16 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-05

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-05.

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Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Colonoscopy

Related Articles – Summarized


If you’re age 50 or older and at average risk of colon cancer – you have no colon cancer risk factors other than age – your doctor may recommend a colonoscopy every 10 years or sometimes sooner to screen for colon cancer.

Colonoscopy is one option for colon cancer screening.

A colonoscopy is considered negative if the doctor doesn’t find any abnormalities in the colon.

A colonoscopy is considered positive if the doctor finds any polyps or abnormal tissue in the colon.

If your doctor finds one or two polyps less than 0.4 inch in diameter, he or she may recommend a repeat colonoscopy in five to 10 years, depending on your other risk factors for colon cancer.

If your doctor is concerned about the quality of the view through the scope, he or she may recommend a repeat colonoscopy or a shorter time until your next colonoscopy.

If your doctor wasn’t able to advance the scope through your entire colon, a barium enema or virtual colonoscopy may be recommended to examine the rest of your colon.


Colonoscopy is a procedure in which a doctor uses a colonoscope or scope, to look inside your rectum and colon.

Doctors can’t remove polyps or treat certain other problems during a virtual colonoscopy.

A colonoscopy can help a doctor find the cause of symptoms, such as.

Doctors also use colonoscopy as a screening tool for colon polyps and cancer.

A doctor performs a colonoscopy in a hospital or an outpatient center.

The doctor can treat bleeding that happens during the colonoscopy right away.

The doctor can diagnose and treat delayed bleeding with a repeat colonoscopy.

Colonoscopy Preparation, Risks, Age, Recovery, Diet & Sedation

Magnification of the images also may improve the detection of the lesions.

Most of these center around improving the detection of difficult-to-see lesions – small ones and flat ones – as well as the ability to determine at the time of colonoscopy whether or not polyps and lesions need to be biopsied or removed because they may contain premalignant or malignant tissue.

Determination of the pattern allows lesions, particularly premalignant and malignant flat lesions, to be identified more easily and also allows a decision to be made as to whether or not the lesion should be biopsied or removed at the time of colonoscopy without waiting for the results of the microscopic examination.

Chromoendoscopy uses dyes that are sprayed on the colon lining to differentiate normal lining from neoplastic tissues and determine which lesions should be removed or biopsied.

The chemicals are taken up by abnormal cells of the colon’s lining more than the normal cells, and special lighting makes the areas of abnormal cells clearer to see so they can be biopsied or removed completely.

Thus, images are obtained in two, 180 degree-opposed directions in order to identify lesions that might be hiding behind folds in the lining of the colon that would be missed by a standard, forward-viewing colonoscope.

Finally, magnetic resonance imaging can be used to examine the colon in a manner similar to CT virtual colonoscopy.


A sigmoidoscopy allows an examination of the distal portion of the colon, which may be sufficient because benefits to cancer survival of colonoscopy have been limited to the detection of lesions in the distal portion of the colon.

Virtual colonoscopy does not allow therapeutic maneuvers such as polyp and tumour removal or biopsy, nor visualization of lesions smaller than 5 millimeters; if a growth or polyp is detected using CT colonography, it would require removal during a standard colonoscopy.

Colonoscopy reduces cancer rates by detecting some colon polyps and cancers on the left side of the colon early enough that they may be treated, and a smaller number on the right side; many of these left-sided growths would have been detected by a sigmoidoscopy procedure.

Since polyps often take 10 to 15 years to transform into cancer in someone at average risk of colorectal cancer, guidelines recommend 10 years after a normal screening colonoscopy before the next colonoscopy.

Perforation of the colon occurs in about 1 in 2000 procedures, bleeding in 2.6 per 1000, and death in 3 per 100,000, with an overall risk of serious complications of 0.35%. In some low-risk populations screening by colonoscopy in the absence of symptoms does not outweigh the risks of the procedure.

A 2003 analysis of the relative risks of sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy brought into attention that the risk of perforation after colonoscopy is approximately double that after sigmoidoscopy, a difference that appeared to be decreasing.

Colonoscopy preparation and colonoscopy procedure can cause inflammation of the bowels and diarrhea or bowel obstruction.

Colonoscopy Procedure: What Happens & How To Prep

What Happens During a Colonoscopy?The colonoscopy is performed by a doctor experienced in the procedure and lasts approximately 30-60 minutes.

During a colonoscopy, the doctor uses a colonoscope, a long, flexible, tubular instrument about 1/2-inch in diameter that transmits an image of the lining of the colon so the doctor can examine it for any abnormalities.

During the colonoscopy, if the doctor sees something that may be abnormal, small amounts of tissue can be removed for analysis, and abnormal growths, or polyps, can be identified and removed.

In many cases, colonoscopy allows accurate diagnosis and treatment without the need for a major operation.

If you have diabetes or take medications that may affect blood clotting; adjustments to these medications may be required before the colonoscopy.

How Do I Prepare for a Colonoscopy?There may be some diet or fluid restrictions before you have a colonoscopy, but this will vary according to your doctor’s instructions.

Make sure you arrange for a driver to bring you home after the colonoscopy.

Colonoscopy: Screening Guidelines, Preparation, Procedure & More

During a colonoscopy, your doctor checks for abnormalities or disease in your large intestine, particularly the colon.

During a colonoscopy, your doctor may also take tissue samples for biopsy or remove abnormal tissue such as polyps.

Your doctor will give you instructions for a bowel preparation.

Once the colonoscope is positioned, your doctor will inflate your colon using carbon dioxide.

Your doctor may remove polyps or a tissue sample for biopsy during this procedure.

You’ll be awake during your colonoscopy, so your doctor will be able to tell you what’s happening.

You’ll likely have some gas and bloating from the gas your doctor placed into your colon.

Colonoscopy: Procedure, Preparation, Side Effects, Recovery, And More

More than 15 million colonoscopy procedures take place in the United States each year.

The doctor may also take a tissue sample or remove abnormal tissue during the procedure.

People should allocate 2-3 hours to the procedure to allow for preparation and recovery time.

Once the doctor has completed the examination, the individual will stay in a special recovery room until the sedative wears off.

Clear liquids only: The doctor may ask the person to drink only water, broth, and tea and coffee without milk the day before the procedure.

Medicare may charge an additional fee if a doctor removes abnormal tissue during the procedure.

A colonoscopy is not typically painful because people generally have the procedure under sedation, which makes them very sleepy and relaxed.

Post Idea #2: Makeup Remover

Related Articles – Summarized

11 Best Makeup Removers 2022

To find the best makeup removers, we spoke to dermatologists and makeup artists who offered suggestions based on skin type as well as makeup type.

Makeup removers can either contain oil-based or water-based solvents; according to NYC-based dermatologist Dr. Hadley King, those with dry and sensitive skin should look for an oil-based makeup remover, which won’t strip dry or sensitive skin of natural oils.

Makeup type: Remember that “Like dissolves like” – a water-based makeup remover will work more effectively on water-based makeup, and an oil-based makeup remover will work more effectively on oil-based makeup.

Product type: Makeup removers come in multiple forms: micellar water, cleansers, cleansing balms, makeup wipes.

Almost all of the dermatologists and makeup artists we spoke to recommended micellar water for all kinds of skin-types – including normal, sensitive, acne-prone, and dry skin – because, as King explains, the micelles in micellar water “Draw out impurities without drying out the skin.” They cling to “Dirt, oil, and makeup on your skin and dissolve them while leaving behind a hydrated finish,” she adds.

Just keep in mind: While some of the makeup removers on this list can work as a cleanser, not just a makeup remover, that’s not the case here.

Makeup wipes aren’t our top choice for removing makeup; besides the fact that they generate waste, they are more likely to smear dirt and makeup around your face without completely removing it.

11 Best Makeup Removers Of 2022

Anyone who wears makeup knows that removing it can be the worst part – until you find the right makeup remover.

That’s because a typical facial cleanser won’t necessarily rid your face of leftover foundation – and while makeup remover will help melt away your mascara, it won’t necessarily cleanse your skin of remaining toxins.

For long wear cosmetics and waterproof makeup formulas, “Exposing it to water won’t move the formula that much – an oil-based product is needed to remove it, which is why oil cleansers and makeup removers work so well at removing stubborn makeup.”

That said, there are so many kinds of makeup removers: cleansing oils, balms, makeup removing wipes, micellar waters, even cloths that claim to remove waterproof mascara with just water, not to mention formulas created to target lips, eyes, vegan formulas, and more.

We’ve rounded up our favorite lab-tested makeup removers as well as personal favorites to help you decide what’s best for you – just don’t forget to use a facial cleanser afterward!

D., is a fan of this drugstore favorite: “We have used these wipes in the lab for over 10 years for panelists to take their makeup off before our studies, and they work like a charm to remove anything from eye makeup to lipstick.”

A cult favorite makeup remover amongst dermatologists, makeup artists, and supermodels, this micellar water uses gentle ingredients for even the most sensitive and reactive skin.

Shoppers Drug Mart Make-Up Remover Recall Due To Skin Hazard

More than 6,000 bottles of Bioderma Sensibio have been recalled due to the possibility of them causing a skin or eye infection.

A makeup remover sold in Shoppers Drug Mart is being recalled by Health Canada due to the possibility of it causing a skin or eye infection.

The recall involves more than 6,000 bottles of Bioderma Sensibio H20 micellar water makeup remover which were sold between December 2021 and February 2022.

According to Health Canada, the product is being recalled due to a “Microbial hazard” and has warned people to stop using the product immediately.

Health Canada said that could surface in the form of a skin infection or an eye infection, in the event of accidental contact with eyes.

The affected products have a UPC code of 774665181779 and a lot number of 22414H. How to dispose of it, get a refund.

If consumers are unsure about the product, or want to find out how they can get a refund and dispose of the product, they can go online to www.

Post Idea #3: Johnson Controls

Related Articles – Summarized

Johnson Controls

Powering impactful sustainability, respectful safety and security, while delivering an enhanced customer experience.

This platform includes tailored, AI-infused service solutions such as remote diagnostics, predictive maintenance, compliance monitoring, advanced risk assessments and more.

A dynamic new space from Johnson Controls, OpenBlue is how buildings come alive.

Johnson Controls Chief Sustainability Officer Katie McGinty teamed up with TED Countdown and The Climate Pledge to develop an inspiring and informative video outlining the key role buildings play in net zero strategies and driving sustainability.

Net Zero Leadership Made Easy Meet your net zero carbon and renewable energy goals, increase building performance and reduce cost.

Reopen, Reoccupy and Reimagine Buildings Enhancing occupant safety and wellness while increasing your facility’s productivity and efficiency.

Our experts can help reduce maintenance costs and minimize downtime.

Johnson Controls To Present At The 2022 J.P. Morgan Industrials Conference

PRNewswire/ – Johnson Controls International plc, the global leader for smart, healthy, and sustainable buildings, will present at the 2022 J.P. Morgan Industrials Conference.

Will participate on Tuesday, March 15, 2022., at 3:50 p.m. EDT.A live webcast of the presentation will be available on the company’s website at: investors.

About Johnson Controls:At Johnson Controls we transform the environments where people live, work, learn and play.

As the global leader in smart, healthy and sustainable buildings, our mission is to reimagine the performance of buildings to serve people, places and the planet.

With a history of more than 135 years of innovation, Johnson Controls delivers the blueprint of the future for industries such as healthcare, schools, data centers, airports, stadiums, manufacturing and beyond through its comprehensive digital offering OpenBlue.

With a global team of 100,000 experts in more than 150 countries, Johnson Controls offers the world’s largest portfolio of building technology, software as well as service solutions with some of the most trusted names in the industry.

