client value, and scale. We look forward to continued collaboration with them as they expand their offerings and identify additional quantum computing use-cases.”

In 2019, CaixaBank set up a team of experts with IT technicians, mathematicians, and risk analysts dedicated to innovation in the quantum field in a multidisciplinary way, in order to explore the potential for quantum technology to enhance the bank’s different capacities in diverse fields, such as risk assessment and tail risk simulators, fraud detection with artificial intelligence and machine learning, quantum safe cryptography, portfolio selection and allocation, and data mining optimization.

In this project, CaixaBank used the Leap quantum cloud service to access D-Wave’s quantum hybrid solver service that incorporates the Advantage™ quantum computer.

About D-Wave Systems Inc.D-Wave is a leader in the development and delivery of quantum computing systems, software and services and is the world’s first commercial supplier of quantum computers and the only company developing both annealing quantum computers and gate-model quantum computers.

CaixaBank Group, D-Wave Collaborate On Innovative New Quantum Applications For Finance Industry

CaixaBank, the leading financial group in Spain, and D-Wave Systems Inc., a global leader in quantum computing systems, software, and services, and the only provider building both annealing and gate-model quantum computers, today announced the business results for two significant financial quantum hybrid computing applications for investment portfolio optimization and investment hedging calculation.

CaixaBank’s Life insurance and Pensions company, VidaCaixa, leveraged D-Wave’s Leap quantum cloud service and quantum hybrid solvers – which combine the strengths of classical and quantum computing – to build a quantum computing application within their investment portfolio selection and allocation, and within their portfolio hedging efforts.

During his participation in a commissioning ceremony in Jülich, Germany, in which D-Wave announced the first Leap quantum cloud-based system outside North America at Forschungszentrum Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Gortazar confirmed CaixaBank’s commitment to continue to explore the potential of quantum computing in the financial services industry: “We are very appreciative of seeing this industry growing and maturing, and we look forward to upping our investment and our efforts in quantum, which is surely going to be transformational for our industry. We are very keen to work with D-Wave in this process.”

“The finance industry is undergoing massive transformation at this moment in time, which is why the industry is poised for great business benefit from quantum computing investment. CaixaBank has a clear vision for implementing market-ready quantum applications to drive efficiency, client value, and scale. We look forward to continued collaboration with them as they expand their offerings and identify additional quantum computing use-cases.”

In 2019, CaixaBank set up a team of experts with IT technicians, mathematicians, and risk analysts dedicated to innovation in the quantum field in a multidisciplinary way, in order to explore the potential for quantum technology to enhance the bank’s different capacities in diverse fields, such as risk assessment and tail risk simulators, fraud detection with artificial intelligence and machine learning, quantum safe cryptography, portfolio selection and allocation, and data mining optimization.

In this project, CaixaBank used the Leap quantum cloud service to access D-Wave’s quantum hybrid solver service that incorporates the Advantage™ quantum computer.

About D-Wave Systems Inc. D-Wave is a leader in the development and delivery of quantum computing systems, software and services and is the world’s first commercial supplier of quantum computers and the only company developing both annealing quantum computers and gate-model quantum computers.

Post Idea #3: Condominium

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Condominium Definition & Meaning

Lennie Omalza, The Courier-Journal, 17 Feb. 2022 The program also can help those behind on other types of home payments, including mortgages, property taxes, condominium fees, mobile home park lot payments, gas, electricity, water, and internet bills.

Nushrat Rahman, Detroit Free Press, 15 Feb. 2022 It’s not just downtown, where the skyline for years has been changing with condominium and apartment towers.

Michael Smolens Columnist, San Diego Union-Tribune, 9 Feb. 2022 The three-story, brick building where the shooting happened houses about two dozen condominium units, city assessment records show.

Christine Dempsey, courant.com, 7 Feb. 2022 In December, Lincolnwood police arrested a Chicago man and charged him with breaking into a condominium building on the 6400 block of North Cicero Avenue and stealing mail on three different occasions.

Jennifer Johnson, chicagotribune.com, 19 Jan. 2022 On the corner of 78th Street and West End Avenue, 378 West End Avenue is a condominium building with 18 stories.

Emma Reynolds, Forbes, 27 Dec. 2021 Others have pledged a residential condominium unit in an upscale district, a vacation house in a resort city south of Manila, a new van and free gasoline, as well as free commercial flights for life.

Jim Gomez, Star Tribune, 28 July 2021 The city of North Miami Beach ordered the evacuation of a condominium building Friday after a review found unsafe conditions about 5 miles from the site of last week’s deadly collapse in South Florida.


With regular condominiums, the unit owner usually owns the internal unit space and a share of the corporation; the corporation owns the exterior of the building land and common area; in the case of a freehold condominium the owner owns the land and building and the corporation owns common shared roadways and amenities.

The Canadian Condominium Institute is a non-profit association of condominium owners and corporations with chapters in each province and territory.

In Germany, Condominiums are known as “Eigentumswohnung” and the most important law considering condominiums is the German Condominium Act.

Section 234 of the Housing Act of 1961 allowed the Federal Housing Administration to insure mortgages on condominiums, leading to a vast increase in the funds available for condominiums, and to condominium laws in every state by 1969.

The term ‘condominium’, or ‘condo’ for short, has become a household word in the U.S. Many Americans’ first widespread awareness of condominium life came not from its largest cities but from South Florida, where developers had imported the condominium concept from Puerto Rico and used it to sell thousands of inexpensive homes to retirees arriving flush with cash from the urban northern U.S. The primary attraction to this type of ownership is the ability to obtain affordable housing in a highly desirable area that typically is beyond economic reach.

In condominium townhouses, the purchaser owns only the interior, while the building itself is owned by a condominium corporation.

The first condominium building was the St. Tropez Condominium in Manhattan built in 1965.

Condos For Sale In Houston, TX

There are currently 682 condos for sale in Houston at a median listing price of $205K. Some of these homes are “Hot Homes,” meaning they’re likely to sell quickly.

Most homes for sale in Houston stay on the market for 73 days and receive 3 offers.

In addition to houses in Houston, there were also 1117 condos, 1007 townhouses, and 181 multi-family units for sale in Houston last month.

Our top-rated real estate agents in Houston are local experts and are ready to answer your questions about properties, neighborhoods, schools, and the newest listings for sale in Houston.

Our Houston real estate stats and trends will give you more information about home buying and selling trends in Houston.

If you’re looking to sell your home in the Houston area, our listing agents can help you get the best price.

Redfin is redefining real estate and the home buying process in Houston with industry-leading technology, full-service agents, and lower fees that provide a better value for Redfin buyers and sellers.

Post Idea #4: Macdonald Realty

Related Articles – Summarized

Western Canada’S Largest Integrated Real Estate Firm

At Macdonald, we’re #realproud of the clients that we’ve worked with, staff that we have, and agents that we collaborate with on a daily basis.

We’ve created a supportive and positive culture – shaped by long-standing partnerships and multi-generational families, because we know that real estate today isn’t just about buying and selling homes, it’s about finding opportunities, managing investments and looking towards the future.

From Generation To Generation, Helping You Find Your Way Home.

2- is the continued referrals and previous clients that keep coming back after all these years that speak volumes about my character and work ethic.

With 14 years industry experience under my belt, coupled with my honesty, integrity, ambition, and drive, I’m ready to be your real estate resource for all your real estate needs.

I can promise I will do everything it takes in order to sell it for you.

If you are in the market to buy – I will educate you on the process and the current market trends, giving you the tools to make the best decision for your next home.

I invite you to unlock the door to your real estate resource.

It is with all the confidence in the world that I say – you won’t regret it.

Please give me a call so I can help you achieve your real estate goals.

A Full Service Real Estate Firm Hancock County In Bay St. Louis MS

John McDonald Realty is a full service real estate firm located on the beaches of Hancock county in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi.

Being only twenty minutes from Stennis Space Center and one hour from New Orleans makes Hancock County an ideal place to live, work and play.

John McDonald Realty has helped the residents of Hancock County locate homes and open businesses since 1935.

“Our first experience with Regan Kane and John McDonald Realty was several years ago, when we purchased our lot. He was the consummate professional and when we asked for referrals on potential contractors, he provided us three and we used one and was extremely happy. When we decided to sell our home, there was only one person who we would use-Regan. His professionalism, knowledge of the market, years of contacts and his genuine demeanor made him our only choice. In short time, he found a buyer and he found us another house and lot. He considered the value of our time and coordinated all the closings on the same day, which made it so convenient for us.”

“Stephanie was a pleasure to work with when selling my home and purchasing my new home. She was always available to answer any questions I had and if she didn’t have the answer, which didn’t happen often, she was quick to reach out to the right source and find the answer. She was on top of all the new listings that came on the market and kept me abreast of new ones in my price range. I would entrust her to selling and help me to purchase my next home when the time arises.”

“We would to thank our realtor, Brian Necaise, for his unending hard work in helping us with the recent purchase of a first home for our grandson. We have known Brian since he was a young boy, and he has become a very talented and dedicated realtor. He has an impeccable work ethic, which is very rare these days. If he said he was going to do something, he did, and in a very timely manner. We sincerely appreciate Brian’s time and continuous effort in helping us making this purchase so easy!”.

“Jeanne, Thank you so much for being the best realtor ever! You made the home buying process easy, fun and exciting and we are so thankful you we’re on duty the day we stopped by! Thanks for being such a blessing in our lives!”.

Macdonald Realty

Macdonald Realty is the residential division of Macdonald Real Estate Group Inc. MREG is a privately owned Canadian real estate brokerage and advisory business with offices across British Columbia and a representative office in Shanghai, China.

Vancouver branch in Vancouver, British Columbia managed by Bill Dick.

Downtown branch in Vancouver, British Columbia managed by Bill Dick.

Commercial branch in Vancouver, British Columbia managed by Tony Letvinchuk.

Langley branch in Langley, British Columbia managed by Tore Jacobsen.

Coquitlam branch in Coquitlam, British Columbia managed by Tore Jacobsen.

Victoria branch in Victoria, British Columbia managed by Ara Balabanian.

Post Idea #5: Three Harbour Green

Related Articles – Summarized

Ian Watt, Vancouver Real Estate: Three Harbour Green

The data relating to real estate on this web site comes in part from the MLS Reciprocity program of the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver.

Real estate listings held by participating real estate firms are marked with the MLSR logo and detailed information about the listing includes the name of the listing agent.

This representation is based in whole or part on data generated by the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver which assumes no responsibility for its accuracy.

A Look Inside: Coal Harbour Waterfront Penthouse Newly Listed For $49 Million

If the $49 million sale price for this downtown Vancouver waterfront penthouse were to be fully achieved, it would be one of Canada’s most expensive home purchases ever.

The three-storey penthouse atop the Three Harbour Green Tower was privately listed onto the market today by Juliana Jiao with Macdonald Realty.

Coal Harbour waterfront properties are perhaps best known for pairing luxury living with views, but Three Harbour Green is also in close proximity to some of the city’s most prominent urban landmarks.

The overall 31-storey tower was completed in 2012 by architectural firm IBI Group and developer ASPAC Developments, but the penthouse was later completely custom redesigned in 2016 by House of Bohn design studio, adding luxurious home features in terms of materials, millwork, and other custom furnishings.

Within the underground parkade, the penthouse also comes with a seven-car private garage and three high-security storage rooms.

“The Three Harbour Green penthouse listing signals a return of buyer interest in the ultra-luxury segment of Vancouver’s real estate market,” said Scarrow.

According to BC Assessment, the penthouse is valued at $27.66 million – down from $28.005 million in the previous assessment year.

Three Harbour Green 277 Thurlow Street, Vancouver, V6C 0C1

The bus stops near the complex, Burrard Skytarin Station and Waterfront Skytrain Station are about 7-minute walk away.

This building is the last residential tower on the Coal Harbour waterfront.

Harbour Green Place consists of 3 towers on a lushly landscaped eight-acre parcel on the harbor side promenade.

Three Harbour Green is a 32-level building that has a concrete construction and stone exterior finishing.

The complex consists of 81 units including 8 townhomes and several 2-level suites.

Each tower at Harbour Green Place features private, two and three car garages, a 25-metre swimming pool, a sauna, a hot tub, an exercise centre, a billiard table, a tennis table, secure underground parking and a virtual golf centre that lets residents practice on the world’s premiere courses at the touch of a button.

Three Harbour Green offers the best materials, appliances and systems from around the world that include innovative kitchens by Snaidero, high-end Miele appliances, fitted vanities, elegant closet systems from MOVE and cutting edge bathroom fixtures from Fartini Rubinetti, Wetstyle and Ritmonio.

Condos For Sale In Three Harbour Green Building

View all condos for sale in Three Harbour Green, Coal Harbour.

Call or email Cortney Lessard to view any of the properties below at 604.616.2678.

REBGV The data relating to real estate on this web site comes in part from the MLS Reciprocity program of the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver.

Real estate listings held by participating real estate firms are marked with the MLSR logo and detailed information about the listing includes the name of the listing agent.

This representation is based in whole or part on data generated by the Real Estate Board of Greater Vancouver which assumes no responsibility for its accuracy.

Three Harbour Green Apartment Rental 3001-277 Thurlow Street Vancouver

One of only 2 sub penthouse suites in the prestigious new Three Harbour Green building at the foot of Thurlow in Coal Harbour – this is a rare find! Gracious living in the newest and most highly sought after address in Vancouver.

Qualified applicants only please! Contact Advent today to view this 3 bedroom luxury sub penthouse rental in Coal Harbour at Three Harbour Green, rent with ADVENT!

To rent this 3 bedroom apartment at 277 Thurlow Street in Vancouver, applicants must complete Advent’s tenancy application in full, have an excellent Landlord reference and Tenancy history, agree to a Credit Check, and have a proven employment and employment history with a salary or income that can support the rental rate.

INSURANCE: Tenants at 277 Thurlow Street are required to hold current tenant’s insurance, proof of insurance will be required at move-in.

A tenant of a rental unit must repair damage to the rental unit or common area that is caused by the actions or neglect of the tenant or a person permitted on the residential property by the tenant.

Essential Services For Tenants: If you’ve just rented this 3 bedroom apartment at 277 Thurlow Street you may need one or more of these essential services >>.

When requesting a viewing at this 3 bedroom apartment at 277 Thurlow Street in Vancouver please comply with the guidelines below.

Post Idea #6: Rare-earth element

Related Articles – Summarized

Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.

Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes.

As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs.

In the 21st century, the REEs have gained considerable visibility through news media and Internet coverage because of recognition of the critical, specialized properties that the REEs contribute in components of our modern technology, combined with the near monopoly on the production and supply of the REEs held by one country, and the world’s heavy dependence on this controlled supply from China.

Yttrium is commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides and because it typically occurs in the same deposits as other REEs.

Traditionally, the REEs are divided into the following two groups on the basis of atomic weight: the light REEs, which include lanthanum through gadolinium, and the heavy REEs, which include terbium through lutetium.

China’s restrictions on REEs changed the world rare-earth industry in several ways, including by fostering increased stockpiling of REEs; increased exploration and development of deposits outside of China; and new efforts to conserve, recycle, and find substitutes for and among the REEs.

Rare-Earth Element

Despite their name, rare-earth elements are relatively plentiful in Earth’s crust, with cerium being the 25th most abundant element at 68 parts per million, more abundant than copper.

Rare-earth elements with atomic numbers 57 to 61 are classified as light and those with atomic numbers greater than 62 are classified as heavy-rare earth elements.

The most abundant rare-earth element is cerium, which is actually the 25th most abundant element in Earth’s crust, having 68 parts per million.

Near subduction zones, partial melting of the subducting plate within the asthenosphere produces a volatile-rich magma, with high concentrations of alkaline elements, and high element mobility that the rare-earths are strongly partitioned into.

The rare-earth element concentrations are not typically affected by sea and river waters, as rare-earth elements are insoluble and thus have very low concentrations in these fluids.

As a result, when a sediment is transported, rare-earth element concentrations are unaffected by the fluid and instead the rock retains the rare-earth element concentration from its source.

The government’s future policies will likely keep in place strict controls: “According to China’s draft rare-earth development plan, annual rare-earth production may be limited to between 130,000 and 140,000 during the period from 2009 to 2015. The export quota for rare-earth products may be about 35,000 and the Government may allow 20 domestic rare-earth producers and traders to export rare earths.”

Department Of Energy

Many advanced technologies have components made from REEs such as magnets, batteries, phosphors, and catalysts.

Because of this critical role, interest and research into the recovery of REEs from end-of-life products and secondary sources such as coal and coal byproducts has recently increased.

In January 2017, the U.S. DOE delivered a report to congress detailing this potential to obtain REEs from coal and coal byproducts.

The DOE Office of Fossil Energy, along with the National Energy Technology Laboratory, is conducting research to overcome key obstacles in the pursuit of economic and commercial scale recovery of REEs.

There is continued identification of domestic sources of coal and coal byproducts containing high amounts of REEs.

There is progress to understand the form of REEs within the sources and designing alternative separation technology which would drive down environmental impacts, economic costs, and resources consumption.

Finally, purification methods of individual elements and recovery technology of mixed REEs in coal and coal byproducts are being improved.

Society For Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration

REE are becoming increasingly more important in our technological society and are used in many of our electronic devices and energy sources.

The Chinese dominance of the REE market has adversely impacted REE supply stability and endangers the U.S. and its allies’ assured access to these key materials.

REE are considered critical minerals, which is defined by U.S. Presidential Executive Order No. 13817 as “a mineral identified to be a nonfuel mineral or mineral material essential to the economic and national security of the United States, from a supply chain that is vulnerable to disruption, and that serves an essential function in the manufacturing of a product, the absence of which would have substantial consequences for the U.S. economy or national security”.

Developing domestic processing capability so that the U.S. is not primarily dependent on China as a source of REE. Providing a mechanism where access to Federal lands for REE exploration and extraction is possible.

China’s willingness to export REE continues to decline due to its growing domestic demand and its mandate to consolidate the industry by decreasing its number of mining permits.

Though at least 40 percent of the world’s REE reserves are located within the borders of the U.S. and its ally nations, our country depends upon imports from China for nearly 100 percent of its REE needs.

Historical REE production data from the U.S. Bureau of Mines and U.S. Geological Survey.

ScienceDirect Topics

Rapid solidification processes and mechanical alloying permit the synthesis of a variety of stable and metastable phases including supersaturated solid solutions, fine crystalline and quasicrystalline intermediate phases and amorphous alloys.

The LPSO phase was first reported in rapidly solidified Mg-2Y-1Zn alloy, and now it is known to be rather common stable phase observed in cast and aged alloys.

The first 3DAP investigation of magnesium alloy was performed for the Mg-2Y-1Zn alloy in which a large fraction of LPSO phase existed in nanocrystalline Mg grains.

The most of metastable precipitates in Mg-RE and Mg-Ca-based alloy precipitate on basal planes.

Found the In addition to Mg-Ca alloy change the habit plane of the plate-like precipitate to the prismatic plate as shown in Figure 78. Influence of rare-earth elementsRare-earth elements are generally added to Mg alloys for improving the creep resistance and corrosion resistance.

In a very recent study, Padekar, Singh Raman, Raja, and Paul showed that an RE-containing EV31A alloy possesses improved SCC resistance as compared to an RE-free alloy, AZ91E, particularly during constant load testing, which was attributed to the formation of a robust oxide layer on EV31A.Influence of the surface corrosion film in SCC susceptibility is highly dependent on the alloy composition and/or the nature of the environment, such as the beneficial role of the robust films formed due to RE elements.

Uses, Properties, & Facts

Rare-earth element, any member of the group of chemical elements consisting of three elements in Group 3 and the first extended row of elements below the main body of the periodic table.

The elements cerium through lutetium are called the lanthanides, but many scientists also, though incorrectly, call those elements rare earths.

To a certain degree that is correct-about 25 percent of their uses are based on this close similarity-but the other 75 percent of rare-earth usage is based on the unique properties of the individual elements.

A close examination of these elements reveals vast differences in their behaviours and properties; e.g., the melting point of lanthanum, the prototype element of the lanthanide series, is much lower than the melting point of lutetium, the last element in the series.

Many “Newly discovered elements” were not one element but mixtures of as many as six different rare-earth elements.

The last naturally occurring rare-earth element was discovered in 1907, but research into the chemistry of these elements was difficult because no one knew how many true rare-earth elements existed.

Because the rare-earth elements were found to be fission products of the splitting of a uranium atom, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission made a great effort to develop new methods for separating the rare-earth elements.

Post Idea #7: Time-of-flight mass spectrometry

Related Articles – Summarized

Ions exiting the collision cell enter a region where the ion beam is shaped to optimal parallelism by transfer ion optics, and excess gas from the collision cell is removed.

At the opposite end of the flight tube is a two-stage, electrostatic ion mirror that reverses the direction of the ions back towards the ion pulser.

Accelerating energy Flight path distance Ion pulser Ion optics Flight tube Detector Ion source Figure 3.

Once the ion pulser fires, it is necessary to wait until the last mass of interest arrives at the ion detector before the ion pulser is triggered again.

Since the discriminator triggers on the leading edge of the incoming ion signal, it ignores the remainder of the detector signal and gives the same response regardless of whether the signal is the result of one ion or many ions.

As ion sources and ion optics become more efficient, the number of ions of a given mass in a single transient increases to the point of significance.

First, the Agilent Q-TOF GC-MS has a replaceable ion source design that isolates the ion source region from the mass analyzer vacuum system so that venting of the mass analyzer is not required when replacing or cleaning the ion source.

Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion׳s mass-to-charge ratio is determined via a time measurement.

Enables the mass over charge ratio of detected ions to be determined by measuring their time of flight from the specimen surface to the detector.

The accuracy of composition measurements relies on the ability to detect all the chemical species of the material with the same efficiency, to calculate properly the mass over charge ratio of the evaporated ions from their time of flight and to associate each peak of the mass spectrum obtained to the chemical nature of the detected ions.

Advantages of TOF mass analyzers include their simplicity, ruggedness, high scan speed, a virtually unlimited mass range, and resolution higher than Q or IT mass analyzers.

Time-of-FlightTOF mass spectrometry is a nonscanning technique whereby a full mass spectrum is acquired as a snapshot rather than by sweeping through a sequential series of m/z values while acquiring the data.

One implication of this is that if the composition of the sample stream being presented to the mass spectrometer changes with time, there is essentially no distortion of the mass spectrum resulting from this time dependence, whereas with scanning-type mass spectrometers the mass spectrum may be distorted because of the interaction between scan time of the mass spectrometer and the changing concentration of the sample stream.

14.6 Peptide mass fingerprinting and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem mass spectrometry of peptidesThe full characterization of a protein primary structure may benefit from emerging technologies based on a top-down MS approach.

Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

Time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a method of mass spectrometry in which an ion’s mass-to-charge ratio is determined by a time of flight measurement.

The velocity of the particle can be determined in a time-of-flight tube since the length of the path of the flight of the ion is known and the time of the flight of the ion can be measured using a transient digitizer or time to digital converter.

All the factors necessary to calculate the time of flight of the ions are now known for, which is evaluated first of the ion of mass 1000 Da:. Note that the mass had to be converted from daltons to kilograms to make it possible to evaluate the equation in the proper units.

Mass resolution can be improved in axial MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer where ion production takes place in vacuum by allowing the initial burst of ions and neutrals produced by the laser pulse to equilibrate and to let the ions travel some distance perpendicularly to the sample plate before the ions can be accelerated into the flight tube.

