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Post Idea #1: Small modular reactor

Related Articles – Summarized

Oyster Creek Generating Station Eyed As Small Nuclear Reactor Site

Earlier this month, Holtec International said it remains open to the possibility of making the decommissioning Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station the site of its first SMR-160, going so far as to designate it one of several reference sites for the small modular nuclear reactor.

Oyster Creek is owned by Oyster Creek Environmental Protection and is being decommissioned by Holtec Decommissioning International, based in Camden.

In its latest edition of “Holtec Highlights,” an online newsletter published regularly, officials said the possibility of locating an SMR-160 at Oyster Creek would come pending local and state support and “In consideration of the state’s ambitious goal to have 100 percent carbon-neutral electricity generation by 2050 as outlined in the New Jersey Energy Master Plan.”.

Holtec officials said the SMR-160 is being completed to fit a wide range of site environmental parameters so it can be deployable at a generic site.

The SMR-160 is being produced by Holtec’s Advanced Manufacturing Division in Camden, just two hours from the Oyster Creek site in Lacey Township.

Holtec hopes to have a site construction license issued by the NRC for the SMR-160 by 2025, the same year decommissioning of the shuttered Oyster Creek plant is expected to be completed.

Holtec officials will ask for a partial site release, with the only exception being the onsite dry cask storage pad. Dry storage must remain at the site until the federal government takes possession of it.

What Are Small Modular Reactors?

Many of the benefits of SMRs are inherently linked to the nature of their design – small and modular.

Given their smaller footprint, SMRs can be sited on locations not suitable for larger nuclear power plants.

Prefabricated units of SMRs can be manufactured and then shipped and installed on site, making them more affordable to build than large power reactors, which are often custom designed for a particular location, sometimes leading to construction delays.

In areas lacking sufficient lines of transmission and grid capacity, SMRs can be installed into an existing grid or remotely off-grid, as a function of its smaller electrical output, providing low-carbon power for industry and the population.

In comparison to existing reactors, proposed SMR designs are generally simpler, and the safety concept for SMRs often relies more on passive systems and inherent safety characteristics of the reactor, such as low power and operating pressure.

Power plants based on SMRs may require less frequent refuelling, every 3 to 7 years, in comparison to between 1 and 2 years for conventional plants.

Some SMRs are designed to operate for up to 30 years without refuelling.

Advanced Small Modular Reactors

Advanced Small Modular Reactors are a key part of the Department’s goal to develop safe, clean, and affordable nuclear power options.

The advanced SMRs currently under development in the United States represent a variety of sizes, technology options, capabilities, and deployment scenarios.

Advanced SMRs offer many advantages, such as relatively small physical footprints, reduced capital investment, ability to be sited in locations not possible for larger nuclear plants, and provisions for incremental power additions.

The Department has long recognized the transformational value that advanced SMRs can provide to the nation’s economic, energy security, and environmental outlook.

Building on the successes of the SMR Licensing Technical Support program, the Advanced SMR R&D program was initiated in FY2019 and supports research, development, and deployment activities to accelerate the availability of U.S.-based SMR technologies into domestic and international markets.

Significant technology development and licensing risks remain in bringing advanced SMR designs to market and government support is required to achieve domestic deployment of SMRs by the late 2020s or early 2030s.

Through these efforts, the Department will provide broad benefits to other domestic reactor developers by resolving many technical and licensing issues that are generic to SMR technologies, while promoting U.S. energy independence, energy dominance, and electricity grid resilience, and assuring that there is a future supply of clean, reliable baseload power.

Advanced Small Modular Reactors

Small modular reactors are envisioned to vary in size according to configuration.

Advanced small modular reactors offer advantages such as relatively small size, reduced capital investment, ability to be sited in locations not possible for larger nuclear plants, and provisions for incremental power additions.

Small modular reactors can be customized for a location depending on generation needs and the available infrastructure, such as transmission line capacity.

Small modular reactors generate clean, carbon-free electricity as well as heat, a necessary ingredient for industrial chemical processes to make plastics and other materials for consumer goods.

Small modular reactors pack a lot of energy punch in a relatively small footprint.

Pairing small modular reactors with renewables can ensure emission-free energy is always available.

Small modular reactors also can vary in size from a dozen megawatts to hundreds of megawatts per module.

Small Modular Reactors

Small modular reactors provide enhanced levels of safety, the ability to match electricity generation with demand and the ability to be deployed in diverse applications and places.

SMRs are advanced reactors that produce 300 megawatts or less of electricity.

Together with large, traditional reactors and other advanced reactors, SMRs are expanding the all-of-the-above nuclear energy portfolio needed to meet our national goals on energy security and mitigation of climate change.

Good Things Come in Small Reactors Small reactors supply power reliably regardless of weather conditions, are resilient to security threats and have enhanced safety features.

Small reactors can power retired fossil sites, match electricity output with demand, integrate with renewables, and be used for heat, desalination and other applications.

Development of an advanced reactor design can cost $1 billion or more, depending on the size, and take several years to complete.

New reactors would benefit from a well-defined path to licensing and streamlined regulatory reviews that credit advanced designs for providing enhanced safety.

Small Modular Reactor

Small modular reactors are nuclear fission reactors that are smaller than conventional nuclear reactors and typically have an electrical power output of less than 300 MWe or a thermal power output of less than 1000 MWth. They are designed to be manufactured at a plant and transported to a site to be installed.

The term SMR refers to the size, capacity and modular construction only, not to the reactor type and the nuclear process which is applied.

While there are dozens of modular reactor designs and yet unfinished demonstration projects, the floating nuclear power plant Akademik Lomonosov, operating in Pevek in Russia’s Far East, was as of May 2020 the first and only operating prototype in the world.

This unit is too large to meet the definition of a small modular reactor and will require more on-site construction which calls into question the claimed benefits of SMRs. The firm is targeting a 500-day construction time.

Another example is a plug at the bottom of a reactor that melts away when temperatures are too high, allowing the reactor fuel to drain out of the reactor and lose critical mass.

Construction costs per SMR reactor are claimed to be less than that for a conventional nuclear plant, while exploitation costs may be higher for SMRs due to low scale economics and the higher number of reactors.

On 1 December 2019, the Premiers of Ontario, New Brunswick and Saskatchewan signed a memorandum of understanding “Committing to collaborate on the development and deployment of innovative, versatile and scalable nuclear reactors, known as Small Modular Reactors.” They were joined by Alberta in August 2020.

What Is A Small Modular Reactor?

Small Modular Reactors are a type of nuclear fission reactor.

Figure 1: Artist landscape impression of the UK Small Modular Reactor concept.

Generation 3 water-cooled Small Modular Reactor’s; these are similar to existing reactors, but on a smaller scale.

Like conventional nuclear reactors, small modular reactors harness thermal energy to generate electrical power.

The Reactor Island houses all of the nuclear systems.

Lower power leading to reduction of the source term as well as smaller radioactive inventory in a reactor.

Potential for sub-grade location of the reactor unit providing more protection from natural or man-made hazards.

Post Idea #2: Nuclear reactor

Related Articles – Summarized

Nuclear Reactor

A nuclear reactor coolant – usually water but sometimes a gas or a liquid metal or molten salt – is circulated past the reactor core to absorb the heat that it generates.

These constitute the great majority of operational nuclear reactors: as of 2014, 93% of the world’s nuclear reactors are water cooled, providing about 95% of the world’s total nuclear generation capacity.

During normal operation, pressure is controlled by the amount of steam flowing from the reactor pressure vessel to the turbine… Supercritical water reactor SCWRs are a Generation IV reactor concept where the reactor is operated at supercritical pressures and water is heated to a supercritical fluid, which never undergoes a transition to steam yet behaves like saturated steam, to power a steam generator… Reduced moderation water reactor [RWMR] which use more highly enriched fuel with the fuel elements set closer together to allow a faster neutron spectrum sometimes called an Epithermal neutron Spectrum.

The Reduced moderation water reactor builds upon the Advanced boiling water reactor ABWR) that is presently in use, it is not a complete fast reactor instead using mostly epithermal neutrons, which are between thermal and fast neutrons in speed.

China, which has control of the Cerro Impacto deposit, has a reactor and hopes to replace coal energy with nuclear energy…. Rolls-Royce aims to sell nuclear reactors for the production of synfuel for aircraft.

A fission fragment reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates electricity by decelerating an ion beam of fission byproducts instead of using nuclear reactions to generate heat.

Nuclear-powered submarine mishaps include the K-19 reactor accident, the K-27 reactor accident, and the K-431 reactor accident.

NUCLEAR 101: How Does A Nuclear Reactor Work?

The uranium is processed into small ceramic pellets and stacked together into sealed metal tubes called fuel rods.

Typically more than 200 of these rods are bundled together to form a fuel assembly.

A reactor core is typically made up of a couple hundred assemblies, depending on power level.

Inside the reactor vessel, the fuel rods are immersed in water which acts as both a coolant and moderator.

Control rods can then be inserted into the reactor core to reduce the reaction rate or withdrawn to increase it.

All commercial nuclear reactors in the United States are light-water reactors.

There are two types of light-water reactors operating in America.

Nuclear Reactor Types An Environment & Energy FactFile provided by the IEE Nuclear Reactor Types Published by The Institution of Electrical Engineers Savoy Place London WC2R 0BL November 1993 This edition November 2005 ISBN 0 85296 581 8 The IEE is grateful to the following organisations for permitting their material to be reproduced: Nuclear Electric The cover photograph shows Sizewell B Nuclear Power Station under construction Nuclear Reactor Types NUCLEAR REACTOR TYPES Many different reactor systems have been proposed and some of these have been developed to prototype and commercial scale.

The resulting design, known as the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor, or AGR Schematic: Basic Gas-Cooled Reactor Figure 1.1(b) Schematic: Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor Nuclear Reactor Types 2 Heavy Water Cooled and Moderated The only design of heavy water moderated reactor in commercial use is the CANDU, designed in Canada and subsequently exported to several countries.

The most widely used reactor type in the world is the Pressurised Water Reactor which uses enriched uranium Nuclear Reactor Types 3 dioxide as a fuel in zirconium alloy cans.

Figure 1.3a Schematic: Pressurised Water Reactor The second type of water cooled and moderated reactor does away with the steam generator and, by allowing the water within the reactor circuit to boil, it raises steam directly for electrical power generation.

Nuclear Reactor Types 4 Figure 1.3b Schematic: Boiling Water Reactor Water Cooled, Graphite Moderated At about the same time as the British gas cooled, graphite moderated Magnox design was being commissioned at Calder Hall in 1956, the Russians were testing a water cooled, graphite moderated plant at Obninsk.

Nuclear Reactor Types 5 Figure 1.4 Schematic: RBMK REACTOR Boiling Light Water, Graphite Moderated Reactor Nuclear Reactor Types 6 A summary of main thermal reactor types Table 1.1 gives the technical details and the main economic and safety characteristics of each of the thermal reactor types.

Nuclear Reactor Types 10 Figure 1.6 Schematic: Circuit of Pebble Bed Modular Reactor The PBMR design takes forward the approach originally developed in Germany and is being developed by Eskom, the South African electrical utility, for application in South Africa initially through a demonstration plant.

Map Shows Ukraine’S 15 Active Nuclear Reactors, Including The 6-Reactor Complex Just Captured By Russia

Smoke and fires could be seen near the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine.

Russia captured the Zaporizhzhia nuclear power plant by force on Friday, sparking some concern about the safety of the reactors in a war zone.

Altogether, there are 15 active reactors in Ukraine spread out across four power stations, as can be seen on the map above.

It is not clear whether Russia aims to capture the remaining nuclear power stations.

Other power facilities appear to have been targeted in the war, including the Nova Kakhovka hydroelectric plant in southern Ukraine and a second hydroelectric plant north of Kyiv.

“There are 15 nuclear reactors in Ukraine. If one of them blows, that’s the end for everyone, that’s the end of Europe,” he wrote.

Insider previously reported that the reactors are built robustly and have many safety features meant to prevent accidents like the infamous 1986 meltdown in Chernobyl in the north of Ukraine, where there are no longer any working reactors.

Russia Is Attacking 6 Ukraine Nuclear Reactors With Little Regard For Their Safety

After a week of combat, Russian troops are fighting at the gates of Ukraine’s Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, the second-largest nuclear power plant in Europe, and one of the 10 largest nuclear power plants in the world.

While various Russian representatives-for now-appear to be communicating with the IAEA and trying to avoid inflicting unnecessary combat damage to Ukraine’s nuclear power infrastructure, Russia’s nuclear contingency planning and administrative failures are already on full display.

Russia’s inability or unwillingness to support basic functions at, what is, essentially, a cleanup site, where reactors have been retired or entombed, is a worrying sign that Russia may not have the means to safely operate any of the 15 active nuclear reactors it stands to take in the Ukraine.

Even more worryingly, as fighting began in Enerhodar, home to the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant, Russia’s staffing challenges at Chernobyl suggest Vladimir Putin has absolutely no means to manage or alleviate an operational crisis within the more “Critical” parts of Ukraine’s civil nuclear power infrastructure.

Ukraine counts on nuclear power, and with at least half of Ukraine’s nuclear reactors operating at full capacity, those reactors will be particularly vulnerable to operational disruptions.

The timid, conflict-averse agency has failed to examine how civilian nuclear power facilities can be kept safe during a grinding, longer-term conflict-where outside resources may be critical in averting a regional nuclear catastrophe.

Russia has already threatened EU states that operate nuclear reactors.

Nuclear Power Reactors, Reactor Types And Technologies

Nuclear power reactors produce energy by initiating and controlling a sustained nuclear chain reaction.

Currently, over 400 such reactors in 30 countries provide about 11 per cent of the world’s electricity.

The IAEA fosters an international information exchange and collaboration on technological innovations in different reactor technologies.

Over Half Of Ukraine Reactors Are Offline After Russia Takes Nuclear Plant

More than half of Ukraine’s nuclear reactors are offline after Russian forces seized the Zaporizhzhia power plant-the largest in Europe.

According to the State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine, eight of the 15 Soviet-era reactors located in the eastern European nation were disconnected from the power grid as of March 4.

At the Zaporizhzhia plant, located roughly 400 miles from Kyiv, five of the six reactors were reported to be offline.

The U.S. Embassy in Kyiv called the power plant attack a “War crime” and said Vladimir Putin’s decision to shell the plant “Takes his reign of terror one step further.”

Zelensky has called the attack on the Zaporizhzhia plant “Nuclear terrorism” by Russia.

Zelensky said that if an explosion were to occur at the site, it could have caused a disaster equal to “Six Chernobyls.” The Chernobyl power plant had four nuclear plants but only one exploded in 1986.

“It’s important to say that all the safety systems of the six reactors at the plant were not affected at all, and that there has been no release of radioactive material,” Grossi said.

Post Idea #3: Eurasia Group

Related Articles – Summarized

Eurasia Group

Eurasia Group is a political risk consultancy founded in 1998 by Ian Bremmer.

Eurasia Group reports on emerging markets including frontier and developed economies, in addition to establishing practices focused on geo-technology and energy issues.

The organization’s 2011 “Top Risks report” description of a G-Zero world lacking global leadership received attention at the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos in 2011, as well as in international media.

In 2017, Eurasia Group launched a media company called GZERO Media, featuring digital programming as well as a US national public television show called GZERO World with Ian Bremmer.

Eurasia Group announced a partnership with Nikko Asset Management in 2015 to incorporate political risk analysis into emerging market investment funds.

In 2005, Eurasia Group purchased Intellibridge, a political risk consultancy founded by David Rothkopf in 1999.

Announcing a partnership with NYSE Euronext, Eurasia Group rang the opening bell at the New York Stock Exchange on March 18, 2009.

Eurasia Group

We provide the best competitive Prices, Timely Deliveries, products & services of the Right Quality, conforming to international standards.

In short, we can visualize your needs & Goals for all procurement & Logistics requirements presenting a broad spectrum of products with a far-reaching expertise in all industrial sectors.

Our efficient & experienced sales team provides a customer service of the highest standard offering the customer with the necessary techno-commercial backing, as part of EURASIA ongoing commitment to excellence.

Media Bias/Fact Check

Overall, we rate the Eurasia Group Left-Center Biased due to story selection and editorial positions that slightly favor the left.

Founded in 1998, by Ian Bremmer, Eurasia Group is the world’s largest political risk consultancy.

Eurasia Group is generally recognized to be the first to systematically bring political science as a discipline to Wall Street.

This approach includes the Eurasia Group Global Political Risk Index-the first qualitative comparative political and economic risk index designed specifically to measure stability in emerging markets.

The Eurasia Group is a corporation that generates revenue through consulting.

In review, the Eurasia Group is a “Firm devoted exclusively to helping investors and business decision-makers understand the impact of politics on risks and opportunities in foreign markets.” The website describes what they do such as political risk consultancy.

News is also reported such as this EURASIA GROUP’S TOP RISKS FOR 2020.

Eurasia Group

Eurasia Group’s portal provides clients with access to our current research, as well as a searchable archive of publications and conference call recordings.