View original content to download multimedia:https://www.

Morgan Stanley Lowers Johnson Controls International Price Target To $84.00

Johnson Controls International had its target price lowered by equities researchers at Morgan Stanley from $92.00 to $84.00 in a research report issued on Tuesday, Price Targets.com reports.

Johnson Controls International last issued its quarterly earnings data on Tuesday, February 1st. The company reported $0.54 earnings per share for the quarter, topping the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $0.53 by $0.01.

On average, equities research analysts expect that Johnson Controls International will post 3.27 earnings per share for the current fiscal year.

In other Johnson Controls International news, VP Visal Leng sold 600 shares of the stock in a transaction on Wednesday, January 12th. The shares were sold at an average price of $81.00, for a total transaction of $48,600.

VP Jeffrey M. Williams sold 25,076 shares of the stock in a transaction on Friday, December 10th. The shares were sold at an average price of $78.96, for a total transaction of $1,980,000.

Several large investors have recently bought and sold shares of JCI. BlackRock Inc. lifted its position in Johnson Controls International by 2.2% during the 4th quarter.

Finally, Geode Capital Management LLC lifted its position in Johnson Controls International by 1.2% during the 4th quarter.

Johnson Controls

As of 2017, it was listed as 389th in the Fortune Global 500; in 2017, it became ineligible for the Fortune 500, as it was headquartered outside the U.S. The company was formed via the merger of American company Johnson Controls with Tyco International, announced on 25 January 2016.

Building Technologies & Solutions is the company’s longest-running business unit, dating to 1885 when Johnson founded the Johnson Electric Service Company after patenting the electric thermostat in 1883.

Diniz Johnson Controls : A joint venture with Diniz Holding in Turkey building complete automotive seats for major OEMs. Johnson Controls Hitachi : A joint venture in 2015 with Hitachi in Japan for RAC, PAC, VRF and Chiller business.

Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions: Johnson Controls-Saft Advanced Power Solutions was a joint venture between Johnson Controls and French battery company Saft Groupe S.A. It was officially launched in January 2006.VARTA established a JCS development centre at its German HQ, following the setting-up of VARTA-Saft joint venture.

On 25 January 2016, Johnson Controls announced that it would merge with Tyco International to create Johnson Controls International plc, a company headquartered in Cork, Ireland.

Merging with the Irish company allowed Johnson Controls to become an Irish company itself, and enjoy sharply lowered corporate taxes, a process known as a tax inversion.

In 2016, Johnson Controls agreed to pay $14.4M to settle Foreign Corrupt Practices Act charges with the SEC. According to the SEC, employees of China Marine, a subsidiary of Johnson Controls, employed sham vendors to transfer $4.9M worth of bribes to Chinese government-owned shipyards, to win over businesses and enrich themselves.

Johnson Controls, Inc. is a global diversified technology and industrial business company.

It operates through three business segments: Building Efficiency, Automotive Experience and Power Solutions.

The Building Efficiency segment engages in designing, producing, marketing and installing integrated heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, building management systems, controls, security and mechanical equipment.

Portfolios for the non-residential buildings market.

The Automotive Experience segment provides innovative interior systems through its design and engineering expertise.

The Power Solutions segment is a global supplier of lead-acid automotive batteries for passenger car, light truck and utility vehicle.

We think that Trane Technologies stock , a heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, building management systems, and controls company, currently is a better pick compared to its industry peer Johnson Controls stock, despite Trane Technologies being the more expensive of the two…..

Post Idea #4: Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Related Articles – Summarized

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

Highest inventory – The SPR was filled to its then 727 million barrel authorized storage capacity on December 27, 2009; the inventory of 726.6 million barrels was the highest ever held in the SPR. Previous Inventory Milestones.

Hurricane Katrina emergency releases of both crude oil sales and exchanges totaled 20.8 million barrels.

The days of import protection may vary based on actual net U.S. petroleum imports and the inventory level of the SPR. Average price paid for oil in the Reserve – $29.70 per barrel.

August 2017 – exchanged 5.2 million barrels of oil following Hurricane Harvey, delivered to Gulf Coast refineries as a result of much of the Gulf region’s oil refining capabilities being shut down, resulting in fuel shortages.

Sep/Oct 2005- exchanged 9.8 million barrels of sweet and sour crude due to disruptions in Gulf of Mexico production and damage to terminals, pipelines and refineries caused by Hurricane Katrina.

July/August 2000 – exchanged 2.8 million barrels of crude oil for 1st-year tank storage and stocks for 2 million barrel Northeast Home Heating Oil Reserve.

August 1998 – exchanged 11 million barrels of lower quality Maya crude in SPR with PEMEX for 8.5 million of higher quality crude.

The US Strategic Petroleum Reserve Vs. Energy Demand

The US will contribute 30 million barrels from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, a massive cache of federal fuel established after the oil crisis of the 1970s.

The reserve sits in a series of underwater caverns along the petrochemical corridor of the western Gulf of Mexico, and allows the US Department of Energy to squirrel away crude oil to dispense when supplies are disrupted.

The US tapped the reserve in November, as pandemic turmoil drove the price of a barrel of oil above $85, after years of hovering around $50. But following the Ukraine invasion in late February, global panic that Russia’s massive oil reserves would be closed down sent prices climbing again.

Currently, a barrel of oil costs more than $100. The world hasn’t imposed direct energy sanctions on Russia, although the country’s fuel exports have slowed because of other restrictions.

In spite of those oil industry statements, global analyst Rystad Energy predicts that US fracking output will grow by about 2 million barrels per day over the next year, noting that ExxonMobil and Chevron have both signaled plans to expand in the oilfields of West Texas and New Mexico.

Siegel points out that there is another immediate approach: The Biden administration could tackle the immediate harms of high oil prices from the demand side, rather than supply.

Whether the US doubles down on oil production, or moves to alternative energy routes of energy-that could be the fork in the road..

Biden OKs Release Of 30 Million Barrels Of Oil From Strategic Petroleum Reserve

President Joe Biden authorized on Tuesday the release of 30 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, part of an international boost to the global oil supply that has been disrupted by Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The reserve is a complex of four sites with deep underground storage caverns in salt domes along the Louisiana and Texas Gulf Coasts.

The U.S. contribution will make up half of the reserve oil that the International Energy Alliance, a collection of 31 mostly European countries that also includes the United States, agreed to collectively release, White House press secretary Jen Psaki said in a statement.

The release is meant to counteract Russian President Vladimir Putin’s “Weaponization of oil and gas,” Psaki said.

“Today’s announcement is another example of partners around the world condemning Russia’s unprovoked and unjustified invasion of Ukraine and working together to address the impact of President Putin’s war of choice,” Psaki said.

The Virginia Mercury is a new, nonpartisan, nonprofit news organization covering Virginia government and policy.

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OPINION: Strategic Oil Reserve Proves Its Value Now

At a time when world tensions – and the price of oil – are so high because of the Russian invasion of Ukraine, the reserve offers some hope to consumers.

President Biden has authorized the release of 30 million barrels of oil into the U.S. supply to help stabilize gasoline prices.

The move can have a psychological impact on oil prices, and the reserve has a capacity of 727 million barrels.

Oil can be released now when gasoline prices are high.

Later, when tensions ease and the price of oil drops, the federal government can purchase more oil to refill the reserve.

A lot of oil in the reserve was bought when oil cost about $30 per barrel.

Higher oil prices mean higher gasoline prices, and most motorists don’t like the current price at the pump of more than $3 per gallon.

Biden Authorizes Emergency Sale From Strategic Petroleum Reserve

WASHINGTON – In a move that will affect retail gas prices, President Joe Biden has authorized the U.S. Department of Energy to release crude oil from the nation’s Strategic Petroleum Reserve to address significant market and supply disruptions related to Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management plans to issue a notice of sale for a 30-million-barrel sale on March 2.The notice is part of a coordinated action with the member countries of the International Energy Agency to collectively release an initial 60 million barrels of oil from strategic petroleum reserves, reflecting a common focus and willingness to address significant market and supply disruptions related to Russia’s war on Ukraine.

“Russia’s actions in Ukraine have resulted in energy supply shortages of significant scope and duration and have already caused a substantial increase in oil prices worldwide that threatens to slow United States economic growth at this critical point in our economic recovery,” President Biden said in a memorandum of finding.

“We will continue advancing ongoing efforts to accelerate Europe’s diversification of energy supplies away from Russia and to secure the world from Putin’s attempts to weaponize energy supplies.”

She added, “The United States believes that investing in clean energy is the best way to reduce domestic and international dependence on Russian oil and gas. Clean energy technologies are available and cost-effective today and offer the surest path towards a world where energy supply cannot be used as a means of political coercion or a threat to national security, and where families and businesses are protected from volatile prices and markets.”

Major oil companies are severing ties with Russia, which also will affect energy prices.

The board of London-based Shell has announced its intention to exit its joint ventures with Russian energy companies Gazprom, Salym Petroleum Development and Gydan.

Strategic Petroleum Reserve

The U.S. Department of Energy has run seven sales since 2017, selling more than 60 million barrels, or about 8.6% of what had been in the reserve.

According to legislation already in place, the amount of oil in the reserve could fall to as little as 410 million barrels by 2028.

The EPCA of December 22, 1975, made it policy for the United States to establish a reserve up to 1 billion barrels of petroleum.

On November 13, 2001, shortly after the September 11 terrorist attacks, President George W. Bush announced that the SPR would be filled, saying, “The Strategic Petroleum Reserve is an important element of our Nation’s energy security. To maximize long-term protection against oil supply disruptions, I am directing the Secretary of Energy to fill the SPR up to its 700 million barrels capacity.” The highest prior level was reached in 1994 with 592 million barrels.

On January 2, 2009, after a sharp decline in fuel prices, DOE said that it would begin buying approximately 12,000,000 barrels of crude oil to fill the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, replenishing supplies that were sold after hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005.

The Fixing America’s Surface Transportation Act, enacted in December 2015, calls for SPR sales totaling 66 million barrels from fiscal years 2023 through 2025.The 21st Century Cures Act, enacted in December 2016, calls for the sale of 25 million barrels of SPR crude oil for fiscal years 2017 through 2019.

The first portion of these sales is expected in late spring 2017.In December 2016, the DOE announced it would begin the sale of 190 million barrels in January 2017.The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017, enacted in December 2017, calls for the sale of 7 million barrels over the two-year period of FY 2026 through FY 2027.The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2018, enacted in February 2018, calls for the sale of 30 million barrels over the four-year period of FY 2022 through FY 2025, 35 million barrels in FY 2026, and 35 million barrels in FY 2027.

President Biden Announces Release From The Strategic Petroleum Reserve As Part Of Ongoing Efforts To Lower Prices And Address Lack Of Supply Around The World

American consumers are feeling the impact of elevated gas prices at the pump and in their home heating bills, and American businesses are, too, because oil supply has not kept up with demand as the global economy emerges from the pandemic.

That’s why President Biden is using every tool available to him to work to lower prices and address the lack of supply.

Today, the President is announcing that the Department of Energy will make available releases of 50 million barrels of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve to lower prices for Americans and address the mismatch between demand exiting the pandemic and supply.

The President has been working with countries across the world to address the lack of supply as the world exits the pandemic.

32 million barrels will be an exchange over the next several months, releasing oil that will eventually return to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in the years ahead. The exchange is a tool matched to today’s specific economic environment, where markets expect future oil prices to be lower than they are today, and helps provide relief to Americans immediately and bridge to that period of expected lower oil prices.