Hadamard transform time-of flight mass spectrometry is a mode of mass analysis used to significantly increase the signal-to-noise ratio of a conventional TOFMS. Whereas traditional TOFMS analyzes one packet of ions at a time, waiting for the ions to reach the detector before introducing another ion packet, HT-TOFMS can simultaneously analyze several ion packets traveling in the flight tube.

Photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy uses soft photoionization for ion internal energy selection and TOF mass spectrometry for mass analysis.

Secondary ion mass spectrometry commonly utilizes TOF mass spectrometers to allow parallel detection of different ions with a high mass resolving power.

Time-Of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry

ToF-SIMS is an imaging mass spectrometry technique that allows us to obtain isotopic, elemental, and molecular information from the surface of solid samples.

A pulsed, energetic “Primary” ion beam bombards the surface and induces a collision cascade, liberating “Secondary” ions that are then sent to a time-of-flight mass analyzer for detection.

The ion dose needs to be kept low to minimize chemical damage to the sample, making the technique particularly suited for the discrimination of organic molecules.

The instrument supports a wide variety of critical programs at NIST, such as in forensics for the age dating of fingerprints, or to support the optimization and development of next generation instruments such as trace explosive detectors where the threshold temperature can be determined for optimum explosive particle desorption, and ambient mass spectrometry instruments where the visualization of the sputtered flux can be used for optimizing ion transmission.

No other technique can produce 3D chemical maps that combine molecular information with nanometer depth resolution, making ToF-SIMS an incredibly powerful technique for the characterization of complex structured samples.

Another example uses the technique to visualize active pharmaceutical ingredients inside drug delivery films to determine key characteristics that define the potency and the kinetics of the medication, such as their spatial distribution, size distribution, and location inside the film.

The technique is able to reveal the design of the film, which places a higher concentration of buprenorphine directly on the mucous membrane for fast action, while the naloxone is uniformly distributed in the film for a slower and long-term release.

Quadrupole Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Paradigm Shift In Toxicology Screening Applications

Predominantly due to the comprehensive qualitative drug screening capability it offers, Q-TOF-MS is largely contributing to a paradigm shift in the detection methods of illicit and legal drugs in biological samples.

Both liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography mass spectrometry offer increased sensitivity and specificity in drug detection.

High resolution mass spectrometry is defined by the Royal Society of Chemistry as ‘Any type of mass spectrometry where the “Exact” mass of the molecular ions in the sample is determined as opposed to the “Nominal” mass.

In recent years, applications utilising Q-TOF-MS techniques have addressed many of the limitations associated with immunoassay and GC-MS. With the inherent high sensitivity and specificity of mass spectrometry and the utilisation of vast compound libraries, rapid and comprehensive Q-TOF-MS screening solutions are becoming more commonly adopted in the clinical and forensic setting.

In comparison to LC-Q-TOF-MS, the application of gas chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry has appeared less prominent in toxicology screening in the clinical and forensic setting.

Broecker S, Herre S, Pragst F. General unknown screening in hair by liquid chromatography-hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry Forensic Sci Int.

Gwak S, Almirall JR. Rapid screening of 35 new psychoactive substances by ion mobility spectrometry and direct analysis in real time coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry Drug Test Anal.

Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Data Analysis: A Benchmark Of Clustering Algorithms

Modern instruments allow single particles to be analyzed one-by-one in real time, and offer the promise of determining the sources of individual particles based on their mass spectral signatures.

The large number of particles to be apportioned makes clustering a necessary step.

The goal of this study is to compare using mass spectral data the accuracy and speed of several clustering algorithms: ART-2a, several variants of hierarchical clustering, and K-means.

Repeated simulations with various algorithms and different levels of data preprocessing suggest that hierarchical clustering methods using derivatives of Ward’s algorithm discriminate sources with fewer errors than ART-2a, which itself discriminates much better than point-wise hierarchical clustering methods.

In most cases, K-means algorithms do almost as well as the best hierarchical clustering.

These efficient algorithms are most accurate when the relative peak areas have been pre-scaled by taking the square root.

Algorithms derived from Ward’s remain the most accurate under a wide range of conditions and conversely, for an equal accuracy, can deliver a shorter list of clusters, allowing faster and maybe on-the-fly classification.

Mass of one mole of germanium ions g Mass number of ion Loxford School Page 2 of 30 2.

The length of the flight tube is 1.50 m Calculate the relative molecular mass of Q. where m = mass and v = speed The Avogadro constant, L = 6.022 x 1023 mol-1 Relative molecular mass 3.

The Avogadro constant, L = 6.022 1023 mol-1 KE = mv2 where m = mass and v = speed where d = distance and t = time Mass of one ion of 79Br+ kg Time taken by 81Br+ ions s Explain how ions are detected and relative abundance is measured in a TOF mass spectrometer.

Equation m/z value Calculate the mass, in kg, of one atom of 49Ti The Avogadro constant L = 6.022 1023 mol−1 Mass kg Loxford School Page 9 of 30 (d) In a TOF mass spectrometer the time of flight, t, of an ion is shown by the equation In this equation d is the length of the flight tube, m is the mass, in kg, of an ion and E is the kinetic energy of the ions.

Where m = mass and v = velocity where d = distance and t = time In a TOF mass spectrometer, each 25Mg+ ion is accelerated to a kinetic energy of 4.52 10−16 J and the time of flight is 1.44 10−5 s. Calculate the distance travelled, in metres, in the TOF drift region.

Mass number = Loxford School Page 14 of 30 (b) Describe how ions are formed in a time of flight mass spectrometer.

In a TOF mass spectrometer bromine forms ions with formula [Br2]+ Sketch the pattern of peaks you would expect to see in the mass spectrum of a sample of bromine.

Post Idea #8: Agilent Technologies

Related Articles – Summarized

Chemical Analysis, Life Sciences, And Diagnostics

A fast-growing innovative leader in next generation sequencing based oncology solutions.

A global leader developing and building innovative life science instrumentation.

Pioneer of high-performance cell analysis platforms for life science research.

Agilent Careers

Agilent is a global leader in laboratory technologies for the life sciences, diagnostics, and applied chemical markets, delivering insight and innovation that advance the quality of life.

It is the quality of our products and services, our intense focus, and our uncompromising integrity that enable our customers to discover new frontiers and make continuous advancements in areas such as: cancer research and diagnostics, drug development, food safety and their labs’ performance and efficiency.

Whatever the challenge, our One Agilent global team is dedicated to delivering trusted answers to our customers’ critical questions in our collective quest to improve the world around us.

Our employees will tell you about our unique culture, our work, and what we love about our company.

We are looking for innovators across the board from scientists to engineers, marketers to logistics experts and much more.

Click through the sections below to explore the variety of roles that Agilent has to offer, and start your career journey with us today!

“The people I work with make coming to work every day a great pleasure. Everybody respects each other and work so well together.”

Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Agilent Technologies Inc. is a global leader in the life sciences, diagnostics, and applied chemical markets, delivering insight and innovation that advance the quality of life.

Agilent’s full range of solutions includes instruments, software, services, and expertise that provide trusted answers to our customers’ most challenging questions.

The company generated revenue of $6.32 billion in fiscal 2021 and employs 17,000 people worldwide.

The company’s stock is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol “A.” Learn more 265,000.

Most of the world’s labs using Agilent solutions.

6.32.b. revenues in fiscal 2021.

Agilent Technologies

Agilent Technologies was created in 1999 by the spin-off of Hewlett-Packard’s “Medical Products and Instrument Group”, including instrumentation and chemical analysis, electronic components, and medical equipment product lines.

On September 19, 2013, Agilent announced its decision to separate into two publicly traded companies: Agilent, a life sciences, diagnostics, and applied markets company, and an electronic measurement company.

The life sciences company retained the Agilent name and the electronic measurement company was called Keysight Technologies.

On November 1, the formal separation of Agilent and Keysight Technologies was completed.

Agilent announced it had completed the spin-off of its electronic measurement business, Keysight Technologies.

On November 1, 2014, in a special dividend distribution of all outstanding shares of Keysight’s common stock, Agilent shareholders received one share of Keysight common stock for every two shares of Agilent common stock held as of close of business October 22, 2014.

In August the company announced it would acquire glycan reagent producer, ProZyme, Inc. and South Korean instrument distributor, Young In Scientific Co. Ltd. In September Agilent acquired ACEA Biosciences for $250 million increasing the company’s presence in cell analysis technologies.

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC Has $271,000 Stake In Agilent Technologies, Inc.

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC increased its stake in shares of Agilent Technologies, Inc. by 17.7% during the fourth quarter, according to its most recent Form 13F filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC’s holdings in Agilent Technologies were worth $271,000 at the end of the most recent reporting period.

BRITISH COLUMBIA INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT Corp boosted its holdings in shares of Agilent Technologies by 11.6% in the 2nd quarter.

BRITISH COLUMBIA INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT Corp now owns 56,463 shares of the medical research company’s stock valued at $8,346,000 after purchasing an additional 5,861 shares in the last quarter.

Morgan Stanley boosted its holdings in shares of Agilent Technologies by 2.9% in the 2nd quarter.

1832 Asset Management L.P. boosted its holdings in shares of Agilent Technologies by 25.7% in the 2nd quarter.

Finally, Paloma Partners Management Co boosted its holdings in shares of Agilent Technologies by 10.2% in the 2nd quarter.

Here’S How Much You Would Have Made Owning Agilent Technologies Stock In The Last 10 Years

Agilent Technologies has outperformed the market over the past 10 years by 3.57% on an annualized basis.

Buying $1,000 In A: 10 years ago, an investor could have purchased 32.69 shares of Agilent Technologies at the time with $1,000.

This investment in A would have produced an average annual return of 15.9%. Currently, Agilent Technologies has a market capitalization of $39.70 billion.

66 today based on a price of $132.18 for A at the time of writing.

You can check out Benzinga’s market data in an enhanced view on Benzinga Pro.

This article was generated by Benzinga’s automated content engine and reviewed by an editor.

ADVERTISEMENT.The flow cytometry market consists of sales of flow cytometry instruments, software and chemicals and related services.

Flow cytometry is used to analyze characteristics of a biological cell such as cell size, cell count and cell complexity using laser optics.

For the HIV virus cell, the clusters of differentiation is called CD4, and based on the number of CD4s in a medium, flow cytometry can be used to diagnose HIV. As the global HIV population continues to grow, the demand for diagnosis techniques such as flow cytometry is also increasing.

The availability of cheaper and better substitutes for flow cytometry is a major restrain on the flow cytometry market.

While flow cytometry, ELISA and radioimmunoassay are all methods that help in HIV diagnosis by detecting “Problem cells” in a group of cells, ELISA and radioimmunoassay are cheaper and easier methods than flow cytometry.

High-throughput flow cytometry is an emerging trend in the flow cytometry market.

Using high-throughput flow cytometry methods such as fluorescence-activated cell-sorting, multiple cells can be allotted fluorescent markers which can be used to analyze their parameters in quick time.

Post Idea #9: Defibrillation

Related Articles – Summarized


The defibrillation device that is usually available out of the medical centres is the automated external defibrillator, a portable machine that can be used even by users with no previous training.

For these reasons, certain bodies, such as the European Resuscitation Council, recommend using manual external defibrillators over AEDs if manual external defibrillators are readily available.

A wearable cardioverter defibrillator is a portable external defibrillator that can be worn by at-risk patients.

This scheme works well for defibrillation and cardioversion, as well as for monitoring an ECG. Researchers have created a software modeling system capable of mapping an individual’s chest and determining the best position for an external or internal cardiac defibrillator.

Gradual improvements in the design of defibrillators, partly based on the work developing implanted versions, have led to the availability of Automated External Defibrillators.

When applied to external defibrillators, biphasic defibrillation significantly decreases the energy level necessary for successful defibrillation, decreasing the risk of burns and myocardial damage.

Kerry Packer donated a large sum to the Ambulance Service of New South Wales in order that all ambulances in New South Wales should be fitted with a personal defibrillator, which is why defibrillators in Australia are sometimes colloquially called “Packer Whackers”.


Summarize the technique of cardiac defibrillation in a patient experiencing sudden cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular dysrhythmia.

Explain the importance of the interprofessional team to ensure the appropriate selection of candidates for rapid defibrillation and the role of teaching early defibrillation as part of out-of-hospital resuscitation.

A cardiac monitor with defibrillation capability or an automated external defibrillator is required to perform defibrillation.

The 2015 American Heart Association guidelines for defibrillation state that it is reasonable to use the manufacturer’s recommended dose of the first defibrillation shock.

This follows the same algorithm as external defibrillation except for a change in the defibrillation energy dose.

For this reason, defibrillation is only performed for VF or pulseless VT. For a patient who is not in cardiac arrest but needs electrical cardioversion for an unstable tachycardic rhythm, synchronized cardioversion is performed instead of defibrillation to avoid this complication.

For this reason, many communities have developed early defibrillation programs, whereby certain members of the public are trained to perform defibrillation by using AEDs.Enhancing Healthcare Team Outcomes.

Meaning, Types, Uses, Complications And FAQs

Defibrillators are devices that provide an electric pulse or shock to the heart to restore a regular heartbeat.

If the heart abruptly stops beating, defibrillators can help restore it.

Paddles placed directly on the heart administer the shock in manual internal defibrillators.

Defibrillation sends an electrical shock through the heart, causing all of the cardiac cells to contract simultaneously.

Until a heart defibrillator is available, the clinician will begin CPR.Two sticky defibrillator electrodes or paddles lubricated with special jelly will be applied to your upper right chest and lower left rib cage area by the provider.

A defibrillator shocks the heart with an electric current.

A defibrillator cannot restart a heart that is in asystole, but it can be treated with cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Heart Defibrillator

Knowing what to expect can help make your road to recovery after defibrillation as smooth as possible.

You will need close monitoring in a critical care setting in a hospital after defibrillation.

Ask your doctor before taking any pain medication at home and only take pain medication as directed.

Contact your doctor if your pain is not well controlled by your medication or you have new or worsening pain, fatigue, or other symptoms.

Breathing problems such as shortness of breath, difficulty breathing, labored breathing, or wheezing.

Defibrillation can save your life, but it will not cure heart disease or other underlying causes of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias.

You may need to make adjustments in your diet and lifestyle as part of your treatment plan after defibrillation.

What Is The Purpose Of Defibrillation?

What is a defibrillator used for? Defibrillation is executed to correct serious heart arrhythmias including ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia.

If a shock is needed, you do so by pressing the “Shock” button.

The device is designed to inform the medical practitioner if a shock is needed based on the patient’s condition.

Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Similar to AEDs, wearable cardioverter defibrillators are portable units worn by those who have been diagnosed with a serious heart condition.

Typically, one shock is all that is needed to regulate a heart rhythm problem.

If the device detects a more severe problem, multiple shocks may be needed.

After you experience a multiple shock event, it is best to consult your doctor right away to perform more extensive tests on the health of your heart.

How Heart Responds To Defibrillation

When the heart is beating in such a manner, the chambers of the heart contract in a confused manner and the heart is unable to supply blood to other parts of the body.

Defibrillation is the process of applying a specially designed electrical charge to the heart to stop VF and hopefully allow the return of a normal cardiac rhythm.

Every passing minute will reduce the odds of survival by 10%. If defibrillation can be completed within one minute of the cardiac arrest, the chances of survival are almost 90%. After five minutes, the chances are about 50%. In the ten-minute range, there is little hope of life left.

Cardiac defibrillation is a process of supplying a transthoracic electrical current to a person undergoing one of the two destructive ventricular dysrhythmias, Ventricular Fibrillation or pulseless Ventricular Tachycardia.

VF/tachycardia defibrillation is done by passing enough electrical current to the heart to depolarize a certain mass of the myocardium.

In the course of transthoracic defibrillation in humans, as little as 4% of the supplied transthoracic current passes through the heart because parallel pathways divert the current away from the heart.

For this reason, many communities have developed early defibrillation programs, whereby certain members of the public are trained to perform defibrillation by using AEDs.

Post Idea #10: Automated external defibrillator

Related Articles – Summarized

Automated External Defibrillators

Contact the manufacturer of your AED if your AED is not FDA-approved and you have not received a letter about your AED. Be aware that if your AED is not FDA-approved, compatible necessary AED accessories may no longer be available to support your AED after February 3, 2022.

Given the importance of these devices in emergency situations, the FDA recommends you continue to keep your AED available for use until you receive an FDA- approved AED. Report problems with AEDs to the FDA by submitting a voluntary report online at MedWatch.

The table below lists all AEDs that have received premarket approval from the FDA. If your AED is listed below, no matter your purchase date, the AED is considered FDA-approved.

Once the AEDs are on the market, the FDA proactively monitors the safety and reliability of AEDs by reviewing the AED manufacturers’ manufacturing and design changes, performance reports, and medical device reports.

Manufacturers were asked to provide a plan for these AEDs and necessary AED accessories, including a timeline for servicing and phase-out activities, a plan for communicating with their customers, and an estimate of the volume of AEDs and accessories that remain in the field.

March 2013: The FDA published a proposed order to allow for notice and comment regarding the FDA’s recommendation to require premarket approval applications for AEDs and necessary AED accessories.

The panel of independent experts considered the FDA’s assessment of AEDs and its recommendation that more stringent FDA oversight be applied to reduce future AED problems.

Why are AEDs important? AEDs make it possible for more people to respond to a medical emergency where defibrillation is required.

All three of these activities are vital to improving survival from SCA. How does an AED work? A built-in computer checks a victim’s heart rhythm through adhesive electrodes.

Who can use an AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay rescuers who have been trained in CPR can use AEDs.

Although formal training in the use of an AED is not required, it is recommended to help the rescuer increase their comfort and level of confidence.

Are AEDs safe to use? AEDs are safe to use by anyone.

Some studies have shown that 90 percent of the time AEDs are able to ANSWERS by heart What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? Treatments + Tests detect a rhythm that should be defibrillated.

Where should AEDs be placed? All first-response vehicles, including ambulances, lawenforcement vehicles and many fire engines should have an AED. AEDs also should be placed in public areas such as sports venues, shopping malls, airports, airplanes, businesses, convention centers, hotels, schools and doctors’ offices.

Occupational Safety And Health Administration

OSHA standards do not specifically address automated external defibrillators.

Exposures to first-aid hazards are addressed in specific OSHA standards for the general industry.

Learn What An AED Is

Why Learn to Use an AED. Sudden cardiac arrest is among the leading causes of death in the United States.

Because the average response time for first responders once 911 is called is 8-12 minutes, and for each minute defibrillation is delayed, the odds of survival are reduced by approximately 10%, having access to and AED and knowing how to use one, is critical.

At the Red Cross, you can choose the type of class for your schedule – and the way you learn best.

In Person: Designed for those who learn best in a traditional classroom setting, our in-person courses combine lecture with hands-on skills sessions.

This way, you can not only learn what an AED is, what it looks like, how to it, but you can demonstrate your skills to a certified instructor.

Blended Learning: Featuring award-winning simulation learning, our blended learning programs combine self-paced, interactive instruction and in-person skills sessions.

That way, you can learn what an AED is – and how to use one – in theory and in practice.

Automated External Defibrillators: Do You Need An AED?

Automated external defibrillators: Do you need an AED?

Turn on the AED. The automated external defibrillator will give you step-by-step voice instructions explaining how to check for breathing and a pulse and how to position electrode pads on the person’s chest.

The AED is programmed not to deliver a shock if a shock isn’t needed.

You need someone with you to use the AED if you have cardiac arrest.

Consider enrolling yourself and whoever might need to use your home AED in a community education class, such as classes offered by the American Red Cross, to learn how to use your automated external defibrillator properly and to perform CPR. This will also enable you to come to the rescue if someone has cardiac arrest in a public place and there’s an AED nearby.

Because the AED works only on certain types of cardiac arrest, the people who might need to use the device should know what steps to take if the AED indicates that a shock isn’t needed but the person remains unresponsive.

Keep the AED maintained properly, including installation of new batteries as needed, typically every four years, and replacement of electrode pads as needed.

Charity Wants To Put 1,000 Public Defibrillators Across B.C.

St. John Ambulance initiative hopes to save more lives from cardiac arrest.

St. John Ambulance BC and Yukon has launched a campaign to save more lives from sudden cardiac arrest.

SJA explains the stands are kept unlocked to ensure the public can access an AED on a 24/7 basis in the event of a sudden cardiac arrest, a medical emergency that takes up to 40,000 Canadian lives each year.

“Bystander use of an AED, along with CPR, increases the chance of survival of sudden cardiac arrest upwards of 75 per cent. Despite this, AEDs in BC aren’t always readily available or accessible. This is why Start Me Up BC was developed,” said SJA spokesperson and ‘Start Me Up BC’ campaign lead Leanne Strachan.

“We believe that through this campaign, more communities will recognize their role in saving lives from emergencies like sudden cardiac arrest and be empowered to take action.”

Outside of housing an AED, every stand is set to include first-aid and naloxone kits for more resources and awareness for a number of emergency situations, such as an opioid overdose.

“Whether it’s a sudden cardiac arrest, head injury, or a sprain, we want to provide as many tools as possible and the reassurance needed to help anyone step in as a bystander with our stands,” said Ken Leggatt, interim CEO for SJA BC and Yukon.

Defibrillators And Student Training Coming To Delta School District Secondary Schools

Defibrillators and student training coming to Delta School District Secondary Schools.

Delta, BC 10:00 a.m. – Today, the Advanced Coronary Treatment Foundation, and its supporting partners will officially launch the ACT High School CPR and Defibrillator Program in the seven public secondary schools of School District No. 37 Delta.

The media event will be held at the Sands Secondary School, 10840 – 82 Avenue, Delta, BC, V4C 2B3. The ACT Foundation is the charitable organization that is establishing free CPR and defibrillator training programs in high schools throughout BC and across Canada.

ACT is working in partnership with BC Emergency Health Services paramedics and staff, lead community partner RBC, and health partners AstraZeneca Canada, Pfizer Canada and Sanofi Canada to bring this program to Delta School District secondary schools.

Funding will see participating secondary schools receive training equipment to enable teachers to train students including Automated External Defibrillator training units, AED training mannequins, and program set-up that will see all students graduate with the skills and knowledge to save lives.

“We are proud to be long-time supporters of The ACT Foundation and thrilled to be the community partner bringing CPR and AED training to School District # 68 Nanaimo-Ladysmith Secondary Schools.”

“With it, we can enhance the CPR program in the Delta School District secondary schools with the addition of the defibrillator component. These are lifesaving skills that students will be able to bring to their current and future families and communities.”

Post Idea #11: ZOLL Medical

Related Articles – Summarized

Medical Devices And Technology Solutions

ZOLL® is focused on improving outcomes with novel resuscitation and acute critical care technology.

Our medical products and software solutions help clinicians, EMS and fire professionals, lay rescuers, and the military provide life-saving care every day.

ZOLL delivers technology that advances emergency care and benefits patients.

ZOLL LifeVest Wearable Defibrillator

The LifeVest® wearable cardioverter defibrillator is designed to protect patients at risk of sudden cardiac death, when a patient’s condition is changing and permanent SCD risk has not been established.

While some defibrillator devices are implanted under the skin, the LifeVest WCD is worn directly against the patient’s skin.

It is lightweight and easy to wear, allowing patients to return to most of their daily activities with peace of mind that they have protection from SCD. LifeVest is designed to detect certain life-threatening rapid heart rhythms and automatically deliver a treatment shock to save a patient’s life.

LifeVest is used for a wide range of patients, including those who have a reduced heart function following a heart attack, before or after bypass surgery or stent placement, or for those with cardiomyopathy or heart failure that places them at particular risk.