The portal also has its own app for mobile and tablet, available from the App Store on both Apple and Android devices.

Post Idea #4: McDonald’s

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McDonald’S On The App Store

Plus save time by ordering ahead in the app and get exclusive deals.

Join MyMcDonald’s Rewards in the app to start earning points on every purchase and redeem for free McDonald’s.

Exclusive Deals and App Offers Get exclusive deals on your McDonald’s favorites in the app with contactless Mobile Order & Pay* and convenient Drive Thru or Curbside pickup.

McDelivery Order McDelivery through the app and get your food delivered to your door.

Download the McDonald’s app today and enjoy access to exclusive deals, MyMcDonald’s Rewards and much more.

The McDonald’s App is not currently compatible with smartwatches.

Family Sharing Up to six family members can use this app with Family Sharing enabled.

McDonald’S Menu Prices With Calories

Scroll below to discover McDonald’s menu prices and McDonald’s Calories.

McDonald’s menu is most notable for its variations of hamburgers, chicken sandwiches, $1 $2 $3 Dollar Menu, Breakfast Menu, their infamous McRib Sandwich.

Since its introduction to the menu in 1981, it has disappeared and reappeared more often than Houdini himself.

McDonald’s has discontinued the Salad menu in the United States.

The McDouble is also an affordable option for Bodybuilders looking to satisfy their McDonald’s cravings because it has 22 grams of protein.

McDonald’s calories are on the higher end of the spectrum and need to be considered to maintain a balanced diet.

Over the years, McDonald’s has changed their menu prices and added some new variations of its regular menu items.

Creators Of Ice Cream Maintenance Device Sue McDonald’S, Allege Multimillion-Dollar ‘Repair Racket’

A startup called Kytch created a device to fix notoriously finicky ice cream machines at McDonald’s and saw sweet, albeit brief, success.

Kytch co-founders Jeremy O’Sullivan and Melissa Nelson in 2019 launched the product trial of Kytch Solution, a computer device with an online interface that allows customers to remotely run the soft serve machines, the lawsuit said.

Under pressure from independent restaurant operators to integrate Kytch into the McDonald’s system, McDonald’s and Taylor worked to create a device called Open Kitchen, which has never launched, the lawsuit said.

Once cracking into Kytch’s products, they added features to Open Kitchen using feedback from Kytch customers, the lawsuit stated.

The lawsuit included a photo of an email sent by McDonald’s to franchisees in November 2020 that stated, “McDonald’s has recently determined that the Kytch device creates a potential very serious safety risk for the crew or technician attempting to clean or repair the machine” because it could unintentionally keep running and could “Cause serious human injury.”

Kytch lawyer Daniel Watkins said in a statement that McDonald’s and Taylor “Unfairly” competed with Kytch and interfered in its relationships with customers “To push Kytch out of the market.”

“McDonald’s infiltrated Kytch’s confidential product trial to access Kytch’s technology, while at the same time lying to consumers about Kytch’s purported lack of safety,” Watkins said.

McDonald’S Customer Satisfaction Survey On McDVoice.Com

We value your candid feedback and appreciate you taking the time to complete our survey.

Upon completion of this survey, you will be given a validation code that can be used to redeem the offer printed on your receipt.

Your ability to take this survey, and to redeem that offer, does not depend in any way on the answers you give or on how satisfied you were with your visit.

To begin, please enter the 26-digit Survey Code located in the middle of your receipt.


McDonald’s is an American fast food company, founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard and Maurice McDonald, in San Bernardino, California, United States.

In 1955, Ray Kroc, a businessman, joined the company as a franchise agent and proceeded to purchase the chain from the McDonald brothers.

In 1961, Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers’ equity in the company and began the company’s worldwide reach.

McDonald’s has opened a McDonald’s restaurant and McCafé on the underground premises of the French fine arts museum, The Louvre.

In New Zealand, McDonald’s sells meat pies, after local affiliate McDonald’s New Zealand partially relaunched the Georgie Pie fast food chain it bought out in 1996.

McDonald’s playgrounds are called McDonald’s PlayPlace.

The EUIPO ruled in Supermac’s favour, finding that McDonald’s “Has not proven genuine use” of many trademarks, cancelling McDonald’s owned trademarks such as “Big Mac” and certain “Mc”-related trademarks within the European Union.

Post Idea #5: Pension fund

Related Articles – Summarized

Pension Fund

Pension Fund offers a variety of products to support your current lifestyle, so you can focus on what you do best – serving your ministry.

When you’re ready, we’ll be here to return the favor.

As a nonprofit financial ministry, our calling is to serve you.

In the history of Pension Fund, no participant has experienced a reduction in pension or pension credits, nor suffered any loss in value of his or her retirement account.

Overview, How It Works, Open Vs Closed Funds

A pension plan is defined as a retirement plan where both employers and employees contribute capital into a pool of funds put aside for future pension payments.

Open pension funds are custodians of at least one pension plan with no membership restriction.

Closed pension funds support pension plans that are only open to specific employees.

Pension funds aim for portfolio diversification, allocating capital to different investment instruments.

For many years, pension funds were limited to investments primarily in government-backed securities, such as bonds with a high credit rating and Blue Chip.A blue chip is a stock of a well-established corporation with a reputation for reliability, quality, and financial stability.

Nowadays, many pension funds have transferred from active stock portfolio management to passive investment instruments, investing in index funds and in exchange-traded funds that track stock indexes.

Private equity investments are becoming more and more popular among pension funds.

How Do Pension Funds Work?

For some years now, traditional pension plans, also known as pension funds, have been gradually disappearing from the private sector.

This article explains how the remaining traditional pension plans work.

A pension plan might pay 1% for each year of the person’s service times their average salary for the final five years of employment.

The nation’s largest pension plan, the California Public Employees’ Retirement System, pays 2% per year in many instances.

There are two basic types of private pension plans: single-employer plans and multiemployer plans.

The PBGC acts as a pension insurance fund: Employers pay the PBGC an annual premium for each participant, and the PBGC guarantees that employees will receive retirement and other benefits if the employer goes out of business or decides to terminate its pension plan.

For private pension plans, those numbers are reflected in the financial obligations taken on by their insurer, the PBGC. At the end of its 2020 fiscal year, the PBGC had a net deficit of $48.2 billion.

Pension Funds Divesting From Russia Over Ukraine Invasion May Be New Weapon In Sanctions War

State and local pension funds that manage billions of dollars in retirement accounts for teachers, first responders and public employees may become the next tool for expanding economic sanctions on Russia following its invasion of Ukraine, a pension expert said Friday.

“Virtually every pension fund has some holdings. Russia is about 2% of the global GDP, so it’s fair to assume there’s a rough size of holdings in public pension funds,” Brainard said.

Brainard said elected officials, such as California Gov. Gavin Newsom, have recently called for divesting pension funds from Russia.

California Gov. Gavin Newsom has called on his state’s pension systems and treasurer to divest from Russia.

Other state pension systems could start feeling political pressure to divest following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

Still, Brainard said events have changed so rapidly in the past week following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine that it may “No longer be prudent to hold Russian assets.”

This article originally appeared on USA TODAY: Pension funds divesting from Russia over Ukraine invasion may be new weapon in sanctions war.

Second Big Pennsylvania Pension Fund To Divest Russia Assets

Second big Pennsylvania pension fund to divest Russia assets – The Morning Call HARRISBURG – The board of another big public pension system in Pennsylvania voted Friday to sell off its Russia-related investments, amid bipartisan calls from lawmakers and top state officials to respond to Russia’s attack on Ukraine.

The vote by the board of the State Employees’ Retirement System affects roughly $7 million of the $40 billion in assets the system reported having at the start of 2022, it said.

That exposure amounts to 0.02%. In a statement, the board’s chair, David Fillman, cited “Heightened volatility, risk and potential for losses resulting from exposure to Russia-related investments” and expressed sympathy for Ukrainians.

The board’s resolution also bars new investments in assets related to Russia or Belarus, a key ally of Russia in its attack on Ukraine.

On Thursday, the board of the $72.5 billion Public School Employees’ Retirement System took a similar vote to divest of nearly $300 million directly invested in Russia and Belarus.

The Treasury Department said it sold off as much of its $2.9 million it had invested in Russian companies as it could.

Providence Considers Borrowing Up To $515M For Pension Fund

Providence residents will soon decide whether they want the city to borrow up to $515 million for its pension system, which is one of the lowest-funded public pension plans among major U.S. cities.

The city’s pension working group said in January that the system’s $1.265 billion unfunded liability is the most significant obstacle to sustainable economic competitiveness and affordability, and a significant threat to the state’s fiscal sustainability.

State and local pension plans saw “Windfall returns” in 2021 that helped their balance sheets, but Providence didn’t have the assets on hand to fully take advantage of that growth, Draine said Friday.

“In situations like this, it can instead crowd out important public investments, whether it’s fixing roads or putting teachers in the classroom or the range of things cities and states are tasked with doing. With pension costs taking a larger share of public resources, you’re able to do fewer things that are directly benefiting people today.”

The unfunded pension liability in Providence increased by more than $1 billion since 1991, largely due to the city promising “Unsustainable benefit increases” to retirement system members more than 30 years ago without funding the associated annual contribution, the pension working group said.

The city emerged from bankruptcy after retirees’ pensions were cut, some by more than 50%. The heads of the Rhode Island Public Expenditure Council, Greater Providence Chamber of Commerce and Providence Foundation led the pension group.

U.S. Commerce Secretary Gina Raimondo spearheaded an overhaul of Rhode Island’s pension system to address the growing pension liability when she was state treasurer.

PSERS: Pennsylvania School Pension Fund To Divest Russian Assets

Pennsylvania school pension fund to divest Russian assets.

The Public School Employees’ Retirement System is one of the nation’s biggest public pension funds.

Pennsylvania’s biggest public pension system will begin to sell off its investments in Russia and Belarus, after its board unanimously voted to do so Thursday in light of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

The $72.5 billion Public School Employees’ Retirement System is one of the nation’s biggest public pension funds.

Governors and lawmakers in numerous U.S. states have been taking actions to pull state investments from Russian companies, while encouraging private entities to do the same.

In Pennsylvania, lawmakers have begun drafting legislation to require the state Treasury Department and the state’s three public pension funds to divest Russia-related holdings.

The State Employees’ Retirement System, which reported almost $36 billion in assets to start 2021, said the fund’s exposure to Russia-related investments amounts to a fraction of 1%. Its board planned to discuss the matter Friday.

Post Idea #6: The Pepsi Bottling Group

Related Articles – Summarized

The Pepsi Bottling Group

The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc. was the world’s largest bottler of Pepsi-Cola beverages.

The purchases were completed on February 26, 2010, forming a wholly owned PepsiCo subsidiary, the Pepsi Beverages Company.

On September 30, 2008, The Pepsi Bottling Group Inc. said that third-quarter earnings fell to $231 million, or $1.06 a share, compared to $260 million, or $1.12 a share, in the same period a year ago.

On November 19, 2008, The Pepsi Bottling Group announced it was cutting costs as part of a multiyear restructuring program to improve efficiencies in its global operations.

About 750 jobs were expected to be cut in Pepsi Bottling’s U.S. and Canada operations, including the closure of four facilities in the U.S. In Europe, operation streamlining would impact 200 jobs, while in Mexico, the closure of three plants, 30 distribution centers and 700 routes would impact 2,200 jobs.

On February 10, 2009, The Pepsi Bottling Group Inc. reported a net loss of $271 million in the fourth quarter and projected 2009 earnings below analysts’ expectations.

Rockstar will be distributed by The Pepsi Bottling Group, PepsiAmericas, Pepsi Bottling Ventures and other independent Pepsi-Cola bottlers in most of the United States and all of Canada.

The Pepsi Bottling Group, Inc.

1978: Pepsi Bottling Group is founded for company-owned bottling and distribution.

1999: Pepsi Bottling Group becomes an independent company.

Pepsi Bottling Group’s strongest presence is in the United States and Canada, but it also holds exclusive Pepsi franchises in Greece, Russia, and Spain as well as in most U.S. states and Canadian provinces.

Pepsi-Cola Bottling Group executives complained that the bottlers were hurting the company by neglecting this area.

In March 1999, PepsiCo spun off its soft drink bottling and distribution operations-what was known within the organization as Pepsi COBO&mdash The Pepsi Bottling Group Inc. In the fifth largest initial public offering in U.S. stock market history, PepsiCo sold 100 million shares at $23 a share.

Pepsi Bottling Group was focusing on enhancing the one-third of its business defined as ‘cold drink’ or single serve.

By the terms of Pepsi Bottling Group’s master bottling agreement with PepsiCo authorizing PBG to manufacture, package, sell, and distribute the cola beverages bearing the Pepsi-Cola and Pepsi trademarks, PBG was required to pay the concentrate prices determined by PepsiCo and to deploy the types of containers authorized by PepsiCo.

Post Idea #7: American depositary receipt

Related Articles – Summarized

The stocks of most foreign companies that trade in the U.S. markets are traded as American Depositary Receipts.

U.S. depositary banks issue these stocks.

Each ADR represents one or more shares of foreign stock or a fraction of a share.

If you own an ADR, you have the right to obtain the foreign stock it represents, but U.S. investors usually find it more convenient to own the ADR. The price of an ADR corresponds to the price of the foreign stock in its home market, adjusted to the ratio of the ADRs to foreign company shares.

For a more in depth discussion and additional materials, visit our International Investing page and our Investor Bulletin: American Depositary Receipts.

American Depositary Receipt Definition

Sponsored ADRs are categorized by what degree the foreign company complies with Securities and Exchange Commission regulations and American accounting procedures.

ADRs are U.S. dollar-denominated certificates that trade on American stock exchanges and track the price of a foreign company’s domestic shares.

The depositary bank is the institution that issues ADRs, maintains a record of the holders of ADRs, registers the trades carried out, and distributes the dividends or interest on shareholders’ equity payments in dollars to ADR holders.

In a sponsored ADR, the depositary bank works with the foreign company and their custodian bank in their home country to register and issue the ADRs.

An unsponsored ADR is instead issued by a depositary bank without the involvement, participation, or even the consent of the foreign company it represents ownership in.

Is an ADR the Same as an American Depositary Share?

American depositary shares are the actual underlying shares that the ADR represents.

What is an ADR? ADRs allow U.S. investors to invest in non-U.S. companies and give non-U.S. companies easier access to the U.S. capital markets.

Many non-U.S. issuers use ADRs as a means of raising capital or establishing a trading presence in the U.S. The non-U.S. company may sometimes be referred to as a “Foreign private issuer.” The first ADR was created in 1927 by a U.S. bank to allow U.S. investors to invest in shares of a British department store.

For one company, an ADR may represent several shares of the underlying security, while for another company, an ADR may represent a fraction of the underlying security.

ADR holders may also surrender ADRs in exchange for receiving the shares of the non-U.S. company.

ADRs may be “Sponsored” or “Unsponsored.” Sponsored ADRs are those in which the non-U.S. company enters into an agreement directly with the U.S. depositary bank to arrange for recordkeeping, www.

Market participants have generally categorized ADRs into three “Levels,” depending on the extent to which the foreign company has accessed the U.S. markets: Level 1 ADR programs establish a trading presence but may not be used to raise capital.

The non-U.S. company would be required to also file annual reports on Form 20-F. What fees are charged to ADR investors? As a matter of course, an ADR depositary bank may be authorized under the deposit agreement relating to the ADRs to charge a fee, called a custody fee, for the work it performs on the ADR. ADR depositary banks charge holders of ADRs custody fees, sometimes referred to as Depositary Services Fees, to compensate the depositary banks for inventorying the non-U.S. shares and performing registration, compliance, dividend payment, communication, and recordkeeping services.

Understanding American Depositary Receipts

The ratio of foreign shares to one ADR will vary from company to company, but each ADR for any one company will represent the same number of shares.

Level 3 is the highest level of an ADR program and requires the issuing company to meet even stricter reporting rules that are similar to those followed by US companies.

In rare cases, a US bank or broker may create an ADR without the support of the company that issued the underlying stock.

These securities-referred to as unsponsored ADRs-cannot be offered for sale to individual investors in the United States unless the foreign company files appropriate financial reports with the SEC or requests an exemption under Section 12g3-2(b). The SEC maintains a list of all 12g3-2(b)-qualified companies.

Because ADRs are issued by non-US companies, they entail special risks inherent to all foreign investments.

Political risk-the risk that politics or regime changes in the issuing company’s country will undermine exchange rates or destabilize the company and its earnings.

Depending on the level of the ADR program, investors also may not have access to the amount of information available on domestic companies, although Level 2 and 3 listings must meet reporting requirements that approach that of domestic companies.

American Depositary Receipts

The bank then issues ADRs that are equal to the value of the shares deposited with the bank, and the dealer/broker takes the ADR to US financial markets to sell them.

Sponsored ADR. For a sponsored ADR, the foreign company issuing shares to the public enters into an agreement with a US depositary bank to sell its shares in US markets.

Non-Sponsored ADR. A non-sponsored ADR is created by brokers/dealers without the cooperation of the foreign company issuing the shares.