Even as the President is helping to lead the world in addressing oil supply imbalances, he is also focused on how consolidation in the oil and gas sector may be resulting in anti-competitive practices that keep American consumers from benefitting when oil prices fall.

There is mounting evidence that declines in oil prices are not translating into lower prices at the pump.

Post Idea #5: Oil reserves

Related Articles – Summarized

Proved Reserves Of Crude Oil And Natural Gas In The United States, Year-End 2020

The annual total of proved natural gas reserves in Alaska increased in 2020 by 27 Tcf, quadrupling the state’s total from 9 Tcf to 36 Tcf. Producers in Texas reported the largest decrease in proved reserves of natural gas in 2020.

Proved natural gas reserves increased in Alaska in 2020 by 27 trillion cubic feet, quadrupling the state’s total from 9 Tcf to 36 Tcf. Operators in Texas reported the largest net decrease in proved natural gas reserves of any state, down 11.4 Tcf. Operators in Pennsylvania reported the second-largest net decrease in proved natural gas reserves in 2020, down by 9.6 Tcf. These decreases resulted from net downward revisions to proved reserves of natural gas due to low prices.

Operators in Texas and Pennsylvania, the states with the first- and second-most natural gas proved reserves in the United States, reported a 9% decline in their proved reserves of natural gas in 2020.

Operators in Pennsylvania reported the most proved reserves of shale natural gas in 2020 with 96.7 Tcf. Operators in Texas reported the second-largest reserves with 87.3 Tcf. Proved shale natural gas reserves located in West Virginia totalled 32.3 Tcf, making it the state with the third-most proved shale natural gas reserves in 2020.

Proved U.S. reserves of dry natural gasDry natural gas is the volume of natural gas that remains after natural gas liquids and non-hydrocarbon impurities are removed from the natural gas stream, usually downstream at a natural gas processing plant.

We calculate our estimate of the proved reserves of dry natural gas in the United States by first estimating the expected yield of NGPLs from total natural gas proved reserves and by then subtracting the natural gas equivalent volume of the NGPLs from total natural gas proved reserves.

As of December 31, 2020, the United States had 10.6 billion barrels of crude oil proved reserves and 140.2 Tcf of natural gas proved reserves in nonproducing reservoirs.

Oil Tops $110 A Barrel Even After 31 Countries Agree To Release 60 Million Barrels Total From Emergency Reserves

Crude oil prices are up sharply on Wednesday, surging more than 5% on concerns of a supply crunch even after 31 countries agreed to release 60 million barrels of oil from reserves around the world.

International benchmark Brent Crude oil futures were up 6% at $111.31 a barrel at 7:33 a.m. EST, while US benchmark West Texas Intermediate futures were up 5.9% at $109.48 a barrel.

The sharp gains come even as member countries in the International Energy Agency agreed on Tuesday to release 60 million barrels of oil from their emergency reserves “To send a unified and strong message to global oil markets that there will be no shortfall in supplies as a result of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine,” according to an IEA press release.

Russia is the world’s third-largest oil producer behind the US and Saudi Arabia, according to the IEA. There are fears the crisis in Ukraine could disrupt energy supply, which in turn would add to already red-hot global consumer inflation.

“Markets dismissed the notion that 60 million barrels of strategic reserves released will be consequential to the risks of Russian supply jeopardized – given Russia pumps more than that in just six days,” said Vishnu Varathan, Mizuho Bank’s head of economics and strategy, in a Wednesday note.

Last Thursday, crude oil hit $100 a barrel for the first time in over seven years after Russian President Vladimir Putin announced a military assault against Ukraine.

The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and its allies led by Russia will be meeting later on Wednesday to discuss April’s oil output.

Oil Prices Surge Over 7% As Global Crude Reserve Release Disappoints

NEW YORK, March 1 – Oil prices surged over 7% on Tuesday to their highest since 2014, as a global agreement to release crude reserves failed to calm fears about supply disruptions from Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Members of the International Energy Agency, which includes the United States and Japan, agreed to release 60 million barrels of crude from their reserves to try to quell the sharp increase in prices that pushed major benchmarks past $100 a barrel.

In addition to crude, U.S. heating oil and gasoline futures also hit their highest since 2014.U.S.-led sanctions on Russia exempted the energy sector, but traders are shying away from trading Russian barrels, leading to big discounts on that oil and tightening supply for other kinds of crude.

Across various markets, different grades of oil in the Middle East and elsewhere surged.

The largest supplier of global oil, the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and allies including Russia, known as OPEC+, have not signaled a desire to boost production beyond their expected 400,000 barrels per day increase in April, despite entreaties from the United States and others.

“The pledge from OPEC+ to increase supply is so far a paper promise,” said Louise Dickson, senior oil market analyst at Rystad Energy, noting that participating OPEC+ deal members are producing about 800,000 bpd below stated target levels, further squeezing global supplies.

Backwardation, a market structure where prompt contracts are more expensive than those for later dates, indicates fear of being able to find cargoes in the near-term, as global oil demand has largely recovered from the worst of the coronavirus pandemic while production has not kept pace.

Biden, Allies To Tap Strategic Reserves As Oil Prices Soar

The U.S. will release 30 million barrels of oil from the strategic petroleum reserve in an effort to bring down prices, the Biden administration said Tuesday.

As oil prices rise, gasoline prices will follow.

Nobody can be sure how high prices might get before U.S. oil companies – or international ones – start upping production in response.

A large proportion of the state’s oil and gas leases are located on harder-to-permit federal lands; companies operating in Wyoming tend to respond more slowly to market shifts than operators in some other states.

President Joe Biden angered U.S. oil companies this fall when he called on international producers, including Russia, to increase output in order to bring down high oil prices.

Thirty million barrels of oil would only supply the U.S. for about a day and a half.

“The reality is that any use of the strategic oil reserve is usually more symbolic than it is impactful,” he said.

The U.S. And 30 Other Nations Are Releasing Oil From Reserves To Try To Calm Markets

Crude prices continued to gain on Thursday even after the U.S. and 30 other countries announced a coordinated release of #oil from their #reserves.

The #United States and other members of the International Energy Agency are releasing 60 million barrels of #oil from their strategic petroleum reserves after #crude prices surged following Russia’s invasion of #Ukraine.

That represents just 12 days’ worth of #Russian oil exports, and by itself, the move is seen as unlikely to significantly bring down oil prices.

The global release is also smaller than a similar release coordinated by the U.S. with individual allies in November, which also did not move prices down.

This time around the U.S. will release 30 million barrels from its #reserves as part of the IEA action with 30 other countries.

Russian oil and gas exports have not been directly targeted with #sanctions, as the U.S. and Europe are wary of disrupting global energy supplies.

Traders and analysts report that financial sanctions on #Russia and concerns over the risk of future #energy sanctions are already slowing down the sale of Russian oil and gas, though not stopping it completely.

Oil Reserves

Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.

Unproven reserves are based on geological and/or engineering data similar to that used in estimates of proven reserves, but technical, contractual, or regulatory uncertainties preclude such reserves being classified as proven.

Industry specialists refer to them as “P50”. The sum of proven plus probable reserves is also referred to in the industry as “2P”. Possible reserves are attributed to known accumulations that have a less likely chance of being recovered than probable reserves.

Reasons for classifying reserves as possible include varying interpretations of geology, reserves not producible at commercial rates, uncertainty due to reserve infill and projected reserves based on future recovery methods.

These reserves are generally not counted when computing a nation’s oil reserves.

Some of it is defended partly by the shift in ownership of reserves away from international oil companies, some of whom were obliged to report reserves under conservative US Securities and Exchange Commission rules.

Dr. Ali Samsam Bakhtiari, a former senior expert of the National Iranian Oil Company, has estimated that Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates have overstated reserves by a combined 320-390bn barrels and has said, “As for Iran, the usually accepted official 132 billion barrels is almost one hundred billion over any realistic assay.” Petroleum Intelligence Weekly reported that official confidential Kuwaiti documents estimate reserves of Kuwait were only 48 billion barrels, of which half were proven and half were possible.

The World’S Largest Oil Reserves By Country

Today, the countries with the largest known oil reserves are largely located in the Middle East, although not entirely.

Here is a look at the world’s largest oil reserves by country.

Ironically, it is also home to the largest oil reserves in the world, accounting for about 18% of the total global reserves.

National Geographic labels Canada’s oil operation as the “World’s most destructive” as the extraction process from oil sands is energy-intensive.

The country’s many oil fields account for hundreds of millions of barrels of oil.

Russian oil accounts for about 11% of all the oil produced in the world.

Libya is said to have the largest oil reserves in Africa.

Post Idea #6: Social class

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Social Class

Is there a point of view specific to social class? Middle class values? Working class values?

Difficult to define a middle class probably the largest class group in the United States because being middle class is more that just income, about lifestyles and resources, etc.

Working poor work full-time at wages below poverty line.

Social class is one of the most important concepts that sociologists discuss and yet its definition is often illusive.

There are two classical sociologists who are most important in the discussions about class Karl Marx and Max Weber.

Because owners paid wages to workers and could for the most part determine that wage, owners had power over workers.

Although Marx talked mainly about the two great classes owners and workers he was aware as well of a third category which he called petit bourgeoisie literally little middleclass and these were owners of own small businesses.

Definition, Theories, & Facts

Early theories of class Theories of social class were fully elaborated only in the 19th century as the modern social sciences, especially sociology, developed.

Saint-Simon’s successors introduced the theory of the proletariat, or urban working class, as a major political force in modern society, directly influencing the development of Karl Marx’s theory of class, which has dominated later discussion of the topic.

Karl Marx’s social theory of class For Marx, what distinguishes one type of society from another is its mode of production, and each mode of production engenders a distinctive class system in which one class controls and directs the process of production while another class is, or other classes are, the direct producers and providers of services to the dominant class.

Contemporary theories of class Subsequent theories of class have been chiefly concerned with revising, refuting, or providing an alternative to Marxism.

Historically, the principal contrast with the upper class in industrial societies was provided by the working class, which traditionally consisted of manual workers in the extractive and manufacturing industries.

Given the vast expansion of the service sector in the world’s most advanced economies, it has been necessary to broaden this definition to include in the working class those persons who hold low-paying, low-skilled, nonunionized jobs in such industries as food service and retail sales.

At the top-wealthy professionals or managers in large corporations-the middle class merges into the upper class, while at the bottom-routine and poorly paid jobs in sales, distribution, and transport-it merges into the working class.

Boundless Sociology

Key Terms social network: The web of a person’s social, family, and business contacts, who provide material and social resources and opportunities.

In spite of debate, most social scientists agree that in the U.S. there is a social class structure in which people are hierarchically ranked.

Social class: A group of people in a stratified hierarchy, based on social power, wealth, educational attainment, and other criteria.

An individual’s prestige is closely tied to their social class – the higher the prestige of an individual, the higher their social class.

Status inconsistency: A situation in which an individual’s varied social positions can have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status.

Max Weber: A German sociologist, philosopher, and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself.

Status inconsistency is a situation where an individual’s social positions have both positive and negative influences on his or her social status.

Social Class – An Introduction To The Concept – ReviseSociology

Social Class is one of the most important concepts within AS and A Level Sociology because of the relationship between social class background and life chances and the debate over the extent to which social class background determines an individual’s life chances.

Below I look at ‘common conceptions’ of social class before moving on to look at two ways of measuring social class – The Registrar General’s Social Class Scale and The New British Class Survey.

Common Conceptions of Social Class The classic formulation of social class in Britain is to see Britain as being divided into three classes: working, middle and upper class.