On any given day, tens of thousands of people around the world have protection from SCD by wearing the LifeVest WCD. For LifeVest customer support, technical support, or medical orders please call 800.543.3267 Medical orders and supporting documentation can be faxed to 866.567.7615.

Zoll Medical Corporation develops and markets medical devices and software solutions that helps emergency care and save lives.

With products for defibrillation and monitoring, circulation and cardiopulmonary resuscitation feedback, data management, fluid resuscitation, and therapeutic temperature management, the Company provides a range of technologies, which help clinicians, emergency medical services and fire professionals, and lay rescuers treat victims needing resuscitation and critical care.

Manufactures and marketing of technologies that help advance the practice of resuscitation and temperature control therapies for the treatment of critical care patients.

Post Idea #12: Physio-Control

Related Articles – Summarized


Physio-Control Corporation was founded in 1955 by Dr. Karl William Edmark as a pioneering company in the field of portable defibrillation.

Physio-Control manufactures emergency defibrillation and automated CPR equipment.

The company was most recently acquired in 2016 by Stryker Corporation and is now part of Stryker’s Emergency Care division.

The company’s products are primarily for the emergency treatment of sudden cardiac arrest events.

The Lifepak line of defibrillators includes both advanced units for advanced cardiac life support trained personnel, as well as automated external defibrillators for use by first responders and the general public.

The company distributes an automated chest compression system called the LUCAS 3.

Physio also produces a CPR coaching device called the TrueCPR coaching device.


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Post Idea #13: WorldSensing

Related Articles – Summarized

Post Idea #14: Viability assay

Related Articles – Summarized

Cell Viability Assays

The MTT-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) tetrazolium reduction assay was the first homogeneous cell viability assay developed for a 96-well format that was suitable for high throughput screening.

The formazan product of the MTT tetrazolium accumulates as an insoluble precipitate inside cells as well as being deposited near the cell surface and in the culture medium.

It is worth noting that MTT reduction is a marker reflecting viable cell metabolism and not specifically cell proliferation.

Tetrazolium reduction assays are often erroneously described as measuring cell proliferation without the use of proper controls to confirm effects on metabolism.

Figure 4: Change in NIH3T3 cell morphology after exposure to MTT. Panel A shows a field of cells photographed immediately after addition of the MTT solution.

More recently developed tetrazolium reagents can be reduced by viable cells to generate formazan products that are directly soluble in cell culture medium.

The negative charge of the formazan products that contribute to solubility in cell culture medium are thought to limit cell permeability of the tetrazolium.

ScienceDirect Topics

The simplest way to quantitate cell survival is to use live/dead cell assays such as cell counts using trypan blue.

More sophisticated live/dead cell assays that use spectrophotometers or flow cytometers for quantitation are commercially available; however, they still only provide information as to how many cells survived treatment.

Cells are treated with a range of concentrations of the test drug, the cells are counted and an equal number of cells are plated into petri dishes, typically in triplicate.

Cells are allowed to grow to form colonies of at least 50 cells and after the cells are fixed and stained, the colonies are counted.

Cell proliferation is defined as the cellular growth rate or as the quantified value for the daughter cell population.

For proliferation assays, changes in nucleic acid content are most commonly measured; but for viability assays, dye reagents are employed that can distinguish the live cells from non-cell species and cell membrane integrity.

The first dye enters all cells and bind to intracellular DNA. The second dye enters only dead cells, live cells exclude this dye because of the presence of an intact cell membrane.

Thermo Fisher Scientific

Thermo Fisher Scientific offers a vast array of assays for detecting cell viability, as shown in the selection table below.

Cells vary in width from about 15 µm to about 25 µm. The stages are: interphase cortical microtubule array; pre-prophase band of microtubules; metaphase mitotic spindle; telophase, showing early phragmoplast and cell plate; fully developed phragmoplast during cytokinesis; late cytokinesis; restoration of cortical arrays in daughter cells.

HeLa cells treated with camptothecin and stained with Hoechst 33342 for a total cell count and dead cells are stained with Image-iT DEAD Green.

LIVE/DEAD Fixable Dead Cell Stains are cell-impermeant, amine-reactive dead cell stains optimal for use in cells that will undergo fixation and/or permeabilization.

Cells were analyzed using a flow cytometer equipped with a 405 nm laser and a 450/50 nm bandpass filter for calcein violet-labeled live cells, and a 525/50 nm bandpass filter for the aqua dye-labeled dead cells.

Jurkat cells, a human T cell leukemia cell line, were heat-killed and a 50:50 mixture of live/dead cells created.

Cells were then treated with Annexin V, Alexa Fluor 488 conjugate to identify apoptotic cells and with propidium iodide to identify dead cells, followed by flow cytometric analysis.

Cell Viability Assays: Why, What And How

The measurement of cell viability plays an essential role in all forms of cell culture.

Cell viability can be used to correlate cell behavior to cell number, providing a more accurate picture of cell metabolism.

Cell viability assays usually measure a parameter reflecting the number of live/metabolically active cells in a population.

Many viability assays use this characteristic of cell death to distinguish viable from nonviable cells.

Only viable cells can synthesize ATP. Therefore, ATP is an indicator of metabolically active cells, and the number of viable cells in a culture can be measured based on the amount of ATP. ATP cell viability assays are luminometric assays that utilize luciferase to catalyze the formation of light from D-luciferin and ATP.Fluorescence live-cell imaging for cell viability.

Automated video microscopy holds great potential to assess cell viability and has several advantages over endpoint viability assays or fluorescence-based assays4.

Cell viability assays for cell cultures are robust and trusted methods in life sciences.

Cell Proliferation Assay

These assays can detect structural changes such as loss of membrane integrity upon cell death or physiological and biochemical activities indicative of living cells.

The gold standard, and the most sensitive cell viability assay, is the CellTiter-Glo® Luminescent Cell Viability Assay, which measures intracellular ATP. ATP assays quickly lyse the cell, provide ATPase inhibitors and supply luciferase reaction components.

The RealTime-Glo® MT Cell Viability Assay is a nonlytic assay that s continually monitors cell viability over time based on the reducing potential of the cell.

Cytotoxicity assays measure parameters associated with loss of membrane integrity upon cell death.

Cytotoxicity assays may detect cytosolic proteins that should not be released by the cell, unless the cell has lost membrane integrity and the proteins have leaked out of the cell.

Lactate dehydrogenase release is a well-accepted measure of cell death that can be detected with the bioluminescent LDH-Glo® Assay.

Cytotoxicity assays may detect the ability of cell impermeant dyes to enter cells upon loss of membrane activity.

Viability Assay

A viability assay is an assay that is created to determine the ability of organs, cells or tissues to maintain or recover a state of survival.

Tetrazolium reduction: One useful way to locate and measure viability is to complete a Tetrazolium Reduction Assay.

Protease viability marker: One can look at protease function in specimens if they wish to target viability in cells; this practice in research is known as “Protease Viability Marker Assay Concept”.

The ATP Assay Concept is a well-known technique for determining the viability of cells using the assessment of ATP and a method known as “Firefly luciferase”.

Sodium-potassium ratio: Another kind of assay practices the examination of the ratio of potassium to sodium in cells to serve as an index of viability.

For transplantable whole organs, the ultimate assay is the ability to sustain life after transplantation, an assay which is not helpful in preventing transplantation of non-functional organs.

“Frogging” is a type of viability assay method that utilizes an agar plate for its environment and consists of plating serial dilutions by pinning them after they have been diluted in liquid.

Post Idea #15: Experience

Related Articles – Summarized

Experience Definition & Meaning

That experience is one I’d rather forget! She had a frightening experience.

David Meyer, Fortune, 26 Feb. 2022 Trayvon Martin’s mother, Sybrina Fulton, became a social justice activist with over 20 years of government work experience.

Oregonlive, 26 Feb. 2022 Licht has more than 20 years of television news experience and has earned a reputation as a sharp politics and news producer as well as a hands-on talent manager.

Karen Pallarito, Health.com, 28 Jan. 2022 Estimates of the total number of people infected with coronavirus who experience lasting covid-19 symptoms vary widely, from 10 percent to perhaps much higher.

Washington Post, 25 Jan. 2022 Davis and guest co-hosts will interview those who experience Autism from various angles including families and representatives from organizations that work the autistic community.

Ashley Strickland, CNN, 14 Jan. 2022 Sethi said people with milder infection have less protection than people who experience more severe illness and survive.

Molly Beck, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 12 Jan. 2022 Emerging data has confirmed that those who experience Omicron COVID-19 infections are experiencing less severe symptoms overall, particularly those who are fully vaccinated.

Definition Of Experience By The Free Dictionary

To have experience of; feel: to experience pleasure.

Experience – the accumulation of knowledge or skill that results from direct participation in events or activities; “a man of experience”; “Experience is the best teacher”woodcraft – skill and experience in matters relating to the woodseducation – knowledge acquired by learning and instruction; “It was clear that he had a very broad education”.

2.experience – the content of direct observation or participation in an event; “He had a religious experience”; “He recalled the experience vividly”reality, world – all of your experiences that determine how things appear to you; “His world was shattered”; “We live in different worlds”; “For them demons were as much a part of reality as trees were”.

3.experience – an event as apprehended; “a surprising experience”; “That painful experience certainly got our attention”high point – the most enjoyable part of a given experience; “The trumpet solo was the high point of the concert”.

Out-of-body experience – the dissociative experience of observing yourself from an external perspective as though your mind or soul had left and was observing your body.

Quotations”Trust one who has gone through it” “Experience is not what happens to a man. It is what a man does with what happens to him” “Experience is the name everyone gives to their mistakes” “All experience is an arch to build upon”.

Learn by experience – don’t make the same mistake again; Has she had experience in teaching? ondervinding experiência zkušenost die Erfahrung erfaring πείραexperiencia kogemus kokemus expérienceניסיון iskustvo tapasztalat pengalaman reynsla esperienza patirtis pieredze pengalaman ervaringerfaringdoświadczenie experiência experienţă skúsenosť izkušnja iskustvo erfarenhet tecrübe, deneyim kinh nghiệm 经验2.

Experience Management Platform

The Marketing Department needs to increase inbound lead generation and build brand credibility to drive revenue and increase customer retention.

Understanding what the customer thinks about the brand will provide solutions for effective messaging and campaigns.

The Marketing team will use the platform to understand the customer journey, amplify great CX with new reviews to build social proof, and improve local search performance for the brand and frontline team members.

Experience GM: Shopping, Support & Services

After more than a century of building iconic vehicles, we’ve had to retire some of our brands and models.

If you own one of these discontinued brands, explore how we can still support your ownership and service needs.

Check Your Free Credit Report & FICO® Score

Monitoring your credit file can help you detect possible identity fraud sooner and prevent surprises when you apply for credit.

Easily lock your Credit File, keeping fraudsters and identity thieves away.

Fun Facts About Victoria, BC

Victoria sits on the southern tip of Vancouver Island in the Olympic Mountain’s “Rain shadow”, meaning it receives 50% less rain than the city of Vancouver and Washington State.

The waters surrounding Victoria are home to 3 resident orca pods, totaling over 80 mammals.

Victoria’s Chinatown is the oldest in Canada, where you can walk down Canada’s narrowest street, Fan Tan Alley, measuring 35 inches across.

Canada’s oldest licensed brewpub, located on the West Shore of Victoria.

Totem pole is located in Victoria’s Beacon Hill Park.

The Fairmont Empress serves over 500,000 cups of tea a year.

Victoria has been ranked one of the friendliest cities in the world, and the most romantic city in Canada.

Post Idea #16: Electric generator

Related Articles – Summarized

Definition, Working, Types, Components & Uses

The article let us focus mainly on electric generators and how they convert mechanical energy to electrical energy.

Generators do not create electricity instead it uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit.

The main components of an electric generator are given below.

The classification of electric generators depends on the type of electrical energy that is produced, which is either direct current or alternating current.

AC generators: AC generators are known as single-phase generators and are limited to 25 kW. DC generators: These generators are divided into three categories, and they are shunt, series, and compound-wound.

Uses of an Electric Generator They provide the power for most power networks across cities.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs.Can a generator be used as a motor?What kind of power does a generator produce?What is an AC generator?What is a DC generator?How does the water stored in dams generate electricity?

Electric Generator

The Woolrich Electrical Generator of 1844, now in Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum, is the earliest electrical generator used in an industrial process.

Diverting a small amount of the power generated by the generator to an electromagnetic field coil allowed the generator to produce substantially more power.

A homopolar generator is a DC electrical generator comprising an electrically conductive disc or cylinder rotating in a plane perpendicular to a uniform static magnetic field.

A magnetohydrodynamic generator directly extracts electric power from moving hot gases through a magnetic field, without the use of rotating electromagnetic machinery.

New generator designs such as the asynchronous or induction singly-fed generator, the doubly-fed generator, or the brushless wound-rotor doubly-fed generator are seeing success in variable speed constant frequency applications, such as wind turbines or other renewable energy technologies.

Some electric bicycles are capable of regenerative braking, where the drive motor is used as a generator to recover some energy during braking.

The generator is represented by an abstract generator consisting of an ideal voltage source and an internal impedance.

Power Generators Vancouver

Since 1975, Power-West Industries has been providing BC with rental, installation, sales and service of new and used diesel, gas, natural gas and propane-powered industrial generators from a variety of manufacturers.

Our technicians are trained and certified by Cummins and Kohler – two of the biggest names in the power generator industry.

We’ve got the expertise, experience and professionalism to handle even the biggest jobs in the business.

We provide equipment and services for high-demand and critical care facilities such as hospitals, nursing homes, universities and data/call centres.

A loss of power for them could have devastating consequences.

Post Idea #17: Landing gear

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Since the landing gear bears heavy load during working, an accurate prediction for the load, especially for the dynamically changing landing impact load, is required to ensure that the designed landing gear is capable of withstanding the landing impact energy.

Physical landing gear; Virtual landing gear; DT data; Workflow for design optimization; Services.

For land planes, there are individual requirements for landing on the main gear only, three-point landing, and side impact loads.

Again, the landing gear can be classified on the basis of retraction nature mainly as fixed type landing gear, that is, landing gear hangs underneath the aircraft during flight, and retractable type landing gear, that is, landing gear stow inside the aircraft while in flight.

In modern aircraft, there used to be two sections of landing gear, main landing gear and secondary landing gear.

The single largest titanium application is found in main landing gear truck beam of Boeing B777. Applications of high-strength titanium alloys are also observed in titanium sliders of B787 main landing gear and gear links of Airbus A340.

7.6 Landing gear retractionThe landing gear.

Landing Gear

Redundant systems are used to operate the landing gear and redundant main gear legs may also be provided so the aircraft can be landed in a satisfactory manner in a range of failure scenarios.

The Saab 37 Viggen, with landing gear designed for a 5m/sec impact, could use a carrier-type landing and HUD to reduce its scatter from 300 m to 100m. The de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou used long-stroke legs to land from a steep approach with no float.

The landing gear on fixed-wing aircraft that land on aircraft carriers have a higher sink-rate requirement because the aircraft are flown onto the deck with no landing flare.

Some main landing gear struts on World War II aircraft, in order to allow a single-leg main gear to more efficiently store the wheel within either the wing or an engine nacelle, rotated the single gear strut through a 90° angle during the rearwards-retraction sequence to allow the main wheel to rest “Flat” above the lower end of the main gear strut, or flush within the wing or engine nacelles, when fully retracted.

During the approach to land the landing gear is lowered several miles from touchdown and the landing gear is the dominant airframe noise source, followed by deployed highlift devices.

Conventional landing gear is designed to absorb the energy of a landing and doesn’t perform well at reducing ground-induced vibrations in the airframe during landing ground roll, taxi and take-off.

Rotorcraft with fully articulated rotors typically have shock-absorbing landing gear designed to prevent ground resonance; however, poor landing gear maintenance and improperly inflated tires may contribute to the phenomenon.

Jost International

JOST International is a world market leader for the commercial trucking industry.

As a pioneer of efficient, safe, and innovative systems for trucks and trailers, we proudly supply fifth wheel couplings, trailer landing gear, kingpins, turntables, and more.

Landing Gear

You can trust our landing gear systems to provide reliable, long-term performance.

Through the progressive use of lower-weight materials and innovative product designs, Collins Aerospace has developed robust products that excel in extreme environments.

As leaders in the industry, we continue to use advanced technology to improve performance and lower maintenance requirements for landing systems.

Our primary landing-gear products include main, nose and wing landing gear assemblies.

In addition to the landing gear structural assemblies, we also offer fully integrated systems, including ATA Chapter 32 components, such as cockpit controls, electronic control units, braking systems, extension and retraction equipment, and steering control systems.

Collins Aerospace provides landing gear solutions for a comfortable landing in the most demanding conditions.

With decades of experience leading the aviation industry, we have developed an array of innovative landing gear products and offer exceptional customer service.

Aircraft Landing Gear Types

Aircraft landing gear supports the entire weight of an aircraft during landing and ground operations.

Regardless of the type of landing gear utilized, shock absorbing equipment, brakes, retraction mechanisms, controls, warning devices, cowling, fairings, and structural members necessary to attach the gear to the aircraft are considered parts of the landing gear system.

Three basic arrangements of landing gear are used: tail wheel-type landing gear, tandem landing gear, and tricycle-type landing gear.

As the name implies, this type of landing gear has the main gear and tail gear aligned on the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.

A main landing gear of a transport category aircraft is illustrated in Figure 10 with many of the parts identified as an introduction to landing gear nomenclature.

In addition to supporting the aircraft for taxi, the forces of impact on an aircraft during landing must be controlled by the landing gear.

Figure 14] Modern aircraft that use skid-type landing gear make use of rigid landing gear with no significant ill effects.


To see what you need to mount to your kayak, refer to the chart below.

If you don’t see your kayak, please feel free to reach out to us.

While we can’t always keep up with everything on the current market, we do our best to keep up with our customer’s needs.

The list below shows the kits and any additional components recommended for some of the more popular kayaks.

We typically recommend mounting the landing gear directly behind the seat.

If you don’t see your boat, please give us a call and we’ll get you squared away and add your boat to the list!

Pro Angler 17T.This kayak exceeds the 180 lb weight rating for the landing gear.

LegUp By Chopper Design

Our unique retractable stabilization system can HELP many riders stay on their bikes rather than giving up the sport they love, or resorting to a trike.

Using a computer and a pair of pneumatically controlled wheels, LegUp™ deploys these wheels as you slow to around six MPH, and automatically retracts them if you accelerate over that speed.

Thousands of riders have been helped by it’s ability to stabilize their bikes at slow speeds.

The GENERATION II system we use today is significantly stronger than it’s older brother.

The wheels deploy and retract based on wheel speed; with the.25 second deployment time, we are able to bring the wheels down at a very slow speed.

The onboard computer controls everything, and a Handlebar switch housing with LEDS allows the rider to communicate with the system and allows the system to talk back!

So Far the reaction to the new system has been amazing.

Post Idea #18: SAF-HOLLAND

Related Articles – Summarized


Muskegon, Michigan, June 22, 2020 – SAF-HOLLAND, a leading global manufacturer of trailer suspension and axle systems, truck suspensions, fifth wheels, landing gear, and coupling products, is pleased to announce that Keith Belevender has been named Vice President – Health, Safety, Environment & Quality – Americas.

Muskegon, Michigan, October 29, 2019 – SAF-HOLLAND, a leading global manufacturer of trailer suspension and axle systems, truck suspensions, fifth wheels, landing gear, and coupling products, is pleased to announce the launch of SMAR-te Tire Pilot™, the intelligent evolution of tire pressure management.

Supplier expert in the commercial vehicle industry Proven track record in the areas of Sales and Marketing, Operational Excellence, Restructuring and Business Development Extensive cross-functional leadership experience.

SAF-HOLLAND GmbH, one of the world’s leading suppliers of truck and trailer components, has reached an amicable agreement with Steffen Schewerda, President Americas and member of the Group Management Board, to terminate his office, with Mr. Schewerda stepping down, effective September 6, 2019.

At the same time, SAF-HOLLAND appointed Kent Jones as President Americas, effective September 9, 2019.

Post Idea #19: Lufthansa Technik

Related Articles – Summarized

Lufthansa Technik

“WestJet is excited to move forward in this new agreement with Lufthansa Technik in a dynamic new program to support our fleet. We are looking forward to working with this expanded relationship with Lufthansa Technik to provide excellent support and engine life cycle management. Further, working with a support organization that understands the airline perspective and needs, serves to enhance the value of support brought to the table. This is the result of a very competitive process started in January 2021 that resulted in Lufthansa Technik’s team being awarded a contract that provides leading value and support through a team approach offering creative solutions,” said Gandeephan Ganeshalingam, Vice President of Technical Operations, WestJet.

“Lufthansa Technik is excited to be partnering with WestJet on one of their largest maintenance programs. We look forward to continuing our strong relationship with them. Similarly, in subcontracting a third party supplier like FTAI, we are confident that we will be able to provide a high quality and reliable product at a competitive cost. One major pillar in our collaboration is that we will be able to, where appropriate, further optimize an engine’s life. This results in high engine reliability and stable operations for WestJet.” said Georgios Ouzounidis, VP Corporate Sales Americas at Lufthansa Technik.

He previously held a number of other executive functions at Lufthansa Cargo and Lufthansa Technik.

The chairman of Lufthansa Technik’s Supervisory Board, Dr. Detlef Kayser, said: “I would like to thank Johannes Bussmann for his outstanding work at Lufthansa Technik. He and his team have led the company safely through the crisis. Above all, he played a special role in the success and growth story that Lufthansa Technik has written in recent years. I therefore wish him all the best for the future.”

He began his career at Lufthansa Technik in 2004 as Managing Director of Lufthansa Technik Logistik in Hamburg.

From 2011 to 2016, the industrial engineer headed the aircraft overhaul business at Lufthansa Technik AG. Commenting on the appointment, Detlef Kayser said, “Soeren Stark has distinguished himself in various positions in our Group and achieved much. At Lufthansa Technik, he has demonstrated his abilities as an excellent manager as he developed our worldwide overhaul network and played a key role in the restructuring work performed during the corona crisis, among other areas. With his high level of expertise, experience and leadership, he will lead Lufthansa Technik successfully into the future.”

Starting in 2009, Andreas van de Kuil held different positions in Lufthansa Technik’s Corporate Sales organization and as CEO of Lufthansa Technik Vostok Services.

Lufthansa Technik

Lufthansa Technik AG provides maintenance, completions, repair, and overhaul services for aircraft, and maintenance, repair, and MRO services for engines and components.

The origins of Lufthansa Technik can be traced back to 1951, predating that of its parent company, the German flag carrier Lufthansa.

During the 1970s, Lufthansa Technik experienced a significant growth in its third-party business, gaining custom from numerous international operators.

During the 1990s, it was decided to reorganise Lufthansa; this initiative led to the creation of Lufthansa Technik as an individual entity.

During late 2017, Lufthansa Technik announced the launch of a multi-purpose cabin conversion programme for the Airbus A330 MRTT aerial refuelling tanker; that same year, the firm also secured its first VIP cabin completion project for a Boeing Business Jet 787.

During early 2020, Lufthansa Technik announced the launch of a freighter conversion programme for the Airbus A380, a large twin-deck passenger airliner, in addition to 14 separate projects for various other passenger aircraft, such as the A330 and A350.

Edit] Puerto Rico – Lufthansa Technik Puerto Rico was the first center for maintenance, repair, and refurbishing of commercial airliners opened by Lufthansa in the Americas.