A foreign company at this level can float a public offering of ADRs to raise capital from American investors through US exchanges.

ADRs are subject to cancellation at the discretion of either the foreign issuer or the depositary bank that created them.

The company must write to the owners of ADRs, giving them the option to swap their ADR for foreign securities represented by the receipts.

If the owner decides to hold onto their ADR certificates after the termination, the depositary bank will continue holding onto the foreign securities and collect dividends but will not sell more ADR securities.

American Depositary Receipts: What Are They?

These ADRs entitle the purchaser to the foreign stock they represent, even though the bank still has title to the underlying stock.

The Bank of New York, JPMorgan Chase, Deutsche Bank, and Citigroup are among the leading depositary banks, which create and issue ADRs.

Instead, you can buy ADRs of French companies that banks and brokers make available on the American exchanges or over the counter.

Standard market hours: ADRs trade during U.S. market hours; they are subject to similar clearing and settlement procedures as American stocks.

Limited selection: Not all foreign companies are available as ADRs.Liquidity: Plenty of companies have ADR programs available, but some may be very thinly traded.

Exchange rate risk: While ADRs are priced in dollars, for sake of convenience, your investment is still exposed to fluctuations in the value of foreign currencies.

ADRs have a number of unique differences relative to foreign stocks or traditional U.S. stocks that are equally important to consider.

American Depositary Receipt

An American depositary receipt is a negotiable security that represents securities of a foreign company and allows that company’s shares to trade in the U.S. financial markets.

Securities of a foreign company that are represented by an ADR are called American depositary shares.

Each ADR is issued by a domestic custodian bank when the underlying shares are deposited in a foreign depositary bank, usually by a broker who has purchased the shares in the open market local to the foreign company.

Level 2 depositary receipt programs are more complicated for a foreign company.

A Level 3 American Depositary Receipt program is the highest level a foreign company can sponsor.

One can either source new ADRs by depositing the corresponding domestic shares of the company with the depositary bank that administers the ADR program or, instead, one can obtain existing ADRs in the secondary market.

In 2013 a China-based company composed of various offshore holding companies called Autohome offered 7,820,000 American depositary shares representing its 7,820,000 Class A Ordinary Shares from its initial public offering.

Post Idea #8: MINI Countryman

Related Articles – Summarized


Check Out Full Specs The MINI Countryman SUV comes fully equipped with seating for 5 adults, 4 doors, a TwinPower Turbo engine configuration, and get from 0-60 in as little at 4.9 seconds with the JCW model.

Learn More See Local Inventory Contact your local dealer to find out which MINI Countryman SUVs are available in your area for you to own.

Learn More Get Behind the Wheel Contact your local dealer to learn more about the 2023 MINI Countryman SUV and how you can start adventuring with yours today.

Yes, the MINI Countryman is our largest and roomiest model yet.

What is the difference between the MINI Countryman and the Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle?

The difference between the MINI Countryman and the MINI Countryman PHEV is that the PHEV comes equipped with a battery that is used as the primary source of energy.

Is the MINI Countryman 4wd? The MINI Countryman has ALL4 all-wheel drive, giving you all the control you need for all roads in all seasons.

MINI’S Next 2024 Countryman To Get A 318 HP Plug-In Hybrid Option

The all-new third generation of the MINI Countryman is getting closer to its debut and new reports are highlighting the engine lineup of the SUV. According to Autocar, the flagship PHEV variant will produce a combined 318 hp making it the most powerful Mini to date.

The alleged combined output of 318 hp sent to all four wheels is superior to the current Cooper SE Countryman ALL4 PHEV which makes 224 hp.

It is even more powerful than the current performance-focused MINI Countryman JCW which makes 301 hp from the 2.0-liter TwinPower Turbo four-cylinder engine.

The new plug-in hybrid Countryman will reportedly offer an electric range of up to 89 km, more than double of its predecessor’s 42 km range.

Besides the flagship model, MINI will reportedly offer a second plug-in hybrid option with a lower combined output of 172 hp.

As we have seen from numerous spy photos, the Countryman will retain the signature elements of the MINI brand but with a cleaner approach.

The MINI Countryman will share an updated version of the FAAR platform with the upcoming BMW X1 and X2 which will be produced in the same Leipzig factory in Germany.

Next-Gen Mini Countryman PHEV Getting 322 HP Powertrain: Report

It’s not a secret that Mini is cooking up a new generation Countryman.

We’ve already seen prototypes testing on public roads and a new report claims the model’s most potent version will be a plug-in hybrid,.

According to Autocar, the Countryman PHEV will be launched as Mini’s most powerful production car in history, even more powerful than the Mini JCW GP hot hatch.

For now, we don’t know whether this powerful new hybrid will receive the JCW badge, though we know Mini plans to use the suffix on electrified models in the future.

As a side note, the battery of the new PHEV can be fully recharged in about 2.5 hours from a 7.4 kW charger.

The engine range of the new Countryman will reportedly also feature a less powerful version of the same plug-in powertrain with a system output of 241 hp.

Autocar claims the new Countryman will be positioned in the segment of the Toyota RAV4 and Nissan Qashqai, rather than the Toyota CH-R and Nissan Juke segment.

The MINI range is growing and so is the MINI Countryman as the next-generation of the brand’s retro-styled SUV will be slightly larger, rivalling the likes of the Audi Q3, the Volvo XC40 and BMW’s own X1. Due to arrive in 2023, the reimagined Countryman will move up in order to make way for a couple of new entries into the MINI lineup.

MINI launches new special-edition trim levels for entire range.

Though its larger proportions may suggest otherwise, the new Countryman’s design will still unmistakably be that of a MINI. As you can see from our exclusive images, the new car should continue to feature the brand’s iconic circular headlight design and rounded grille.

While there is little information regarding the new Countryman’s interior, we can once again expect it to be similar in style to the 2023 MINI hatch.

The next-generation MINI Countryman is set to share many of its parts with the current model and will be offered in both fully-electric and 48-volt mild hybrid form.

The PHEV powertrain is set to be dropped, with former MINI boss Bernd Körber saying: “I think once you get EVs to a certain range, for the MINI use case, I don’t see a big market for PHEV”.

MINI Countryman Cooper variants are expected to use the same engine, but with 168bhp and mild-hybrid assistance for greater fuel efficiency.

New 2023 Mini Countryman PHEV To Be Firm’S Most Powerful Car

Plug-in hybrid Countryman will use a 322bhp set-up from the BMW 2 Series Active Tourer The next-generation Mini Countryman plug-in hybrid, due next year, will be theBMW -owned brand’s most powerful series-production model yet.

The Countryman will share its FAAR front-driven architecture with the all-new BMW 2 Series Active Tourer and be produced alongside that model and the upcoming X1 crossover in Leipzig, Germany.

It is set to use the same range of petrol and plug-in hybrid powertrains, the most potent of which will be a four-wheel-drive PHEV set-up with a combined output that shades even that of the current Mini JCW GP hot hatchback.

The powertrain will pair a 1.5-litre three-cylinder petrol engine with a 174bhp electric motor for a combined output of 322bhp, making the model substantially quicker than today’s 217bhp Countryman Cooper S E All4.

A 14.2kWh battery will supply it with around 55 miles of EV range, a near-100% increase.

It can be fully charged in 2.5 hours f. Full story on autocar.co.uk.

Mini Countryman 2.0 Cooper S Untamed Edition 5dr [Comfort] Auto 2022 Review

The Mini Countryman offers a good combination of space, style and desirability, with a beautifully finished interior and an excellent infotainment system among its virtues.

Many rivals are cheaper and better equipped, while the Ford Puma is much more fun to drive and the Volkswagen T-Roc a lot quieter and more comfortable.

Our advice is stick to the cheaper versions for the best value for money, although the plug-in PHEV is a cheap company car.

The 2.0-litre four-cylinder Cooper S is smoother than the 1,5-litre Cooper engine, sounds sportier and it’s quite a bit quicker, hitting 0-62mph in 7.6sec.

The JCW performance model is even more powerful and faster still.

At What Car?, we believe that no one should overpay for their new car, which is why we created our free New Car Buying service.

This links you with trusted local dealers who base their offers on prices haggled by our mystery shoppers.

2023 Mini Cooper Countryman Review, Pricing, And Specs

Overview The 2023 Mini Cooper Countryman’s plus-size proportions-plus-size for Mini, that is-make it more useful than most other Mini models, which are more suited handling two passengers.

The 2023 Countryman doesn’t embody the Mini ethos, but its distinctive bodywork and well-built interior at least let it look the part.

What’s New for 2023?For 2023, Mini adds a special edition to the Countryman lineup.

We’d option our Countryman with the mid-level Signature Trim package for its 8.8-inch touchscreen infotainment system, dual-zone climate control, heated front seats, and passive entry.

The plug-in-hybrid model is the quickest non-JCW Countryman we’ve tested, but it’s also the most expensive.

More on the Countryman SUV Fuel Economy and Real-World MPGThe most fuel-efficient Countryman is the plug-in-hybrid Cooper S E, which has a combined EPA rating of 73 MPGe.

On our 75-mph highway fuel-economy route, the Cooper S Countryman All4 returned a decent 32 mpg.

Post Idea #9: Plug-in hybrid

Related Articles – Summarized

With four doors, ample cargo space, and room for five, the 2022 Ioniq is Hyundai’s answer to the Toyota Prius.

Like its liftback rival, the Ioniq is available as a standard gas-electric hybrid or a plug-in hybrid, which adds a rechargeable battery pack for extended electric-only operation.

True to Hyundai’s ethos, the Ioniq offers plenty of features at a lower cost than its competitors.

As a hybrid commuter, the Ioniq is a compelling pick.

The Ioniq’s thoughtful, comfortable cabin doesn’t extend to the seats, which are fine for short trips but grow stiff and shapeless on longer drives.

It’s also available in standard and plug-in versions, but unlike the Ioniq, it offers optional all-wheel drive.

Some buyers will prefer the Ioniq’s conventional design to the Prius’ more flamboyant and futuristic lines.

Plug-In Hybrids

Plug-in hybrids, sometimes called Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles, are hybrids with high-capacity batteries that can be charged by plugging them into an electrical outlet or charging station.

Series plug-in hybrids, also called Extended Range Electric Vehicles.

Some plug-in hybrids have higher-capacity batteries and can go further on electricity than others.

Plug-in hybrids use roughly 30% to 60% less petroleum than conventional vehicles.

Since electricity is produced mostly from domestic resources, plug-in hybrids reduce oil dependence.

Plug-in hybrids typically emit less greenhouse gas than conventional vehicles.

Since a plug-in can operate on electricity alone, gasoline alone, or a mixture of the two, EPA provides a fuel economy estimate for gasoline-only operation and an estimate for electric-only or gas-and-electric operation-both for combined city-highway driving.

Best Plug-In Hybrids For 2021

While driving, reviewers also look for a melding of attributes relative to the expectations set by the manufacturer about the specific vehicle and by consumer expectations of the segment.

Comfort can be subjective, but the reviewer also considers passenger space measurements compared with the segment and competitive vehicles.

Features are objective and compared against the number and type of standard and available features in segment and competitive set.

Extra points may be awarded for exceptional available or standard features or user-friendly infotainment setups.

Cars may also lose points for substandard features, or for making certain features only available on pricey option packages of poor relative value.

Safety The safety score is based on three elements: crash test results from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety; the number of standard advanced driver-assistance safety technology features, such as blind spot monitoring, forward collision warning, emergency automatic braking, lane keeping assistance and adaptive cruise control; and visibility.

Cars with official crash data gain points for a five-star overall rating by the NHTSA, or Top Safety Pick/Top Safety Pick+ status by the IIHS. Vehicles not yet rated by either agency will not lose points.

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, also called plug-ins or PHEVs, are becoming an increasingly popular choice among consumers because while they encourage lower emissions and reduce fuel costs, they’re not completely electric cars.

The Ford Escape is a compact crossover available as a plug-in hybrid model and a hybrid version.

Santa Fe buyers may find themselves torn between purchasing the hybrid version of the PHEV. The 2022 model features a 13.8-kilowatt-hour battery pack; this makes it eligible for a $6,587 tax credit, making the PHEV cheaper than the hybrid version.

If you are looking for the best plug-in hybrid SUV for unmatched luxury, excellent towing capacity, and some off-road capability, then the 2022 Lincoln Aviator Grand Touring PHEV will impress beyond its high price tag.

The 2022 Subaru Crosstrek is a member of the subcompact SUV class, and despite its hybrid description, it is actually a plug-in hybrid SUV. All-wheel-drive is standard across all models, and if you are looking for an outdoorsy, go-anywhere, no-nonsense SUV, then the Crosstrek Hybrid will tick off your requirements.

The 2022 Subaru Crosstrek Hybrid has a larger battery than a regular hybrid vehicle and can cover 17 miles on electric power.

At the time of writing, the plug-hybrid is yet to release, but we know a thing or two about what’s coming if you have some time to spare before purchasing your plug-in hybrid SUV. The Range Rover PHEV will be powered by a six-cylinder engine and a 38.2-kWh battery.

Hybrids Vs. Plug-In Hybrids: Pros And Cons

In addition to hybrids and plug-in hybrids, the universe of electrified vehicles includes full-electric vehicles that are powered solely by a large battery pack and have no gasoline engine.

Here are the similarities, differences, and pros and cons of hybrids and plug-in hybrids.

Conventional hybrids use their gasoline engines to keep their modestly sized batteries charged as you drive, with no need to plug them in, and virtually every major maker offers HEV cars, SUVs, and trucks.

Hybrids do not tend to get substantially improved mileage during steady highway cruising.

Plug-In Hybrids: More Range, More CostMore than a few manufacturers have taken the further step of adding larger batteries to their hybrids, which you recharge by plugging them into either a standard 120-volt household outlet or a 240-volt charging unit.

Hybrid Costs vs. Hybrid Benefits Finally, there is the financial side of hybrid ownership.

Does the inherently higher price of a hybrid or plug-in-hybrid vehicle make sense when compared with similar, conventional gas-engine vehicles? In these days of cheap gasoline, the math often doesn’t work out in favor of a hybrid.

Plug-In Hybrid

A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery pack can be recharged by plugging a charging cable into an external electric power source, in addition to internally by its on-board internal combustion engine-powered generator.

The Honda Accord Plug-in Hybrid was released in selected U.S. markets in January 2013, and the Mitsubishi Outlander P-HEV in Japan in January 2013, becoming the first SUV plug-in hybrid in the market.

The carmaker plans to introduce 10 new plug-in hybrid models by 2017, and its next release was the Mercedes-Benz C 350 e, Mercedes’ second plug-in hybrid after the S 500 Plug-In Hybrid.

PHEVs are based on the same three basic powertrain architectures of conventional hybrids; a series hybrid is propelled by electric motors only, a parallel hybrid is propelled both by its internal combustion engine and by electric motors operating concurrently, and a series-parallel hybrid operates in either mode.

One label is for series hybrid or extended range electric vehicle, with all-electric and gasoline-only modes; and a second label for blended mode or series-parallel hybrid, that includes a combination of both gasoline and plug-in electric operation; and gasoline only, like a conventional hybrid vehicle.

In the case of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle when operating in hybrid mode with assistance of the internal combustion engine, tailpipe and greenhouse emissions are lower in comparison to conventional cars because of their higher fuel economy.

The incentives consist of tax reductions and exemptions, as well as of bonus payments for buyers of all-electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, hybrid vehicles, and some alternative fuel vehicles.

Post Idea #10: Self-driving car

Related Articles – Summarized

Self-Driving Car

According to Fortune, some newer vehicles’ technology names-such as AutonoDrive, PilotAssist, Full-Self Driving or DrivePilot-might confuse the driver, who may believe no driver input is expected when in fact the driver needs to remain involved in the driving task.

Some car makers suggest or claim vehicles are self-driving when they are not able to manage some driving situations.

PC Magazine defines a self-driving car as “a computer-controlled car that drives itself.” The Union of Concerned Scientists states that self-driving cars are “Cars or trucks in which human drivers are never required to take control to safely operate the vehicle. Also known as autonomous or ‘driverless’ cars, they combine sensors and software to control, navigate, and drive the vehicle.”

There are different systems that help the self-driving car control the car, including the car navigation system, the location system, the electronic map, the map matching, the global path planning, the environment perception, the laser perception, the radar perception, the visual perception, the vehicle control, the perception of vehicle speed and direction, and the vehicle control method.

Initially, Tesla pointed out that the vehicle was so badly damaged from the impact that their recorder was not able to conclusively prove that the car had been on autopilot at the time; however, 163.com pointed out that other factors, such as the car’s absolute failure to take any evasive actions prior to the high speed crash, and the driver’s otherwise good driving record, seemed to indicate a strong likelihood that the car was on autopilot at the time.

Occupant Protection is intended to modernize the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards considering the removal of manual controls with automated driving systems, while the Framework document is intended to provide an objective way to define and assess automated driving system competence to ensure motor vehicle safety while also remaining flexible to accommodate the development of features to improve safety.