The disadvantages of common conceptions of social class is that they lack clarity – although most of us have heard of social class and have some idea of what it means to be a member of a social class, exactly what constitutes middle or working class, for example, is subjective and varies from person to person.

This is precisely why socologists have striven to develop more objective classifications of social class – and below I look at two of these – The registrar General’s Social Class Scale and the New British Class Survey.

The Registrar General’s Social Class Scale Sociologists use more nuanced categories of social class, than the common sense conceptions above.

This seems to be a clear improvement on previous class scales – it seems to describe social class divisions as they actually are in the UK – and the inclusion of ‘lowest’ class – the precariat reflects the important fact that many people are in low-paid work are in poverty because of the precarious nature of their flexible and/ or part-time employment.


“A broad social grouping based upon level of prestige determined by such characteristics as occupation, income, family genealogy, moral standing, residential area, and social relationships.Class is distinguished from caste by the fact that the boundaries of the class group are less rigid. A caste system, as in India, is based on hereditary distinctions, and the lines cannot be crossed without incurring severe social punishment. A class system, on the other hand, permits a degree of social mobility or crossing of class lines. America is predominantly a class system, though the color line has some features of a caste system, such as discouragement of”mixed” neighborhoods and illegality of intermarriage in certain states.

In the present period rigid class distinctions are slowly breaking down, and social mobility is on the increase.

The subjects were free to use their own criteria, which were in general those enumerated in the definition of social class given at the head of this article, with the greatest emphasis on occupation and economic level.

A number of significant studies have been made of the psychological and social effects of class structure.

As Davis and Havighurst pointed out in 1946, ‘The social-class system maintains cultural, economic and social barriers which prevent intimate social intermixture between the slums, the Gold Coast, and the middle class … By setting up barriers to social participation, the American social-class system actually prevents the vast majority of the working classes, or the slums, from learning any culture but that of their own group.

Thus the pivotal meaning of social class to students of human development is that it defines and systematizes the different learning environments for children of different classes.

Interestingly, people who ultimately moved from the skilled-labor to the professional class manifested sexual patterns similar to those of the class to which they moved, and the same principle held if they moved downward to the unskilled-labor class.

Social Class Crossword Clue, Crossword Solver

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Social Class

A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification which occur in a class society, in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.

The common stratum model of class divides society into a simple hierarchy of working class, middle class and upper class.

Another distinction can be drawn between analytical concepts of social class, such as the Marxist and Weberian traditions, as well as the more empirical traditions such as socioeconomic status approach, which notes the correlation of income, education and wealth with social outcomes without necessarily implying a particular theory of social structure.

For Marxists, class antagonism is rooted in the situation that control over social production necessarily entails control over the class which produces goods-in capitalism this is the exploitation of workers by the bourgeoisie.

These theorists have taken this binary class system and expanded it to include contradictory class locations, the idea that a person can be employed in many different class locations that fall between the two classes of proletariat and bourgeoisie.

Today, concepts of social class often assume three general economic categories: a very wealthy and powerful upper class that owns and controls the means of production; a middle class of professional workers, small business owners and low-level managers; and a lower class, who rely on low-paying jobs for their livelihood and experience poverty.

The upper class is the social class composed of those who are rich, well-born, powerful, or a combination of those.

Post Idea #7: Upper middle class

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Upper Middle Class? Income And Other Definitions

The majority of Americans think they’re middle class-even if they don’t really know what defines the group.

By that formulation, the upper middle class might be the fourth-highest income quintile-the one above the middle but below the wealthiest.

Some loosely define the middle class through home ownership-the median income of homeowners is roughly 80% higher than the income of renters.

In that case, perhaps upper middle class means owning a home valued above the median price of $201,900, according to Zillow.

Eighty-nine percent of Americans think having a secure job is a requirement of being in the middle class, and 86% think the ability to save is a key element, according to a Pew survey.

So maybe the upper middle class is defined less by hard numbers than by behavior: Do you buy groceries without looking at the price tag? Do you pay off your bills each month without worrying? How do you decide it’s time for a new car?

If that’s the case, what sort of other habits define upper middle class? Reddit users have a few thoughts.

What Is Considered Upper Middle Class Income? – Colors-NewYork.Com

A family earning between $32,048 and $53,413 was considered lower-middle class.

According to a 2018 report from the Pew Research Center, 19% of American adults live in “Upper-income households.” The median income of that group was $187,872 in 2016.

Pew defines the upper class as adults whose annual household income is more than double the national median.

Essentially, your CEOs, surgeons, and investment bankers are the main inhabitants of the upper-class income category.

Range of household incomes needed to be considered middle class, by family size.

If you assume 2,080 hours in the work year, your hourly income would amount to roughly $24.04 per hour.

It depends on your meaning of a “Decent life” as the California is considered to be expensive in cost of living and Los Angeles rents are has expensive real estate and even rents are high.

The Dangerous Separation Of The American Upper Middle Class

The American upper middle class is separating, slowly but surely, from the rest of society.

In a new series of Social Mobility Memos, we will examine the state of the American upper middle class: its composition, degree of separation from the majority, and perpetuation over time and across generations.

Class is a slippery concept, especially in a society that likes to think of itself as classless-or, more precisely, one in which everyone likes to think of themselves as middle class.

Other things equal, this should tighten the relationship between family income status and education attainment: in other words, an upper middle class income and an upper middle class education will go together even more often.

When different dimensions of advantage cluster together more tightly, the separation of the upper middle class becomes sharper: just as the clustering of disadvantages amplifies the effect of poverty.

To the extent that upper middle class Americans are able to form planned, stable, committed families, their children will benefit-and be more likely to retain their childhood class status when they become adults.

While the politics of the reform were badly bungled, it was indeed a reminder that the American upper middle class knows how to take care of itself.

The Average Net Worth By Age For The Upper Middle Class

This post will look in depth at the average net worth by age for the upper middle class.

To calculate the average net worth for the upper middle class, let’s first look at the average net worth of all Americans.

For those of you who are really bearish about the financial health of the average American, or who feel upset because your net worth isn’t in-line with the upper middle class net worth figures, here’s a chart to justify your concerns.

The upper middle class have a net worth where their primary residence is worth less than 30% of their overall net worth.

The average net worth for the upper middle class should have a very diversified net worth.

If you look at the average net worth by age for the upper middle class, real estate is a core component to the net worth composition.

Due to my real estate investments since 2003, I’ve been able to handily achieve a net worth far above the average net worth by age for the upper middle class.

13 Sensible Upper Middle Class Characteristics & Status Symbols

Not only did FUMCPWCDJ&RPF have the privilege of coming in at the right income scale, they developed the right mindset towards personal finance.

The FUMCPWCDJ&RPF status symbols are separated off from the modest 2 car-owning household of the solidly middle-class who has HBO cable and the private islands of the mega-rich.

Here are some of the status symbols that FUMCPWCDJ&RPF carry.

You have drawn up outlines and/or blueprints that entails the amount, time remaining and at least one kind of side hustle that generates income for life post-FIRE. Naturally, Financial Independence / Retiring Early is one of the hallmarks of FUMCPWCDJ&RPF. The large majority of those who are part of FI community fits the description and lifestyle to a tee.

FUMCPWCDJ&RPF take things one step further and not only do they spend responsibly, pay-things-on-time, but they also take advantage of the credit card reward system of which doughs out cash back and travel credit that makes savings even bigger down the road. Another advantageous addition to FUMCPWCDJ&RPF is simply having a nice day job and being able to afford extended time off from work and splurge!

Many FUMCPWCDJ&RPF can choose to pay off their mortgage at any time if they wanted because they have the funds in low-expense index funds.

FUMCPWCDJ&RPF are college-educated and some FUMCPWCDJ&RPF have post-graduate degrees too.

Income Ranges: What Constitutes A Middle Class Income?

What exactly is the middle class? Who is in it, and who is not? Is it shrinking? What about you-which income class do you belong to? It turns out that these questions are difficult to answer.

While the median income of the upper class increased 9% from 2010 to 2016, the median income of the middle and lower classes increased by about 6% over the same period.

“Over the longer term, black adults sustained the largest increase in income status from 1971 to 2015 and were the only major racial or ethnic group to experience a decline in their lower-income share. The share living in lower-income households among black adults declined from 48% in 1971 to 43% in 2015, and the share of upper-income households grew to 12% from 5% over the same period.” Pew also points out that Black adults “Are still significantly less likely than adults overall to be middle income or upper income.” On the other hand, the number of Hispanic households in the lower-income group grew from 34% to 43%, which Pew attributes to an increasing percentage of immigrants in the population group.

If you want to know exactly how you fit into the income class matrix, the Pew Research Center has a recently updated income calculator.

In his book Dream Hoarders: How the American Upper Middle Class Is Leaving Everyone Else in the Dust, Why That Is a Problem, and What to Do About It, Brookings Institution Senior Fellow Richard V. Reeves breaks down the American class system, in terms not of 1% and 99% but of 20% and 80%. The top 20% sets itself apart in many ways.

Zero would mean no relationship between parental income and child income, while a result of one would indicate that parental income determines child income entirely.

The middle class has stabilized in size, but it’s losing income share, mostly to the top 20% and especially to the top 1%. Also, when we talk about the effects of class in America, we should keep in mind the top 20% and the top 1%, because the behavior and choices of both of these groups seem to produce increasing class inequality and immobility.

The Class Structure In The U.S.

Key Takeaways Key Points There are competing models for thinking about social classes in the U.S. – most Americans recognize a three-tier structure that includes the upper, middle, and lower classes, but variations delineate an upper-middle class and a working class.

The middle class is divided into upper-middle class and the lower-middle class.

Identify the central characteristics of the upper-middle class in the U.S. Key Takeaways Key Points Members of the upper-middle class have substantially less wealth and prestige than the upper class, but a higher standard of living than the lower-middle class or working class.

In developed nations across the world, the lower-middle class is a sub-division of the middle class that refers to households and individuals who are somewhat educated and usually stably employed, but who have not attained the education, occupational prestige, or income of the upper-middle class.

In American society, the middle class is often divided into the lower-middle class and upper-middle class.

Key Terms working class: The social class of those who perform physical or low-skilled work for a living, as opposed to the professional or middle class, the upper class, or the upper middle class.

In the class models devised by sociologists, the working class comprises between 30 percent and 35 percent of the population, roughly the same percentage as the lower middle class.

Post Idea #8: Sideloading

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Sideloading?

Sideloading is the process of moving files and programs locally from one device to another.

Sideloading avoids these methods by placing software directly onto your device.

USB sideloading – moving files and software between devices using a USB cable.

Sideloading apps from a shared computer gives people the freedom to enjoy software usually reserved for those directly accessing the App or Play store.

While sideloading no longer requires jailbreaking, Apple has not made it clear if sideloading will also break user warranties.

Sideloading On Android TV. Android TV users can also sideload apps, and as the above video shows, there are multiple ways to achieve this.

Sideloading gives you more options for controlling what apps are on your smart devices.

What Is Sideloading, And What Are The Risks?

Sideloading is the practice of installing software on a device without using the approved app store or software distribution channel.

That’s only part of the story since there are many different reasons why a given application isn’t in the official app store of your device.

The application may not comply with the requirements of the app store in question or the developers may not want to pay the app store commission.

You won’t find video game emulation or torrenting apps in the Apple app store, since these go against their rules.

One benefit of only using software from official app stores is that they have to undergo some form of quality control before they can be listed.

When you download an app from the official app store for a device, you get automated maintenance of those apps by the store.

Most users never need to sideload applications unless the app they want really isn’t available any other way.

What Is Sideloading?