Lufthansa Technik

Whilst manned aviation has evolved into the safest mode of transport during recent decades, unmanned aviation still has some catching up to do when it comes to maintenance concepts.

Currently, there are no widely applied standards for maintenance and monitoring of the health of unmanned aircraft.

Instead, maintenance is usually based on preventive recommendations from the manufacturer or on manual visual and acoustic checks.

Both incorrect and reactive maintenance can have a negative impact on the mission and the unmanned aircraft due to the inability to detect technical issues.

The untimely removal of components that are still healthy leads to unnecessary maintenance costs and operational down time.

Our recommended maintenance actions can be triggered at the right time, rather than too late or too early.

Maintenance logging and asset management modules allow for end-to-end tracking and fulfill forthcoming regulations.

Lufthansa Technik Reveals Stunning Explorer Concept

MIAMI – Lufthansa Technik revealed a new concept for wide business jets with the motto “Go anywhere at any time.” The new concept involves a brand new cabin, with different light moods and a stunning innovation: an open-air area.

On its website, LHT describes itself as “The leading provider of aircraft maintenance, repair, overhaul, and modification services for civil aircraft, from commercial to VIP and special mission aircraft.” The company can provide “Tailored maintenance programs, modification, completion, and conversion as well as innovative cabin products, material pooling, or engine services.”

LHT provides VIP cabin conversions and sometimes provides modern cabin concepts as the new Explorer concept for long-haul aircraft.

Lufthansa Technik revealed its new Explorer concept: a new, modern cabin for long-haul, wide business aircraft.

“We present our new pioneering cabin design for long-haul aircraft. Our Explorer design optimally fulfills your desire to go anywhere at any time to discover the world.”

“We created a unique interior to exploit the full potential of the projection system for private jets. The overall look of a VIP cabin can be changed by a fingertip.” according to Michael Bork, Aircraft Interior Architect in VIP Service.

If the aircraft was a freighter, LHT can directly use the opening, without having to cut the fuselage again.

Lufthansa Technik Philippines

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Deutsche Lufthansa Reportedly Mulling IPO Of Lufthansa Technik

On January 22, 2020, Bloomberg reported that Deutsche Lufthansa AG is planning for a partial spin-off or IPO of its maintenance business division, Lufthansa Technik.

The company considers the other two units, Lufthansa Cargo and Lufthansa Techniq, to have high level of synergies with its core operations.

We value Deutsche Lufthansa and Lufthansa Technik on Sum-of the-Parts valuation methodology by applying 2020E relative valuation multiples on our financial estimates.

Deutsche Lufthansa AG. We apply a significant discount to Deutsche Lufthansa as it transitions to a pure-play airline, although the company will continue to hold interests in other ancillary services.

We think the separation of Lufthansa Technik, we expect the Stub entity to be valued at 2020E EV/Sales of 0.4x and 2020E EV/ EBITDA of 2.6x, about in-line with some other struggling European operators such as Air France-KLM. Accordingly, we arrive at an average Enterprise Value of €13.5 billion for Deutsche Lufthansa.

Lufthansa Technik AG. We think that the company’s Lufthansa Technik unit is one of its best due to robust top-line growth, stable margins and strong growth prospects.

Deutsche Lufthansa AG. Deutsche Lufthansa AG is an aviation group with worldwide operations.

Ly/3or5q9c #keepyouflyingNew year – new challenges for some of us! On January, 1st Jan Pfeil, formerly Senior Director Completion Operations of our VIP & Special Mission Aircraft Services Division in Hamburg, took over the CEO position at Lufthansa Technik Shenzhen.

Ly/3s8oyeQWe are happy to provide engine services for ! The CFM56-5B engines will be overhauled in Hamburg, whereas surgical repairs and Mobile Engine Services will be provided locally in Tulsa, Oklahoma .

One of the leading providers of technical aircraft services, turned #AVIATAR’s analytics platform to Google Cloud to boost scalability, cost-efficiency, and real-time capabilities for AI powered digital TechOps solutions.

The national airline of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan just entrusted us with another five years of comprehensive component services for its #A320 family fleet.

KeepyouflyingThank you, , for the new five-year contract for component services for your #737 Max 8 fleet.

We will support with MRO services, pool access and component delivery to selected international airports within Europe.

We have expanded our trusted partnership with by extending a long term agreement on Total Component Support services for their 787 fleet of 53 aircraft.

Post Idea #20: United Technologies Corporation

Related Articles – Summarized

United Technologies

At one point, the military portion of UTC’s business, whose sensitivity to “Excess profits” and boom/bust demand drove UTC to diversify away from it, actually carried the weight of losses incurred by the commercial M&A side of the business.

In April 2010, UTC announced that it was investing €15 million to set up the United Technologies Research Centre Ireland at University College Cork’s Tyndall National Institute which will carry out research on energy and security systems.

UTC ranked No. 51 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

United Technologies Research Center: A centralized research facility that supports all UTC business units in developing new technologies and processes.

2012, United Technologies acquired Goodrich and merged it with Hamilton Sundstrand; the resulting organization is UTC Aerospace Systems.

In April 2015, UTC signed an education partnership agreement with the China Friendship Foundation for Peace and Development, a united front organization under the control of the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries.

Researchers at the University of Massachusetts Amherst have identified UTC. as the 38th-largest corporate producer of air pollution in the United States as of 2008.

United Technologies Corporation

United traces its origins to Fred Rentschler, who founded the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company in 1925 as one of the first companies to specialize in the manufacture of engines, or ‘power plants,’ for airframe builders.

Interested in securing a market for his company’s engines, Rentschler convinced Boeing and Vought to join him in forming a new company called the United Aircraft and Transportation Company.

The men who led these individual divisions of United Aircraft exchanged stock in their original companies for stock in United.

In the reorganization of the corporation, all manufacturing interests west of the Mississippi went to Boeing Airplane in Seattle, everything east of the river went to Rentschler’s United Aircraft in Hartford, and the transport services became a third independent company under the name of United Air Lines which was based in Chicago.

Chance Vought died in 1930, and his company, along with Pratt & Whitney, Sikorsky, Ham Standard and Northrop, became part of the new United Aircraft Company.

In the early 1950s, United Aircraft experienced a conflict of interest between its airframe and engine manufacturing subsidiaries, as Vought’s alternate engine suppliers-Westinghouse and General Motors’ Allison division-were reluctant to do business with a company so closely associated with their competitor, Pratt & Whitney.

United Aircraft changed its name to United Technologies in 1975 in order to emphasize the diversification of the company’s business.

United Technologies Headquarters, All Office Locations

United Technologies Corporation is a multinational conglomerate and global leader in the aerospace and defense industry.

Upon its initial establishment, United Technologies Corporation expanded in a period of three years with multiple mergers and acquisitions.

Two years later, the company established the United Technologies Research Center Ireland with an investment of $20 million.

United Technologies Corporation was formally established and founded by American businessman and philanthropist Harry Jack Gary in 1975, originally as United Technologies Corporation.

United Technologies Corporation is an American technology company aimed at “Innovating an extraordinary future” and addressing global challenges in the fields of aerospace, military and defense and building industries.

United Technologies Products and Services What companies are owned by United Technologies?

Quantumrun, a global foresight services platform has released a development and disruption vulnerability report for United Technologies Corporation for the coming decades in 2017.

United Technologies Stock Forecast, Price & News

United Technologies Corporation provides technology products and services to building systems and aerospace industries worldwide.

Its Otis segment designs, manufactures, sells, and installs passenger and freight elevators, escalators, and moving walkways; and offers modernization products to upgrade elevators and escalators, as well as maintenance and repair services.

Its Pratt & Whitney segment supplies aircraft engines for commercial, military, business jet, and general aviation markets; and provides aftermarket maintenance, repair, and overhaul, as well as fleet management services.

The company’s Collins Aerospace Systems segment provides electric power generation, power management, and distribution systems; air data and aircraft sensing systems; engine control, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance systems; engine components; environmental control systems; fire and ice detection, and protection systems; propeller systems; engine nacelle systems; aircraft lighting, seating, and cargo systems; actuation and landing systems; space products and subsystems; avionics systems; flight controls, communications, navigation, oxygen, and training systems; food and beverage preparation, and storage and galley systems; and lavatory and wastewater management systems.

The company offers its services through manufacturers’ representatives, distributors, wholesalers, dealers, retail outlets, and sales representatives, as well as directly to customers.

United Technologies Corporation was founded in 1934 and is headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut.

United Technologies And Raytheon Complete Merger Of Equals Transaction

WALTHAM, Mass., April 3, 2020 – Raytheon Technologies Corporation announced the successful completion of the all-stock merger of equals transaction between Raytheon Company and United Technologies Corporation on April 3, 2020, following the completion by United Technologies of its previously announced spin-offs of its Carrier and Otis businesses.

Raytheon Company shares ceased trading prior to the market open on April 3, 2020, and each share of Raytheon common stock has been converted in the merger into the right to receive 2.3348 shares of United Technologies common stock.

Upon closing of the merger, United Technologies’ name has changed to “Raytheon Technologies Corporation,” and its shares of common stock will begin trading today on the NYSE under the ticker symbol “RTX.” United Technologies shareowners will continue to hold their shares of United Technologies common stock, which now constitute shares of common stock of Raytheon Technologies Corporation.

Raytheon Technologies has a strong balance sheet and cash flows to support critical business initiatives, including company and customer-funded R&D. “Raytheon Technologies brings together two companies with combined strengths and capabilities that make us uniquely equipped to support our customers and partners during this unprecedented time. We will also play our part in the war on the COVID-19 pandemic, including doing everything we can to keep our employees around the globe safe and well,” said Greg Hayes, CEO of Raytheon Technologies.

“Today, we introduce Raytheon Technologies as an innovation powerhouse that will deliver advanced technologies that push the boundaries of known science,” said Tom Kennedy, Executive Chairman of Raytheon Technologies.

Raytheon Technologies intends to hold an investor call to discuss United Technologies and Raytheon Q1 results on May 7, 2020 at 8:30am.

Forward-looking statements may include, among other things, statements relating to future sales, earnings, cash flow, results of operations, uses of cash, share repurchases, tax rates, R&D spend, other measures of financial performance, potential future plans, strategies or transactions, credit ratings and net indebtedness, other anticipated benefits to RTC of UTC’s Rockwell Collins acquisition, the merger between United Technologies Corporation and Raytheon Company or the spin-offs by UTC of Otis and Carrier into separate independent companies, including estimated synergies and customer cost savings resulting from the merger and the separation transactions and other statements that are not historical facts.

HVAC Brand Name Relationships

For more details of the products made by each brand, see our HVAC reviews of individual models, top models lists and more.

Bryant: The product lineup for Bryant is identical to that of Carrier except that Carrier tends to release its most efficient new products a season or two ahead of Bryant to keep Carrier as the flagship brand.

Generally, these brands are considered in the second tier of HVAC lines just behind Carrier, Trane, Lennox and their sister brands.

The top models from each brand are backed by excellent warranties including a 10-year product replacement warranty on major components such as heat exchangers and condenser coils.

Overall, the brand is considered in the top tier among all HVAC companies.

Magic-Pak: As the name implies, this Lennox brand makes packaged units.

Each brand makes good/better/best series, and we have reviewed many York, Luxaire and Coleman products.

Thank you to our employees across the nation who have dedicated their time and skills to get #PPE materials into the hands of those fighting COVID-19 on the front lines.

“We stand ready to help in any way we can. We don’t need the Defense Production Act to ask us to act,” said United Technologies CEO Gregory Hayes.

CEO Greg Hayes joins and and fellow CEOs at the White House in the fight against COVID-19.

Live Now: CEO Greg Hayes joins President Trump, VP Mike Pence, and fellow CEOs at the White House to outline our commitment during the COVID-19 crisis.

A message from CEO Greg Hayes on the impact of COVID-19 on all of us and our business, and the actions we are taking.

As we monitor COVID-19, we have instituted several health and safety measures for our colleagues.

Co/2TowSEr”You are the CEO of your own life.” Alka Siddiqui of India is a model of what girls in #STEM can be.

Post Idea #21: Pharmaceutical manufacturing

Related Articles – Summarized

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Offers potential flexibility, quality, and economic advantages over batch processing, both in process development and manufacturing for the pharmaceutical sector.

The FDA initiated a process termed process analytical technology, designed to do just that by using an integrated systems approach for regulating pharmaceutical product quality.

Risk-based regulatory approaches recognize the level of scientific understanding of how formulation and manufacturing process factors affect product quality and performance and the capability of process control strategies to prevent or mitigate the risk of producing a poor quality product.

Processing facilities at these institutions, such as Baylor College of Medicine’s Center for Cell and Gene Therapy, and the University of Minnesota’s Molecular and Cellular Therapeutics, have produced thousands of samples, demonstrating the feasibility of this manufacturing technology.

Individual process steps are described in some detail, with emphasis on specific concerns for TE/RM manufacturing.

Such a state of control can only be demonstrated and assured by taking the process parameters and attributes together with related material attributes into account, whose relevance and criticality are known from development and manufacturing experience.

Critical process parameters exist for each step or stage of the manufacturing process and are optimized according to requirements.

Processing & Engineering: Knowledge, News And Analysis

How Sterling Pharma Solutions’ dedication to technology is making a global impact If there is a promising new technology out there, Sterling will find a way for pharma to use it.

Through a dedicated Technology and Innovation program, Sterling Pharma Solutions seeks out and sorts through soon-to-be in-demand technologies for pharmaceutical development and manufacturing.

The program, which was launched in 2013, is led by Mark Muldowney, Sterling’s Head of Innovation and resident ‘technology talent scout.

‘ Muldowney is tasked with exploring new technologies and determining which are best suited to the pharma market and Sterling’s capabilities, and then making sure they can be successfully applied to client programs.

Thought-leadership pieces about how to tackle the most pressing industry challenges.

Keep track of in-person industry events offered around the globe.

Quick answers to all your pharma manufacturing industry questions.

What Is Pharma Manufacturing?

The rise of these digital tools ushered in the era of Industry 4.0, the ongoing automation of traditional manufacturing, with a report by Pharma IQ noting that 94 per cent of pharma manufacturing practitioners were able to continue operations as a result of Industry 4.0 solutions.

Where to look for pharma manufacturing solutions The application of AI. Using AI to optimize the manufacturing process is an area of increasing focus in the pharma industry.

In order to reach a stage where the pharma manufacturing process can be considered digitally efficient, and is underpinned and optimized by digital manufacturing techniques and technologies, manufacturers must first seek to implement findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data principles.

With research from Pharma IQ revealing pharma practitioners believing data and analytics will have a greater impact on manufacturing than any other trend between 2020 and 2014, it is clear that manufacturers are ready to embrace the era of enhance digital practices.

“Smart manufacturing processes promise to increase efficiency and reduce uncertainty. The potential public health value of”smarter” and more advanced manufacturing is even greater in the context of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, which has highlighted the strain on supply chains and the need for adaptive manufacturing systems to accelerate the production of medical countermeasures.

Pharma Manufacturing Automation 2021: Adopting Technology in the Quest for Digital Transformation Top three tips for optimized pharma manufacturing.

Pharma IQ Live: Pharma Manufacturing Automation 2021 – As the use of the robotics in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry increases rapidly, it is important to consider the benefits of the latest technologies for manufacturers.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Current Trends And What’S Next

Engineers in the pharmaceutical industry are creating modular, continuous, and scalable processes and manufacturing environments to meet cost and quality challenges head on.

Various scientific advances are fueling a fresh wave of pharmaceutical manufacturing innovation.

This article reviews current drug development trends and their impact on pharmaceutical manufacturing.

In recent years, ownership and management of the means of production are shifting from larger pharmaceutical companies to contract manufacturing and contract development organizations.

Results Healthcare, a consulting firm that takes a close look at the pharma industry each year, expects outsourced pharmaceutical manufacturing to increase in the coming years, especially for small-molecule formulations.

In a 2018 report, Sau Lee, Director of the Office of Testing and Research within the FDA, presented the case for CM, noting that recent advances in manufacturing technology have prompted the pharmaceutical industry to consider moving away from batch manufacturing to faster, more-efficient CM. “For more than 50 years, pharmaceuticals have been produced using a method known as batch manufacturing, a multi-step, lengthy process that involves the use of ungainly, large-scale equipment,” says Lee.

Lee outlined four distinct advantages of CM:. Both batch manufacturing and CM are subject to the same quality control standards, but monitoring is automated in CM facilities and tends to be more frequent than in batch manufacturing.

Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

Pharmaceutical manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale synthesis of pharmaceutical drugs as part of the pharmaceutical industry.

The process of drug manufacturing can be broken down into a series of unit operations, such as milling, granulation, coating, tablet pressing, and others.

Loss-in-weight feeders are selected for pharmaceutical manufacturing.

In the pharmaceutical industry, a wide range of excipients may be blended together with the active pharmaceutical ingredient to create the final blend used to manufacture the solid dosage form.

The documentation of activities by pharmaceutical manufacturers is a license-to-operate endeavor, supporting both the quality of the product produced and satisfaction of regulators who oversee manufacturing operations and determine whether a manufacturing process may continue or must be terminated and remediated.

A Site Master File is a document in the pharmaceutical industry which provides information about the production and control of manufacturing operations.

The Site Master file contains specific and factual GMP information about the production and control of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations carried out at the named site and any closely integrated operations at adjacent and nearby buildings.

The Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Process

Drug manufacturing is the process of industrial-scale creation of pharmaceutical drugs by pharmaceutical companies.

With pharmaceutical manufacturing, a wide range of non-active ingredients may be blended with the active pharmaceutical ingredient or ingredients to create the final blend used for the solid dosage form.

The pharmaceutical industry has precise requirements and manufacturing guidelines.

As a result, pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment must comply with good manufacturing practices.

Pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment includes an extensive range of equipment, such as capsule filling machines, x-ray inspection systems, tablet punches, and spray drying accessories.

The result of automation is that there is a piece of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment involved in every step.

Safety equipment is just as essential to the drug manufacturing process.

Current Good Manufacturing Practice Regulations

FDA ensures the quality of drug products by carefully monitoring drug manufacturers’ compliance with its Current Good Manufacturing Practice regulations.

The CGMP regulations for drugs contain minimum requirements for the methods, facilities, and controls used in manufacturing, processing, and packing of a drug product.

The regulations make sure that a product is safe for use, and that it has the ingredients and strength it claims to have.

The approval process for new and generic drug marketing applications includes a review of the manufacturer’s compliance with the CGMPs.

FDA assessors and investigators determine whether the firm has the necessary facilities, equipment, and ability to manufacture the drug it intends to market.

FDA’s portion of the CFR is in Title 21, which interprets the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act and related statutes, including the Public Health Service Act.

The pharmaceutical or drug quality-related regulations appear in several parts of Title 21, including sections in parts 1-99, 200-299, 300-499, 600-799, and 800-1299.

Post Idea #22: Purdue Pharma

Related Articles – Summarized

OxyContin maker Purdue Pharma reached a settlement Thursday over its role in the nation’s deadly opioid crisis that includes virtually all U.S. states and thousands of local governments, with the Sackler family members who own the company boosting their cash contribution to as much as $6 billion.

“The Sackler families are pleased to have reached a settlement with additional states that will allow very substantial additional resources to reach people and communities in need,” the apology reads.

“The families have consistently affirmed that settlement is by far the best way to help solve a serious and complex public health crisis. While the families have acted lawfully in all respects, they sincerely regret that OxyContin, a prescription medicine that continues to help people suffering from chronic pain, unexpectedly became part of an opioid crisis that has brought grief and loss to far too many families and communities.”

Families of overdose victims see the settlement in different ways.

For Suzanne Domagala, of Millville, Delaware, even a modest payout to victims from the Sackler family is important, though she is still upset that the wealthy family is getting protection from lawsuits.

ADVERTISEMENT.Ed Bisch, whose 18-year-old son died of an overdose 20 years ago, is glad states pushed Sackler family members to pay more but still called the settlement “a horrible deal” because so many parents who buried loved ones won’t see money – and the Sacklers will still be wealthy and free.

The latest announcement follows another landmark settlement late last week, when drugmaker Johnson & Johnson and three distributors finalized a settlement that will send $26 billion over time to virtually every state and local governments throughout the U.S.If the latest Purdue deal wins approval, the two settlements will give local communities that have been devastated by opioid addiction a significant boost to help them combat the epidemic.

Connecticut Takes Part In $6 Billion Purdue Pharma Settlement In ‘Historic Recovery,’ Attorney General Says

Through the nationwide settlement announced Thursday, Purdue and the Sackler family members who own the company have agreed to pay a total of about $6 billion to states and opioid victims and survivors.

“We’re pleased with the settlement achieved in mediation, under which all of the additional settlement funds will be used for opioid abatement programs, overdose rescue medicines and victims,” Purdue officials said in a statement.

While he framed the settlement as a victory for Connecticut and the other states, Tong did not retract his longstanding criticism of Purdue and the Sacklers.

At the same time, the Sacklers involved with Purdue agreed to a $225 million settlement with the Justice Department to resolve allegations of marketing and financial misconduct at Purdue.

Separate from the Purdue litigation, Connecticut signed on last year to a $26 billion national settlement with pharmaceutical distributors AmerisourceBergen, Cardinal Health, McKesson and drugmaker Johnson & Johnson.

The state will also receive $7.5 million as part of a nationwide settlement with consulting firm McKinsey & Co., resolving investigations of its alleged support of efforts to boost opioid sales of pharmaceutical companies, including Purdue.

The agreement with Purdue allows Connecticut to use a to-be-determined portion of the settlement funds to establish an Opioid Survivors Trust to directly help survivors and victims of the opioid epidemic.

Oregon, Other Holdout States Agree To New Opioid Settlement With OxyContin Maker Purdue Pharma

Purdue Pharma reached a nationwide settlement Thursday over its role in the opioid crisis, with the Sackler family members who own the company boosting their cash contribution to as much as $6 billion in a deal intended to staunch a flood of lawsuits facing the maker of OxyContin.

The deal follows an earlier settlement that had been appealed by eight states – including Oregon – and the District of Columbia.

Rosenblum separately said Thursday that Oregon and its cities and counties would receive about $329 million from a $26 billion nationwide opioid settlement with three large distributors of the drugs – McKesson, AmerisourceBergen and Cardinal Health – and the manufacturer Johnson & Johnson.

Several parents whose children became addicted to opioids said they were ambivalent about the Purdue settlement – glad that more money will be available for addiction treatment, but upset that the Sacklers will remain wealthy and escape more accountability.

“We’re pleased with the settlement achieved in mediation, under which all of the additional settlement funds will be used for opioid abatement programs, overdose rescue medicines, and victims,” Purdue Pharma said in a statement issued separately from the family’s.

There are two key differences between the the latest Purdue settlement and the previous one struck last year.

The last payment under the settlement is not scheduled to be made until 2039.Last year, the eight states and D.C. refused to sign on, and then most of them appealed after the deal was approved by the bankruptcy judge.

‘Special Place In Hell.’ $6B Purdue Pharma Settlement Offers Little Solace To Families Afflicted By Lethal Overdoses

Purdue Pharma will pay $6 billion for its alleged role in the opioid crisis, but it is not admitting any wrongdoing, which is not sitting right with families of those who died of overdoses.

“There’s a special place in hell for that family,” Linda Ventura said.

Her anger is directed at the Sackler family – the owner of Purdue Pharma – and the makers of OxyContin.

Purdue Pharma reached a bankruptcy settlement that will include a $6 billion payout to avoid civil lawsuits.

Victims’ families and survivors allege the Sackler family knew exactly what they were doing and accuse them of fueling the opioid epidemic with deceptive and aggressive marketing.