The Act allows motor vehicles with autonomous driving capabilities, meaning vehicles that can perform driving tasks independently without a person driving, in specified operating areas on public roads.

Self-Driving Cars: Everything You Need To Know

This guide will walk you through what you need to know about automotive autopilot, self-driving technology, and driver aids today and tomorrow.

All these systems require drivers to keep their eyes focused ahead. Drivers need to be ready at all times to take over control of the car at a moment’s notice.

Virtually every automaker selling cars in the U.S. today offers driver-assistance systems that can reduce the workload on the driver.

Crucially, Full Self-Driving does not allow the driver to take their attention from the road. They may temporarily take their hands from the wheel but should be prepared to take over driving at any moment.

The company said it did “Not expect significant enhancements” that would “Shift the responsibility for the entire dynamic driving task to the system.” Instead, the letter said, Full Self-Driving “Will continue to be an SAE Level 2, advanced driver assistance feature.”

It includes a driver monitoring system that watches the driver’s eyes and warns them if their attention seems to be drifting from the road. GM says, “Super Cruise allows the driver to drive hands-free when compatible road driving conditions allow the feature to be available. But the driver still needs to pay close attention to the road. Even while using the Super Cruise driver assistance technology, drivers should always pay attention while driving and not use a hand-held device.”

In Blue Cruise-equipped cars, the driver’s instrument cluster switches to a blue background when driving on a road where the system can be activated.

What Are Self-Driving Cars And How Do They Work?

Developers of self-driving cars use vast amounts of data from image recognition systems, along with machine learning and neural networks, to build systems that can drive autonomously.

The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration lays out six levels of automation, beginning with Level 0, where humans do the driving, through driver assistance technologies up to fully autonomous cars.

Level 3: An automated driving system can perform all driving tasks under certain circumstances, such as parking the car.

Level 4: An ADS can perform all driving tasks and monitor the driving environment in certain circumstances.

A successful Level 5 car must be able to react to novel driving situations as well or better than a human can.

Autonomous cars remove those risk factors from the equation – though self-driving cars are still vulnerable to other factors, such as mechanical issues, that cause crashes.

People who aren’t able to drive due to physical limitations could find new independence through autonomous vehicles and would have the opportunity to work in fields that require driving.

Self-Driving Cars Technology & Solutions

With NVIDIA DRIVE Concierge, vehicle occupants have access to intelligent services that are always on using NVIDIA DRIVE IX and NVIDIA Omniverse.

Driving platform based on the NVIDIA DRIVE AV SDK and can drive from address to address.

For those who want to drive, it can also provide active safety features and intervene in dangerous scenarios.

Tesla And The Ethics Of Self-Driving Cars

Self-driving technology has come a long way in recent years, but it remains far from perfect.

That’s partially because of decisions made – not by the cars – but by programmers.

Tesla recalled 54,000 cars because of a feature built into the car’s autopilot that allowed it to roll through stop signs.

Today, On Point: Who should regulate the program in self-driving cars?

Rebecca Heilweil, reporter for Vox, covering emerging technologies, artificial intelligence and logistics.

John Bernal, former Tesla employee who is beta testing Tesla’s Full Self-Driving on his YouTube channel AI Addict.

Vox: “Why Tesla won’t stop” – “Tesla announced two massive recalls this week related to issues with its vehicles’ software. One of the recalls ordered Tesla to roll back a self-driving feature that caused the company’s cars to break the law.”

California OKs Self-Driving Ridehail Car Tests With Paying Customers In 2 Counties

The California Public Utilities Commission issued permits to self-driving units of General Motors and Google to allow for passenger service in autonomous vehicles with safety drivers present.

The agency said the GM unit Cruise and Google-parent Alphabet’s Waymo are under Drivered Deployment permits authorized to collect fares from passengers and may offer shared rides.

Prior to the announcement Cruise and Waymo had been permitted to provide passenger service only on a testing basis with no fare collection permitted.

Cruise is allowed to provide the “Drivered Deployment” service on some public roads in San Francisco County between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. at speeds of up to 30 miles per hour, while Waymo can offer service in parts of San Francisco and San Mateo counties at speeds of up to 65 miles per hour.

Waymo on Monday said it would use what it has learned operating its autonomous commercial ride hail service in Arizona and apply it “To our growing service in San Francisco.”

Prashanthi Raman, Cruise’s vice president for global government affairs, said in a statement the announcement was “Another positive incremental step forward. Our mission has always been to launch a driverless commercial ridehail service here in San Francisco, and that’s what we’ll continue working with our regulators to deliver.”

Support Times of San Diego With the generous support of readers like you, Times of San Diego publishes timely and accurate news coverage for a better-informed community.

First Person: Behind The Wheel Of A ‘Self-Driving’ Tesla

A Tesla car is displayed in a showroom at a Brooklyn Tesla dealership on April 4, 2017 in New York City.This is part of our hour on Tesla and the ethics of self-driving cars.

In a podcast special, we share what it’s like behind the wheel when Tesla software is in action.

MEGHNA CHAKRABARTI: John Bernal is a former Tesla employee who helped train their beta software, and he now drives a Tesla Model 3 Long Range.

Sometimes you might drive the vehicle, and it might be a flawless drive.

BERNAL: As a human, you would kind of go over a lane line just smooth and make it a better driving experience.

I am driving in San Jose, trying to get some In and Out.

The Tesla subconscious autopilot kicked in, slammed the brakes before I could even take my foot off the gas pedal.

Post Idea #11: Velodyne Lidar

Related Articles – Summarized

Investor Relations

Highlights of a few of Velodyne Lidar’s exciting partners that have recently joined the Automated with Velodyne™ program.

These innovators are shaping the future of automation.

As demand for automation grows by the day, we are seeing exciting new uses of Velodyne’s lidar sensors worldwide.

Velodyne Lidar PT Lowered To $5.90

Zacks Investment Research raised Velodyne Lidar from a sell rating to a hold rating in a research report on Friday, January 7th. Citigroup lowered their price objective on Velodyne Lidar from $8.00 to $4.50 in a research report on Wednesday, January 19th. Finally, Craig Hallum cut Velodyne Lidar from a hold rating to a sell rating and lowered their price objective for the stock from $3.50 to $2.50 in a research report on Tuesday.

Velodyne Lidar had a negative return on equity of 81.85% and a negative net margin of 462.29%. The business’s quarterly revenue was down 1.7% compared to the same quarter last year.

A number of institutional investors and hedge funds have recently bought and sold shares of VLDR. Vanguard Group Inc. raised its stake in Velodyne Lidar by 54.1% during the 2nd quarter.

State Street Corp raised its stake in Velodyne Lidar by 5,954.1% during the 2nd quarter.

BlackRock Inc. raised its stake in Velodyne Lidar by 22.6% during the 4th quarter.

Two Sigma Investments LP raised its stake in Velodyne Lidar by 1,033.0% during the 3rd quarter.

Finally, Millennium Management LLC raised its stake in Velodyne Lidar by 113.8% during the 4th quarter.

Velodyne Lidar shares have dropped ~6% pre-market after the lidar technology firm reported its Q4 results Monday.

The company generated revenue of $17.54M, down 1.7% Y/Y but beating analysts estimates by $0.95M. Product revenue fell from $14.41M in Q420 to $13.7M, while license and services revenue grew to $3.9M compared with $3.44M last year.

Over 4,900 sensor units were sold during the period, representing a quarterly record.

Net loss narrowed from -$111.46M in the prior year quarter to -$37.47M. The company ended the year with $294.4M of cash and short-term investments.

CEO update: “During the fourth quarter of 2021, we achieved record quarterly sensor shipments, bringing our lifetime shipments to more than 67,000. In 2022, we plan to focus on four strategic pillars to make lidar ubiquitous and accelerate our path to profitable revenue growth.”

Velodyne Lidar guided Q122 revenue below estimates, expecting revs of $10-$12M vs. $19.38M consensus.

Morgan Stanley kept an Overweight rating on VLDR after weighing on the company’s Q4 earnings report.

Velodyne Lidar Inc. At $3.47: It’S Worth Your Attention – Stocks Register

Velodyne Lidar Inc. price on Wednesday, March 02, fall -3.34% below its previous day’s close as a downside momentum from buyers pushed the stock’s value to $3.47.

Velodyne Lidar Inc.’s market cap currently stands at around $676.27 million, with investors looking forward to this quarter’s earnings report slated for Feb 23, 2022 – Feb 28, 2022.

The average rating for the stock is Hold which could provide an opportunity for investors keen on increasing their holdings of the company’s stock.

Further, Velodyne Lidar Inc. has a beta value of 0.92, and an average true range of 0.33.

If we refocus on Velodyne Lidar Inc., historical trading data shows that trading volumes averaged 3.65 million over the past 10 days and 5.14 million over the past 3 months.

The 5.90% of Velodyne Lidar Inc.’s shares are in the hands of company insiders while institutional holders own 20.80% of the company’s shares.

The data shows that as of Dec 14, 2021 short interest in Velodyne Lidar Inc. stood at 12.88% of shares outstanding, with shares short rising to 23.02 million registered in Nov 14, 2021.

Velodyne Lidar, Inc. Q4 2021 Earnings Call Transcript

Good day, and welcome to the Velodyne Lidar fourth quarter and year-end 2021 financial results conference call.

Thank you for joining us today to discuss Velodyne Lidar’s fourth quarter and year-end 2021 financial results.

I’m very excited to be on my first call as CEO of Velodyne Lidar.

With over 67,000 sensors shipped to date, Velodyne has established itself as a clear leader in shipping Lidar at scale.

In warehouses, our customers are using Velodyne Lidar enabled robotics to move goods with a high level of precision, efficiency and safety, helping to maintain continuity of operations.

Velodyne is actively working with the National Highway Transportation Safety Administration and other government agencies to update performance standards and require the safety performance that Lidar can provide to help protect vulnerable road users.

The vesting of the warrant shares is based on these discretionary payments made pursuant to existing commercial agreements with Velodyne and Amazon, any possible future commercial agreements between Velodyne and Amazon, and the anticipated entry into an agreement between Velodyne and Amazon related to the use of Velodyne’s technology.

Velodyne Lidar Stock Forecast, Price & News

Velodyne Lidar, Inc. operates as an automotive technology company, which engages in the provision of real-time three dimensional vision for autonomous systems.

The firm’s products include solid state sensors, surround sensors, and software solutions.

It also develops and produces Lidar sensors for use in industrial, 3D mapping, drones, and auto applications.

Velodyne Lidar Inc. Is On The Roll With An Average Volume Of 5.12M In The Recent 3 Months – Invest Chronicle

Let’s start up with the current stock price of Velodyne Lidar Inc., which is $3.57 to be very precise.

The Stock rose vividly during the last session to $3.815 after opening rate of $3.75 while the lowest price it went was recorded $3.57 before closing at $3.69.Recently in News on February 28, 2022, Velodyne Lidar Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2021 Financial Results.

Velodyne Lidar Inc. full year performance was -77.74%. Price records that include history of low and high prices in the period of 52 weeks can tell a lot about the stock’s existing status and the future performance.

Presently, Velodyne Lidar Inc. shares are logging -79.23% during the 52-week period from high price, and 14.15% higher than the lowest price point for the same timeframe.

In a similar fashion, Velodyne Lidar Inc. posted a movement of -37.43% for the period of last 100 days, recording 4,699,573 in trading volumes.

Raw Stochastic average of Velodyne Lidar Inc. in the period of last 50 days is set at 19.20%. The result represents improvement in oppose to Raw Stochastic average for the period of the last 20 days, recording 16.01%. In the last 20 days, the company’s Stochastic %K was 22.55% and its Stochastic %D was recorded 24.55%. If we look into the earlier routines of Velodyne Lidar Inc., multiple moving trends are noted.

Year-to-date Price performance of the company’s stock appears to be encouraging, given the fact the metric is recording -20.47%. Additionally, trading for the stock in the period of the last six months notably deteriorated by -45.81%, alongside a downfall of -77.74% for the period of the last 12 months.

Post Idea #12: Master limited partnership

Related Articles – Summarized

Master Limited Partnership Definition

The MLP is a unique hybrid legal entity that combines elements of two business structures-a partnership and a corporation.

Limited partners are investors who purchase shares in the MLP and provide the capital for the entity’s operations.

An MLP is treated as a limited partnership for tax purposes.

Advantages of Master Limited Partnerships MLPs are known for offering slow investment opportunities.

Disadvantages of Master Limited Partnerships MLPs are extremely tax-efficient for investors.

MLP investors are required to pay state income taxes on their allocated portion of income in each state in which the MLP operates, which increases their costs.

An investor interested in buying MLPs could consider investing in a portfolio of MLPs that is diversified across sectors in order to reduce risk.

Overview, Features, Advantages

A master limited partnership is a publicly-traded business venture that combines the features of a Corporation.

A master limited partnership pools the tax benefits of a private partnership and liquidity of a publicly-traded business.

Summary A master limited partnership is a hybrid business venture that combines the features of a corporation and a limited partnership.

Features of a Master Limited PartnershipA master limited partnership is not considered a separate legal entity like a corporation – rather, it is treated as an aggregate of existing partners.

These partnerships issue “Units” similar to partnerships instead of shares; however, the units can be traded on a national stock exchange.

A master limited partnership receives the tax benefit features of a limited partnership, wherein the businesses are exempted from paying the corporate tax on their revenues.

Advantages of a Master Limited PartnershipA master limited partnership provides investors with consistent distributions.

Yields Up To 14.8%

Pipeline companies make up the vast majority of MLPs. Since MLPs widely offer high yields, they are naturally appealing for income investors.

The first MLP was Apache Oil Company, which was quickly followed by other energy MLPs, and then real estate MLPs. The MLP space expanded rapidly until a great many companies from diverse industries operated as MLPs – including the Boston Celtics basketball team.

MLPs tend to have high yields far in excess of the broader market.

As of this writing, the S&P 500 yields ~2.1%, while the Alerian MLP ETF yields over 25%. Many individual MLPs have yields above 10%. Disadvantages of MLPs. Disadvantage #1: Complicated tax situation.

One of the big advantages of investing in MLPs is their high yields.

MLPs with current distribution yields below 2% were not considered.

MLPs are generally attractive for income investors, due to their high yields.


MPLX is a diversified, large-cap master limited partnership formed by Marathon Petroleum Corporation that owns and operates midstream energy infrastructure and logistics assets, and provides fuels distribution services.

MPLX’s assets include a network of crude oil and refined product pipelines; an inland marine business; light-product terminals; storage caverns; refinery tanks, docks, loading racks, and associated piping; and crude and light-product marine terminals.

The company also owns crude oil and natural gas gathering systems and pipelines as well as natural gas and natural gas liquids processing and fractionation facilities in key U.S. supply basins.

Master Limited Partnership

While the “MLP” and “PTP” terms are commonly used interchangeably, MLPs are technically a type of limited partnership that conducts its operations through subsidiaries, and are not always publicly traded.

While most PTPs are organized as MLPs, a PTP may be organized as a limited liability company that elects to be taxed as a partnership.

Real estate companies soon followed, and by the mid-1980s, MLPs became so popular that they were adopted in a variety of industries, such as restaurants, hotels and cable TV. Even the Boston Celtics basketball team became an MLP. Section 7704 of the Revenue Act of 1987 limited which businesses could be MLPs, delineating that an MLP must earn at least 90% of its gross income from qualifying sources, which were strictly defined as the transportation, processing, storage, and production of natural resources and minerals.

Like all partnerships, MLPs have two classes of ownership: the general partner(s) which make the decisions, and the limited partners which contribute funds and participate in the economics.

The general partner owes no fiduciary duty to the limited partners; however, many MLPs have incentive distribution rights, which are designed to align the interests of all parties.

MLPs pay their investors through quarterly required distributions, the amount of which is stated in the partnership agreement, or contract, between the limited partners and the general partner.

Limited partners may also record a pro-rated share of the MLP’s depreciation on their own tax forms to reduce liability.

Post Idea #13: Stock market

Related Articles – Summarized

Stock Market

A stock market, equity market, or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers of stocks, which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange, as well as stock that is only traded privately, such as shares of private companies which are sold to investors through equity crowdfunding platforms.

Stock exchanges may also cover other types of securities, such as fixed-interest securities or derivatives, which are more likely to be traded OTC. Trade in stock markets means the transfer of a stock or security from a seller to a buyer.

“A stock market is crucial to the existence of capitalism and private property. For it means that there is a functioning market in the exchange of private titles to the means of production. There can be no genuine private ownership of capital without a stock market: there can be no true socialism if such a market is allowed to exist.”

A stock market crash is often defined as a sharp dip in share prices of stocks listed on the stock exchanges.

There have been a number of famous stock market crashes like the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the stock market crash of 1973-4, the Black Monday of 1987, the Dot-com bubble of 2000, and the Stock Market Crash of 2008.

The 2020 stock market crash was a major and sudden global stock market crash that began on 20 February 2020 and ended on 7 April.

Some examples are exchange-traded funds, stock index and stock options, equity swaps, single-stock futures, and stock index futures.