You’ll invoke the app installer program, and it will install your app just as if it had came from the trusted Android Market.

Under the guise of security, AT&T used to block users from sideloading by removing the Unknown sources field in the device settings.

We’ve seen carriers block apps that permit tethering without paying the extra associated fees, and some carriers have exclusives for certain apps and they aren’t available for the others.

Want to use a different appstore like the one from Amazon? You’ll need to enable sideloading.

The same goes for beta testing apps for developers, or even coding your own apps and testing them on your phone.

There are a lot of legitimate reasons for sideloading.

If you want to steal from hard working developers you’ll need to enable sideloading.

Sideloading Is A Malware Danger, Apple Tells U.S. Lawmakers

Apple has written to the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee to dispute claims made by an expect about sideloading, insisting its arguments about the technique being a malware vector are justified.

In February, the Senate Judiciary Committee voted to advance forward the Open Markets Act in February, legislation that could force Apple to allow the sideloading of apps.

In a continued effort to fight the measure, Apple has written to lawmakers about malware dangers.

The letter, sent on Thursday and seen by Reuters, talks about comments from computer security expert Bruce Schneider, where he says Apple’s concerns about sideloading are “Unfounded.”

In response, Apple argued that sideloading is beneficial to malware producers, as it relies on users being tricked to download it rather than requiring hackers to more directly break device security.

In a previous letter to top Senate lawmakers on February 3, Apple said the Open Markets Act would harm user security and privacy.

Sideloading “Would enable bad actors to evade Apple’s privacy and security protections by distributing apps without critical privacy and security checks.”

Apple Presses U.S. Lawmakers On Dangers Of ‘Sideloading’ Apps Allowed By Bill

WASHINGTON – Smartphone maker Apple has written to lawmakers to dispute assertions that its concerns about the dangers of sideloading apps into phones were overblown.

Sideloading, the practice of downloading apps without using an app store, is among the reforms that lawmakers hope will open up the market for apps.

Congress is currently considering a bill aimed at reining in app stores run by Apple and Alphabet’s Google, which would require companies to allow sideloading.

Apple has argued that such a practice would be a security risk as it keeps tight control of the apps in the store in order to keep users safe.

In a letter dated Thursday and sent to key members of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee, Apple said it was aware that a critic, computer security expert Bruce Schneier, had called its concerns about sideloading “Unfounded.”

“There is ample evidence showing third-party app stores are a key malware vector on platforms which support such stores,” Apple said in the letter which was viewed by Reuters.

The measure would also bar companies from requiring app providers to use their payment system and would prohibit them from punishing apps that offer different prices or conditions through another app store or payment system.

How “Sideloading” Can Be Made Safe

One potential solution to the app store controversy would be for mobile ecosystems to allow multiple trusted app stores that adopt these technologies to distribute apps securely to their devices.

First, just what is sideloading? Succinctly, sideloading is the downloading of apps from an app store not favored by the device maker.

Once the app has been reviewed and approved for distribution, the app store must ensure the trusted version is the one that reaches the user’s device.

The signed app is then distributed by the app store.

The method above has been used in Internet app distribution for some time, including by the major app stores, and it is a proven model.

While sideloading of #mobileapps can be very risky, it can be done securely by allowing multiple trusted app stores with time-tested and effective #cybersecurity technologies.

Not only would this give users more choice, but increased app store competition would also benefit both users and app developers, as well as encourage more innovation.

Nvidia: Nvidia Data Breach Exposes Data Of 71,000 Employees: Report

New Delhi, The data breach at graphics chip maker Nvidia has reportedly exposed emails and hashes belonging to at least 71,000 employees.

Nvidia did not confirm or deny that 71,000 employee credentials have been compromised, reports The Verge.

The graphics chip maker has fewer employees than 71,000 as its last annual report listed 18,975 employees across 29 countries.

It is possible that the compromised email data include prior employees and aliases for groups of employees.

“On February 23, 2022, Nvidia became aware of a cybersecurity incident which impacted IT resources. Shortly after discovering the incident, we further hardened our network, engaged cybersecurity incident response experts, and notified law enforcement,” it said in an earlier statement.

“We have no evidence of ransomware being deployed on the Nvidia environment or that this is related to the Russia-Ukraine conflict,” it added.

“However, we are aware that the threat actor took employee credentials and some NVIDIA proprietary information from our systems and has begun leaking it online. Our team is working to analyse that information,” the company informed.

Post Idea #9: Technology company

Related Articles – Summarized

10 Biggest Technology Companies

Technology companies have become a dominant driver in recent years of economic growth, consumer tastes and the financial markets.

Broadly speaking, companies in the technology sector engage in the research, development, and manufacture of technologically based goods and services.

Below we look at the 10 biggest technology companies measured by trailing 12-months revenue.

The one exception is Samsung, which is far too large to exclude from the list, yet unlike many large companies outside the U.S. does not have an ADR. Some foreign companies may report semiannually, and so may have longer lag times.

It’s important to note that 6 of the biggest ten are U.S. companies, illustrating America’s continued dominance in technology.

None of the biggest companies are from Mainland China.

Sony is a Japanese technology company that designs and produces electronics products for consumer, professional, and industrial markets worldwide.

Top 30 Largest US Tech Companies 2021

Even though new actors periodically come to challenge the tech companies in some of their businesses, rare are the companies that grow beyond a few billion in valuation in a domain where large companies are already operating, as they often get acquired before reaching this size.

The largest US startups could pose some threats with future diversification, but they often only can reach a large size because they challenge an industry where the existing big tech companies are not yet actively operating.

For even more data on the largest US companies, download our Excel files on the Russell 1000 companies, Russell 2000 companies, or Russell 3000 companies.

To give you more perspective on what companies are in the technology field in the US, details about the thirty largest public companies that make the American tech have been listed hereafter.

The top technology companies listed hereafter are ranked by market capitalization in United States Dollars, as of the effective close on Friday, January 29, 2021.

To facilitate your browsing in this long list, here are quick links to go directly to the details of any of the top 30 American tech companies.

Here are the 30 top tech companies in the US. Do you think they are worth their market capitalization? Do they provide a valuable and convenient service? Do they have too much economic power and maybe political power too?

List Of Top Technology Firms

Dell Inc. is an American privately owned multinational computer technology company based in Round Rock, Texas, United States, that develops, sells, repairs and supports computers and related products.

Emblaze grew from a small Israeli software company, founded in 1994, to a global technology company, mainly in the IT, software and mobile sectors.

LiteSpeed Technologies Inc. is an information technology company based in New Jersey, USA that produces web server software designed specifically for high-traffic servers, such as those of Internet.

Seagate Technology PLC is an American data storage company that was incorporated in 1978 as Shugart Technology.

Sky-Watcher is a commercial distribution company established in 1999 by the Synta Technology Corporation of Taiwan that markets telescopes and astronomical equipment, like mounts and eyepieces, aimed.

Source Technologies is a technology company specializing in secure print solutions and software for banking and financial, healthcare, staffing, WIC, accounting and back office, government, mortgage.

sTec is a computer data storage technology company headquartered in California, with research and development, sales, support or manufacturing sites in China, India, Japan, Malaysia, Silicon Valley,.

The 10 Best Tech Companies To Work For And Why

Getting a job at one of the best tech companies in the world could change the entire trajectory of your career.

Thousands of candidates apply each year to these companies due to their amazing benefits, company events, and their ability to surround themselves with one of the most talented people in the world.

Let’s take a look at which tech companies invest in their employees more than others, and what makes each one stand out from the rest.

Working at such an enormous company involves the usual challenges; not feeling heard, not feeling like you have a viable impact, and intense competition.

When seeking your next position, knowing which companies have the right blend of company culture, benefits, and follow-through could provide you with an edge.

Even if a company hosts employee events, it does not necessarily mean they are committed to making you a part of the process.

Searching for a new job or career change? Here are the best job search websites that can bring your desired job to you.

HCL Technologies: IT Services, Digital Solutions, Technology Consulting

Bolstering a meaningful coexistence in the digital epoch.

An exclusive perspective by ISG and HCL Technologies.

State of Cybersecurity 2021 by ISACA and HCL. Insights and perspectives from 3,600+ cybersecurity professionals across 120+ countries.

Enhanced digital technology footprint to deliver transformation at scale.

Next-gen IPs, products and platforms that future-proof our customers’ businesses.

Culture of innovation powered by our unique ideapreneurship DNA. Our Q3 FY’22 Results have been announced HCL tops Edelweiss ESG Scorecard & Ratings.

Our efforts in Environment, Social and Governance acknowledged on 40 different parameters.

Technology Company

A technology company is an electronics-based technology company, including, for example, business relating to digital electronics, software, and internet-related services, such as e-commerce services.

Apple Inc., Alphabet Inc. owners of Google, Meta Platforms owners of Facebook, Microsoft, and Amazon.com, Inc. are often referred to as the Big Five multinational technology companies based in the United States.

These five technology companies dominate major functions, e-commerce channels, and information of the entire Internet ecosystem.

Many large tech companies have a reputation for innovation, spending large sums of money annually on research and development.

According to PwC’s 2017 Global Innovation 1000 ranking, tech companies made up nine of the 20 most innovative companies in the world, with the top R&D spender being Amazon, followed by Alphabet Inc., and then Intel.

As a result of numerous influential tech companies and tech startups opening offices in proximity to one another, a number of technology districts have developed in various areas across the globe.

Information-technology companies and high-tech companies comprise subsets of the set of technology companies.

Post Idea #10: Tumor necrosis factor

Related Articles – Summarized

Tumor Necrosis Factor

Tumor necrosis factor is a critical cytokine, which contributes to both physiological and pathological processes.

This mini-review will briefly touch the history of TNF discovery, its family members and its biological and pathological functions.

It will focus on new findings on the molecular mechanisms of how TNF triggers activation of the NF-κB and AP-1 pathways, which are critical for expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as the MLKL cascade, which is critical for the generation of ROS in response to TNF. Finally, this review will briefly summarize recent advances in understanding TNF-induced cell survival, apoptosis and necrosis.

Understanding new findings and emerging concepts will impact future research on the molecular mechanisms of TNF signaling in immune disorders and cancer-related inflammation.

Tumor Necrosis Factor

The tumor necrosis factors include a host of cytokines characterized by several molecules, such as TNF-α and TNF-β and soluble TNF receptor-I and TNF receptor-II. From: Encyclopedia of Stress, 2007.

The diverse activities of TNF led to the simultaneous and apparently paradoxical pursuit of TNF as an anti-tumor strategy, and TNF inhibitors to attenuate lethal systemic inflammation.

Lymphotoxin, another cytokine with cytotoxic activities similar to TNF, was shown to be structurally related to TNF, heralding the two prototypic members of this family, with most of the rest discovered since 1993.A parallel family of cognate TNF receptors emerged when two specific TNFR were cloned revealing extensive homology to CD27, CD40, and the low affinity nerve growth factor receptor.

It is clear that infection with certain viruses can make normal cells sensitive to the apoptosis-inducing activity of TNF. Not all tumor cell lines are sensitive to cell death action of TNF. The mechanism(s) underlying resistance to cell death may be related to the induction of genes dependent on the transcription factor NF-κB. NF-κB is crucial for inducing resistance to TNF-induced apoptosis.

TNF-induced genes, such as Mn superoxide dismutase or A20 zinc finger, and the inhibitors of apoptosis are required for cellular resistance to the cytotoxic action of TNF, thus the cell must actively protect itself from the apoptotic effect of TNF. Because viruses can shut off host protein synthesis as a consequence of their parasitic action, the default pathway induced by TNF selectively initiates death of virus-infected cells, sparing normal cells.