“People who are culpable, the Sackler family, they’ve avoided prosecution so it looks like there were some back deal, but right now we’re looking for the resources, because what we have right here is a bona fide public health crisis,” said Steve Chassman, with the Long Island Council on Alcoholism & Drug Dependence, which offers services to those suffering from addiction.

“The Sackler Family issued in a statement saying they”sincerely regret” that OxyContin “unexpectedly became part of an opioid crisis.

Purdue Pharma, Sackler Family Agrees To New Settlement With States To Resolve Opioid Lawsuits

March 3 – The Sackler family and their company Purdue Pharma agreed to a new settlement on Thursday to resolve lawsuits in almost every state over their connection to the opioid crisis.

The family agreed to a new bankruptcy plan with states that had been holding out on an earlier agreement.

The new bankruptcy settlement will free billions of dollars for opioid addiction treatment nationwide.

Purdue Pharma

Purdue Pharma L.P., formerly the Purdue Frederick Company, was an American privately held pharmaceutical company founded by John Purdue Gray.

The company that became Purdue Pharma was founded in 1893 by medical doctors John Purdue Gray and George Frederick Bingham in New York City as the Purdue Frederick Company.

The present-day company, Purdue Pharma L.P., was incorporated in 1991 and focused on pain management medication, calling itself a “Pioneer in developing medications for reducing pain, a principal cause of human suffering”.

The journalists suggested that this problem gives “New insight into why so many people have become addicted.” Using Purdue documents and other records, they claim that Purdue was aware of this problem even before the drug went to market but “Held fast to the claim of 12-hour relief, in part to protect its revenue [because] OxyContin’s market dominance and its high price-up to hundreds of dollars per bottle-hinge on its 12-hour duration.”

In his ruling the trial judge wrote: “Plaintiff’s evidence shows Purdue could have tested the safety and efficacy of OxyContin at eight hours, and could have amended their label, but did not.” The case never went to trial; Purdue agreed to settle by paying the state US$10 million.

In January 2017, the city of Everett, Washington sued Purdue based on increased costs for the city from the use of OxyContin as well as Purdue not intervening when they noted odd patterns of sale of their product, per agreement in the 2007 suit noted above.

A December 2019 audit from AlixPartners, hired by Purdue for guidance through Chapter 11 restructuring, said the Sacklers withdrew $10.7 billion from Purdue after the company began to receive legal scrutiny.

Purdue Pharma, Sacklers To Pay $6B To Settle Opioid Lawsuit

Purdue Pharma and its owners, the billionaire Sackler family, will pay $6 billion to several states to settle a lawsuit brought about by the devastating opioid crisis, according to court papers.

Purdue Pharma has been accused of pushing massive amounts of its OxyContin pain drug on patients, while underplaying its potential for addiction and abuse, which it has denied.

“While the families have acted lawfully in all respects, they sincerely regret that OxyContin, a prescription medicine that continues to help people suffering from chronic pain, unexpectedly became part of an opioid crisis that has brought grief and loss to far too many families and communities,” the family statement read. Purdue Pharma has already pleaded guilty to criminal charges of misleading marketing and minimizing OxyContin’s risk of addiction.

Last summer, Dr. Richard Sackler, a former president and co-chairman of Purdue Pharma, testified in court that neither he, the family, or the company bore any responsibility for the opioid epidemic that has killed half a million Americans in the last 20 years.

U.S. Bankruptcy Judge Robert Drain in September approved a reorganization plan, including a settlement of the lawsuits against the company in which the Sacklers would pay $4.5 billion and be released from future liability.

As part of the new settlement, the states agreed to stop fighting Purdue’s effort to protect the Sacklers from future opioid lawsuits.

Purdue now has agreements in place with all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia, but those agreements must be approved by the bankruptcy court.

Post Idea #23: Risk management

Related Articles – Summarized

Overview, Importance And Processes

Risk management encompasses the identification, analysis, and response to risk factors that form part of the Business Life Cycle.

If a business sets up risk management as a disciplined and continuous process for the purpose of identifying and resolving risks, then the risk management structures can be used to support other risk mitigation systems.

Risk management is an important process because it empowers a business with the necessary tools so that it can adequately identify and deal with potential risks.

Prior to figuring out how best to handle risks, a business should locate the cause of the risks by asking the question, “What caused such a risk and how could it influence the business?”.

Once a business entity is set on assessing likely remedies to mitigate identified risks and prevent their recurrence, it needs to ask the following questions: What measures can be taken to prevent the identified risk from recurring? In addition, what is the best thing to do if it does recur?

As a result, it is important to understand the basic principles of risk management and how they can be used to help mitigate the effects of risks on business entities.

Idiosyncratic Risk.Idiosyncratic risk, also sometimes referred to as unsystematic risk, is the inherent risk involved in investing in a specific asset – such as a stock – the.

What Is Risk Management

Risk management is the continuing process to identify, analyze, evaluate, and treat loss exposures and monitor risk control and financial resources to mitigate the adverse effects of loss.

Strategic risks including management changes or loss of reputation.

Enterprise Risk Management, expands the province of risk management to define risk as anything that can prevent the company from achieving its objectives.

The key to an economical and efficient risk program is control over the risk management functions with assurance that actions performed are desirable, necessary, and effective to reduce the overall cost of operational risk.

A risk management program is formulated and evaluated around the cost of risk.

Reduction of the frequency of loss – risk prevention.

Risk Management is concerned with all loss exposures, not only the ones that can be insured.

1.4 Response, which is initiated within the organisation, to risk is called “Internal control” and may involve one or more of the following: tolerating the risk; treating the risk in an appropriate way to constrain the risk to an acceptable level or actively taking advantage, regarding the uncertainty as an opportunity to gain a benefit; transferring the risk; terminating the activity giving rise to the risk.

There is: initial risk identification, and there is; continuous risk identification which is necessary to identify new risks which did not previously arise, changes in existing risks, or risks which did exist ceasing to be relevant to the organisation.

A risk owner, in line with their accountability for managing the risk, should have sufficient authority to ensure that the risk is effectively managed; the risk owner may not be the person who actually takes the action to address the risk.

Documenting risk assessment creates a risk profile for the organisation which: 20 The Orange Book facilitates identification of risk priorities; captures the reasons for decisions made about what is and is not tolerable exposure; facilitates recording of the way in which it is decided to address risk; allows all those concerned with risk management to see the overall risk profile and how their areas of particular responsibility fit into it; facilitates review and monitoring of risks.

7.2 Processes should be put in place to review whether risks still exist, whether new risks have arisen, whether the likelihood and impact of risks has changed, report significant changes which adjust risk priorities, and deliver assurance on the effectiveness of control.

The Audit Committee should be asked by the Accounting Officer /Board to: gain assurance that risk, and change in risk, is being monitored; receive the various assurances which are available about risk management and consequently delivering an overall opinion about risk management; comment on appropriateness of the risk management and assurance processes which are in place.

Evaluation: 4.1 The objective is to: evaluate the adequacy of the risk management policy and strategy to achieve its objectives; evaluate the adequacy of the risk management processes designed to constrain residual risk to the risk appetite; identify limitations in the evidence provided or in the depth or scope of the reviews undertaken; identify gaps in control and/or over control, and provide the opportunity for continuous improvement; and support preparation of the SIC. 4.2 In evaluating evidence to arrive at an overall judgment or opinion all of the evidence criteria at 3 need to be considered.

Risk Management

Intangible risk management allows risk management to create immediate value from the identification and reduction of risks that reduce productivity.

Benoit Mandelbrot distinguished between “Mild” and “Wild” risk and argued that risk assessment and management must be fundamentally different for the two types of risk.

A common error in risk assessment and management is to underestimate the wildness of risk, assuming risk to be mild when in fact it is wild, which must be avoided if risk assessment and management are to be valid and reliable, according to Mandelbrot.

As applied to financial accounting, risk management is the technique for measuring, monitoring and controlling the financial or operational risk on a firm’s balance sheet, a traditional measure is the value at risk, but there also other measures like profit at risk or margin at risk.

In a financial institution, enterprise risk management is normally thought of as the combination of credit risk, interest rate risk or asset liability management, liquidity risk, market risk, and operational risk.

The standard provides a process framework and associated requirements for management responsibilities, risk analysis and evaluation, risk controls and lifecycle risk management.

The text Outdoor Safety – Risk Management for Outdoor Leaders, published by the New Zealand Mountain Safety Council, provides a view of wilderness risk management from the New Zealand perspective, recognizing the value of national outdoor safety legislation and devoting considerable attention to the roles of judgment and decision-making processes in wilderness risk management.

Risk Management / Minnesota.Gov

Admin Risk Management operates Minnesota state government’s insurance program, along with the state workers’ compensation and safety programs.

We insure state vehicles for auto liability and auto physical damage and most state agencies for property and general liability.

We serve the needs of state employees and agencies through full-service workers’ compensation insurance, including disability management, return-to-work, and legal services.

We also provide safety, loss control, risk, and insurance management consulting services to state agencies.

Five Steps Of Risk Management Process

There are five basic steps that are taken to manage risk; these steps are referred to as the risk management process.

Most risk management solutions have different categories of risks, depending on the severity of the risk.

There are two types of risk assessments: Qualitative Risk Assessment and Quantitative Risk Assessment.

The Basics of The Risk Management Process Stay the Same Even under a digital environment, the basics of the risk management process stay the same.

Risk management is an important business practice that helps businesses identify, evaluate, track, and improve the risk mitigation process in the business environment.

Being unaware of a competitive risk can result in loss of market share, being unaware of financial risk can result in financial losses, being aware of a safety risk can result in an accident, and so on.

Businesses have dedicated risk management resources; small businesses may have just one risk manager or a small team while enterprises have a risk management department.

A Basic Understanding

Literally speaking, risk management is the process of minimizing or mitigating the risk.

Ideally in risk management, a risk prioritization process is followed in which those risks that pose the threat of great loss and have great probability of occurrence are dealt with first.

IMPACT ACTIONS SIGNIFICANT Considerable Management Required Must Manage and Monitor Risks Extensive Management essential MODERATE Risk are bearable to certain extent Management effort worthwhile Management effort required MINOR Accept Risks Accept but monitor Risks Manage and Monitor Risks LOW MEDIUM HIGH LIKELIHOOD. The above chart can be used to strategize in various situations.

The two factors that govern the action required are the probability of occurrence and the impact of the risk.

The first step is the assessment of risk, followed by evaluation and management of the same.

In generic terms ‘likelihood of occurrence impact’ is equal to risk.

A more challenging risk to organizational effectiveness is the risk that is present but cannot be identified.

Post Idea #24: North America

Related Articles – Summarized

North America

France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Romania, Greece, and the countries of Latin America use a six-continent model, with the Americas viewed as a single continent and North America designating a subcontinent comprising Canada, the United States, Mexico, and Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and often Greenland, and Bermuda.

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America.

North America’s only land connection to South America is at the Isthmus of Darian/Isthmus of Panama.

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate.

The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is “6 miles [10 km] west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota” at about 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.

The United States’ services sector comprises 77% of the country’s GDP, industry comprises 22% and agriculture comprises 1.2%. The U.S. economy is also the fastest growing economy in North America and the Americas as a whole, with the highest GDP per capita in the Americas as well.

Mexico and Central America are part of Latin America and are culturally distinct from anglophone and francophone North America.

Countries, Regions, Map, Geography, & Facts

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, or simply the Americas.

Under such a definition, part of Mexico must be included in Central America, although that country lies mainly in North America proper.

This cultural division is a very real one, yet Mexico and Central America are bound to the rest of North America by strong ties of physical geography.

These have allowed North America to become one of the most economically developed regions in the world, and its inhabitants enjoy a high standard of living.

North America’s first inhabitants are believed to have been ancient Asiatic peoples who migrated from Siberia to North America sometime during the last glacial advance, known as the Wisconsin Glacial Stage, the most recent major division of the Pleistocene Epoch.

For discussion of individual countries of the continent, see the articles Canada, Mexico, and United States of America.

See also coverage of North American regions under the titles West Indies and the individual countries of Central America.

Facts, Geography, History Of North America

Giovanni da Verrazzano explored the East Coast of North America from Florida to eastern Canada in 1524, and Jacques Cartier made a series of voyages on behalf of the French crown in 1534 and penetrated the St. Lawrence River.

Near the end of the 17th century the colonialism of North America was at full speed, and inevitable disagreements and greed were the genesis for a series of regional wars, and some of the European territories changed hands multiple times.

Arguably, the two most devastating events on the North America continent were the American Civil War, a conflict that led to the end of slavery in the United States, but it brought destruction to most of the South, and a tremendous loss of life.

Major changes continued into the 21st century: Mexico experienced a strong economic recession in the 1980s, the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement was reached in January 1989, and on January 1, 1994, Canada, Mexico and the United States of America signed the North American Free Trade Agreement, creating the world’s largest free trade area.

Today the diverse and massive continent of North America present a bright potential future for all of its people, and for that matter, much of the modern world.

Mississippi River System: It is the major river of North America and the United States at in length.

North America facts and figures, capital cities and currency.

North America: Human Geography

North America’s physical geography, environment and resources, and human geography can be considered separately.

North America and South America are named after Italian navigator Amerigo Vespucci.

The portions of the landmass that widened out north of the Isthmus of Panama became known as North America.

Today, North America is home to the citizens of Canada, the United States, Greenland, Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and the island countries and territories of the Caribbean Sea and western North Atlantic Ocean.

Indigenous cultures shaped, and were shaped by, the geography of North America.

North America’s multicultural history is another defining feature of the continent’s human geography.

Historic IssuesContact between the indigenous people of North America and European explorers was the defining moment for the continent’s political geography.

List Of Countries In North America – Countryaah.Com

As a subcontinent of the Americas, North America is located within Western Hemisphere and Northern Hemisphere.

Being the third largest continent after Asia and Africa, the North America continent has an area of 24,709,000 km2, accounting for 16.5% of world’s total land area.

With population of 579,024,000, the continent contributes to 7.5% of the world’s population.

As of 2020, there are a total of 24 countries in North America.

Among them, Canada is the largest country by area and United States is the biggest one by population.

By contrast, the smallest country in North American continent is Saint Kitts and Nevis, composed by two small islands.

The Greenland is divided into three counties: West Greenland, Greenland Oridental and northern Greenland.

List Of Countries In North America In Alphabetical Order

Occupying the northern part of the large supercontinent known as Americas or New World, North America is surrounded by the Arctic Ocean from the north and by the Atlantic Ocean from the east, by the Pacific Ocean from the west and south.

It has an overland border with South America continent, which runs along the state boundary between Panama and Colombia.

In total, in North America, there are 23 officially recognized independent states.

The largest of them is Canada, followed by also rather big the United States.

Among the most visited North American countries the number one is the USA, where New York City is considered the most attractive landmark for travelers, further followed by Mexico and Canada.

The always up-to-date list of countries of North America in alphabetical order.

List of dependent territories of North America in alphabetical order.

Life Insurance & Annuities

48% of Americans are missing life insurance as a key part of their financial plan.2.

Life Happens, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to helping consumers make smart insurance decisions to safeguard their families financial futures.

A.M. Best is a large third-party independent reporting and rating company that rates an insurance company on the basis of the company’s financial strength, operating performance and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders.

A+ is the second highest rating out of 15 categories and was affirmed for North American Company for Life and Health Insurance® as part of Sammons Financial Group on July 30, 2021.

S&P Global Ratings awarded its “A+” rating for insurer financial strength on February 26, 2009 and affirmed on June 2, 2021 to North American Company for Life and Health Insurance® as a member of Sammons® Financial Group, Inc. The “A+” rating is the fifth highest out of 22 available ratings as a member of Sammons® Financial Group, Inc. S&P Global Ratings is an independent, third-party rating firm that rates on the basis of financial strength.

Rating shown reflect the opinion of the rating agency and are not implied warranties of the company’s ability to meet its financial obligations.

Fitch Ratings, a global leader in financial information services and credit ratings, on December 14, 2021, assigned an Insurer Financial Strength rating of A+ Stable for North American.

Post Idea #25: Polymerase chain reaction

Related Articles – Summarized

Polymerase Chain Reaction Fact Sheet

To amplify a segment of DNA using PCR, the sample is first heated so the DNA denatures, or separates into two pieces of single-stranded DNA. Next, an enzyme called “Taq polymerase” synthesizes – builds – two new strands of DNA, using the original strands as templates.

This process results in the duplication of the original DNA, with each of the new molecules containing one old and one new strand of DNA. Then each of these strands can be used to create two new copies, and so on, and so on.

The cycle of denaturing and synthesizing new DNA is repeated as many as 30 or 40 times, leading to more than one billion exact copies of the original DNA segment.

The entire cycling process of PCR is automated and can be completed in just a few hours.

It is directed by a machine called a thermocycler, which is programmed to alter the temperature of the reaction every few minutes to allow DNA denaturing and synthesis.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

PCR is based on using the ability of DNA polymerase to synthesize new strand of DNA complementary to the offered template strand.

Because DNA polymerase can add a nucleotide only onto a preexisting 3′-OH group, it needs a primer to which it can add the first nucleotide.

The first and most commonly used of these enzymes isTaqDNA polymerase, whereasPfuDNA polymerase is used widely because of its higher fidelity when copying DNA. Although these enzymes are subtly different, they both have two capabilities that make them suitable for PCR: 1) they can generate new strands of DNA using a DNA template and primers, and 2) they are heat resistant.

The polymerase begins synthesizing new DNA from the end of the primer.

Limitations of PCR and RT-PCR. The PCR reaction starts to generate copies of the target sequence exponentially.

Only during the exponential phase of the PCR reaction is it possible to extrapolate back to determine the starting quantity of the target sequence contained in the sample.

Because of inhibitors of the polymerase reaction found in the sample, reagent limitation, accumulation of pyrophosphate molecules, and self-annealing of the accumulating product, the PCR reaction eventually ceases to amplify target sequence at an exponential rate and a “Plateau effect” occurs, making the end point quantification of PCR products unreliable.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

Polymerase chain reaction is a method widely used to rapidly make millions to billions of copies of a specific DNA sample, allowing scientists to take a very small sample of DNA and amplify it to a large enough amount to study in detail.

In the second step, the temperature is lowered and the primers bind to the complementary sequences of DNA. The two DNA strands then become templates for DNA polymerase to enzymatically assemble a new DNA strand from free nucleotides, the building blocks of DNA. As PCR progresses, the DNA generated is itself used as a template for replication, setting in motion a chain reaction in which the original DNA template is exponentially amplified.

Extension/elongation: The temperature at this step depends on the DNA polymerase used; the optimum activity temperature for the thermostable DNA polymerase of Taq polymerase is approximately 75-80 °C, though a temperature of 72 °C is commonly used with this enzyme.

Leveling off stage: The reaction slows as the DNA polymerase loses activity and as consumption of reagents, such as dNTPs and primers, causes them to become more limited.

The usage of alternate buffer components or polymerase enzymes can help with amplification of long or otherwise problematic regions of DNA. For instance, Q5 polymerase is said to be ~280 times less error-prone than Taq polymerase.

In silico PCR refers to computational tools used to calculate theoretical polymerase chain reaction results using a given set of primers to amplify DNA sequences from a sequenced genome or transcriptome.

The DNA polymerase isolated from T. aquaticus is stable at high temperatures remaining active even after DNA denaturation, thus obviating the need to add new DNA polymerase after each cycle.

Polymerase Chain Reaction

From: Basic Science in Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 2010.Encephalitis Polymerase Chain Reaction and Antibody StudiesFor some neuroinvasive viruses, PCR of the CSF has high sensitivity and specificity, making it the diagnostic study of choice for identifying a specific viral etiology.

5′ nuclease probeA probe used to determine the relative amount of PCR products being created in each cycle of quantitative PCR. The probe has a fluorophore on the 5′ end and a quencher on the 3′ end that prevents the fluorescent light from being emitted until its degraded by DNA polymerase.

Elongation(in PCR) The third step of each PCR cycle where the thermocycler temperature adjusts to be the optimal temperature for the thermostable DNA polymerase to elongate or extend the PCR primer, making a copy of the target DNA.environmental DNADNA collected from an environment, which contains a very complex mixture of DNA fragments from any organism present or perhaps even recently passed through the sampling site.

Extension(in PCR) The third step of each PCR cycle where the thermocycler temperature adjusts to be the optimal temperature for the thermostable DNA polymerase to elongate or extend the PCR primer, making a copy of the target DNA.fluorescence resonance energy transferTransfer of energy from short-wavelength fluorophore to long-wavelength fluorophore, which quenches the short wave emission.

PCR ampliconThe final copies of the target DNA created during a PCR reaction.

PCR productThe final copies of the target DNA created during a PCR reaction.

Taq polymeraseHeat-resistant DNA polymerase from Thermus aquaticus that is used for PCR.target sequenceDefined region or sequence within the original DNA sample that is amplified in a PCR reaction.


Primers, short stretches of DNA that initiate the PCR reaction, designed to bind to either side of the section of DNA you want to copy.

DNA bases are the building blocks of DNA and are needed to construct the new strand of DNA. Taq polymerase enzyme to add in the new DNA bases.

What happens at each stage of PCR? Denaturing stage During this stage the cocktail containing the template DNA and all the other core ingredients is heated to 94-95⁰C. The high temperature causes the hydrogen bonds between the bases in two strands of template DNA to break and the two strands to separate.

The polymerase enzyme can only add DNA bases to a double strand of DNA. Only once the primer has bound can the polymerase enzyme attach and start making the new complementary strand of DNA from the loose DNA bases.

Extending stage During this final step, the heat is increased to 72⁰C to enable the new DNA to be made by a special Taq DNA polymerase enzyme which adds DNA bases.

The result is a brand new strand of DNA and a double-stranded molecule of DNA. The duration of this step depends on the length of DNA sequence being amplified but usually takes around one minute to copy 1,000 DNA bases.

The new fragments of DNA that are made during PCR also serve as templates to which the DNA polymerase enzyme can attach and start making DNA. The result is a huge number of copies of the specific DNA segment produced in a relatively short period of time.

PCR Test For COVID-19: What It Is, How Its Done, What The Results Mean

Results and Follow-Up What do COVID-19 PCR test results mean?

A negative test doesn’t mean you are safe for any length of time: You can be exposed to COVID-19 after your test, get infected and spread the SARS-Cov-2 virus to others.

You should receive your test results as early as 24 hours after sample collection, but sometimes it can take a few days, depending on how long it takes the sample to reach the laboratory.

There are two types of tests for COVID-19: the PCR test and the antigen test.

The antigen test is typically faster but is less sensitive than the PCR test.

Because the antigen test is not as accurate as PCR, if an antigen test is negative, your healthcare provider could request a PCR test to confirm the negative antigen test result.

To keep those around you safe, you should wear a face mask that fits snugly over your nose, mouth and chin, and avoid close contact with others until you get the results of your COVID test.

Post Idea #26: Computer network

Related Articles – Summarized

Computer Network

In 1963, J. C. R. Licklider sent a memorandum to office colleagues discussing the concept of the “Intergalactic Computer Network”, a computer network intended to allow general communications among computer users.

Therefore most network diagrams are arranged by their network topology which is the map of logical interconnections of network hosts.

A network interface controller is computer hardware that connects the computer to the network media and has the ability to process low-level network information.

A virtual private network is an overlay network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network instead of by physical wires.

Network services are applications hosted by servers on a computer network, to provide some functionality for members or users of the network, or to help the network itself to operate.