Post Idea #14: Protein kinase

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Protein kinases are enzymes that regulate the biological activity of proteins by phosphorylation of specific amino acids with ATP as the source of phosphate, thereby inducing a conformational change from an inactive to an active form of the protein.

Such subcellular distribution may be determined by amino acid sequence motifs present in the kinase protein itself or by other proteins with which kinase activities associate.

Regulation of protein phosphorylation by protein kinase activities that catalyze the addition of phosphate to proteins and phosphatase activities that remove phosphate from proteins.

Many proteins have multiple phosphorylation sites that are regulated by different protein kinases enabling integration of multiple signaling pathways through a common substrate via protein phosphorylation.

The main protein kinases consist of PKA, PKG, and PKC32 as well as tyrosyl protein kinases.

Phosphorylation of these proteins is short lived because protein phosphatases rapidly dephosphorylate proteins previously phosphorylated by protein kinases, thus terminating the intracellular signal.

Many signaling cascades involving protein kinases require dynamic control and spatial compartmentalization of kinase activity, which needs to be tracked continuously in different compartments and signaling microdomains in living cells; however, traditional methods to study protein kinases activity only provide static and limited snapshots of signaling events and fail to capture the dynamic changes of kinase activity.

Protein Kinase

A protein kinase is a kinase which selectively modifies other proteins by covalently adding phosphates to them as opposed to kinases which modify lipids, carbohydrates, or other molecules.

The human genome contains about 500 protein kinase genes and they constitute about 2% of all human genes.

Activity of MAP kinases is restricted by a number of protein phosphatases, which remove the phosphate groups that are added to specific serine or threonine residues of the kinase and are required to maintain the kinase in an active conformation.

The intracellular or cytoplasmic Protein kinase domain is responsible for the kinase activity, as well as several regulatory functions.

When several amino acids suitable for phosphorylation are present in the kinase domain, the activity of the kinase can increase with the number of phosphorylated amino acids; in this case, the first phosphorylation switches the kinase from “Off” to “Standby”.

MEK, which is involved in the MAP kinase cascade, is a mixed serine/threonine and tyrosine kinase and is a dual-specificity kinase.

Drug developments for kinase inhibitors are started from kinase assays, the lead compounds are usually profiled for specificity before moving into further tests.

Protein Kinases: Structure, Function, And Regulation

In this lecture, I have given an overview of protein kinase structure and function using cyclic AMP dependent kinase as a prototype for this enzyme superfamily.

I have demonstrated what we have learned from the overall structural kinome which allows us to compare many protein kinases and also to appreciate how the highly regulated eukaryotic protein kinase has evolved.

By comparing many protein kinase structures, we are beginning to elucidate general rules of architecture.

Regulation of protein kinases; controlling activity through activation segment conformation.

Active and inactive protein kinases: structural basis for regulation.

A helix scaffold for the assembly of active protein kinases.

Surface comparison of active and inactive protein kinases identifies a conserved activation mechanism.

Protein Kinases: Evolution Of Dynamic Regulatory Proteins

Eukayotic protein kinases evolved as a family of highly dynamic molecules with strictly organized internal architecture.

A single hydrophobic F-helix serves as a central scaffold for assembly of the entire molecule.

Two non-consecutive hydrophobic structures termed “Spines” anchor all the elements important for catalysis to the F-helix.

They make firm, but flexible, connections within the molecule, providing a high level of internal dynamics of the protein kinase.

During the course of evolution, protein kinases developed a universal regulatory mechanism associated with a large activation segment that can be dynamically folded and unfolded in the course of cell functioning.

Protein kinases thus represent a unique, highly dynamic, and precisely regulated set of switches that control most biological events in eukaryotic cells.

Definition Of Protein Kinase By Medical Dictionary

Any of a group of kinases that phosphorylate the amino acids serine, threonine, and tyrosine in certain proteins, that regulate essential aspects of cell growth and movement, and that can cause cancer and other diseases when dysfunctional.

Protein kinase This name was officially retired in 2005; however, although the term is nonspecific, it is still in common use.

Protein kinase an ENZYME that catalyses the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to an AMINO ACID in a PROTEIN. In this way, the activity of enzymes can be decreased or increased.

By thus altering proteins, kinases are thought to be important in mediating various processes in the CELL. Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed.

Post Idea #15: Receptor tyrosine kinase

Related Articles – Summarized

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Mechanisms Of Activation And Signaling

Schlessinger J. Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.

Hubbard SR. Juxtamembrane autoinhibition in receptor tyrosine kinases.

Zhang X, Gureasko J, Shen K, Cole PA, Kuriyan J. An allosteric mechanism for activation of the kinase domain of epidermal growth factor receptor.

Stiegler AL, Burden SJ, Hubbard SR. Crystal structure of the agrin-responsive immunoglobulin-like domains 1 and 2 of the receptor tyrosine kinase MuSK. J Mol Biol.

Zhang Y, Wolf-Yadlin A, Ross PL, Pappin DJ, Rush J, Lauffenburger DA, White FM. Time-resolved mass spectrometry of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling network reveals dynamic modules.

Friedman A, Perrimon N. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling.

Inhibition of drug-resistant mutants of ABL, KIT, and EGF receptor kinases.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

The ligands bind to RTKs, promoting RTK dimerization and in some cases, oligomerization, which brings the two kinase domains in close proximity.

RTKs are classified by the presence of a catalytic kinase domain located on the IC region that is vital for activating downstream signaling cascades that control cellular processes.

RTK activity is controlled by the lateral interaction between RTKs on the cell surface, as it controls the proximity of the kinase domains and thus the first step in the RTK activation process.

RTK inhibitors target either the extracellular domain or the kinase domain, as the transmembrane domain is protected by the cell membrane, and its role in RTK activation is still debated.

RTK molecules share a ligand-binding extracellular portion, a transmembrane section, and an intracellular portion that contains the tyrosine kinase catalytic domain.

RTKs can function as monomers or multimeric subunits assembled at the plasma membrane that, upon ligand binding, cause oligomerization or conformational changes followed by tyrosine-phosphorylation in the kinase activation loop.

There are mechanisms to terminate ligand-induced RTK activity through cellular processes including receptor-mediated endocytosis and/or through a family of regulated protein tyrosine phosphatases, some of which are transmembrane and have extracellular domains, suggesting the possibility of ligand-mediated regulation.

8.5: Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

Like the GPCRs, receptor tyrosine kinases bind a signal, then pass the message on through a series of intracellular molecules, the last of which acts on target proteins to change the state of the cell.

As the name suggests, a receptor tyrosine kinase is a cell surface receptor that also has a tyrosine kinase activity.

The signal binding domain of the receptor tyrosine kinase is on the cell surface, while the tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity resides in the cytoplasmic part of the protein.

Binding of signal molecules to the extracellular domains of receptor tyrosine kinase molecules causes two receptor molecules to dimerize.

An important protein that is subsequently activated by the signaling complexes on the receptor tyrosine kinases is called Ras.

Like the alpha subunit, Ras can hydrolyze the GTP to GDP. When a signal arrives at the receptor tyrosine kinase, the receptor monomers come together and phosphorylate each others’ tyrosines, triggering the assembly of a complex of proteins on the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor.

Once again, in following the path of signal transduction mediated by RTKs, it is possible to discern the same basic pattern of events: a signal is bound by the extracellular domains of receptor tyrosine kinases, resulting in receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation of the cytosolic tails, thus conveying the message to the interior of the cell.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Principles And Functions In Glioma Invasion

Protein tyrosine kinases are enzymes that are capable of adding a phosphate group to specific tyrosines on target proteins.

A receptor tyrosine kinase is a tyrosine kinase located at the cellular membrane and is activated by binding of a ligand via its extracellular domain.

Protein phosphorylation by kinases is an important mechanism for communicating signals within a cell and regulating cellular activity; furthermore, this mechanism functions as an “On” or “Off” switch in many cellular functions.

Ninety unique tyrosine kinase genes, including 58 RTKs, were identified in the human genome; the products of these genes regulate cellular proliferation, survival, differentiation, function, and motility.

Tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the development and progression of many types of cancer, in addition to their roles as key regulators of normal cellular processes.

Recent studies have revealed that RTKs such as epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor, c-Met, Tie, Axl, discoidin domain receptor 1, and erythropoietin-producing human hepatocellular carcinoma play a major role in glioma invasion.

Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding the role of RTKs in glioma pathobiology, especially the invasive phenotype, and present the perspective that RTKs are a potential target of glioma therapy.

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

Of the 90 unique tyrosine kinase genes identified in the human genome, 58 encode receptor tyrosine kinase proteins.

Receptor tyrosine kinases are part of the larger family of protein tyrosine kinases, encompassing the receptor tyrosine kinase proteins which contain a transmembrane domain, as well as the non-receptor tyrosine kinases which do not possess transmembrane domains.

The intracellular C terminal region displays the highest level of conservation and comprises catalytic domains responsible for the kinase activity of these receptors, which catalyses receptor autophosphorylation and tyrosine phosphorylation of RTK substrates.

The ErbB protein family or epidermal growth factor receptor family is a family of four structurally related receptor tyrosine kinases.

The receptor tyrosine kinase pathway is carefully regulated by a variety of positive and negative feedback loops.

Studies involving PTP1B, a widely known PTP involved in the regulation of the cell cycle and cytokine receptor signaling, has shown to dephosphorylate the epidermal growth factor receptor and the insulin receptor.

CHO cells transfected with herstatin resulted in reduced receptor oligomerization, clonal growth and receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in response to EGF. [edit].

Post Idea #16: Enterprise resource planning

Related Articles – Summarized

Enterprise Resource Planning

An “ERP system selection methodology” is a formal process for selecting an enterprise resource planning system.

The ERP II role expands traditional ERP resource optimization and transaction processing.

ERP II leverages information in the resources under its management to help the enterprise collaborate with other enterprises.

Government resource planning is the equivalent of an ERP for the public sector and an integrated office automation system for government bodies.

Enterprise appliance transaction modules-These devices communicate directly with plant floor equipment and with the ERP system via methods supported by the ERP system.

ERP is a centralized system that provides tight integration with all major enterprise functions be it HR, planning, procurement, sales, customer relations, finance or analytics, as well to other connected application functions.

Elsayed, N., Ammar, S., and Mardini, G. H., “The impact of ERP utilisation experience and segmental reporting on corporate performance in the UK context”, Enterprise Information Systems, vol.

Enterprise Resource Planning Definition

Many ERP software applications are important to companies because they help them implement resource planning by integrating all of the processes needed to run their companies with a single system.

You can think of an enterprise resource planning system as the glue that binds together the different computer systems for a large organization.

Oracle Corp. originally supplied a relational database that integrated with ERP software developed by SAP before entering the broader enterprise market in a big way in the early 2000s.

Trying its hand at enterprise resource planning again, it implemented a system that integrated its thousands of applications, standardized processes across 16 locations, and restructured warehouse management systems-breaking down silos for a seamless, integrated coordination of work-to name a few.

What Is an ERP and How Does It Work? Enterprise resource planning consists of technologies and systems companies use to manage and integrate their core business processes.

Enterprise resource planning software offers single system solutions that integrate processes across the business.

Enterprise resource planning manages and integrates business processes through a single system.

Overview, Functions, Components

Enterprise resource planning – more commonly referred to as ERP – is a software system used to manage and maintain the functions of a Business Operations.

ERP keeps track of a wealth of information, including payroll, raw materials, business commitments, purchase orders, and capacity for production.

ERP programs are commonly known as business management software.

Primary Functions of ERP. ERP provides a host of services for companies trying to improve how efficiently they operate.

ERP works particularly well for tracking and managing things such as a company’s capacity for production, cash levels, raw materials at its disposal, payroll information, and Purchase Order.

ERP software covers a lot of different areas within a company – Accounting.

The data within an ERP system reveals the relevant information to all stakeholders to keep them abreast of the company’s capacity to function and generate revenue.

Enterprise Resource Planning Definition

ERP stands for enterprise resource planning, but what does ERP mean? The simplest way to define ERP is to think about all the core business processes needed to run a company: finance, HR, manufacturing, supply chain, services, procurement, and others.

Manufacturing: The manufacturing module is a key planning and execution component of ERP software.

Enterprise asset management: Robust ERP systems can include an EAM module – which helps asset-intensive businesses minimize downtime and keep their machines and equipment running at peak efficiency.

This requires careful planning of your ERP upgrade as well as a thoughtful process of evaluating ERP software and deployment options.

Modular, cloud-based enterprise ERP systems are also a popular choice for midmarket companies with complex processes or plans for rapid growth.

Enterprise ERP. Large companies with global or subsidiary operations need a robust, market-leading ERP system with embedded AI, machine learning, and analytics – and intelligent automation to transform business models and processes.

This requires careful planning of your ERP upgrade, as well as an ERP evaluation and review of your deployment options.

What Is ERP?

Individual ERP applications can offer software as a service, while a complete suite of ERP applications forms an ERP system that can be used to effectively communicate and bring together business processes to enable a flow of data between the applications, typically through common databases either on-site/on-premise or in the cloud.

Types of ERP systems generally refer to deployment options and include cloud ERP, on-premise ERP and hybrid ERP. Each ERP solution system is often tailored to support different aspects of a business, meet an organization’s business requirements and have different methods of deployment.

Big Business ERP vs. Small Business ERP In the past, “Big business ERP” addressed large organizations that often deployed onsite/on-premise ERP solutions and had an abundance of resources to dedicate to IT and other support to analyze, customize, upgrade and deploy their software solutions.

Types of ERP Systems: Cloud vs On-Premise vs Hybrid There are three main types of ERP systems that function with different deployment model options.

The most common types of ERP systems include cloud ERP, on-premise ERP, and hybrid ERP. On-Premise ERP software is implemented onsite and maintained in physical office space within an organization, hosted on the company’s own computers and servers for full control, support and ownership of the entire system once implemented.

“Hybrid” ERP software refers to a combined implementation of cloud-based and on-premise ERP system solutions.

Not sure where to start on your ERP journey? Whether it’s time to move to the cloud or you want someone to streamline your business processes, our global team of ERP experts are ready to help.

What Is Enterprise Resource Planning?

ERP technology began as a combination of material requirements planning, manufacturer resource planning, and computer-integrated manufacturing.

Without an ERP, the sales department would have to put the customer on hold and call inventory to check if it’s available.

With an ERP, all inventory updates would be immediately visible to the sales department, so they wouldn’t need to put the customer on hold and lose the sale.

ERPs designed for small and medium-sized enterprises/businesses may only include modules for sales, human resources, customer service, and accounting, but skip over the ones geared toward manufacturing, such as SRM, PLM, and SCM.In fact, many ERP systems are designed from the ground up for a particular organization or industry, so there’s a lot of variance as to what will be offered by any ERP system.

Are the more traditional type of ERP. Usually, an on-premise ERP consists of an on-site server that’s managed by an IT department.

Use an ERP provider’s existing IT infrastructure to deliver the ERP as a service – It’s a SaaS business model.

In short, the ERP sets up a centralized database that then pushes and pulls information from the different ERP modules like SRM, CRM, PLM, etc.

10 Best Enterprise Resource Planning Software Of 2022

It contains the best ERP software along with some bonus enterprise resource planning solutions.

In this article, I will talk about the 10 best ERP software that will help you manage your organizational processes better and optimize them for improving your bottom line.

Deltek ERP is an enterprise resource planning solution plus professional services automation software used by clients like CACI, Johnson Controls, and International Medical Corps.

Deltek enterprise resource planning is best for professional services companies looking for typical ERP functionality plus day-to-day workflow support like real-time opportunity tracking, receivables data on your dashboard, client information management, and online project status and documentation tracking.

SAP ERP is an enterprising resource planning software suite used by clients like Dohler and Zuellig Pharma.

Acumatica Best for ease of use & UI. Acumatica is a cloud-based ERP software with a host of applications in financial management, CRM, distribution management tools, and accounting.

Tell me what you think of these ERP tools? Any enterprise resource planning software that I missed? Let me know in the comments.

Post Idea #17: Cardiac resynchronization therapy

Related Articles – Summarized

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a procedure to implant a device in your chest to make your heart’s chambers squeeze in a more organized and efficient way.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy uses a device called a biventricular pacemaker that sends electrical signals to both lower chambers of your heart.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a treatment for heart failure in people whose ventricles don’t contract in a coordinated fashion.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy may reduce your symptoms of heart failure and lower your risk of heart failure complications, including death.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy requires a minor surgical procedure to implant a device in your chest.

The device used for cardiac resynchronization therapy has three leads that connect the pacemaker to the right upper chamber of your heart and both lower chambers.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker and an ICD. This device may be recommended for people with heart failure who also have a risk of sudden cardiac death.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

If you have heart failure and have developed arrhythmia, you may be a candidate for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Arrhythmias are irregular heart rhythms and can be caused by a variety of reasons, including age, heart damage, medications and genetics.

In heart failure patients CRT, or biventricular pacing, is used to help improve the heart’s rhythm and the symptoms associated with the arrhythmia.