High- density lipoproteins reduce LPS-stimulated TNFα production, whereas low-density lipoproteins enhance the capacity of LPS to induce TNFα. Therefore the balance of HDLs and LDLs in the serum may be critical for TNFα production during sepsis.

These studies suggest that “High” donor TNF production and increased recipient responses to TNF due to polymorphisms of the TNFR contribute to GVHD risk.42 High levels of serum TNF following BMT have been correlated with GVHD severity,43 and, as such, blockade of TNF with Etanercept or infliximab has become standard practice in GVHD therapy in many institutions.

Tumor Necrosis Factor

TNF is a member of the TNF superfamily, which consists of various transmembrane proteins with a homologous TNF domain.

Certain cancers can cause overproduction of TNF. TNF parallels parathyroid hormone both in causing secondary hypercalcemia and in the cancers with which excessive production is associated.

Research in the Laboratory of Mark Mattson has shown that TNF can prevent the death/apoptosis of neurons by a mechanism involving activation of the transcription factor NF-κB which induces the expression of antioxidant enzymes and Bcl-2.

Upon contact with their ligand, TNF receptors also form trimers, their tips fitting into the grooves formed between TNF monomers.

In resting subjects, endotoxin induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in circulating levels of TNF. In contrast, when the subjects performed 3 hours of ergometer cycling and received the endotoxin bolus at 2.5 h, the TNF response was totally blunted.

One explanation for a possible mechanism is this observation that TNF has a positive effect on regulatory T cells, due to its binding to the tumor necrosis factor receptor 2.

TNF has been shown to interact with TNFRSF1A. Because LTα is no longer referred to as TNFβ, TNFα, as the previous gene symbol, is now simply called TNF, as shown in HGNC database.

What Is Tumor Necrosis Factor?

Tumor necrosis factors are a family of small proteins that are used to signal cells throughout the body.

The proteins of tumor necrosis factor are classified as cytokines – a large class of proteins responsible for signaling to cells.

TNF works by binding to and activating tumor necrosis factor receptor that is found on the surface of cells.

Many Crohn’s disease sufferers are prescribed drugs, called tumor necrosis factor inhibitors, which decrease the levels of active TNF in the colon and therefore decrease inflammation to reduce symptoms of the disease.

Tumor necrosis factor has also been implicated in several forms of cancer, such as breast and stomach cancers, which occur when cells that are supposed to undergo cell death fail to do so.

Although some features of TNF fight cancer by inducing cell death, other features of TNF signaling contribute to cancer by promoting inflammation.

Due to this dual role of TNF in cancer, the overall effects of tumor necrosis factor as a cancer treatment have been a subject of debate in cancer research.

Information On Tumor Necrosis Factor Blockers

TNF blockers suppress the immune system by blocking the activity of TNF, a substance in the body that can cause inflammation and lead to immune-system diseases, such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis and plaque psoriasis.

The drugs in this class include Remicade, Enbrel, Humira, Cimzia and Simponi.

This information reflects FDA’s current analysis of data available to FDA concerning this drug.

FDA intends to update this sheet when additional information or analyses become available.

Tumor Necrosis Factor: How Does It Cause Inflammation?

If you have an immune system disease like rheumatoid arthritis, you may have heard your doctor use the term TNF. It’s shorthand for tumor necrosis factor, a protein in your body that causes inflammation and helps coordinate the process.

Your system gets flooded with inflammation, which often means you have too much tumor necrosis factor – specifically, a type called TNF alpha.

TNF is a major player when it comes to inflammation.

TNF also tells other cells to make other chemicals, like the hormones that cause you to lose your appetite when you’re sick.

Signs of High TNF. If you have a severe bacterial infection like pneumonia, high levels of tumor necrosis factor are a sign of inflammation that’s helping you heal.

Drugs That Block Excess TNF. Having the right amount of tumor necrosis factor in your body is important.

These drugs stop TNF’s “Create inflammation now” message before it can get to other cells.

Tumor Necrosis Factor: Links With Inflammation And Medical Conditions

TNF is involved with inflammatory conditions such as psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis, and Crohn’s disease.

We cover symptoms of increased TNF, links with medical conditions, and ways to lower TNF in the body when it is part of inflammatory conditions.

In healthy people, the body deactivates any excess TNF in the blood so it does not cause excess inflammation.

According to Versus Arthritis, in the late 1980s and early 1990s, Professor Ravinder Maini and Professor Marc Feldmann at the Kennedy Institute showed that excessive production of a particular type of TNF, called TNF alpha, drives the damaging inflammation present in rheumatoid arthritis.

Researchers have linked many autoimmune conditions to high levels of TNF alpha in the blood.

People with inflammatory health conditions can lower TNF levels in the body with a range of treatments, as we discuss below.

In people with autoimmune diseases, excess levels of TNF in the blood can lead to unnecessary inflammation.

Post Idea #11: Camden Property Trust

Related Articles – Summarized

Camden Property Trust

Camden Property Trust is one of the largest publicly-traded multifamily companies in the United States.

Structured as a Real Estate Investment Trust, the company is primarily engaged in the ownership, management, development, redevelopment, acquisition and construction of multifamily apartment communities.

Camden’s workforce totals approximately 1,600 employees and the Company is headquartered in Houston, Texas.

As of January 31, 2022, Camden Property Trust owned interests in and operated 171 properties containing 58,300 apartment homes across the United States.

Camden Property Trust operates as a real estate investment trust, which engages in the ownership, management, development, redevelopment, acquisition, and construction of multifamily apartment communities.

It focuses on maintaining a geographically portfolio of apartment homes located across the U.S. The company was founded by Richard J. Campo and D. Keith Oden on May 25, 1993 and is headquartered in Houston, TX. On forbes lists.

The DividendRank formula at Dividend Channel ranks a coverage universe of thousands of dividend stocks, according to a proprietary formula designed to identify those stocks that combine two important characteristics – strong fundamentals and a valuation that looks inexpensive.

Camden Property Trust presently has an excellent rank, in.

Looking at the universe of stocks we cover at Dividend Channel, on 6/26/14, Camden Property Trust, STAG Industrial Inc., and Willis Group Holdings plc will all trade ex-dividend for their respective upcoming dividends.

Camden Property Trust will pay its quarterly dividend of $0.66 on.

Looking at the universe of stocks we cover at Dividend Channel, on 3/27/14, Camden Property Trust, STAG Industrial Inc., and Willis Group Holdings plc will all trade ex-dividend for their respective upcoming dividends.

Bank Of New York Mellon Corp Boosts Stock Position In Camden Property Trust

Bank of New York Mellon Corp boosted its holdings in Camden Property Trust by 2.7% during the 3rd quarter, HoldingsChannel.com reports.

Bank of New York Mellon Corp’s holdings in Camden Property Trust were worth $166,384,000 as of its most recent SEC filing.

A number of other hedge funds have also added to or reduced their stakes in CPT. Price T Rowe Associates Inc. MD lifted its holdings in shares of Camden Property Trust by 113.5% during the 2nd quarter.

Blackstone Inc bought a new position in Camden Property Trust in the 2nd quarter worth $317,519,000.

Camden Property Trust last announced its quarterly earnings data on Wednesday, February 2nd. The real estate investment trust reported $0.37 earnings per share for the quarter, missing the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $1.49 by.

Stifel Nicolaus assumed coverage on Camden Property Trust in a report on Tuesday, December 7th. They issued a “Buy” rating and a $192.00 target price on the stock.

Camden Property Trust operates as a real estate investment trust.

Camden Property Trust [CPT] Stock Initiated By Stifel Analyst, Price Target Now $192

Stifel have made an estimate for Camden Property Trust shares, keeping their opinion on the stock as Buy, with their previous recommendation back on December 07, 2021.

While these analysts kept the previous recommendation, BofA Securities raised their target price from $160 to $178. The new note on the price target was released on September 27, 2021, representing the official price target for Camden Property Trust stock.

The Average True Range for Camden Property Trust is set at 4.19, with the Price to Sales ratio for CPT stock in the period of the last 12 months amounting to 14.46.

The current RSI for CPT stock in for the last two-week period is set at 46.99, with the RSI for the last a single of trading hit 46.78, and the three-weeks RSI is set at 47.15 for Camden Property Trust [CPT].

The progress of the company may be observed through the prism of EPS growth rate, while Wall Street analysts are focusing on predicting the 5-year EPS growth rate for CPT. When it comes to the mentioned value, analysts are expecting to see the 5-year EPS growth rate for Camden Property Trust go to 3.60%. An analysis of insider ownership at Camden Property Trust [CPT].

The top three institutional holders of CPT stocks are: VANGUARD GROUP INC with ownership of 14,543,303, which is approximately 2.393% of the company’s market cap and around 0.60% of the total institutional ownership; BLACKROCK INC., holding 12,700,923 shares of the stock with an approximate value of $2.06 billion in CPT stocks shares; and PRICE T ROWE ASSOCIATES INC /MD/, currently with $1.05 billion in CPT stock with ownership of nearly 6.909% of the company’s market capitalization.

Positions in Camden Property Trust stocks held by institutional investors increased at the end of February and at the time of the February reporting period, where 271 institutional holders increased their position in Camden Property Trust [NYSE:CPT] by around 5,760,097 shares.

3 REITs With Ultra-Safe Dividends

Most REITs pay above-average dividends backed by steady rental income.

The leading industrial REIT pays a slightly above-average dividend.

That’s providing Camden with a fast-growing rental income stream to support the dividend.

Realty Income built its business to deliver dependable dividends to its investors.

Great REITs for investors seeking a rock-solid passive income stream.

Prologis, Camden Property Trust, and Realty Income stand out as some of the lowest-risk REITs for dividend seekers.

Because of that, these REITs will have no problem continuing to grow their dividends in the future.

Camden Property Trust announced today that the Company will participate in the Citi 2022 Global Property CEO Conference.

A copy of Camden’s most recent investor presentation will also be available in the Investors section of the Company’s website.

Average change in same property new lease and renewal rates vs. expiring lease rates when effective.

ADVERTISEMENT.Camden Property Trust, an S&P 400 Company, is a real estate company primarily engaged in the ownership, management, development, redevelopment, acquisition, and construction of multifamily apartment communities.

Camden owns interests in and operates 171 properties containing 58,300 apartment homes across the United States.

Upon completion of 5 properties currently under development, the Company’s portfolio will increase to 60,073 apartment homes in 176 properties.

Camden has been recognized as one of the 100 Best Companies to Work For® by FORTUNE magazine for 14 consecutive years, most recently ranking #8.For additional information, please contact Camden’s Investor Relations Department at 354-2787 or access our website at camdenliving.com.

Post Idea #12: Insulated-gate bipolar transistor

Related Articles – Summarized

Figure 1: Schematic view of a generic N-channel IGBT Some IGBTs, manufactured without the N+ buffer layer, are called non-punch through IGBTs whereas those with this layer are called punch-through IGBTs.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation IXAN0063 D L IC vcc + 9 G C DUT + – – v CL E Figure 8: IGBT Switching Time Test Circuit The turn-off speed of an IGBT is limited by the lifetime of the stored charge or minority carriers in the N-drift region which is the base of the parasitic PNP transistor.

Eoff plays the major part of total switching losses in IGBT. Latch-up During on-state, paths for current flow in an IGBT are shown in Figure 10.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation IXAN0063 11 Figure 10: ON-state current flow path of an IGBT If latchup is not terminated quickly, the IGBT will be destroyed by the excessive power dissipation.