Computer networks are also used by security hackers to deploy computer viruses or computer worms on devices connected to the network, or to prevent these devices from accessing the network via a denial-of-service attack.

Network Security consists of provisions and policies adopted by the network administrator to prevent and monitor unauthorized access, misuse, modification, or denial of the computer network and its network-accessible resources.

Beginner’S Guide To IT Networking

Nodes and links are the basic building blocks in computer networking.

A network node may be data communication equipment such as a modem, hub or, switch, or data terminal equipment such as two or more computers and printers.

A link refers to the transmission media connecting two nodes.

Links may be physical, like cable wires or optical fibers, or free space used by wireless networks.

In a working computer network, nodes follow a set of rules or protocols that define how to send and receive electronic data via the links.

The computer network architecture defines the design of these physical and logical components.

It provides the specifications for the network’s physical components, functional organization, protocols, and procedures.

Basics Of Computer Networking With Functions

A computer network is a group of computers that use a set of common communication protocols over digital interconnections for the purpose of sharing resources located on or provided by the network nodes.

Conducted, the Computer Networking forms an extremely important topic and questions are frequently asked from this concept.

In this article, we bring to you the detailed information about the different types of Computer networks, their definition and functions along with the different types of node devices.

Before moving forward with the article and learning more about the types of computer networks, it is important for candidates to understand what is a network and how it affects the functioning of one or more computers connected with each other.

Definition – A group of computers which are connected to each other and follow similar usage protocols for the purpose of sharing information and having communications provided by the networking nodes is called a Computer Network.

These systems use encryptions and other security mechanisms to ensure only authorised users can access…. For a few candidates understanding the different computer networking terms may be a bit tough and the same applies to other computer-related terminology, applications and software.

Computer Network forms an important part from which questions may be asked in the final exam.

What Is Computer Networking?

Specialized devices such as switches, routers, and access points form the foundation of computer networks.

Routers connect networks to other networks and act as dispatchers.

Intent-based: Building on SDN principles, intent-based networking not only introduces agility but also sets up a network to achieve desired objectives by automating operations extensively, analyzing its performance, pinpointing problematic areas, providing all-around security, and integrating with business processes.

Virtualized: The underlying physical network infrastructure can be partitioned logically, to create multiple “Overlay” networks.

Controller-based: Network controllers are crucial to scaling and securing networks.

Controllers automate networking functions by translating business intent to device configurations, and they monitor devices continuously to help ensure performance and security.

Multidomain integrations: Larger enterprises may construct separate networks, also called networking domains, for their offices, WANs, and data centers.

What Is A Computer Network? Types & Definition From Field Engineer

Computer networks are the basis of communication in IT. They are used in a huge variety of ways and can include many different types of network.

Local Area NetworksA local area network or LAN is a network that connects computers within a limited area.

Wide Area Networks‍A wide area network is a network that covers a larger geographical area, usually with a radius of more than a kilometer.

Global Area Networks‍A global area network is a worldwide network that connects networks all over the globe, such as the internet.

There are also different types of network connections that concern how elements in a network are connected to each other.

Each computer in the network has an independent connection to the center of the network, and one connection breaking won’t affect the rest of the network.

Nodes: nodes is a term used to refer to any computing devices such as computers that send and receive network packets across the network.

Computer Network Tutorial

Computer Network tutorial provides basic and advanced concepts of Data Communication & Networks.

Our Computer Networking Tutorial is designed for beginners and professionals.

A computer network is a set of devices connected through links.

Computer Network uses distributed processing in which task is divided among several computers.

Instead, a single computer handles an entire task, each separate computer handles a subset.

There is nothing specific prerequisite for learning computer network.

Our Computer Network Tutorial is designed to help beginners and professionals.

IP Address: Also known as the Logical Address, the IP Address is the network address of the system across the network.

To identify each device in the world-wide-web, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority assigns an IPV4 address as a unique identifier to each device on the Internet.

MAC Address: Also known as physical address, the MAC Address is the unique identifier of each host and is associated with its NIC. A MAC address is assigned to the NIC at the time of manufacturing.

The length of the MAC address is : 12-nibble/ 6 bytes/ 48 bits Type “Ipconfig/all” in the command prompt and press ‘Enter’, this gives us the MAC address.

Socket: The unique combination of IP address and Port number together are termed as Socket.

ARP is used by the Data Link Layer to identify the MAC address of the Receiver’s machine.

As the name suggests, it provides the IP address of the device given a physical address as input.

Post Idea #27: Electricity market

Related Articles – Summarized

Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

Each of the ISOs and RTOs have energy and ancillary services markets in which buyers and sellers could bid for or offer generation.

The Energy Imbalance Market launched in 2014 with PacifiCorp as the first member or EIM Entity.

Energy flows from the west and the north toward these two large markets, pushing transmission facilities near their operational limits.

The Southeast electricity market is a bilateral market that includes all or parts of Florida, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Missouri and Tennessee.

In 2007, SPP began operating its real-time Energy Imbalance Service market.

In March 2014, SPP implemented its Integrated Marketplace that includes a day-ahead energy market, a real-time energy market, and an operating reserve market.

Operating as an energy-only market with real-time, day-ahead, and ancillary service markets, ERCOT also performs financial settlement for the competitive wholesale bulk-power market and administers retail switching for 7 million premises in competitive choice areas.

US Electricity Markets 101

RTOs typically run three kinds of markets that determine wholesale prices for these services: energy markets, capacity markets, and ancillary services markets.

Energy markets are auctions that are used to coordinate the production of electricity on a day-to-day basis.

In an energy market, electric suppliers offer to sell the electricity that their power plants generate for a particular bid price, while load-serving entities bid for that electricity in order to meet their customers’ energy demand.

The market “Clears” when the amount of electricity offered matches the amount demanded, and generators receive this market price per megawatt hour of power generated.

RTOs typically run two energy markets: the day-ahead and real-time markets.

Some RTOs run a capacity auction to provide retailers with a way to procure their capacity requirements while also enabling generators to recover fixed costs, i.e. those costs that do not vary with electricity production, that may not be covered in the energy markets alone.

RTOs use the ancillary services market to reward other attributes that are not covered in the energy or capacity markets.

Electricity Market

The process followed by the British was then used as a model for the restructuring of several other Commonwealth countries, notably the National Electricity Markets of Australia and New Zealand and the Alberta Electricity Market in Canada.

These are: separate the potentially competitive functions of generation and retail from the natural monopoly functions of transmission and distribution; and establish a wholesale electricity market and a retail electricity market.

A wholesale electricity market exists when competing generators offer their electricity output to retailers.

For an economically efficient electricity wholesale market to flourish it is essential that a number of criteria are met, namely the existence of a coordinated spot market that has “Bid-based, security-constrained, economic dispatch with nodal prices”.

A potential use of event-driven SOA could be a virtual electricity market where home clothes dryers can bid on the price of the electricity they use in a real-time market pricing system.

The Capacity Market is a part of the British government’s Electricity Market Reform package.

Czech electricity market overview – Year report on the electricity market and Expected balance report Annual Report.

U.S. Energy Markets 101: How Electricity Markets Work

In this primer, we will explore how energy markets work, the importance of competition in the energy markets, and how that affects the options that corporations have when buying renewable energy.

Let’s start from the beginning….Vertically-Integrated Energy Markets.

Within these interconnections, there are vertically-integrated energy markets and competitive wholesale electricity markets.

In a wholesale electricity market, the price for electricity is changing every five minutes according to factors like demand and, increasingly, wind and solar resources.

To further complicate the electricity landscape, within both vertically-integrated and wholesale markets, states can have either regulated or deregulated retail electricity markets.

Decades of competition and innovation have transformed the landscape of energy markets around the globe.

Unparalleled in the industry, the LevelTen Energy Marketplace is serving hundreds of buyers and sellers of renewable energy to transact on competitive supply offers, enabled by real-time analytics, incentives for developers to post their most up-to-date prices, and market transparency that is unavailable anywhere else.

3 Competitive Markets 3.1 Wholesale Energy Markets A transparent wholesale spot market 6 coordinated by an independent entity forms the foundation of competitive electricity markets in the United States.

Most of the energy volume is traded in day-ahead markets, where market participants submit bids and offers for electric energy delivered on the next day.

In real-time markets, the volume of energy traded is the difference between energy commitments cleared in day-ahead markets and the energy actually needed in the system to meet demand.

A few characteristics of successful capacity markets include well-defined resource adequacy goals, clear understanding of why an energy-only market is not achieving its resource adequacy goals, capacity products designed to address specific energy-only market shortcomings, and participation from all resource types, including DR. Not all energy-only markets experience revenue inadequacy and capacity markets are not the only way to ensure network reliability in the face of revenue adequacy.

Appendix A. Midcontinent Independent System Operator Start of operations 1998 Total capacity available 193 GW Reserve margin 17.2% Renewable energy capacity 14.5 GW Day-ahead energy market LMP-based Real-time energy market LMP-based Sub-hourly scheduling 15-minute intervals Financial transmission rights Yes Capacity market Yes Ancillary service markets Regulation and contingency reserves, demand response Territory served All or most of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; parts of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, and Texas.

Appendix B. PJM Interconnection Start of operations 1927 Total capacity available 165 GW Reserve margin 25% Renewable energy capacity 10 GW Day-ahead energy market LMP-based Real-time energy market LMP-based Sub-hourly scheduling Yes Financial transmission rights Yes Capacity market Yes Ancillary service markets Regulation, synchronized and supplemental reserves.

Appendix C. Public Service Company of Colorado Balancing Authority Start of operations 1924 Total capacity available 14 GW Reserve margin 16.3% Renewable energy capacity 4.4 GW Day-ahead energy market No Real-time energy market No Sub-hourly scheduling Yes Financial transmission rights No Capacity market No Ancillary service markets No Territory served Colorado History The Public Service Company of Colorado was created in 1924 after a series of mergers and acquisitions among gas and electric utilities servicing Denver and several rural Colorado towns.

Why The British Columbia Energy Market Is Regulated

Looking for cheaper electricity or natural gas? Find a better rate with Canada’s top energy comparison site.

Current provincial energy regulations allow businesses and homeowners in British Columbia to purchase natural gas from a select few competitive retailers.

FortisBC is British Columbia’s sole regulated natural gas provider, and is responsible for delivering electricity to most of the population not served by BC Hydro.

The deregulation of natural gas in British Columbia.

In British Columbia, the natural gas market has been deregulated since 2007 for most homeowners, meaning that consumers can choose their own natural gas supplier and have a greater chance of finding a natural gas provider that will suit their needs.

Natural gas is still delivered by FortisBC. It’s also important to note that there are a few areas within British Columbia that do not yet have the option of purchasing from a deregulated natural gas supplier, including Revelstoke and Whistler.

Because of natural gas deregulation in British Columbia, consumers can shop for the best natural gas rates.

B.C.’S Electricity Rates

Support CleanBC. Government has worked with BC Hydro to identify cost saving, efficiencies, new revenue streams and other changes to keep electricity rates low, while ensuring sound regulatory and financial oversight of BC Hydro and enabling implementation of government policy priorities.

Rates for each class or type of customer are designed through a public consultation process to cover the cost of supplying customers in that class with electricity.

These rates, known as tariffs, are published by the BCUC. To find out more about what you pay for service, consult the BCUC website.

The BCUC oversees utility rates and makes sure all utilities comply with government regulations.

If an electricity customer has a complaint about their electricity bill that they cannot solve with their utility company, the B.C. Utilities Commission may be able to help.

Post Idea #28: Hematology

Related Articles – Summarized

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Hematology is the study of blood and blood disorders.

Hematologists and hematopathologists are highly trained healthcare providers who specialize in diseases of the blood and blood components.

Hematopathology is not only the study of disease of the blood and bone marrow.

This is usually done by direct exam of tissue and blood in the lab.

Common hematology tests Test Uses Complete blood count, which includes: White blood cell count.

This is the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells.

To aid in diagnosing anemia, certain cancers of the blood, inflammatory diseases, and to monitor blood loss and infection Platelet count To diagnose and/or to monitor certain types of bleeding and clotting disorders Prothrombin time Partial Thromboplastin Time International Normalized Ratio To evaluate bleeding and clotting disorders and to monitor anticoagulation therapies.


Study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases.

Hematology is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.

It involves treating diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, bone marrow, platelets, blood vessels, spleen, and the mechanism of coagulation.

Such diseases might include hemophilia, blood clots, other bleeding disorders, and blood cancers such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and lymphoma.

The laboratory analysis of blood is frequently performed by a medical technologist or medical laboratory scientist.

Their routine work mainly includes the care and treatment of patients with hematological diseases, although some may also work at the hematology laboratory viewing blood films and bone marrow slides under the microscope, interpreting various hematological test results and blood clotting test results.

One can pursue DM Hematology in government institute or DNB Hematology in private institutes in India.

Hematology: Tests, Treatments, And Relation To Oncology

Hematology is the study of blood in relation to health and disease.

Blood disorders sometimes stem from problems with the bone marrow, where the body makes most of its blood cells.

Complete blood cell count: This test can help diagnose anemia, inflammatory diseases, and blood cancer.

Blood cancers start in the cells of the immune system or tissues that make blood cells, such as bone marrow.

Many oncologists train in hematology and see people with blood conditions that are not cancerous.

Blood cancers: These can affect the function of a person’s blood cells.

A variety of health issues can primarily affect the blood, from anemias to cancers, and hematologists provide a range of clinical tests and treatments.

Mayo Clinic

Mayo Clinic hematology experts in blood and bone marrow cancers work within the larger Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, designated by the National Cancer Institute as a comprehensive cancer center, which promotes collaboration between cancer research institutions.

Mayo Clinic care teams are equipped with the latest in technology and expertise to provide leading-edge diagnosis and treatment techniques.

The close connection between clinical care and research at Mayo Clinic makes it possible for eligible patients to enroll in cutting-edge clinical research studies, which gives them access to the most advanced treatments that aren’t yet approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

With more than 70 hematology experts across Mayo Clinic’s three campuses, Mayo Clinic specialists have diagnosed and treated just about every blood disorder known to medicine.

Mayo Clinic Health System clinics, hospitals and health care facilities serve more than 60 communities in Iowa, Wisconsin and Minnesota.

Mayo Clinic experts collaborate with professionals in other health care facilities through the Mayo Clinic Care Network.

To help children and adolescents with blood disorders, Mayo Clinic pediatric hematologists in Minnesota work through the Mayo Clinic Children’s Center.

What They Do & Why You Might Need One

Hematologists are internal medicine doctors or pediatricians who have extra training in disorders related to your blood, bone marrow, and lymphatic system.

They’re specialists who may work in hospitals, blood banks, or clinics.

They’re trained in pathology, a branch of medicine that examines body tissues and blood with microscopes or tests.

Sickle cell disease, which involves faulty red blood cells.

No surprise: Hematologists spend a lot of time checking your blood.

Blood drawn from your vein or finger is checked for the levels and characteristics of all three types of blood cells, including platelets.

A lab technician who takes your blood sample usually isn’t a doctor.

Hematologic Diseases

In addition to blood cell cancers, hematologic diseases include rare genetic disorders, anemia, conditions related to HIV, sickle cell disease, and complications from chemotherapy or transfusions.

NIDDK-supported hematology researchers work in many different areas, from developing drugs to support people who receive multiple blood transfusions, to laboratory research to better understand the normal and abnormal function of blood cells.

NIDDK responds to questions and provides health information about blood diseases to people with blood diseases and to their families, health professionals, and the public via the NIDDK Health Information Center.

What We Do. To achieve its mission, NIDDK supports, conducts, coordinates, and plans research.

NIDDK investigators conduct biomedical research and training in the Institute’s laboratories and clinical facilities in Maryland and Arizona.

NIDDK takes multiple approaches to research planning and priority setting.

NIDDK makes publicly supported resources, data sets, and studies available to researchers.

Post Idea #29: Laboratory

Related Articles – Summarized

Laboratory Definition & Meaning

1.a. : a place equipped for experimental study in a science or for testing and analysis.

A place providing opportunity for experimentation, observation, or practice in a field of study.

b. : a place like a laboratory for testing, experimentation, or practice.

A course of study requiring two lectures and one laboratory.

Definition Of Laboratory By The Free Dictionary

a. A room or building equipped for scientific experimentation or research.

a. a building or room equipped for conducting scientific research or for teaching practical science.

A place equipped to conduct scientific experiments or tests or to manufacture chemicals, medicines, or the like.

Relating to techniques of work in a laboratory: laboratory methods; laboratory research.

Plural laˈboratories – noun ) a place where scientific experiments are carried on or where drugs etc are prepared.

Laboratorium laboratório laboratoř das Laboratorium laboratorium εργαστήριοlaboratorio laboratoorium laboratorio laboratoireמעבדה laboratorij labor(atórium) laboratorium rannsóknarstofa laboratorio 연구소, laboratorija laboratorija makmal laboratoriumlablaboratorium, pracownia laboratório laborator laboratórium laboratorij laboratorija laboratorium laboratuvar phòng thí nghiệm .

Laboratory n laboratorio; catheterization – laboratorio de cateterismo.

Definition Of Laboratory By Medical Dictionary

A place equipped for making tests or doing experimental work.

College laboratory a comprehensive college learning environment to acquire necessary skills; a well-equipped college laboratory for students of health care professions will include audiovisual learning modules and computer-aided instruction and will provide the opportunity to practice skills on simulated clients.

A place equipped for the performance of tests, experiments, and investigative procedures and for the preparation of reagents, therapeutic chemical materials, and so on.

A place equipped for the performance of tests, experiments, and investigative procedures and for the preparation of reagents and therapeutic and chemical materials.

Place equipped for performance of tests, experiments, and procedures and for preparation of reagents and therapeutic chemical materials.

A. Yes Liam, there are lots of lab tests to diagnose but are only used in the research setting.

Q. Can fibromyalgia be diagnosed through laboratory test? If not, what is the mode of diagnosis of the same?

Laboratory Legal Definition Of Laboratory

Even “Old” Moss, one day, after an astounding demonstration in his private laboratory.

Therewith, taking the lamp in his hand, he led the way down the long, draughty corridor to his laboratory.

The representatives of the nations of the world, being present, all nations solemnly pledged themselves never to use against one another the laboratory.

If in some hideous dissecting-room or fetid laboratory.

They were to seclude themselves in the extensive apartments occupied by Aylmer as a laboratory.

Michael did not want to howl, but the chemistry of his being was such that he reacted to music as compulsively as elements react on one another in the laboratory.

On the other side of the house, old Roger Chillingworth arranged his study and laboratory.

Article About Laboratory By The Free Dictionary

A scientific research laboratory may also be an autonomous structural subdivision of an academy of sciences, a ministry, or an agency.

Higher educational institutions have three types of laboratories: teaching laboratories for student laboratory work; special problem laboratories, for solving important scientific or technological research problems; and sectorial laboratories, for solving immediate applied problems of various sectors of the national economy.

The special problem and sectorial laboratories have been part of higher educational institutions since 1956.

The special problem laboratories are financed from the state budget; the sectorial laboratories, by appropriations from the respective branches of the national economy.

As of 1973, there were more than 600 special problem and about 700 sectorial laboratories in the higher educational institutions.

There are control laboratories at plants to check incoming raw materials and finished products, clinical laboratories at medical institutions, criminology laboratories for investigative and juridical agencies, and agrochemical laboratories for agricultural organizations.

A laboratory symbolizes a place to experiment with one’s inner feelings, beliefs, and fears.


A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength.

The earliest laboratory according to the present evidence is a home laboratory of Pythagoras of Samos, the well-known Greek philosopher and scientist.

Laboratory techniques are the set of procedures used on natural sciences such as chemistry, biology, physics to conduct an experiment, all of them follow the scientific method; while some of them involve the use of complex laboratory equipment from laboratory glassware to electrical devices, and others require more specific or expensive supplies.

The title of laboratory is also used for certain other facilities where the processes or equipment used are similar to those in scientific laboratories.

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration in the United States, recognizing the unique characteristics of the laboratory workplace, has tailored a standard for occupational exposure to hazardous chemicals in laboratories.

Several networks have emerged such as Green Your Lab , Towards greener research, the UK-based network LEAN, the Max-Planck-Sustainability network, and national platforms such as green labs austria and green labs NL. More university independent efforts and resourches include the Laboratory Efficiency Assessment Framework, the think-tank labos1point5 and the non-profit organisation my green lab.

A Locator is an employee of a Laboratory who is in charge of knowing where each member of the laboratory currently is, based on a unique signal emitted from the badge of each staff member.

Meaning In The Cambridge English Dictionary

In the laboratory, rice stems were scraped9 and gut contents were carefully removed11.

Her history of chemical theory refuses to isolate theory from the laboratory, the lecture hall, or the public and its philosophical interests.

No punitive measures can be taken against a laboratory that refuses to participate.

Laboratory models are necessarily diminished representations of everyday-life processes.

Bags were placed in plastic containers containing ice packs and transferred to the laboratory.

As the present study did not show such an effect even in the laboratory, it seems unlikely that such a correlation exists in the field.

Laboratory These are words often used in combination with laboratory.

Post Idea #30: Workplace wellness

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Mental Health America

Are you facing challenges at work that are affecting your mental health? Learn more about how to take care of yourself when dealing with workplace issues with MHA’s employee resources.

If you’re concerned about your mental health, consider taking a short, anonymous, confidential, and free mental health screen through MHA’s Screening-to-Supports program.

After taking a screen, S2S offers general resources to help you care for your mental health.

21 Cost-Effective Ways To Promote Wellness At Workplace

Employer health initiatives to promote employees’ health behaviors and keep them healthy.

Employee wellness or a corporate wellness program may be an effective method to promote health and well-being at work.

A successful workplace wellness program may assist you to reduce employee absence rates owing to health concerns.

You may achieve this by delivering health articles and newsletters to their inboxes on a regular basis as part of your workplace health promotion efforts.

You may support social causes by conducting workplace health events, such as the World’s Toughest Triathlon.

As a business owner, allowing your staff to work from home or alter their schedules as needed may be a significant step toward improving employee health and wellness.

AIDS Awareness Day.October 10 is World Mental Health Day.World Heart Day.World Cancer Day is on February 4th. Encouraging staff to attend these events at the workplace raises employee awareness of the significance of a healthy lifestyle.

What Is Workplace Wellness, Really?

Many employers are struggling with the concept of workplace wellness for a number of reasons.

The problem, very simply, is that many employers do not have a good idea about what constitutes a quality workplace wellness program.

Even though workplace wellness has been around for nearly 40 years, there is still a great deal of confusion about what wellness really is, and what the best ways are to achieve it.

Most wellness programs concentrate on fitness, weight loss and other fairly soft wellness targets.

A quality wellness plan – Use the Healthy at Work Wellness Audit Tool to perform an honest assessment of existing wellness efforts, and then develop a quality wellness plan with specific measurable results.

The Wellness Team – To properly implement the wellness plan, every organization needs the following wellness team elements:‍.

A wellness staff leader with a background in wellness and real understanding of and appreciation for Functional Medicine.

Workplace Wellness Arkansas Department Of Health

AHELP and CHELP. The Arkansas Department of Health is excited to release the new and improved web-based tracking system for the Arkansas Healthy Employee Lifestyle Program and the Community Healthy Employee Lifestyle Program worksite wellness interventions.

AHELP is the state employee worksite wellness intervention that supports making healthy choices the easiest choice during work hours and encourages employees to share these behaviors at home with their families.

This new system will also be used by organizations registered for the CHELP which follows the AHELP healthy behavior model but was created for employees at non-profit, for-profit, and local government worksites.