Three wires connected to the device monitor the heart rate to detect heart rate irregularities and emit tiny pulses of electricity to correct them.

Watch an animation of CRT. Benefits of CRT. Because CRT improves the heart’s efficiency and increases blood flow, patients have reported alleviations of some heart failure symptoms – such as shortness of breath.

Who is a candidate for CRT? In general, CRT is for heart failure patients with moderate to severe symptoms and whose left and right heart chambers do not beat in unison.

CRT is not effective for everyone and is not for those with mild heart failure symptoms, diastolic heart failure or who do not have issues with the chambers not beating together.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Cardiac resynchronization therapy is treatment to help your heart beat with the right rhythm.

The CRT pacemaker coordinates how timing of the upper heart chambers and the lower heart chambers.

If you need this device, it may be combined with the CRT. CRT therapy means you will need to have the pacemaker placed under your skin by minor surgery.

CRT therapy works in about 7 out of 10 cases of heart failure.

Not everyone with heart failure can be helped by CRT. For instance, if you have advanced heart failure, you are not as likely to respond to CRT. Overall, CRT may improve your survival, heart function, and quality of life if you have mild to moderate heart failure.

Your doctor may Insert your CRT device on an outpatient basis, or as part of your stay in a hospital.

You may need to stay in the hospital for a day or two while your doctor checks and adjusts the settings on your CRT device.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: An Overview On Guidelines

Cardiac resynchronization therapy is included in international consensus guidelines as a treatment with proven efficacy in well-selected patients on top of optimal medical therapy.

Although all the guidelines strongly recommend CRT for LBBB with QRS duration greater than 150 milliseconds, lower strength of recommendation is reported for QRS duration of 120 to 150 milliseconds, especially if not associated with LBBB. CRT is not recommended for a QRS of less than 120 milliseconds.

No indication emerges for guiding the implant based on echocardiographic evaluation of dyssynchrony.

Many data indicate that CRT is underused and there is heterogeneity in its implementation.

Keywords: Atrial fibrillation; Bundle branch block; Cardiac resynchronization therapy; Guidelines; Heart failure; QRS interval.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation: results from the Resynchronization for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial.

Cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and a QRS complex <120 milliseconds: the Evaluation of Resynchronization Therapy for Heart Failure trial.

Kandala J, Upadhyay GA, Altman RK, Parks KA, Orencole M, Mela T, Kevin Heist E, Singh JP. QRS morphology, left ventricular lead location, and clinical outcome in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Spragg DD, Dong J, Fetics BJ, Helm R, Marine JE, Cheng A, Henrikson CA, Kass DA, Berger RD. Optimal left ventricular endocardial pacing sites for cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy.

Ritter P, Delnoy PP, Padeletti L, Lunati M, Naegele H, Borri-Brunetto A, Silvestre J. A randomized pilot study of optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy in sinus rhythm patients using a peak endocardial acceleration sensor vs. standard methods.

Kamath GS, Cotiga D, Koneru JN, Arshad A, Pierce W, Aziz EF, Mandava A, Mittal S, Steinberg JS. The utility of 12-lead Holter monitoring in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation for the identification of nonresponders after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Patwala AY, Woods PR, Sharp L, Goldspink DF, Tan LB, Wright DJ. Maximizing patient benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy with the addition of structured exercise training: a randomized controlled study.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Defibrillation – Colorado Program For Patient Centered Decisions

For patients with heart failure who are getting cardiac resynchronization therapy and considering defibrillation.

CRT helps the heart pump normally by helping the right and left ventricles of the heart pump together.

Patients with heart failure may be at risk for sudden dangerous heart rhythms.

These heart rhythm abnormalities may be life-threatening, and in some cases can cause a cardiac arrest.

The best treatment for these dangerous heart rhythms is a “Defibrillator.” This is a device that can sense these heart rhythms and deliver a shock to your heart if you need it.

A CRT-D is designed to prevent an at-risk person from dying suddenly from a dangerous heart rhythm.

The CRT-D uses pacing or an electrical shock to stop a dangerous heart rhythm and change it to a normal heart rhythm.

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices

CRT is a clinically proven treatment option for some individuals with heart failure.

A CRT device sends small electrical impulses to both lower chambers of the heart to help them beat together in a more synchronized pattern.

This may improve the heart’s ability to pump blood and oxygen to your body.

The heart device, which is actually a tiny computer, plus a battery, contained in a small titanium metal case that is about the size of a pocket watch.

Insulated wires, called leads, that are implanted to carry information signals from your heart to the heart device and to carry electrical impulses to your heart.

After the device system is implanted, an external computer, called a programmer, located at your doctor’s office or clinic can be used to program the heart device and retrieve information from your heart device that will assist your doctor in your heart failure treatment.

Your doctor will schedule periodic monitoring which may be done remotely if physician deems appropriate.

Post Idea #18: Arch Insurance Group Inc

Related Articles – Summarized

Arch Insurance Company

Arch Insurance employs a disciplined underwriting approach and prudent risk selection across all types of business.

At Arch Insurance, our approach to doing business is based on collaboration, responsiveness and commitment.

Our parent, Arch Capital Group Ltd., is a Bermuda-based company with more than $14 billion in capital.

Arch Insurance also enjoys high scores from independent rating agencies.

Arch Indemnity Insurance Company is not rated by Moody’s; Arch Insurance Canada Ltd. is not rated by Moody’s or A.M. Best.

Krista Bonneau to lead reinsurance and exposure management strategy London, 4 March 2022 – Arch Insurance International, part of Arch.

Arch Insurance North America is a proud recipient of the Best Culture Award presented by Canadian HR Technology company, Kudos®.

Careers Center

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Post Idea #19: MRSA Super bug

Related Articles – Summarized

Everything You Need To Know About The Superbug, MRSA

Types of MRSA. There are two types of MRSA infections: healthcare-associated and community-associated.

It’s unknown how common MRSA infections are outside of healthcare settings, according to the CDC. Fortunately, serious MRSA infections in healthcare settings appear to be on the decline.

A CDC study found that serious MRSA infections in hospitals dropped by 54 percent between 2005 and 2011, and there were 9,000 fewer deaths in 2011 than in 2005 as a result of MRSA.How Is MRSA Spread?

The risk factors for acquiring a MRSA infection in a healthcare setting are different from those for an infection in a community setting.

History of MRSA infection or contact Your risk of MRSA infection is greater if you’ve had this infection before, or if you have close contact with someone who has.

If you have a MRSA skin infection, your doctor may need to drain the abscess.

Preventing MRSA. To prevent the spread of MRSA in healthcare facilities, it’s essential for medical professionals to follow procedures designed to contain any infection.

Researchers Explore Promising Treatment For MRSA ‘Superbug’

A new Cornell study has found the antimicrobial properties of certain stem cell proteins could offer a potential treatment to reduce infection in skin wounds.

Treating wounds with the secretion of a type of stem cell effectively reduced the viability of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus – better known as MRSA – according to a new study from researchers at the Baker Institute for Animal Health, part of the College of Veterinary Medicine.

The secretion stimulated the surrounding skin cells to build up a defense against the bacterial invader, the researchers found.

“The results showed that secreted factors from equine mesenchymal stromal cells, a type of stem cell, significantly decreased the viability of MRSA in our novel skin model,” said first author Dr. Charlotte Marx, a postdoctoral researcher in the lab of corresponding author Dr. Gerlinde R. Van de Walle, associate professor of microbiology and immunology at CVM. “Moreover,” Marx said, “We demonstrated that equine MSC secretions increase the antimicrobial activity of the skin cells by stimulating immune responses of the surrounding resident skin cells.”

The key is MSCs – stem cells that can be isolated from bone marrow, fat, blood and other tissues.

Although MSCs have been shown to reduce inflammation in multiple studies, the Cornell study went further, investigating the effect of the MSC secretion – also known as the secretome – on the antimicrobial defense mechanisms of skin cells and testing its efficacy on biofilms in a physiologically relevant equine skin model.

At the end of the treatment period, the researchers measured bacterial load by evaluating colony-forming units per gram of tissue.

MRSA: The Not-So-Famous Superbug

MRSA proves to be especially adept at evading the grasp of antibiotics, becoming a truly dangerous superbug.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about one in three people carry the staph bacteria in their nose, and two out of 100 people carry MRSA. There are more than 80,000 cases of MRSA each year, and more than 11,000 people die from these infections.

Although most of these cases occur in the hospital setting, MRSA infection is becoming a more widespread problem in the general community.

Although MRSA infection used to be primarily a “Hospital problem,” it’s clear that MRSA is becoming a problem in the general population, usually in the form of skin infections.

People can become infected with MRSA after being in contact with an infected wound, or by sharing personal items like razors, toothbrushes, or towels that have touched infected skin.

According to the CDC, MRSA skin infections can occur anywhere on the body, and they usually appear as a red bump or an area that is red, swollen, painful to the touch, abnormally warm, or full of pus.

“If there is someone in your house with a staph or MRSA infection that can be spread to other people in the household it’s important that they be treated.”

MRSA: Contagious, Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatments

The symptoms of MRSA depend on where you’re infected.

Though most MRSA infections aren’t serious, some can be life-threatening.

Many public health experts are alarmed by the spread of tough strains of MRSA. Because it’s hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a “Super bug.”

Over the decades, some strains of staph – like MRSA – have become resistant to antibiotics that once destroyed it.

MRSA infections are common among people who have weak immune systems who are in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care centers.

According to the CDC, a concertred effort by the 2013 National Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections helped reduce bloodstream infections caused by MRSA by 50% by 2020.

In a study of Minnesotans published in TheJournal of the American Medical Association, the average age of people with MRSA in a hospital or health care facility was 68.

Superbug Staph: Is MRSA Contagious?

MRSA belongs to the large group of bacteria known as staphylococci, often referred to as staph.

Infections with MRSA can occur in hospitals and other institutional health-care settings, such as nursing homes, where they tend to strike older people, those who are very ill, and people with a weakened immune system.

In health-care settings, MRSA is a frequent cause of surgical wound infections, urinary tract infections, bloodstream infections, and pneumonia.

These infections are termed community-associated MRSA infections.

MRSA is typically transmitted from people with active MRSA infections.

MRSA and other staph infections are primarily transmitted by the hands, which may become contaminated by contact with colonized or infected people or items or surfaces contaminated with body fluids containing MRSA. Skin-to-skin contact, cuts or abrasions of the skin, contaminated items and surfaces, crowded living conditions, and poor hygiene have all been associated with the transmission of MRSA in the community.

Most staph and MRSA infections can be treated with antibiotics, but skin lesions may also be treated by drainage of the lesion under sterile conditions.

Deadly Superbug MRSA Can Linger On Surfaces In The Home For Months

Once MRSA gets into households, the deadly superbug can take hold and spread easily, a study published Tuesday shows.

Not long ago, MRSA infections were primarily associated with hospital stays, but since the turn of the century, the bacteria have been turning up in daily settings more frequently.

People can become infected with MRSA if the bacteria enter the body through a break in the skin.

To learn more about how MRSA gets into homes and is then spread among the residents, Fritz and her colleagues focused on the households of 150 otherwise healthy St. Louis children, with an average age of 3, who went to a doctor or a hospital because of a MRSA infection.

The researchers found MRSA on nearly half the people and on one-third of the pets at least once during the year.

The study found that the biggest protective factor against spreading MRSA was hand-washing, Fritz said.

As the study found, the best way to avoid bringing MRSA into your home is to wash your hands regularly, Snyder said.

Superbug Infection Symptoms

Superbug infections are resistant to most antibiotics, and are therefore difficult to treat.

Symptoms of superbug infections vary by infection type, and should be treated by a physician immediately.

This article explores three of the most common superbugs, their symptoms, and explains the precautions you should take to protect yourself from potential infection.

As the name suggests, MRSA is a staph infection that is resistant to methicillin.

CRE infection symptoms can vary from person to person depending on the organs that are involved.

Antibiotics only work against infections that are caused by certain parasites, bacteria, and fungus.

If you or a family member are diagnosed with superbug infection symptoms, it is important to sanitize and disinfect the home to help ensure no other family members become infected.

Post Idea #20: Staphylococcus aureus

Related Articles – Summarized

Staphylococcus Aureus

The treatment remains challenging due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains such as MRSA. S. aureus does not normally cause infection on healthy skin if it is allowed to enter the internal tissues or bloodstream, these bacteria may cause a variety of potentially serious infections.

S. aureus does not normally cause infection on healthy skin; however, if it is allowed to enter the bloodstream or internal tissues, these bacteria may cause a variety of potentially serious infections.

S. aureus are one the most common bacterial infections in humans and are the causative agents of multiple human infections, including bacteremia, infective endocarditis, skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, prosthetic device infections, pulmonary infections, gastroenteritis, meningitis, toxic shock syndrome, and urinary tract infections.

Treatment of S. aureus infections depends largely on the type of infection as well as the presence or absence of drug resistant strains.

Lowy FD. Staphylococcus aureus infections.

6.Tong SY, Davis JS, Eichenberger E, Holland TL, Fowler VG. Staphylococcus aureus infections: epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and management.

7.DeLeo FR, Diep BA, Otto M. Host defense and pathogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Staphylococcus Aureus In Healthcare Settings

Staphylococcus aureus , is a type of germ that about 30% of people carry in their noses.

Most of the time, staph does not cause any harm; however, sometimes staph causes infections.

Although MRSA is often better known, any staph infection can be dangerous even if it is not resistant to antibiotics.

Populations at risk for Staphylococcus aureus infection.

Anyone can develop a staph infection, although certain groups of people are at greater risk, including people with chronic conditions such as diabetes, cancer, vascular disease, eczema, lung disease, and people who inject drugs.

In healthcare facilities, the risk of more serious staph infection is higher because many patients have weakened immune systems or have undergone procedures.

In healthcare, the risk of more serious staph infection is higher for patients in intensive care units, patients who have undergone certain types of surgeries and patients with medical devices inserted in their bodies.

Staphylococcus Aureus

S. aureus is the leading cause of skin and soft tissue infections, such as abscesses, boils, furuncles, and cellulitis.

S. aureus germs can also cause more serious infections, such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, endocarditis, and bone and joint infections.

Anyone can develop a S. aureus infection, although certain groups of people are more likely than others.

Patients who are hospitalized in intensive care units, patients who have undergone certain types of surgeries, and patients with medical devices inserted in their bodies, such as central lines and catheters, are at greater risk of a more serious S. aureus infection.

What are the symptoms of S. aureus infections?

S. aureus infections typically appear on the skin as a pocket of pus surrounded by red, painful skin, or cellulitis.

How can you prevent S. aureus Infections?

Staphylococcus Aureus

Treasure Island: StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan. Staphylococcus aureus is a major bacterial human pathogen that causes a wide variety of clinical manifestations.

Infections are common both in community-acquired as well as hospital-acquired settings and treatment remains challenging to manage due to the emergence of multi-drug resistant strains such as MRSA. S. aureus is found in the environment and is also found in normal human flora, located on the skin and mucous membranes of most healthy individuals.

S. aureus does not normally cause infection on healthy skin; however, if it is allowed to enter the bloodstream or internal tissues, these bacteria may cause a variety of potentially serious infections.

Some infections involve other transmission methods.

Staphylococcus Aureus

S. aureus is one of the leading pathogens for deaths associated with Antimicrobial resistance and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S. aureus is a worldwide problem in clinical medicine.

In medical literature, the bacterium is often referred to as S. aureus, Staph aureus or Staph a. S. aureus appears as staphylococci when viewed through a microscope, and has large, round, golden-yellow colonies, often with hemolysis, when grown on blood agar plates.

Without antibiotic treatment, S. aureus bacteremia has a case fatality rate around 80%. With antibiotic treatment, case fatality rates range from 15% to 50% depending on the age and health of the patient, as well as the antibiotic resistance of the S. aureus strain.

Not all S. aureus biofilms contain PIA. S. aureus biofilms are important in disease pathogenesis, as they can contribute to antibiotic resistance and immune system evasion.

By 1950, 40% of hospital S. aureus isolates were penicillin-resistant; by 1960, this had risen to 80%. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, is one of a number of greatly feared strains of S. aureus which have become resistant to most β-lactam antibiotics.

The first case of vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus was reported in Japan in 1996; but the first case of S. aureus truly resistant to glycopeptide antibiotics was only reported in 2002.

The carriage of S. aureus is an important source of hospital-acquired infection and community-acquired MRSA. Although S. aureus can be present on the skin of the host, a large proportion of its carriage is through the anterior nares of the nasal passages and can further be present in the ears.

Staphylococcus Aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of infections and can cause a wide range of usually purulent infections, ranging from skin and soft tissue infections to endocarditis.

It is estimated that the methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus form is responsible for around 171 200 healthcare-related infections in Europe every year and is associated with 5400 attributable extra deaths.

In neonates,S. aureus is more often seen as a cause of late-onset infection and does not commonly occur within the first 72 hours of life.

Data from the Emerging Infections Program Network Report on Methicillin-ResistantStaphylococcus aureus shows African Americans have nearly twice the rate of invasive disease than Caucasians.