For IGBT, the area is defined by the maximum collector-emitter voltage VCE and collector current IC within which the IGBT operation must be confined to protect it from damage.

The relation between maximum IC and VCE can be seen in the RBSOA diagram in Figure 11 for the IGBT. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation IXAN0063 13 Figure 11: RBSOA of IGBT In this mode, the gate bias is at zero or at a negative value thus the current transport in the drift region occurs exclusively via the holes for an n-channel IGBT. The presence of holes adds charge to the drift region, resulting to the increase in the electric field at the Pbase/N drift region junction.

Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Basics Abdus Sattar, IXYS Corporation 14 IXAN0063 The IGBT collector current IC is a function of the gate-emitter voltage VGE and the temperature T. The transfer characteristic of a 600V/55A IGBT in Figure 6 shows the maximum collector current IC vs. the gate-emitter voltage VGE. For VGE of 15V the current is limited to a value of 80A, which is about 1.5 times the nominal value.

IGBTs Application Note IGBTs Description This document describes the basic structures, ratings, and electrical characteristics of IGBTs.

Basic structure of the IGBT Figure 1.1 shows the basic structure and an equivalent circuit of an IGBT. The IGBT has a structure + – similar to that of the MOSFET. Basically, a MOSFET has an n -n substrate whereas an IGBT has a p + – -n -n substrate.

IGBTs As described above, an IGBT is constructed similarly to a MOSFET, except that the IGBT has an + additional p region on the drain side.

Different types of IGBTs and their structures IGBTs can be divided into planar-gate and trench-gate IGBTs according to their gate structures, and into punch-through, non-punch-through, and thin-wafer punch-through IGBTs according to their vertical structures.

IGBT classification based on the vertical structure IGBTs can be divided into punch-through and non-punch-through IGBTs based on the depletion of the drift region that occurs as a result of voltage application across the collector and the emitter.

Although the NPT IGBT generally has lower – switching loss than the PT IGBT, the thicker n drift region of the NPT IGBT causes an increase in on-state voltage, particularly in the high collector current region.

IGBT applications must be designed in such a manner that the operating loci of the IGBT’s turn-off cut-off current and the resulting surge voltage must fall within the RBSOA. Figure 4.3 shows the reverse-bias safe operating area of an IGBT, which is bound by the following limits: 1.

Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor

An insulated-gate bipolar transistor is a three-terminal power semiconductor device primarily used as an electronic switch, which, as it was developed, came to combine high efficiency and fast switching.

Although the structure of the IGBT is topologically the same as a thyristor with a “MOS” gate, the thyristor action is completely suppressed, and only the transistor action is permitted in the entire device operation range.

The device structure was referred to as a “V-groove MOSFET device with the drain region replaced by a p-type anode region” in this paper and subsequently as “The insulated-gate rectifier”, the insulated-gate transistor, the conductivity-modulated field-effect transistor and “Bipolar-mode MOSFET”.

W/cm2, of existing power devices such as bipolar transistors and power MOSFETs.

The device proposed by J. D. Plummer in 1978 is the same structure as a thyristor with a MOS gate.

The device proposed by J. D. Plummer is referred here as “Plummer’s device.” On the other hand, Hans W. Becke proposed, in 1980, another device in which the thyristor action is eliminated under any device operating conditions although the basic device structure is the same as that proposed by J. D. Plummer.

The IGBT combines an isolated-gate FET for the control input and a bipolar power transistor as a switch in a single device.

VFD: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor

IGBT provides a high switching speed necessary for PWM VFD operation.

A VFD IGBT can turn on in less than 400 nanoseconds and off in approximately 500 nanoseconds.

A VFD IGBT consists of a gate, collector and an emitter.

A VFD IGBT is turned off by removing the positive voltage from the gate.

All modern VFDs use power devices known as Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors.

In extreme cases, the VFD itself can experience electrical noise interference.

If elevator machine room equipment is not correctly laid out and properly wired, the electrical noise propagated by the elevator VFD system can interfere with the elevator controller.

Working, Operation, Applications & Different Types Of IGBT

As mentioned earlier an IGBT is a fusion between a BJT and MOSFET. The symbol of the IGBT also represents the same, as you can see the input side represents a MOSFET with a Gate terminal and the output side represents a BJT with Collector and Emitter.

Internal Structure of IGBT IGBT can be constructed with the equivalent circuit that consists of two transistors and MOSFET, as the IGBT posses the output of the below combination of the PNP transistor, NPN transistor, and MOSFET. IGBT combines the low saturation voltage of a transistor with the high input impedance and switching speed of a MOSFET. The outcome obtained from this combination delivers the output switching and conduction characteristics of a bipolar transistor, but the voltage is controlled like a MOSFET. Since IGBT is the combination of MOSFET and BJT they are also called by different names.

Working of IGBT IGBT has three terminals attached to three different metal layers, the metal layer of the gate terminal is insulated from the semiconductors by a layer of silicon dioxide.

Types of IGBT The IGBT is classified as two types based on the n+ buffer layer, the IGBTs that are having the n+ buffer layer is called the Punch through IGBT, the IGBTs that does not have an n+ buffer layer are called the Non-Punch Through- IGBT. Based on their characteristics the NPT- IGBT, and PT-IGBT are named as symmetrical and nonsymmetrical IGBTs.

The below diagram shows the internal circuit of IGBT which includes two BJT and one MOSFET and a JFET. The Gate, Collector, and Emitter pins of the IGBT are marked below.

Applications of IGBT IGBTs are used in various applications such as AC and DC motor drives, Unregulated Power Supply, Switch Mode Power Supplies, traction motor control and induction heating, inverters, used to combine an isolated-gate FET for the control input and a bipolar power transistor as a switch in a single device, etc.

Packages of IGBT GBTs are available in different kinds of packages with different names from different companies.

Post Idea #13: Transistor

Related Articles – Summarized


A transistor may have only one kind of charge carrier, in a field-effect transistor, or may have two kinds of charge carriers in bipolar junction transistor devices.

The first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in 1953, capable of operating at frequencies up to 60 MHz. These were made by etching depressions into an n-type germanium base from both sides with jets of Indium(III) sulfate until it was a few ten-thousandths of an inch thick.

The Sony TR-63, released in 1957, was the first mass-produced transistor radio, leading to the mass-market penetration of transistor radios.

The bipolar junction transistor was previously the most commonly used transistor during the 1950s to 1960s.

Emitter-switched bipolar transistor is a monolithic configuration of a high-voltage bipolar transistor and a low-voltage power MOSFET in cascode topology.

Because the electron mobility is higher than the hole mobility for all semiconductor materials, a given bipolar n-p-n transistor tends to be swifter than an equivalent p-n-p transistor.

Transistor packages are mainly standardized, but the assignment of a transistor’s functions to the terminals is not: other transistor types can assign other functions to the package’s terminals.

Definition, Working Principle, Types, Transistor Diagram

What is a Transistor? A transistor is a type of a semiconductor device that can be used to both conduct and insulate electric current or voltage.

A typical transistor is composed of three layers of semiconductor materials or more specifically terminals which helps to make a connection to an external circuit and carry the current.

Well, the very basic working principle of a transistor is based on controlling the flow of current through one channel by varying intensity of a very smaller current that is flowing through a second channel.

In NPN transistor, the electrons move from the emitter to collector region resulting in the formation of current in the transistor.

Apart from these, there are many other types of transistors which include MOSFET, JFET, insulated-gate bipolar transistor, thin-film transistor, high electron mobility transistor, inverted-T field-effect transistor, fast-reverse epitaxial diode field-effect transistor, Schottky transistor, tunnel field-effect transistor, organic field-effect transistor, diffusion transistor, etc.

In order to explain the working of the transistor, let us take an example of an NPN transistor.

Characteristics of the transistor are the plots which can represent the relation between the current and the voltage of a transistor in a particular configuration.


A Transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device that regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for signals.

Uses of a transistor Constructional Details of a Transistor.

The three terminals drawn from the transistor indicate Emitter, Base and Collector terminals.

As we know that a transistor is a combination of two diodes, we have two junctions here.

As one junction is between the emitter and base, that is called as Emitter-Base junction and likewise, the other is Collector-Base junction.

The operation of a PNP transistor can be explained by having a look at the following figure, in which emitter-base junction is forward biased and collector-base junction is reverse biased.

The operation of an NPN transistor can be explained by having a look at the following figure, in which emitter-base junction is forward biased and collector-base junction is reverse biased.


KIT-13682 The SparkFun Discrete Semiconductor Kit addresses your needs of only needing one or a couple transistors without you needing.

Unsurprisingly, the water analogy can be extended to transistors as well: a transistor is like a water valve – a mechanism we can use to control the flow rate.

The best way to learn how a transistor works is to examine it in real-life circuits.

If either transistor is turned off, then the output at the second transistor’s collector will be pulled low.

2N3904 Datasheet – Another way to learn about transistors is to dig into their datasheet.

On top of that, our very own Director of Engineering, Pete, has produced a series of According to Pete videos with a focus on transistors and transistor amplifiers.

Learn how you can use a transistor to blink dozens of LEDs with just a few inputs.

What Is A Transistor?

The transistor’s ability to act as a switch or perform a transfer of resistance.

Makes it a very useful component in industrial applications.

Let’s look at how a transistor works as a switch.

The switch part of the transistor is between the Collector and the Emitter.

The switch is operated by changing the voltage between the Base and the Emitter.

If the input voltage is 0 volts, the switch is open, the resistance is infinite, and the output voltage is +10 volts.

If the input voltage is +10 volts, the switch is closed, the resistance is zero, and the output voltage is 0 volts.

How Transistors Work

If cells are the building blocks of life, transistors are the building blocks of the digital revolution.

In 1947, Shockley was director of transistor research at Bell Telephone Labs.

Within a year, Bardeen and Brittain used the element germanium to create an amplifying circuit, also called a point-contact transistor.

Shockley improved on their idea by developing a junction transistor.

The next year, Bell Labs announced to the world that it had invented working transistors.

It’s no exaggeration that transistors have enabled some of humankind’s biggest leaps in technology.

Keep reading to see exactly how transistors work, how they altered the course of technology, and in the process, human history, too.

How Do Transistors Work?

Although simple circuits contain individual transistors like this, complex circuits inside computers also contain microchips, each of which might have thousands, millions, or hundreds of millions of transistors packed inside.

It weighs just under 0.000000000000000000000000000001 kg! The most advanced transistors work by controlling the movements of individual electrons, so you can imagine just how small they are.

All transistors work by controlling the movement of electrons, but not all of them do it the same way.

How do transistors work in calculators and computers?

The Transistor: Learn about transistors in a fun way, with games and interactives on the Nobel Prize website.

How perovskite crystals can be “Painted” onto a substrate to make field-effect transistors.

Videos Technical MAKE presents: The Transistor: An excellent, easy-to-follow, 9-minute intro to transistors from Collin Cunningham of MAKE. Explains the difference between low-power transistors and high-powered devices, why transistors were better than vacuum tubes, and what we can use transistors for.

Post Idea #14: Relational database

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Relational Database?

The standard ANSI SQL is supported by all popular relational database engines, and some of these engines also have extension to ANSI SQL to support functionality which is specific to that engine.

Relational databases use a set of constraints to enforce data integrity in the database.

In addition to these, most relation databases also allow custom code to be embedded in triggers that execute based on an action on the database.

Transactions provide an “All-or-nothing” proposition, meaning that the entire transaction must complete as a single unit and be written to the database or none of the individual components of the transaction should go through.

In the relation database terminology, a transaction results in a COMMIT or a ROLLBACK. Each transaction is treated in a coherent and reliable way independent of other transactions.