Incentives were created under legislative Act 724 for the Wellness Program for employees participating.

Appoint a health champion to promote AHELP and CHELP marketing, recruiting, incentives, and plan employee events at your worksite.

Offer health education classes, walking groups and inter-agency competitions.

Reward healthy behavior points with up to 3 days of leave and other health related incentives.

List Of Top 10 Ideas To Easily Implement!

Employee wellness programs are programs undertaken by an employer in order to improve employee health and also to help individual employees overcome particular health-related problems.

Even though the advantages of an employee wellness program may be hard to see at first glance, employees who are healthy usually bring a range of benefits to other employees and to the companies they work for.

Good wellness programs will help companies to hire, as well as retain, the best employees.

Employee wellness programs should cater not only to the bodies of the employees but also to their minds.

The team should always be open to new ideas and feedback to improve the program and make employees even healthier.

A good employee wellness program should cater to the employees’ emotional, physical, mental, and financial wellness.

Employee morale is defined as the overall satisfaction, outlook, and feelings of well-being that an employee holds in the workplace.

10 Great Examples Of Workplace Wellness Programs

The fitness centre is just one part of the company’s ‘Living Well’ program, which offers cash incentives for team members who participate and meet their goals in various areas of the program.

Some workplaces have found it in their best interest, both ethically and economically, to offer smoking cessation programs to their team members.

Going above and beyond what team members expect from their employer is a great way to encourage a reciprocal effort.

A lunch and snack program will appeal to all of your team members-since everyone has to eat! Promoting healthy eating in the workplace.

Healthy and communal eating programs encourage interaction between people from different teams, and the cafeteria provides one such place where a large and diverse workforce can mingle and connect.

It’s become a core part of our company culture, motivating our teams to reach goals, interact with their colleagues, and improve their wellness habits.

As a part of their wellness efforts, the Zappos team schedules optional wellness adventures for their employees with the goal of getting away from their desks for a little while.

17 Excellent Workplace Wellness Ideas That Don’T Break The Bank

There are many reasons to offer an employee wellness program, such as reducing absenteeism, increasing employee engagement, and attracting top talent with competitive benefits and perks.

Now more than ever, many companies ranked as a Great Place to Work have robust health and wellness programs to attract great employees.

We’ve curated an awesome list of ideas and activities that will get your employees up and active – without breaking the bank.

If your employees need a break from all the cacophony, consider designating a quiet space in the office where employees can go to meditate or work silently.

Headspace even offers a workplace wellness program where employees can focus on specific tracks such as stress, sleep, focus, or creativity.

Bring the Yoga Studio to You Companies like Yoga District in Washington, D.C. specialize in employee wellness programs and bring yoga to the workplace to improve concentration, decrease stress, and create happy and energetic employees.

Justworks Can Help Justworks values employee wellness in the workplace, and it’s our mission to help employers take care of their employees.

Post Idea #31: Convention

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Convention Definition & Meaning

We go to the weeklong annual teachers’ convention every summer.

The Democratic National Convention will meet next week to announce their party’s candidate for president.

A poet who rebels against literary convention The award that by convention should have gone to the student with the highest grade went instead to the teacher’s favorite.

San Diego Union-Tribune, 18 Feb. 2022 Still, total convention and special events activities will be below their pre-COVID levels.

Carrie Napoleon, chicagotribune.com, 3 Feb. 2022 Hotels also saw a boost in activity, according to David Clark, president/CEO with Visit Mobile – the convention and visitors arm of the city of Mobile.

Joan Verdon, Forbes, 18 Jan. 2022 News broke in October that Visit Milwaukee, the city’s convention and visitors bureau, received an inquiry from the Republican National Committee.

Stu Zakim, Rolling Stone, 1 Dec. 2021 The number of visitors to Las Vegas in August and September fell as Covid-19 cases rose, according to the convention and visitors authority.

Definition Of Convention By The Free Dictionary

b. The body of persons attending such an assembly: called the convention to order.

A practice or procedure widely observed in a group, especially to facilitate social interaction; a custom: the convention of shaking hands.

A widely used and accepted device or technique, as in drama, literature, or painting: the theatrical convention of the aside.

Diplomacy an international agreement second only to a treaty in formality: a telecommunications convention.

An accepted rule, usage, etc: a convention used by printers.

A rule, method, or practice established by usage; custom: the convention of showing north at the top of a map.

Shaking hands when meeting people is a normal convention in many countries; He does not care about convention.

Convention Legal Definition Of Convention

An agreement or compact, particularly an international agreement, such as the geneva convention.

A constitutional convention is an assembly of representatives or delegates of the people of a state or nation, convened for the purpose of framing, altering, or amending its constitution.

Article V of the U.S. Constitution provides that a constitutional convention may be convoked on application of the legislatures of two-thirds of the states.

A judicial convention is an assembly of judges of the superior courts, empowered in some states to meet during specified periods to adopt uniform rules of practice.

The powers of the convention are restricted to making necessary rules that conform to the provisions of the relevant statute.

A legislative convention is a congregation of representatives or delegates selected by the people for extraordinary and special legislative objectives, such as the framing or alteration of a state constitution.

A political convention is an assembly of delegates designated by a political party to nominate candidates for a pending election.

What Does Convention Stand For? The Free Dictionary

Persons of this character will proceed to an examination of the plan submitted by the convention.

With equal readiness will it be perceived, that besides these inducements to candor, many allowances ought to be made for the difficulties inherent in the very nature of the undertaking referred to the convention.

Among the difficulties encountered by the convention.

There are features in the Constitution which warrant each of these suppositions; and as far as either of them is well founded, it shows that the convention.

Would it be wonderful if, under the pressure of all these difficulties, the convention.

If the people at large had reason to confide in the men of that Congress, few of whom had been fully tried or generally known, still greater reason have they now to respect the judgment and advice of the convention.

It is worthy of remark that not only the first, but every succeeding Congress, as well as the late convention.

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A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.

In a social context, a convention may retain the character of an “Unwritten law” of custom.

A convention is a selection from among two or more alternatives, where the rule or alternative is agreed upon among participants.

Lewis’s account of convention received an extended critique in Margaret Gilbert’s On Social Facts, where an alternative account is offered.

In sociology a social rule refers to any social convention commonly adhered to in a society.

Convention is particularly important in the Westminster System of government, where many of the rules are unwritten.

The term “Convention” is also used in international law to refer to certain formal statements of principle such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

Post Idea #32: Pharmacovigilance

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Regulation And Prequalification

WHO has been promoting fair and equitable access to appropriate, safe and efficacious new COVID-19 vaccines for all countries through its prequalification programme and Emergency Use Listing service, and their expedited approvals in countries through facilitated pathways.

Established in 1968, the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring provides a global platform for Member States to exchange safety and regulatory information on all medicines and vaccines.

Vigibase is the WHO global database of individual case safety reports, a repository of safety data maintained by the WHO Collaborating Centre, the Uppsala Monitoring Centre, on behalf of WHO and its Member States.

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Med Safety App has also been adapted to support the reporting of adverse events associated with medicines and vaccines used during the pandemic.

We produce reliable, balanced information on the benefits and risks of medicines and vaccines, which enhances people’s care and safety.

Countering vaccine-misinformation about vaccines through the Vaccine Safety Net, which facilitates the access to reliable information on vaccine safety.

Providing training programmes to build and strengthen the capacity of national safety surveillance systems for medicines and vaccines.


Pharmacovigilance heavily focuses on adverse drug reactions, which are defined as any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, including lack of efficacy.

Companies must conduct a comprehensive drug safety and pharmacovigilance audit to assess their compliance with worldwide laws, regulations, and guidance.

If a patient states that they experienced “Symptoms”, but cannot be more specific, such a report might technically be considered valid, but will be of very limited value to the pharmacovigilance department of the company or to drug regulatory authorities.

Spontaneous reporting is the core data-generating system of international pharmacovigilance, relying on healthcare professionals to identify and report any adverse events to their national pharmacovigilance center, health authority, or to the drug manufacturer itself.

Risk management is the discipline within pharmacovigilance that is responsible for signal detection and the monitoring of the risk-benefit profile of drugs.

The principle of international collaboration in the field of pharmacovigilance is the basis for the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring, through which over 150 member nations have systems in place that encourage healthcare personnel to record and report adverse effects of drugs in their patients.

Drug regulatory authorities play a key role in national or regional oversight of pharmacovigilance.

Pharmacovigilance: Overview

Pharmacovigilance is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other medicine-related problem.

The European Medicines Agency coordinates the European Union pharmacovigilance system and operates services and processes to support pharmacovigilance in the EU. Before a medicine is authorised for use, evidence of its safety and efficacy is limited to the results from clinical trials, where patients are selected carefully and followed up very closely under controlled conditions.

This means that at the time of a medicine’s authorisation, it has been tested in a relatively small number of selected patients for a limited length of time.

After authorisation the medicine may be used in a large number of patients, for a long period of time and with other medicines.

It is therefore essential that the safety of all medicines is monitored throughout their use in healthcare practice.

EU law therefore requires each marketing authorisation holder, national competent authority and EMA to operate a pharmacovigilance system.

The overall EU pharmacovigilance system operates through cooperation between the EU Member States, EMA and the European Commission.

Review the weekly FAERS “Inbox” for newly received individual case safety reports 9 What do we do Advance public health by detecting safety signals from all available data sources Evaluate the safety of drugs Identification of reporting trends, possible risk factors, at risk populations, etc.

15 15 Postmarket Adverse Event Reporting and FDA Adverse Event Reporting System 16 16 How Postmarketing Reports Get to FDA Patients, consumer, and healthcare professionals Voluntary Voluntary Manufacturer FDA MedWatch Regulatory Requirements FDA FAERS Database ~5% of all reports ~95% of all reports 17 17 Postmarketing Safety Reporting Requirements Under 21 CFR 314.80 postmarketing safety reports must be submitted to FDA for the following: o Expedited reports: Both serious and unexpected adverse events from all sources o Expedited Reporting o Non-expedited reports: Domestic spontaneous adverse events that are: – Serious and expected Non-serious and unexpected Non-serious and expected Quarterly for the first 3 years then annually Federal Register – Code of Federal Regulations.

21 CFR 314.80 19 Factors Affecting Reporting Media attention Litigation Nature of the adverse event Type of drug product and new indications Length of time on market Extent and quality of manufacturer’s surveillance system Reporting regulations Textbook of Pharmacoepidemiology 5th edition.

Pdf 27 Components of a Good Case Report 28 28 Case #1 A health care worker reported a female patient started Drug X at 25 mg daily for hypertension on September 14, 2015.

30 30 Components of a Good Postmarketing Report Description of adverse event Suspected and concomitant product therapy details Patient characteristics, baseline medical condition, co-morbid condition, family history, other risk factors Documentation of the diagnosis Clinical course and outcomes Relevant therapeutic measures and laboratory data Dechallenge and rechallenge information Reporter contact information Any other relevant information U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Pdf 31 31 Safety Signal Detection Did you see it?? signal 32 32 What is a Safety Signal? Reported information on a possible causal relationship between an adverse event and a drug The relationship is previously unknown or incompletely documented Usually supported by multiple case reports New unlabeled adverse events An observed increase in a labeled event OR a greater severity or specificity New interactions Newly identified at-risk population U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Pdf Disproportionality in FAERS Important tool in modern pharmacovigilance Helps drug safety scientists recognize patterns in large datasets Hypothesis generating activity, that does not prove causation Several test statistics are currently used – Proportional reporting ratio – Reporting odds ratio – Empirical Bayes Geometric Mean 35 Case Series Development and Evaluation 36 36 Developing a Case Series Identify a safety signal Complete FAERS/ literature search Formulate case definition based on clinical diagnosis of event Apply case definition for case selection Evaluate case for presence of drug-event association U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Pharmacovigilance Certification And Drug Safety Training

Looking for professional pharmacovigilance training? If you hold an associate’s degree or higher and want to advance your career in Pharmacovigilance or want to increase your skillset with the Argus Safety Database, our diploma course in pharmacovigilance is right for you.

Advanced Review: Our course provides an advanced review of drug safety and argus safety database which can empower you to apply the knowledge you learn.

A Qualified Person for Pharmacovigilance or QPPV plays a critical role in ensuring the safety of drugs, medical devices and other health-care products, through identification, evaluation, minimization and, where possible, prevention of Adverse Drug Events.

The domain of pharmacovigilance is variously known as drug safety assessment.

Extending beyond traditional approaches, modern pharmacovigilance does not limit drug safety assessment to isolated laboratory research or animal testing.

Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations of the US Food and Drug Authority defines an ADE or AE as “Any untoward medical occurrence associated with the use of a drug in humans, whether or not considered drug related”.

After qualifying with CCRPS, you can apply for entry-level jobs such as Drug Safety Scientist, Safety Reviewer, Clinical Quality Specialist, Local Safety Officer, and more.

Good Pharmacovigilance Practices: A Quick-Guide

Here, we reveal how numerous major health organizations and regulatory agencies have responded to the many increased complexities in maintaining high standards of Good Pharmacovigilance Practices.

Today, the World Health Organization defines pharmacovigilance as “The science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem.”

The growth of consumer advocacy practices and increased attention to public health, combined with increased regulatory oversight, underscore the importance of consistent sets of pharmacovigilance strategies.

Due to this expansion in scope, complexity, and responsibility, these are now more commonly referred to as Good Pharmacovigilance Practices.

According to the FDA’s Guidance on GVP, the identification and proper interpretation of ‘safety signals’ are a very large part of good pharmacovigilance.

Our safety and pharmacovigilance resources utilize a deep knowledge of regulatory legislation and a focus on quality safety to provide effective solutions for compliant global pre- and post-approval pharmacovigilance.

Work alongside experienced pharmacovigilance resources to support clinical trial and post-marketing safety surveillance throughout the clinical trial and post-marketing/commercialization phases of your product lifecycle.

Post Idea #33: Solid-state drive

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What Is SSD? Everything You Need To Know About Solid-State Storage

Did you know that the long journey of SSD storage and its development began in the 1950s?

The increasing need for speed, high performance, and reliability are critical factors for the growth and advancement of SSDs over HDDs. How is an SSD different from an HDD? Which one is better? And how can you pick the right SSD for your needs? Click to learn more ⬇️Click to Tweet.

Difference Between SSD and HDD. To understand the hype over SSD, you should first know how it works and how it’s different from a legacy storage technology like HDD. Even though SSDs and HDDs are both used to store data, they operate differently.

You can get ADATA XPG SX8200 Pro with 1TB of storage and 3D NAND NVMe Gen3x4 PCIe M.2 2280 interface for as low as $150, or the Crucial MX500 3D NAND SATA SSD with 500 GB of storage for around $60. When you shop for an SSD, calculate the cost per gigabyte.

A simple calculation can help you decide exactly how much SSD storage you’ll need in your PC. First, know how much data you use per month, on average.

SSD Type Affordability Advantages Disadvantages Best for SATA Affordable Cheapest type of SSD Slower performance than NVMe SSD Home use NVMe Relatively expensive High performance and small in size Relatively expensive and may need a connector to be compatible with some devices Business use, gaming, website hosting.

Everything you need to know to understand what an SSD is, the difference between SSD and HDD, the various types of SSDs, & how to choose the best one 👇Click to Tweet.

What Is An SSD?

What are the major features of SSDs? Several features characterize the design of an SSD. Because it has no moving parts, an SSD is not subject to the same mechanical failures that can occur in HDDs. SSDs are also quieter and consume less power.

Two newer form factors worth noting are M.2 and U.2 SSDs. An M.2 SSD varies in length – typically from 42 millimeters to 110 mm – and attaches directly to a motherboard.

A U.2 SSD describes a 2.5-inch PCIe SSD. These small form-factor devices were formerly known as SFF-8639.

An SSD used only for reads does not require the same level of endurance as an SSD intended to handle mostly writes.

Due to improvements in manufacturing technology and expanded chip capacity, SSD prices had been dropping, enabling consumers and enterprise customers to view SSDs as a viable alternative to conventional storage.

Fluctuating demand for flash chips has kept pricing for SSDs variable, but the price for an SSD remains higher than an HDD. SSD vs. HDD. SSDs are considered much faster than the highest performing HDDs. Latency is also substantially reduced, and users typically experience much faster boot times.

An eMMC device delivers performance roughly equivalent to that of an SSD. But they differ in capacity, as a standard eMMC typically ranges from 1 GB to 512 GB, and SSD sizes can range from 128 GB to multiple terabytes.

How It Works, Types, Application, SSD Vs HDD

In this post, we will discuss about Solid State Drive, how it works, its types, applications, advantages, disadvantages and comparison between SSD and HDD. What is a Solid State Drive.

SSD is a storage device that stores persistent data on solid-state flash memory which uses mainly two key component technologies called as the NAND Flash Memory Chip and Flash Controller.

SSD uses three main types of memories which is, Single Level Cell, Multi Level Cell and Triple Level Cell.

Peripheral Component Interconnect Express option connects directly to the motherboard for a direct flow of data which in turn supports the SSD writing speeds to around 1GB per second.

Durability – Being more rugged and heavy duty, a SSD covers a very high number of drive cycles.

Speed – The speed accessed by the SSD is 35 to 100 micro-seconds, which is 100 times the performance of HDDs. SSD can improve the online presence when it comes to hosting a website.

Storage – SSD faces a major problem regarding the storage.

Vancouver, BC Computer Parts “Ssd”

Vancouver, BC computer parts “Ssd” – craigslist.

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Solid-State Drive

In 1999, BiTMICRO made a number of introductions and announcements about flash-based SSDs, including an 18 GB 3.5-inch SSD. In 2007, Fusion-io announced a PCIe-based Solid state drive with 100,000 input/output operations per second of performance in a single card, with capacities up to 320 GB. At Cebit 2009, OCZ Technology demonstrated a 1 TB flash SSD using a PCI Express ×8 interface.

SSDs based on volatile memory such as DRAM are characterized by very fast data access, generally less than 10 microseconds, and are used primarily to accelerate applications that would otherwise be held back by the latency of flash SSDs or traditional HDDs. DRAM-based SSDs usually incorporate either an internal battery or an external AC/DC adapter and backup storage systems to ensure data persistence while no power is being supplied to the drive from external sources.

Comparison of NAND-based SSD and HDD Attribute or characteristic Solid-state drive Hard disk drive Price per capacity SSDs generally are more expensive than HDDs and expected to remain so into the 2020s.

The first SSD to fail was TLC-based, with the drive succeeding in writing over 800 TB. Three SSDs in the test wrote three times that amount before they too failed.

Without support for TRIM, the SSD would be unaware of this data being invalid and would unnecessarily continue to rewrite it during garbage collection causing further wear on the SSD. It is beneficial to make some changes that prevent SSDs from being treated more like HDDs, for example cancelling defragmentation, not filling them to more than about 75% of capacity, not storing frequently written-to files such as log and temporary files on them if a hard drive is available, and enabling the TRIM process.

In 2008, Sun released the Sun Storage 7000 Unified Storage Systems, which use both solid state drives and conventional hard drives to take advantage of the speed offered by SSDs and the economy and capacity offered by conventional HDDs. Dell began to offer optional 256 GB solid state drives on select notebook models in January 2009.

In May 2009, Toshiba launched a laptop with a 512 GB SSD. Since October 2010, Apple’s MacBook Air line has used a solid state drive as standard.

Post Idea #34: Battery charger

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Amazon.Com: Battery Chargers

There are many reasons car batteries lose their power, and these range from the weather, leaving your lights on, or simply age.

Whatever the reason, having the best battery charger from Amazon in your garage or trunk can save you plenty of stress, especially if you’re looking forward to a big road trip.

Designed for all cars and easy to use, you can get your car, truck, or van up and running again.

Industrial Battery Chargers For Electric Vehicles And Machines

Our research is directed at making power electronics smaller, very reliable, and with high power conversion efficiency.

Delta-Q’s experts work in our battery lab to develop and validate battery charging profiles for lead acid and lithium-ion batteries.

Vancouver, BC For Sale “Battery Charger”

Vancouver, BC for sale “Battery charger” – craigslist.

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Battery Charger

Simple AC-powered battery chargers usually have much higher ripple current and ripple voltage than other kinds of battery chargers because they are inexpensively designed and built.

To accelerate the charging time and provide continuous charging, an intelligent charger attempts to detect the state of charge and condition of the battery and applies a 3-stage charging scheme.

A smart charger can respond to the condition of a battery and modify its charging parameters accordingly, whereas “Dumb” chargers apply a steady voltage, possibly through a fixed resistance.

A typical smart charger fast-charges a battery up to about 85% of its maximum capacity in less than an hour, then switches to trickle charging, which takes several hours to top off the battery to its full capacity.

Some chargers use pulses to check the current battery state when the charger is first connected, then use constant current charging during fast charge, then use pulse mode to trickle charge it.

Often a timer charger and set of batteries could be bought as a bundle and the charger time is set for those batteries specifically.

Chargers for stationary battery plants may have adequate voltage regulation and filtration and sufficient current capacity to allow the battery to be disconnected for maintenance, while the charger supplies the direct current system load. Capacity of the charger is specified to maintain the system load and recharge a completely discharged battery within, say, 8 hours or other interval.

Post Idea #35: Aluminium foil

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ScienceDirect Topics

Foils are available in gauges as low as 6.3 µm. Heavier foil gauges provide an absolute barrier to gases and liquids.

A typical water vapour transmission rate for 9 µm foil is 0.3 g/m2 per 24 hours at 38 °C and 90% RH. As thickness is reduced, foil becomes more vulnerable to tearing or pinholing.

Since in theory aluminum foil is an impenetrable barrier, the minimum thickness is determined by defects that may occur during the foil manufacturing process, during handling by the converter and on the packaging line, and in the end use.

Although some procedures specify a particular laboratory-grade aluminum foil, common household foil is often used satisfactorily.

After exposure under specific conditions and for a defined length of time, the foil is examined for pits and/or holes caused by the implosion of cavitation bubbles in proximity to the foil’s surface.

There have been attempts to standardize the test by developing a set of specifications for the foil and for interpreting the results once the foil has been exposed to the ultrasonic field.

The results of the foil test are very sensitive to the precise placement of the foil, ultrasonic frequency, temperature, and a variety of other variables in the ultrasonic field.

Aluminium Foil

Aluminium foil is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves with a thickness less than 0.2 mm; thinner gauges down to 6 micrometres are also commonly used.

Standard household foil is typically 0.016 mm thick, and heavy duty household foil is typically 0.024 mm.

Aluminium foil supplanted tin foil in the mid 20th century.

The term “Tin foil” survives in the English language as a term for the newer aluminium foil.

Tin foil is less malleable than aluminium foil and tends to give a slight tin taste to food wrapped in it.

Tin was first replaced by aluminium in 1910, when the first aluminium foil rolling plant, Dr. Lauber, Neher & Cie.

The reflectivity of bright aluminium foil is 88% while dull embossed foil is about 80%. [edit].

Aluminum Foil Products

Reynolds Wrap® Aluminum Foil is available in a variety of widths and thicknesses to accommodate just about any task.

Our kitchen foil withstands high heat and extreme cold, making it perfect for everything from grilling to freezer storage.

Aluminum Foil Products, Aluminum Foil Supplier

Our extensive inventory of over 2 million pounds of aluminum foil products covers a wide variety of alloys, tempers and gauges.

Our aluminum foil products are easily machined or cast, depending on your needs.

Along with our aluminum foil products, we have the capability to supply material on aluminum, steel, fiber, and plastic cores with 1 5/16″ to 20″ diameters.