As with hospital-acquired infection, drug resistance is increasing among community-acquiredS. aureus isolates, with rates of MRSA among neonates reflecting increasing rates among the general population in the community.

Completion of therapy with nafcillin alone is appropriate for infections caused by methicillin-susceptibleS. aureus.

For bloodstream infections associated with central venous or umbilical catheters, the catheter should be removed if possible and antibiotics administered for at least 14 days, given the high virulence ofS. aureus and its propensity to colonize foreign material and create biofilms.

Although most staph infections are not serious, S. aureus can cause serious infections such as bloodstream infections, pneumonia, or bone and joint infections.

S. aureus can also cause serious infections such as pneumonia or bacteremia.

Many common skin infections caused by S. aureus will heal without medical treatment.

Some skin infections will require incision and drainage of the infected site and some infections may require antibiotics.

Some serious S. aureus infections typically require hospitalization and treatment with intravenous antibiotics.

Complications Most skin infections resolve without treatment some infections require incision and drainage or antibiotic treatment to cure the infection.

Some people experience repeated infections with S. aureus.

Post Idea #21: Methicillin

Related Articles – Summarized


Selection of methicillin depended on the outcome of susceptibility testing of the sampled infection, and since it is no longer produced, it is also not routinely tested for any more.

At one time, methicillin was used to treat infections caused by certain gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Methicillin is no longer effective against these organisms due to resistance.

Resistance to methicillin is conferred by activation of a new bacterial penicillin binding protein mecA gene.

Methicillin is actually a penicillinase-resistant B-lactam antibiotic.

Methicillin is not bound and hydrolysed by penicillinase, meaning it can kill the bacteria, even if this enzyme is present.

Methicillin is insensitive to beta-lactamase enzymes secreted by many penicillin-resistant bacteria.


Methicillin, also called meticillin, antibiotic formerly used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by organisms of the genus Staphylococcus.

Methicillin is a semisynthetic derivative of penicillin.

Methicillin required administration via intramuscular or intravenous injection because it was inactivated by gastric acid in the stomach when taken orally.

Methicillin was suspected to exert its bacteria-killing actions by inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis, a mechanism of action similar to that of other penicillins.

Methicillin was active against certain species of Staphylococcus, including S. aureus and S. epidermis.

Resistance to methicillin is believed to have resulted from bacterial acquisition of a gene that encodes a protein capable of binding the drug and thus preventing the drug from killing the organism.

Today, a strain known as methicillin-resistant S. aureus is pandemic, causing infection in thousands of hospital patients and healthy individuals worldwide each year.

ScienceDirect Topics

MRSA infections are very difficult to cure because MRSA is resistant not only to β-lactams, but also to most of other antibacterial agents.

The mecA gene, which encodes the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein PBP2′, as well as several other genes including fem, fmt, llm, and sigB, have been recognized as being important for resistance to MRSA infection.

A promising strategy for overcoming MRSA resistance was suggested by the finding that the green tea polyphenols, 34 and 35, caused a remarkable reduction of the MIC of β-lactam against MRSA. Specifically,-epicatechin gallate at 25 μg/ml lowered the MIC of oxacillin against MRSA 250-500-fold, while EGCG at 50 μg/ml caused an 8-120-fold reduction in the MIC.14 As EGCG was found to be unstable even in solutions of neutral pH, we investigated the oxidation products of 34, and characterized several.

Time course for the change in the viable cell numbers of MRSA OM584 strain upon incubation with theasinensin A and/or oxacillin.

control; oxacillin; theasinensin A; oxacillin plus 38.The aforementioned findings mean that these polyphenols restored the effectiveness of β-lactams against MRSA. In a subsequent study of compounds that have similar actions against MRSA, extracts of rose red flowers and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi reduced the MICs of oxacillin.

Research has shown that distinct strains of MRSA and MSSA exist in the environment, with community-acquired infections more likely to be susceptible to a greater range of antibiotics than those associated with healthcare facilities.

6.2.1 The scale of the healthcare-associated infections problemThe number of MRSA bacteraemia reports in England, together with the number of death certificates that either mention MRSA, or list MRSA as the cause of death, are shown for 2001-2008 in Table 6.2.

Medical Definition Of Methicillin

Methicillin: A semisynthetic penicillin-related antibiotic, also known as Staphcillin, that once was effective against staphylococci resistant to penicillin because they produce the enzyme penicillinase.

Rarely used now, methicillin has been largely superceded by Vancomycin.

Over the past 50 years, staph bacteria have become resistant to various antibiotics, including the commonly used penicillin-related antibiotics, including methicillin.

These resistant bacteria are called methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA. SLIDESHOW Heart Disease: Causes of a Heart Attack.

Symptoms And Causes

Most MRSA infections occur in people who’ve been in hospitals or other health care settings, such as nursing homes and dialysis centers.

Another type of MRSA infection has occurred in the wider community – among healthy people.

Staph skin infections, including MRSA, generally start as swollen, painful red bumps that might look like pimples or spider bites.

People with HIV have a higher risk of developing MRSA infections.

People who use illicit injected drugs have a higher risk of MRSA infections.

MRSA infections can resist the effects of many common antibiotics, so they’re more difficult to treat.

PreventionPreventing HA-MRSA. In the hospital, people who are infected or colonized with MRSA often are placed in isolation as a measure to prevent the spread of MRSA. Visitors and health care workers caring for people in isolation may need to wear protective garments.

MRSA: Contagious, Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Treatments

The symptoms of MRSA depend on where you’re infected.

Though most MRSA infections aren’t serious, some can be life-threatening.

Many public health experts are alarmed by the spread of tough strains of MRSA. Because it’s hard to treat, MRSA is sometimes called a “Super bug.”

Over the decades, some strains of staph – like MRSA – have become resistant to antibiotics that once destroyed it.

MRSA infections are common among people who have weak immune systems who are in hospitals, nursing homes, and other health care centers.

According to the CDC, a concertred effort by the 2013 National Action Plan to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections helped reduce bloodstream infections caused by MRSA by 50% by 2020.

In a study of Minnesotans published in TheJournal of the American Medical Association, the average age of people with MRSA in a hospital or health care facility was 68.

Post Idea #22: Jeep Wrangler

Related Articles – Summarized

Coquitlam Chrysler Dodge Jeep Ram

Chrysler Dodge Jeep Ram Dealer in Coquitlam, BCServing Coquitlam, Burnaby, Surrey, Maple Ridge and the rest of the Tri-Cities for new & used cars – Coquitlam Chrysler is your premier destination for Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep, and Ram vehicles in the lower mainland! With models like the Jeep Grand Cherokee, Dodge Journey, Dodge Grand Caravan, Ram 1500, and Jeep Wrangler, we have something for every taste, and every need.

So no matter where you are located, our friendly and knowledgeable team is ready and waiting to assist you.

We offer much more than an amazing lineup of new vehicles, we also stock one of the largest inventories of used vehicles in BC! With over 500 vehicles to choose from at any time, we are sure to have a great fit for you.

To add to that our new inventory comes in daily, so you have an unprecedented selection at your fingertips.

Post Idea #23: Ford Bronco

Related Articles – Summarized

2022 Ford Bronco Review

The Takeaway: The original Bronco was rugged enough for off-road travel while maintaining on-road performance.

While the roadster and sport utility were great, the wagon spec really caught buyers’ attention and would become the Bronco that inspired generations to get behind the wheel.

Behind The WheelAs we only had one opportunity to take the Bronco off-road, we immediately took the roof and doors off before booking it down to Rausch-Creek.

While the Bronco was perfectly usable on the road as a daily driver, it’s an absolute off-road savant.

While we never tried anything too extreme, the Bronco was able to comfortably navigate the terrain we threw at it.

Aside from the practical advantages for off-roading-making it much easier to spot trail hazards that you could get caught up on-a door-less car stands out on the road. The Bronco was so conspicuous that, during a fuel stop, somebody offered to buy our tester in exchange for his gold chain.

If you can spare the extra cash, there’s no shortage of bells and whistles that can make your life easier on and off-road. Regardless of the trim you choose, the Bronco remains a brilliant performer off-road while staying well-mannered on the pavement.

Special-Edition Ford Bronco Everglades: Taking Extreme Adventures With Confidence

Ford has debuted the new 2022 Ford Bronco Everglades special edition-an SUV born to breathe when the air gets thick and designed to press on when the trail turns others around.

Bronco Everglades, available as a four-door model, takes that spirit to the next level with confidence-building, factory-installed features such as a snorkel, integrated front bumper-mounted winch, and all the off-road equipment in the Bronco Sasquatch Package.

Bronco Everglades introduces a class-exclusive* signature snorkel.

For situations when Bronco Everglades or another vehicle needs extra traction beyond what the tires and engine can provide, a heavy-duty modular front bumper by Ford Performance with ZEON 10-S WARN winch -featuring 10,000-pound capability† and a 100-foot synthetic line-is ready to help.

Bronco Everglades is easy to clean with standard marine-grade vinyl seats and rubberized washout flooring.

In addition to mid-package content, Bronco Everglades features a class-exclusive 12-inch SYNC 4 system with Ford Power-Up over-the-air software updates-a unique combination based on customer feedback.

The new 2022 Bronco Everglades is available in five exterior colours, including Everglades-exclusive low-volume Desert Sand, plus Eruption Green, Area 51, Shadow Black and Cactus Grey.

2022 Ford Bronco Gets $1,530 To $2,280 More Expensive

Anyone who wants a 2022 Ford Bronco needs to get their order in before March 8, when Ford will tell everyone in the reservation line outside the Bronco club to go home.

The Bronco6G forum that clued us into the order book situation followed that up with a thread on price increases for the 2022 Bronco.

Ford guarantees price protection for the Bronco, so anyone with a confirmed order gets the pricing agreed upon at the time of the order, and dealers are obligated to pass on 100% of the protection – Ford reimburses the dealers for the difference.

As we wrote previously, Ford also provided some tips to increase the odds of getting a Bronco sooner this year, such as skipping options like the tow package if you can live without a seven-pin connector, and the hardtop.

Bronco Raptor orders will start sometime after the 2022 order books are closed, and orders for 2023 model-year Broncos will start later this year.

The way things are going, by the time Ford announces MSRPs for the 2023 Bronco, the 2022 could seem like a bargain.

2022 Ford Bronco gets $1,530 to $2,280 more expensive originally appeared on Autoblog on Mon, 28 Feb 2022 08:13:00 EST. Please see our terms for use of feeds.

Galpin’S Take On A Retro Ford Bronco Is Just Wonderful

There’s a lot the Ford Bronco has going for it, including good off-roading abilities and impressive on-road manners.

This Ford Bronco was recently tweaked by the team from Galpin Auto Sports and left the factory painted in Eruption Green, one of the off-roader’s most intriguing colors.

The owner then tasked Galpin with painting the Bronco’s roof, front grille, and badges in a color dubbed Avorio Beige, an intriguing Ivory shade lifted from the Ferrari palette.

Elsewhere, the Bronco now sports pinstriping down both sides, new Bronco lettering, and a tweaked Ford badge at the rear.

No alterations appear to have been made to the interior of the Bronco which is a bit of a shame as the bright orange accents found throughout look a little at odds with the exterior finish of the Ford.

This is far from the only retro-themed Ford Bronco that we’ve seen an aftermarket firm build in recent weeks.

Our favorite retro Bronco was built by Rabid Customs back in January.

2022 Ford Bronco Review, Pricing, And Specs

Overview The 2022 Ford Bronco rocks a nostalgia-inducing design along with both civil on-road driving manners and big-time trail-tackling ability.

The optional Sasquatch and Everglades packages-beefier tires and other enhancements-help make the 2022 Bronco the ultimate off-road SUV and earn it a spot on both our 10Best and Editors’ Choice lists.

What’s New for 2022?With its first model year in the books, the 2022 Bronco lineup grows with the addition of the Everglades model, which builds on an off-road-oriented Sasquatch package.

For the most extreme Bronco model, the newly introduced Raptor version has a 400-plus-hp twin-turbo V-6, a beefier suspension, and available 37-inch tires.

Pricing and Which One to Buy The base two-door Bronco starts at just under $30,000 but upgrading to upper trims gets expensive quickly.

Every Bronco sends power to all four wheels, and its independent front suspension is more sophisticated than Jeep’s front stick axle.

More on the Bronco SUV Fuel Economy and Real-World MPGThe four-cylinder Bronco with the automatic transmission is the thriftiest variant, with ratings of 20 mpg in the city and 22 on the highway.

Ford Bronco

Following a decline in demand for large two-door SUVs, Ford discontinued the Bronco after the 1996 model year, replacing it with the four-door Ford Expedition; followed by the larger Ford Excursion.

In place of a model-specific chassis, the Bronco was adapted directly from the Ford F-Series, becoming a shortened version of the F-100 4×4. Originally intended for a 1974 launch, the second-generation Bronco was postponed to 1978 in response to fuel economy concerns related to the 1973 fuel crisis; the second-generation Bronco was released for sale after development was nearly finalized on its 1980 successor.

In 1982, the Ford Bronco II made its debut; unrelated to the full-size Bronco, the Bronco II was a compact SUV based on a shortened Ranger pickup truck and sized similarly to the 1966-1977 Bronco.

Following the introduction of the Ford Ranger compact pickup, the Bronco adopted Bronco, Bronco XL, and Bronco XLT. In 1985, Ford added an Eddie Bauer trim package for the Bronco.

Developed by Ford Performance, the Bronco Raptor will have a EcoBoost 3.0 TT V6 with a “Baja Mode”, the engine specifications will be close to the Lincoln Aviator and the Ford Explorer ST. The vehicle will also have an upgraded cooling system, which would allow the Bronco Raptor to run better in higher temperatures.

Ford marketer Mark Grueber spoke of a Ford Expedition show build concept that wore an intentionally nondescript rear Bronco badge, solely to prevent expiration of the Bronco trademark.

At the 2019 Baja 1000, Ford introduced the Ford Bronco R prototype with the drivetrain of the new as-yet unreleased 2021 Bronco with the intent of testing the engine, transmission and four wheel drive system to be used in the production-spec sixth-generation Bronco.

2022 Ford Bronco Buyer’S Guide: Reviews, Specs, Comparisons

Based on performance, value, MPG, interior space, and more, this score reflects MotorTrend’s exhaustive evaluation process.

Scores can only be compared to other cars in the same class.

A 7.0 rating represents average performance.

8./10.Ford’s resurrection of the Bronco is the first Jeep Wrangler competitor in decades.

Performance of Intended Function: How does a car drive? Does it have enough space for passengers and their stuff?

Does the car offer impressive tech for its segment? How well does it work? Are there any innovative design details?

6./10. How well will this car hold its value over time? Will it be expensive to maintain, insure, or repair? IntelliChoice data and research inform this score.

Post Idea #24: Digital rights management

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is DRM? Digital Rights Management Explained

Another DRM meaning is taking control of digital content away from the person who possesses it and handing it to a computer program.

DRM aims to protect the copyright holder’s rights and prevents content from unauthorized distribution and modification.

DRM is increasingly important as digital content spreads through peer-to-peer file exchanges, torrent sites, and online piracy.

DRM is used across a wide range of digital content, from entertainment media like books, music, and videos to database subscriptions, software programs, and sensitive business data.

Ensuring appropriate content access: DRM restricts content to specific audiences and limits content to intended audiences.

DRM is crucial to protecting digital content, but media and entertainment organizations also need robust security solutions and processes in place to protect their content.

Digital rights management can be turned on using an application that encrypts data or digital media, such as books, music, movies, software, videos, and other copyrighted content.

Digital Rights Management

Digital Rights Management provides content providers with the means to protect their proprietary music or other data from unauthorized copying and other illegal uses.

DRM technology protects digital content by encrypting it and attaching to it usage rules that determine the conditions under which a user can play back the content.

DRM is designed to be transparent to users unless they attempt to violate the usage rules that they agreed to when they purchased the digital content.

Any digital-audio content that is protected by DRM can be played only by trusted audio drivers.

Protected content cannot be played when a debugger is attached to the driver.

For Microsoft Windows Me drivers, WHQL testing for DRM compliance is optional.

For drivers in Windows XP and later, DRM compliance is required.

In order to manage this balance, librarians need to understand what DRM is and how it works, what issues are involved with its use, and how to create DRM responses and policies that satisfy the needs of both users and content owners.

Software Software comes wrapped in DRM. Sometimes the DR.M is placed there by its maker, such as when Microsoft requires you to agree to a user license and input a key in order to install Windows or Office.

Even YouTube, which allows free access to most of its videos, has a system called Content ID 36 that acts as fingerprinting DRM, as well as Encrypted Media Extensions, plugins that allow the website to attach DRM to streaming media and prevent someone from downloading a copy of a video to their computer’s hard drive.

42 10 Frederick W. Dingledy and Alex Berrio Matamoros Whether using a database for research, reading an e-book, or watching a video, today’s librarian encounters many forms of DRM. But why is it so popular among content owners today? What are the reasons for including DRM in so many products? ARGUMENTS IN SUPPORT OF DIGITAL RIGHTS MANAGEMENT Content creators and content owners argue that DRM is vital to protect the rights granted to them by law to control how content is sold, copied, repurposed, modified, and publicly performed.