Amazon Aurora is a MySQL and PostgreSQL-compatible relational database engine that combines the speed and availability of high-end commercial databases with the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of open source databases.

MySQL is an open-source relational database management system used by a very large number of web-based applications.

What Is A Relational Database? Definition, Explanation, And Examples

What is a relational database? Why do relational databases use primary keys and foreign keys? What exactly is supposed to happen here or there?

Relational databases are so popular that some developers even simplify database typing down to two groups only: relational or non-relational.

As SQL is the standard method of working with the former, the latter is sometimes also referred to as NoSQL. A few simple non-relational database examples would be key-value stores, document stores, or graph databases.

In a relational database the data is stored using a clear structure: a table that has columns and rows.

Getting to know what is a relational database, you will notice the term itself is very revealing: a relational database is one that allows database relationships.

Now, why do relational databases use primary keys and foreign keys? It’s got to do with database relationships as well.

Relational database management systems and SQL. Now that you understand what is a relational database, you might start looking into software to manage it.

What Is A Relational Database? {Examples, Advantages & Disadvantages}

When it comes to database types, one popular option is a relational database.

In this article, we will cover the structure of relational databases, how they work, and the advantages and disadvantages of using them.

A relational database is a type of database that focuses on the relation between stored data elements.

Relational database management systems are a more advanced subset of DBMS, handling relational databases.

Since relational databases use tables of rows and columns, they display data more simply than some other database types, making them easier to use.

Finally, relational databases make it easy to scale data by simply adding rows, columns, or entire tables without changing the overall database structure.

You should also be familiar with some of the most notable examples of relational database management systems.

Relational Database

A relational database is a digital database based on the relational model of data, as proposed by E. F. Codd in 1970.

A system used to maintain relational databases is a relational database management system.

Many relational database systems have an option of using the SQL for querying and maintaining the database.

A relational database has become the predominant type of database.

Queries made against the relational database, and the derived relvars in the database are expressed in a relational calculus or a relational algebra.

An alternative definition for a relational database management system is a database management system based on the relational model.

Relational stored data received continued, unsuccessful challenges by object database management systems in the 1980s and 1990s,, as well as by XML database management systems in the 1990s.

All About Relational Databases

Combine data in two tables: HR could view all actives employees and all retired employees to create an invitation list for the company holiday party.

Duplicate data is minimized, and data storage needs decrease.

Once the data schema and business rules for the database are established, the data is processed in steps that create tables and primary keys, eliminate repetitive data, and build relationships between the data by splitting the data into new tables and creating foreign keys for those tables.

A view is a generally a screen or a set of screens that is customized to show data that meet the needs of a specific user group, and prevents them from seeing data they don’t have access to.

Reports can be scheduled or ad-hoc, and can show either real-time data or data from the past.

Consistent: All steps must meet the defined rules for any changes to data fields, record uniqueness, data constraints, etc.

Just like data, metadata are stored in tables, but only used by the DBMS. As data is added, deleted, or changed, the metadata is updated.

What Is A Relational Database Management System?

What is a Relational Database? A relational database is a type of database.

What is a Relational Database Management System? A relational database management system is a program that allows you to create, update, and administer a relational database.

Most relational database management systems use the SQL language to access the database.

What is SQL? SQL is a programming language used to communicate with data stored in a relational database management system.

SQLite is a relational database management system.

Popular Relational Database Management Systems SQL syntax may differ slightly depending on which RDBMS you are using.

Relational database management systems use SQL to manage the data in these large tables.

The rows in a table are called records and the columns in a table are called fields or attributes.

You could use a single table to track all the critical information: First Name Bob Last Name Smith Address 123 Main St. Phone 555-1212 Book Title Don Quixote Due Date 7-14-09 This table meets the basic need to keep track of who has checked out which book, but does have some serious flaws in terms of efficiency, space required, and maintenance time.

The value “2” can appear only on one record – Alicia’s – and Alicia can have only one Patron ID – “2.” Is the Patron ID field in table CHECKOUT the primary key? We can see that it contains duplicate values, so the answer is No. If Patron ID were the primary key for CHECKOUT, each person would only be permitted to check out one book, and afterward would be forbidden to check out any more books, ever.

You can identify the parent table by determining which table could contain a record without needing a corresponding record in the table on the other side of the relationship.

If somehow the child table contains a record that does not have a corresponding record in the parent table, that record is called an orphan.

Another way to identify the child table is to find the field which refers to the other table’s ObjectID. BOOKS does not contain an ObjectID field for the CHECKOUTS, but CHECKOUTS does contain a field to store Book ObjectIDs.

The last new concept to consider is cardinality, which describes how many records in one table can be related to records in another table.

Post Idea #15: AP Archive

Related Articles – Summarized

Video, Photo, Audio And Text Archives

Our digital text collections on topics including news, politics, sports and entertainment are perfect for researching the causes and effects of various events over the years.

Find whole stories or excerpts that provided the first look into breaking news from around the globe.

Audio Search more than 1 million actualities, correspondent reports, reporter Q&As and natural sounds to give listeners the sounds of history.

Send Or Get A Copy Of Archived Scores

Use this form to request your archived scores be sent to a college, university, or scholarship program, or to request a personal copy.

Mail or fax it to the address that appears on the form.

Post Idea #16: Point of sale

Related Articles – Summarized

Point Of Sale Definition

Point of sale, a critical piece of a point of purchase, refers to the place where a customer executes the payment for goods or services and where sales taxes may become payable.

It can be in a physical store, where POS terminals and systems are used to process card payments or a virtual sales point such as a computer or mobile electronic device.

Amazon’s concept convenience store, Amazon Go, which deploys technologies that let shoppers come in, grab items, and walk out without going through a register, could revolutionize POS systems.

Electronic POS software systems streamline retail operations by automating the transaction process and tracking important sales data.

Many retailers use POS systems to manage membership programs that award points to frequent buyers and issue discounts on future purchases.

Cloud-based POS systems are increasingly in use, particularly for large online merchants, to track and process numerous purchases.

Cloud-based systems can greatly reduce the upfront costs of implementing a POS system for many businesses.

What Is Point Of Sale Systems? Definition Of POS With Examples

In its most basic definition, a POS system is a combination of POS hardware and POS software to create a POS machine for processing a transaction and payment.

Cash registers are not as evolved as using a POS system and lack many of the functions and features of a modern-day mobile point of sale system like Square POS. A cash register could be considered a point of sale solution technically for our definitions, we will be focusing on point-of-sale machines that involve both software and hardware.

In this guide to the meaning of POS, we’ll explore basic definitions and show some examples to clear up any confusion on terms like POS system, POS, Point of Sale Machine, and POS purchase.

Like you learned above, with the combination of the POS software and a POS terminal, you now have the full definition of a POS system.

The top iPad POS systems on the market that we like and recommend is TouchBistro for restaurants and ShopKeep POS. One of the primary benefits of considering using a tablet to capture sales is that they’re smaller and less bulky than your traditional point of sale terminals.

The “Point” of sale payment is when a customer and merchant exchange products or services completing a POS transaction aka point of sale purchase.

In this POS guide, we discussed everything related to POS systems, including the meaning of POS, the definition of mPOS, what the difference is between a cash register and POS, how a point of sale system work, and the different types of systems with examples.

Definitions, Examples, Types And Inventory In POS

A POS System is the overall hardware and software system used for billing in a POS Store.

A POS terminal is a card reading machine or any other device that accepts payments for an order placed on the POS system.

POS terminals usually detect all modes of payments over swipe and chip-based cards- after all, that’s what they were built to do! Modern POS Terminals also detect NFC/ contactless cards and other payment options such as Apple Pay, Google Wallet, Samsung Pay, etc.

Primaseller’s POS software is integrated with Square for payments when you use our iOS app for processing your POS orders.

If you use an iPad in your store as the POS hardware, Primaseller helps you use the camera for product scanning and Square for payments, thus consolidating all POS components into one device.

Cloud-based POS software is not installed on the POS hardware.

Using integrated POS software like Primaseller, which we will discuss in detail later, helps you manage inventory seamlessly and dynamically across channels.

Point Of Sale Resources, News, And Info

Partnership expands Shift4’s Las Vegas presence powering mobile commerce and frictionless payment processing.

Small Business Saturday reaches an estimated $23.3 billion in U.S. consumer reported spending, up 18% from 2020.

To start, the latest Main Street Strong initiative will provide $10,000 cash grants to 100 eligible local restaurants.

The partnership is First Bankcard’s first with the cooking/kitchen industry to offer three new credit card options for consumers and small businesses.

AIOSEO announces the launch of their Smart Link Assistant tool to help small business owners boost their SEO rankings.

Check out these Harbortouch POS reviews and compare th All POS Systems Find the right POS system for your business.

For your company is all about knowing your business, knowing the features you need, and knowing the right questions to ask.

POS System Software For Small Business

50% off the list price of QuickBooks Desktop Point of Sale 19.0.

QuickBooks Point of Sale Payments account is required; sold separately.

QuickBooks Point of Sale Payments: QuickBooks Point of Sale Payments account is optional; sold separately.

QuickBooks Point of Sale is not included in the total number of sales channels.

Hardware sold separately: Hardware and tablets are sold separately.

Tablets sold separately: Hardware and tablets are sold separately.

Inventory syncing can be performed manually or can be scheduled to occur automatically, as frequently as every 5 minutes between QuickBooks Point of Sale and Webgility.

The Best Point-Of-Sale Systems

While there are several kinds of payment processing solutions available, including credit card readers and various new mobile payment methods, the POS systems we reviewed are full-on cash registers.

Another important aspect of POS software is broad support for new payment systems.

It’s best to have a POS system in place that has payment flexibility built-in rather than having to swap out a new system.

Making sure your POS system candidate can handle these new emerging systems is only half of the equation.

Systems such as Square Point of Sale are known for offering small dongles that connect to a tablet and let you swipe credit cards on the go.

Today’s robust POS systems are more than just about taking payments.

If you are already using a payment-processing service and want to stick with it, then you will want to look at POS systems which work with that system.

Point Of Sale

Some point of sale vendors refer to their POS system as “Retail management system” which is actually a more appropriate term given that this software is no longer just about processing sales but comes with many other capabilities such as inventory management, membership system, supplier record, bookkeeping, issuing of purchase orders, quotations and stock transfers, hide barcode label creation, sale reporting and in some cases remote outlets networking or linkage, to name some major ones.

The advent of cloud computing has given birth to the possibility of electronic point of sale systems to be deployed as software as a service, which can be accessed directly from the Internet using any internet browser.

In addition to being significantly less expensive than traditional legacy point of sale systems, the real strength of a cloud based point of sale system is that there are developers all over the world creating software applications for cloud based POS. Cloud based POS systems are often described[by whom?] as future proof as new applications are constantly being conceived and built.

A retail point of sale system typically includes a cash register and the majority of retail POS systems also include a debit/credit card reader.

A multiple point of sale system used by big retailers like supermarkets and department stores has a far more demanding database and software architecture than that of a single station seen in small retail outlets.

Hospitality point of sale systems are computerized systems incorporating registers, computers and peripheral equipment, usually on a computer network to be used in restaurants, hair salons or hotels.

In April 2017, security researchers identified critical vulnerabilities in point of sale systems developed by SAP and Oracle and commented, “POS systems are plagued by vulnerabilities, and incidents occurred because their security drawbacks came under the spotlight.” If successfully exploited, these vulnerabilities provide a perpetrator with access to every legitimate function of the system, such as changing prices, and remotely starting and stopping terminals.

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