Before purchasing aluminum foil, aluminum rolls, coils, or more, know the strains it will be under during use.

“All Foils offers many aluminum products including aluminum sheeting, aluminum rolls, aluminum coil, and adhesive aluminum tape. You will find aluminum sheets and aluminum coils from 1000 to 8000 Series. These products are available in tempers from annealed through full hard and in thicknesses up to.040”.

As your aluminum foil supplier, we also offer services such as aluminum sheeting, and aluminum slitting.

If you’re interested in our aluminum products, contact an All Foils representative today and learn how we can fulfill your aluminum needs.

Aluminium Foil Manufacturers & Suppliers

Aluminium foil is aluminium prepared in thin metal leaves,divided into cigarette aluminium foil,bottle beer aluminium foil,Food container foil ,Hydrophilic aluminium foil and so on.

We offer high-quality Metallised aluminium foil, Stucco Embossed aluminium foil, Lacquered aluminium foil, Printing aluminium foil,Hydrophilic Aluminium Foil,Electronic aluminium foil,Honeycomb aluminium foil,Clad brazed aluminium foil etc.

The company’s main products are Metallised films alumnum foil, Lacquered aluminium foil, Printing aluminium foil, Electronic aluminium foil, Honeycomb aluminium foil etc.

Signi’s aluminium foils are strictly follow the ISO9001:2008 quality management system and control the production process, ensuring the reliability of product quality 100%.Our aluminium foils are also conform to ASTM Signi has provided more than 1000 customers with aluminium foil products.

Signi have a variety of aluminium foil production equipment, which can produce 99% aluminium foil products.

We provides Metallicised films aluminium foils, Lacquered aluminium foil, Printing aluminium foil, Hydrophilic aluminium foil, Electronic aluminium foil, Honeycomb aluminium foil, Clad brazed aluminium foil, with diffent aluminium alloy, such as 1100, 1200, 1060, 1070, 1145 , 1235, 3003, 5052, 8011, 8021, 8079 and so on.

Good packaging means that in sports protection aluminium foil, aluminium foil can be obtained without any damage and scratches as it arrives in your workshop and warehouse.

Manufacturers Of Aluminium Foil Packaging Products Including Plain & Converted Aluminium Foil Products That Are Laminated, Lacquered & Printed And Based In India

Aluminium foil Packaging provides the essential barrier needed to stop the ingress of moisture and escape of subtle flavours.

It also prevents the UV rays, present in most forms of lighting, from causing ‘photo-oxidation’ and the rancid taste from fat and oil components in food products.

Alufoil’s impermeability helps to retain fragrance and provides excellent folding characteristics, while the high gloss metallic print surface can be put to good graphic use to convey product quality.

Food preservation is the very efficient and widely used way to greatly extend the life of foodstuffs.

Once safely protected from light and gases, the food retains its nutritional value and texture until re-hydrated.

The unique dead fold characterstic along with excellent barrier properties of aluminium foil makes it the most proffered choice for packing of vast variety of food stuff.

Is It Safe To Use Aluminum Foil In Cooking?

Some of the aluminum you eat comes from processed food additives, such as preservatives, coloring agents, anti-caking agents and thickeners.

Soil: The aluminum content of the soil the food was grown in.

Packaging: If the food has been packaged and stored in aluminum packaging.

Aluminum is also ingested through medications that have a high aluminum content, like antacids.

Regardless, the aluminum content of food and medication isn’t considered to be a problem, as only a tiny amount of the aluminum you ingest is actually absorbed.

Generally, the small amount of aluminum you ingest daily is considered safe.

Aluminum is ingested through food, water and medication.

Post Idea #36: Singapore dollar

Related Articles – Summarized

Singapore Dollars To Canadian Dollars Exchange Rate

Currency InformationPopular Singapore Dollar Currency PairingsPowering commercial grade rates at 300+ companies worldwide.

Learn moreCheck live rates, send money securely, set rate alerts, receive notifications and more.

Singapore Dollar

The Singapore dollar is the official currency of Singapore.

The Monetary Authority of Singapore issues the banknotes and coins of the Singapore dollar.

Apart from its use in Singapore, the Singapore dollar is also accepted as customary tender in Brunei according to the Currency Interchangeability Agreement between the Monetary Authority of Singapore and the Autoriti Monetari Brunei Darussalam.

Singapore continued to use the common currency upon joining Malaysia in 1963, but only two years after Singapore’s expulsion and independence from Malaysia in 1965, the monetary union between Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei broke down.

The Singapore dollar was exchangeable at par with the Malaysian ringgit until 1973, and interchangeability with the Brunei dollar is still maintained.

From 1985 onwards, Singapore adopted a more market-oriented exchange regime, classified as a Monitoring Band, in which the Singapore dollar is allowed to float but closely monitored by the Monetary Authority of Singapore against a concealed basket of currencies of Singapore’s major trading partners and competitors.

The $50 note was the first note designed in Singapore by a Singapore artist.

Overview, History, And Denominations

The Singapore dollar is the official legal currency issued by the Southeast Asian sovereign island nation, the Republic of Singapore.

Singapore dollar coins and banknotes are issued by the Monetary Authority of Singapore, which serves as both the country’s central bank and overall financial regulatory entity.

Between the US dollar and the Singapore dollar is expressed as USD/SGD.SummaryThe Singapore dollar is the official legal currency issued by the Republic of Singapore.

The country’s central bank, the Monetary Authority of Singapore, closely monitors the foreign exchange rates for the Singapore dollar.

Singapore first began issuing its own currency in various coin and banknote denominations in 1967.

Starting in 1985, the Singapore dollar’s been allowed to float within a range of foreign exchange rates closely monitored by the Monetary Authority of Singapore to control inflation and support the value of Singapore exports.

In addition to the standard currency, the Monetary Authority of Singapore issues several limited-edition commemorative banknotes in denominations ranging from S$2 to S$50. The latest is a 2019 S$20 banknote that commemorates the bicentennial of the country’s establishment as an official trading post of the British Empire.

Singapore Dollar

The page provides information about the currency Singapore Dollar in the form of a table with currency codes and the table with the current exchange rate to other currencies of the world.

Currencies column you can sort from largest to smallest, clicking on the header of the table.

Post Idea #37: Central Bank Digital Currency

Related Articles – Summarized

Central Bank Digital Currency Definition

Central bank digital currencies are digital tokens, similar to cryptocurrency, issued by a central bank.

Central bank digital currencies would also reduce the risks of using digital currencies in their current form.

Wholesale CBDCs Wholesale CBDCs are similar to holding reserves in a central bank.

Retail CBDCs Retail CBDCs are similar to a government-backed digital currency generally reserved for institutions.

Issues a CBDC Addresses Explained A CBDC eliminates the third-party risk of events like bank failures or bank runs.

CBDCs can establish a direct connection between consumers and central banks, thus eliminating the need for expensive infrastructure.

The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston is working with the Michigan Institute of Technology’s Digital Currency Initiative to develop a working CBDC model.

What Is A Central Bank Digital Currency?

A CBDC is a digital form of central bank money that is widely available to the general public.

“Central bank money” refers to money that is a liability of the central bank.

In the United States, there are currently two types of central bank money: physical currency issued by the Federal Reserve and digital balances held by commercial banks at the Federal Reserve.

While Americans have long held money predominantly in digital form-for example in bank accounts, payment apps or through online transactions-a CBDC would differ from existing digital money available to the general public because a CBDC would be a liability of the Federal Reserve, not of a commercial bank.

Learn more about the Federal Reserve’s work on CBDC. Read and comment on the Money and Payments discussion paper.

Federal Reserve releases discussion paper that examines pros and cons of a potential U.S. central bank digital currency(January 20, 2022).

Federal Reserve Chair Jerome H. Powell outlines the Federal Reserve’s response to technological advances driving rapid change in the global payments landscape(May 20, 2021).

Opinion: Central Bank Digital Currencies Are Coming. The US Must Be Prepared

The rise of another type of digital currency has gotten far less attention: central bank digital currencies.

According to a survey by the Bank for International Settlements, countries representing one-fifth of the world’s population may well issue a digital currency in the next few years.

In a CBDC world, “People would use the dollar less,” predicted Michael Sung, a professor at Shanghai’s Fudan University who researches digital currencies, in an interview with me.

Digital currencies can be programmed to be spent in a certain way – say for food and medical supplies, but not for cigarettes or alcohol.

The US could help set the standard by developing a digital currency that has privacy at its core.

“If this is going to be the tech of the future, we want to make sure the US brings democratic values to bear,” Chris Giancarlo, co-founder of the Digital Dollar Project, said in an interview with me.

Nor should it intend to replace non-government digital currencies like Bitcoin, dollar-pegged stablecoins or other cryptocurrencies that allow for more private transactions.

What exactly is a CBDC? Simply put, a CBDC is the digital form of a country’s fiat currency that is also a claim on the central bank.

Numerous central banks around the world from China to Sweden to South Africa are working on their own state issued CBDC. According to the International Monetary Fund, some 100 countries are at varying stages of CBDC exploration.

While still in its infancy, there are compelling reasons for central banks to issue CBDC’s, including the need to support the digital economy and e-commerce which has been accelerated by the covid-19 pandemic.

Wholesale CBDC’s are used to facilitate payments between central banks and commercial banks or the entities that hold their accounts with central banks.

Retail CBDC’s could make a strong case for financial inclusion because a central bank could directly transfer funds to the unbanked as long as they have a mobile phone.

If individuals could all hold their money at the central bank, why hold money at the local branch of a commercial bank? This could lead to a run on commercial banks and could have consequences for the entire banking industry.

It’s highly unlikely that central banks want to risk that because a strong banking sector is crucial for the financial health of an economy and central banks just aren’t designed to deal with millions of retail customers.

It’S Understanding

Central Bank Digital Currency, as per the Reserve Bank of India, is a digital representation of legal tender money issued by a central bank.

According to Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, the Reserve Bank of India would establish a central bank digital currency around 2022-23.

Despite the central bank’s opposition to private virtual currencies, the Reserve Bank of India has previously declared that CBDC is on the cards.

The current buzzword in the realm of digital assets is Central Bank Digital Currency.

3- Income Tax: Tax evasion and avoidance will be nearly impossible, as tactics such as offshore banking and unreported employment will be unable to conceal financial activity from the central bank.

The notion of a central bank digital currency, or CBDC, has piqued attention throughout the world, with most central banks actively studying and examining CBDCs, which experts believe might be the currency of the future.

As a result, establishing a Digital Rupee is required since it will empower citizens and enable them to build the digital economy, effectively ending the present banking system.

Digital Currency Unlikely To Harm Israel’S Banking System, Says Central Bank

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comJERUSALEM, March 2 – The Bank of Israel moved one step closer to the possible issuance of a digital shekel, saying on Wednesday it was unlikely there would be a significant erosion of the banking system’s business results.

Bank of Israel Governor Amir Yaron in November said the central bank was accelerating its study, research and preparation for the possible issuance of a digital shekel aimed at creating a more efficient payments system.

In an analysis published on Wednesday, the central bank said a digital shekel – which it is calling “Shaked” for its Hebrew acronym – should not impact the banking system too much should the public adopt it as an alternative to cash.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com”However, any potential transition of some of the public’s deposits to the shaked may have a material impact on: the structure and quality of the banking system’s sources; the banking system’s financing costs; the volume and price of banking credit to the public; and more,” the central bank said.

The Bank of Israel stressed that similar to other central banks, it had not yet decided whether it intends to issue a digital currency.

The Bank of Israel began to consider the possibility of issuing a central bank digital currency in late 2017 but a year later a team established to study the matter recommended against issuing one in the near future.

Last May the central bank said it was once again considering issuing a digital shekel.

Central Bank Digital Currency

A central bank digital currency is a digital currency issued by a central bank, rather than by a commercial bank.

A report by the Bank for International Settlements states that, although the term “Central bank digital currency” is not well-defined, “It is envisioned by most to be a new form of central bank money that is different from balances in traditional reserve or settlement accounts.”

A central bank digital currency would likely be implemented using a database run by the central bank, government, or approved private-sector entities.

In contrast to cryptocurrencies, a central bank digital currency would be centrally controlled, and so a blockchain or other distributed ledger would likely not be required or useful – even as they were the original inspiration for the concept.

Preventing illicit activity: A CBDC makes it feasible for a central bank to keep track of the exact location of every unit of the currency; tracking can be extended to cash by requiring that the banknote serial numbers used in each transaction be reported to the central bank.

Safety of payments systems: A secure and standard interoperable digital payment instrument issued and governed by a Central Bank and used as the national digital payment instruments boosts confidence in privately controlled money systems and increases trust in the entire national payment system while also boosting competition in payment systems.

Banking competition: the provision of free bank accounts at the central bank offering complete safety of money deposits could strengthen competition between banks to attract bank deposits, for example by offering once again remunerated sight deposits.

Post Idea #38: Nonwoven fabric

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

The technical developments in polymers, nonwoven processing and fabric finishing have led to significant improvements in fabric physical and mechanical properties including fabric handling and drapability, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, pilling and washing stability, dyeing and printing that create prospects for nonwoven fabric applications in particular in apparel outerwear.

In order to obtain softer non-woven fabrics which more closely resemble woven fabrics, non-woven, ‘point-bonded’ fabrics have been developed, using processes which limit bonding to spaced, discrete areas or points.

The phrase ‘softenable, bonded, non-woven fabric’ denotes a non-woven fabric which is autogenously and/or adhesively bonded, and which can be significantly softened by subjecting the fabric to one or more washings in conventional domestic washing machines, or to physical stress such as stretching, twisting or crumpling.

Uniform impingement of the fabric with the fluid jet may be accomplished by movement of the jet relative to the fabric or of the fabric relative to the jet.

The fabric may be supported, in order to avoid the dissipation of force through the stretching or flexing of the fabric, or the shielding of the fabric by the formation of fluid pools.

Some of the most promising nonwoven fabrics for durable clothing have since emerged based on bicomponent fibre technology wherein microfibres are released from the original filaments in the fabric during or after initial bonding of the web.

One exemplar is Miratec® fabrics produced using Apex® technology, which enabled dyed hydroentangled fabrics with the appearance of woven fabric to be produced for Levi’s Engineered Jeans concept.

Nonwoven Fabric

Nonwoven fabrics are broadly defined as sheet or web structures bonded together by entangling fiber or filaments mechanically, thermally or chemically.

“Staple nonwovens are made in 4 steps. Fibers are first spun, cut to a few centimeters length, and put into bales. The staple fibers are then blended,”opened” in a multistep process, dispersed on a conveyor belt, and spread in a uniform web by a wetlaid, airlaid, or carding/crosslapping process.

Wetlaid operations typically use 0.25 to 0.75 in long fibers, but sometimes longer if the fiber is stiff or thick.

Melt-blown nonwovens are produced by extruding melted polymer fibers through a spin net or die consisting of up to 40 holes per inch to form long thin fibers which are stretched and cooled by passing hot air over the fibers as they fall from the die.

Spunbond has been combined with melt-blown nonwovens, conforming them into a layered product called SMS. Melt-blown nonwovens have extremely fine fiber diameters but are not strong fabrics.

A more expensive route uses binder fibers or powders that soften and melt to hold other non-melting fibers together one type of cotton staple nonwoven is treated with sodium hydroxide to shrink bond the mat, the caustic causes the cellulose-based fibers to curl and shrink around one another as the bonding technique.

Melt-blown: fiber is bonded as air attenuated fibers intertangle with themselves during simultaneous fiber and web formation.

High End Non Woven Fabric

Unlike woven materials, non-woven fabrics do not require weaving or knitting, so the component fibers do not need to be converted into yarn first.

The barbs on each needle grasp fibers on the downward step, carrying those fibers deeper into the fabric.

A draw roll rotates to pull the fabric through the loom as the needles retract upward.

Needle sizes, quantities, and distributions can be adjusted based on the particular needs of the fabric.

Penetration frequency and distance can be adjusted to enhance fabric strength; however, too much needling can cause damage to the fiber, so it is important to correctly calibrate needle penetration based on overall material thickness and fiber type.

With manufacturing facilities located in the US and UK, Tex Tech has the capacity to engineer the perfect non-woven fabric for your needs.

To learn more about Tex Tech’s cutting-edge non-woven fabric technology, contact us today.

What Is Non-Woven Fabric? Characteristics And Uses Of Non-Woven Fabric The Carnegie Textile Co.

Contemporary non-woven fabric dates to the early 1930s.

The first commercial production of the products now called non-wovens began in 1942 in the United States in an effort to produce fabric directly from fibres.

Fibres are selected on the basis of their properties and expected performance in end uses.

New, first quality fibres are preferred over reused or reprocessed fibres.

As in the manufacture of all fabrics, the cost of the fibres used is important, as it in turn influences the cost of the final product.

The particular set of properties that a non-woven fabric may have is dependent upon the combination of factors in its production.

The appearance of non-woven fabrics may be paper like, felt like, or similar to that of woven fabrics.

Polyester Non-Woven Filter Fabric Manufacturer From Ahmedabad

Non-Woven Filter Fabric – Polyester Non-Woven Filter Fabric Manufacturer from Ahmedabad We supply and exports various Non-woven filter fabrics for filtration industries.

Polyester is the most versatile, most cost effective and most widely used filter medium for dust collection.

It is strong, abrasion resistant, can work up to 150 °C and has good resistance to common acids, solvents, and oxidizing agents.

We supply Non woven Filter Fabrics since last 3 decades.

We supply throught India & abroad in UAE, Indonesia, Malyasia, South Affrica & USA. We have stock of needle punch, geo tex, thermal bonded, spun bonded, melt blown, sms non woven filter fabrics.

We supply non woven filter cloth as liquid to liquid, solid to liquid and air to solid filtrarion media.

We also make various non woven made ups articles like dust collector bags, jet mill bags, sparkler filter pad, liquid filter bags etc.

Post Idea #39: Regenerative medicine

Related Articles – Summarized

Center For Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine is focused on developing and applying new treatments to heal tissues and organs and restore function lost due to aging, disease, damage or defects.

The human body has the natural ability to heal itself in many ways.

A cut to the skin repairs itself, broken bones mend and a living-donor’s liver regenerates in a few weeks.

Imagine if scientists could capture this naturally occurring ability to heal and apply it to a wide range of conditions.

Regenerative medicine goes beyond disease management to search for and discover therapies that support the body in repairing, regenerating and restoring itself to a state of well-being.

From prenatal surgical interventions to treatments for lifelong degenerative and disabling conditions, regenerative medicine therapies prompt the body to enact a self-healing response.

Review the Center for Regenerative Medicine’s glossary of regenerative medicine terms.

University Of Nebraska Medical Center

Scientists in Regenerative Medicine study the molecular, cellular, and developmental processes that control the development of new, healthy tissue.

To understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms of regeneration where it occurs naturally and how these mechanisms differ from the mechanisms of scarring.

To use the knowledge gained from this mechanistic understanding to develop therapies that will stimulate functional regeneration of damaged human tissues that do not possess the capacity to regenerate on their own.

In understanding these mechanisms, scientists will gain the ability to manipulate the growth of cells and tissues toward a state of regeneration rather than fibrosis.

The field of Regenerative Medicine seeks to treat and cure diseases by discovering the underlying mechanisms that are utilized by nature to restore the structure and function of damaged or diseased tissues and organs.

“Most tissues are in a constant battle between tissue regeneration and repair by fibrosis” as author, David Stocum, puts well.

He also notes a fundamental question scientists in the field of Regenerative Medicine ask: “Why do we see scar tissue form when an organ or body part is damaged or lost instead of regrowth or regeneration of the tissue?”.

Regenerative Medicine

Regenerative medicine deals with the “Process of replacing, engineering or regenerating human or animal cells, tissues or organs to restore or establish normal function”.

Some of the biomedical approaches within the field of regenerative medicine may involve the use of stem cells.

The term regenerative medicine is increasingly conflated with research on stem cell therapies.

The peer-reviewed journal facilitated discourse around regenerative medicine by publishing innovative research on stem cell therapies, gene therapies, tissue engineering, and biomechanical prosthetics.

The Society for Regenerative Medicine, later renamed the Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology Society, served a similar purpose, creating a community of like-minded experts from around the world.

Widespread interest and funding for research on regenerative medicine has prompted institutions in the United States and around the world to establish departments and research institutes that specialize in regenerative medicine including: The Department of Rehabilitation and Regenerative Medicine at Columbia University, the Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine at Stanford University, the Center for Regenerative and Nanomedicine at Northwestern University, the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and the British Heart Foundation Centers of Regenerative Medicine at the University of Oxford.

Edit] Regenerative Medicine, gives more details about Regenerative Stem Cells… Kevin Strange and Viravuth Yin, “A Shot at Regeneration: A once abandoned drug compound shows an ability to rebuild organs damaged by illness and injury”, Scientific American, vol.

Regenerative Medicine: Current Therapies And Future Directions

Jaklenec A, Stamp A, Deweerd E, Sherwin A, Langer R. Progress in the tissue engineering and stem cell industry “Are we there yet?”.

Bajaj P, Schweller RM, Khademhosseini A, West JL, Bashir R. 3D biofabrication strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Fisher MB, Mauck RL. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: Recent innovations and the transition to translation.

Cui X, Boland T, D’Lima DD, Lotz MK. Thermal inkjet printing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

Microfluidic tissue: A biodegradable scaffold with built-in vasculature for cardiac tissue vascularization and surgical vascular anastomosis.

Murphy MB, Moncivais K, Caplan AI. Mesenchymal stem cells: Environmentally responsive therapeutics for regenerative medicine.

Harrison RH, St-Pierre JP, Stevens MM. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine: A year in review.

Regenerative Medicine

Encompasses an emerging field of medicine with the goal of replacing, engineering, or regenerating human cells, tissues, or organs lost or injured due to age, disease, or congenital defects to restore or establish normal function. Literature Trends in This Research AreaRecent years have seen a significant rise in publications relating to stem cells and their application in regenerative medicine.

Tissue engineering Regenerative medicineWhile tissue engineering has predominantly surgical roots with research directed by cell biologists and engineers, regenerative medicine.

The engineer’s mindset is focused on scaffold structure, tensile strength, biocompatibility, and surface modification while the cell biologist’s is on cell identification, expansion, and differentiation.

Tissue engineering is one of the major components of regenerative medicine and follows the principles of cell transplantation, materials science and engineering towards the development of biological substitutes that can restore and maintain normal function; it includes enhancement of endogenous regenerative capacity.

Based on the knowledge of cell and tissue development, it uses mechanisms where the cell is the central unit of reconstruction.

Because regenerative medicine incorporates the fields of tissue engineering, cell biology, nuclear transfer, and materials science, personnel who have mastered the techniques of cell harvest, culture, expansion, transplantation, and polymer design are essential for the successful application of these technologies.

Regenerative Medicine For Orthopedics: Biologic Therapies

Regenerative medicine uses biologic treatments to improve symptoms of certain orthopedic conditions and has the potential to enhance healing in musculoskeletal tissues.

Regenerative medicine therapies, also sometimes called orthobiologics, use biological tissues found in the human body, such as blood, fat or bone marrow.

The idea behind regenerative medicine is to help these tissues heal better.

Regenerative medicine may also help shorten and improve the healing process following orthopedic surgeries, such as ACL reconstruction or other ligament surgeries, and meniscus repair.

Although all PRP and cell-based regenerative medicine therapies have been shown to improve symptoms in patients with many different musculoskeletal conditions, there is only limited research on which treatment is best for each patient.

How long does regenerative medicine injection therapy take?

Insurance companies do not yet cover regenerative medicine therapies.

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