The DMCA includes an anti-circumvention provision 50 that makes it illegal to work around any DRM measure or to make or offer to the public any technology that circumvents DRM. 51 This provision attempts to increase deterrence for digital copying by imposing hefty fines on those who successfully tamper with the technology and then make and distribute copies.

The American Library Association 74 and digital civil liberties advocacy group Electronic Frontier Foundation 75 have advocated against DRM. Why does DRM face such strong opposition? Fair Use Even though the U.S. Constitution describes the right of authors to their “Writings” as an exclusive one for a limited time, American law has developed exceptions to this right in order to strike a balance between an author’s private rights and the ublic interest.

Valve Business Solutions, “Steamworks Publishing Services.” Valve’s website describes it as an alternative to DRM, but by our definition it is DRM. 34.

What Is Digital Rights Management?

Digital rights management is a way to protect copyrights for digital media.

In today’s digital world, digital rights management is increasingly important, not only for digital content creators but also for companies and individuals that make use of digital assets licensed or purchased from third-party creators.

When used in a business setting, digital rights management may be called by a different name, such as information rights management or enterprise rights management.

The FDIC uses digital rights management to prevent the unauthorized redistribution of sensitive digital information, for example.

Digital rights management can protect copyright holders from piracy, but when tools that can easily remove DRM code from digital works are readily available, why do content creators continue to bother with it? Despite its shortcomings, digital rights management still offers numerous benefits.

Digital rights management technologies are aimed at restricting the ways in which users interact with content, such as listening to music on multiple devices or sharing content with friends with family.

In today’s digital world, digital rights management is imperative for companies spanning every industry to protect their information assets.

What Is Digital Rights Management? Definition, Benefits, And Best Practices

The definition of digital rights management took on new dimensions with the rise of OTT and cloud-based content sharing.

In 2019, the DRM market was worth $2.94 billion globally, expected to more than double by 2025, at a CAGR of 12.65%. This healthy growth pace indicates the need for digital rights management services and solutions protecting enterprise and consumer-facing content from unethical access.

This exclusive explainer talks about the definition of digital rights management, why you need it, and eight best practices for getting started with DRM in 2021.

The definition of Digital Rights Management extends to both online and offline content.

In other words, DRM is applicable regardless of whether you stream a movie on Netflix or purchase a Blu-Ray DVD. Also Read: Top 7 Digital Rights Management Software in 2021.

Like most technologies, DRM works best when used along with associated solutions such as data loss prevention, digital asset management, and content management systems.

As content formats, distribution channels, and DRM technologies become more sophisticated, your approach to Digital Rights Management must evolve in tandem.

How Digital Rights Management Works

Digital rights management is a far-reaching term that refers to any scheme that controls access to copyrighted material using technological means.

In essence, DRM removes usage control from the person in possession of digital content and puts it in the hands of a computer program.

While many consumers see DRM methods as overly restrictive – especially those methods employed by the movie and music industries – digital rights management is nonetheless trying to solve a legitimate problem.

The distribution of digital content over the Internet via file-sharing networks has made traditional copyright law obsolete in practice.

Every time someone downloads an MP3 file of a copyrighted song from a free file-sharing network instead of buying the CD, the music label that owns the copyright and the artist who created the song lose money.

The nature of the Internet makes it impractical to try to sue every person who breaks the law in this way, so companies are trying to regain control of distribution by making it technologically impossible for consumers to make digital copies.

Most digital rights management schemes cannot take fair use into account, because a computer program cannot make subjective decisions.

Post Idea #25: Louis Vuitton

Related Articles – Summarized

Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton Malletier, commonly known as Louis Vuitton, is a French high-end luxury fashion house and company founded in 1854 by Louis Vuitton.

Due to the continuing imitation of his look, in 1888, Vuitton created the Damier Canvas pattern, which bore a logo that reads “Marque L. Vuitton déposée”, which translates into “L. Vuitton registered trademark”.

Each season Louis Vuitton produces rare, limited edition bags that are generally only available by reservation through larger Louis Vuitton stores.

In July 2019, Louis Vuitton opened a temporary exhibition titled “Louis Vuitton X” in Los Angeles, showcasing items from its various collaborations over the years.

On 13 February 2007, Louis Vuitton sent a cease-and-desist order to Danish art student Nadia Plesner for using an image of a bag that allegedly infringed Louis Vuitton’s intellectual property rights.

In February 2013, Louis Vuitton issued a complaint against the owner of a barber shop in Hong Kong for allegedly violating its intellectual property rights in relation to a stool using fabric coating that is similar to the checker pattern in Louis Vuitton’s handbags.

In May 2017, media reported on alleged mistreatment of Louis Vuitton exclusive model Ulrikke Høyer who was to appear on a Louis Vuitton cruise show in Kyoto.

LVMH Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton, Société Européenne Given A €787.00 Price Target By UBS Group Analysts

UBS Group set a €787.00 target price on LVMH Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton, Société Européenne in a research report sent to investors on Thursday, Borsen Zeitung reports.

According to MarketBeat.com, the stock currently has a consensus rating of Buy and a consensus price target of €808.73.

LVMH Moët Hennessy – Louis Vuitton, Société Européenne has a 12 month low of €195.45 and a 12 month high of €260.55.

The business has a fifty day moving average price of €698.11 and a 200 day moving average price of €679.95.

Raw-Edges On What Inspired Its Latest Collaboration With Louis Vuitton

One of their latest creations is the Cosmic Table, one of the 64 products by 15 designers in Louis Vuitton’s 2021 Objet Nomades collection of home furnishings that launched at the annual design fair Design Miami/ last December.

“We showed it to the team at Louis Vuitton and after that it was all a very natural process. The team and Louis Vuitton did a great job keeping the weightlessness of the leather base while still being able to hold very heavy thick glass on top.”

With the help of cutting-edge techniques and the maison’s traditional savoir faire, the Raw-Edges Cosmic Table took on an innovative carbon-fibre form elegantly wrapped in thin layers of Louis Vuitton leather.

The bold colour of the base combined with the tabletop disc of bevelled glass makes the Cosmic Table a remarkable centrepiece, which can be accompanied by other creations by Raw-Edges for Louis Vuitton, such as the modular Doll Chairs or iconic Concertina Chair.

The design studio’s relationship with Louis Vuitton started about 10 years ago, when the maison reached out to the couple.

“In its history, Louis Vuitton was a changemaker and inventor for travellers, starting with the stackable flat trunk and continuing with many other magical inventions like a beautiful foldable bed,” says Mer.

Working with a brand like Louis Vuitton has allowed Raw-Edges to experience luxury from a different perspective.

Louis Vuitton’S Handle Soft Trunk Bag Makes Permanent Return To Collection Lineup

Louis Vuitton is bringing back the Handle Soft Trunk bag to its permanent collections.

The bag has now found its way back as a permanent staple to the Spring/Summer 2022 collection as one of the house’s most sought after heritage trunk model.

As a testament to its nomadic influences, the trunk echoes the traditional rectangular silhouette with a modern detailing made popular by Abloh.

Metallic corners and rivets help to provide the bag with additional structure, while a removable shoulder strap and leather handle give the piece more versatility in use.

The Handle Soft Trunk is now available in two luxe variations including a classic, sleek black Taurillon calf leather and a leather-trimmed Monogram Macassar canvas.

The pieces are a part of Abloh’s contemporary Soft Trunk line, which are offered alongside the Mini Soft Trunk, Soft Trunk and Soft Trunk Wearable Wallet.

Adopting an on-the-go style, the bag is perfect for the everyday go-getter, a motif that Abloh continuously emphasized for the Louis Vuitton brand.

San Jose CA Luxury Chanel/Louis Vuitton Handbag And Purse Buying Service Updated

San Jose, California-based, R&J Jewelry and Loan 770-9774), is announcing an update in services to give those currently in the market to sell their luxury handbags for instant purchase or short-term collateral lending the opportunity to consult with in-store expert appraisers.

The update benefits those who want to sell their Louis Vuitton, Gucci, or Chanel bags for top pricing, and those looking to purchase designer purses, handbags, and accessories at the best deals.

R&J Jewelry and Loan is a family-run business that specializes in buying gold, silver, and precious metals, as well as luxury watches, fine jewelry, and more.

One of the best and most convenient ways of supplementing disposable income is by selling luxury items that include designer purses and handbags.

A recent update in services at R&J Jewelry and Loan gives those with unwanted designer handbags access to buying services that offer top market payouts.

Brand-name handbags the team at R&J buys and sells include Chanel, Hermes, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Birkin, Gucci, Fendi, Givenchy, and Dior.

With an update in services to focus on buying upscale handbags from brand names that include Chanel, Gucci, and Louis Vuitton, R&J Jewelry and Loan is helping those in the market to sell their items, and those in the market to buy gently used luxury handbags get the best pricing available.

Designer Handbags & Purses On Sale

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Louis Vuitton

Louis Vuitton: a world of elegance, inspiration and innovation.

Against the backdrop of the Dreamhouse™, a multi-disciplinary artistic performance unveiled the Louis Vuitton Men’s Fall-Winter 2022 Collection by Virgil Abloh.

Post Idea #26: Luxury goods

Related Articles – Summarized

What Are Luxury Goods?

What is the definition of luxury good? Some people think of these luxury commodities as high end products.

Luxury goods are sensitive to changes in consumer income because they have a high income elasticity of demand.

Smartphones can be considered luxury goods; therefore, when consumer income rises, people usually choose to purchase a smartphone instead of a flip phone and also spend a proportionate more amount of their income on the new device.

Demetrius’ income allows him to spend more on luxury goods, and as his income increases, he will be spending more money.

The luxury goods industry is growing despite the global financial crisis, and their profit margins are expanding as a result of increased consumer spending.

As consumer income rises, people are more willing to spend on luxury goods.

Define Luxury Goods: A luxury good is a commodity that consumers demand more disproportionately as their incomes increase.

Examples Of Luxury Goods And The World’S Best Brands

Luxury goods are products that are not essential but are highly desired and associated with wealthy or affluent people.

Here are examples of some of the top luxury brands and goods in the world.

It is the biggest seller of luxury watches in the world.

An easy way to think of the luxury goods definition is an expensive item you want rather than need.

The higher income you have, the more demand there is to buy luxury items.

Learn more about the types of goods and services by checking out simple examples of goods and services.

You can also explore the difference between normal goods and inferior goods.

Luxury Goods: Meaning And Its Elasticity- Penpoin.

Luxury goods are types of goods whose demand is higher than the increase in consumer income.

In economics, luxury goods have a positive income elasticity of more than 1.

Income elasticity measures the responsiveness of the demand quantity of a product when consumer income changes.

Income elasticity of demand = % Change in the demand quantity of product /% Change in the consumer’s income.

Economists divide goods into two groups based on signs of income elasticity.

Positive income elasticity shows you that the demand quantity of normal goods increases as consumer income rises.

An increase in consumer income of 5% will only increase the quantity of demand of less than 5%.Luxury goods have more than one income elasticity.

Luxury Goods

Luxury goods is often used synonymously with superior goods.

Luxury goods have high income elasticity of demand: as people become wealthier, they will buy proportionately more luxury goods.

It is important to note that Veblen goods are not the same as luxury goods in general.

Luxury goods often have special luxury packaging to differentiate the products from mainstream competitors.

Luxury goods have been transformed by a shift from custom-made works with exclusive distribution practices by specialized, quality-minded family-run and small businesses to a mass production of specialty branded goods by profit-focused large corporations and marketers.

The United States has been the largest regional market for luxury goods and is estimated to continue to be the leading personal luxury goods market in 2013, with a value of 62.5 billion euros.

In Economics, superior goods or luxury goods make up a larger proportion of consumption as income rises, and therefore are a type of normal goods in consumer theory.

Luxury Goods Co.

Designer Purple Bear Polo Shirts are for those who live their lives with HONESTY, INTEGRITY, and PASSION. Designed for the Optimistic Fashion Forward Individual in the Pursuit of Greatness.

Our Pique Polo shirts us the finest combed PIMA Cotton on the Market.

Our Polo Shirts are High-End Impeccable Quality built to last for years.

Our size range includes shirt sized sm m lg xl 2x 3x 4x 5x and 6x. We service all Clients.

You can customize your Purple Bear POLO shirt to match your Louis Vuitton Gucci, or Loubitton sneakers.

Top 15 Most Popular Luxury Brands Online In 2021

The top 15 most popular luxury brands online in 2021.

In what might be of little surprise to many, Italian luxury fashion house Gucci maintains the top spot on the 2021 edition of our list of the most popular luxury brands online, well ahead of all its competitors and for four consecutive years.

The brand gains five points to end number eight on our list of the most popular luxury brands online in 2021.

Another newcomer to our list of the most popular luxury brands online in 2021 is Italian fashion brand Valentino.

Luxe Digital’s luxury brands ranking aims to provide a real-time and insightful analysis of the most popular brands online.

After observing a significant concentration of the share of search interest among the top 15 luxury brands on our list, we summed up their individual average search interest for 2021 to get a baseline of the total search interest for the top 15 brands.

We measure the absolute search interest for each of the top luxury brands during the period, then calculate how much attention they receive compared to the other brands in our ranking as a percentage of the total search interest for luxury brands.

Luxury Goods Group Hermes Temporarily Closes Russia Stores

PARIS – French luxury group Hermes said on Friday it would temporarily close its stores in Russia and pause all commercial activities in the country, the first major international luxury group to publicly announce such a move.

“Deeply concerned by the situation in Europe at this time, it is with regret that we have taken the decision to temporarily close our stores in Russia and pause all our commercial activities from the evening of March 4th,” Hermes said in a post on its LinkedIn page.

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Doing business in Russia has become complex following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, which prompted the United States and Europe to impose sweeping sanctions.

While affluent Russians are keen consumers of luxury goods, analysts say the proportion of luxury sales generated from Russian nationals is small compared to the industry’s main growth engines, China and the United States.

According to estimates from Jefferies, Russians account for around $9 billion in annual luxury sales, around 6% of Chinese spending and 14% of American spending.

Swiss watchmaker Swatch Group, which owns high end watches and jewelry labels including Harry Winston, said it would continue its operations in Russia but was putting exports on hold “Because of the overall difficult situation.”

Post Idea #27: Fault current limiter

Related Articles – Summarized

Fault Current Limiters

Substations are vital to the power grid’s efficacy.

AMSC’s Fault Current Limiters act as surge protectors, protecting this critical equipment from destructive faults and extending its lifetime.

Used in a substation, superconductor fault current limiters are smart grid systems that can help protect the grid by reducing the destructive nature of faults, extending the life of existing substation equipment and allowing utilities to defer or eliminate equipment replacement or upgrades.

Utilities with an SFCL will benefit from deferred or eliminated equipment replacement, increased equipment life, improved system operation, reduced system costs, simplified renewable integration and improved operator safety.

With our expertise in high temperature superconductor cable technology, AMSC has developed fault current limiting cables that utilize Amperium® HTS wire tailored specifically for fault current limiting applications.

Fault current limiting superconductor cables can be used to connect existing substations, enabling power sharing between regions.

This is a compelling proposition for utilities in that it ensures system redundancy for critical urban infrastructure, increases system reliability, enables load sharing and mitigates power disruptions caused by environmental or human factors.

Fault Current Limiters: An Introduction

Fault current limiters, as the name suggests, are used to reduce the level of fault currents and reduce the compromise on the stability of power systems in case of faults.

Other way is to install Fault Current Limiters which can reduce the magnitude of currents during faults so circuit breaker can interrupt at lower values of currents and don’t need to be changed.

Meanwhile Fault current Limiters keep the current at lower value without causing any damage to system until the circuit breaker interrupts.

During normal conditions it acts like a superconductor and offers virtually zero resistance in path but during fault, its critical temperature is achieved because of increase in temperature due high fault current and it changes its state from superconducting to normal and offers high resistance which limits fault current.

When the current goes beyond limit there is an increase in temperature due to which superconductor transforms from superconductor to resistor, more than normal resistance is introduced in fault current’s path and fault current is limited.

Advantages of Fault Current LimitersIt limits the current to prevent damage of equipment.

Fault Current Limiters reduce fault currents without compromising circuit characteristics in normal conditions.

FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS A Fault Current Limiter is a device which limits the prospective fault current when a fault occurs in the power system.

IV. BENEFITS OF FAULT CURRENT LIMITERS The primary benefit of fault current limiter is in saving the cost of removing lower rated and installing higher rated equipment in existing installations since it reduces the value of fault current which the existing protection device can handle.

A. Fault current limiting reactor Fault Current Limiting reactors are coils used to limit current during fault condition.

Superconducting Fault Current Limiter is a novel electric equipment which has the capability to reduce the fault current level within the first cycle of fault current.

The main power line is wound around both cores and, when the current becomes high enough the cores are driven out of Disadvantages of Superconducting FCL 1) One current disadvantage is that there is energy loss caused by the current leads passing from room temperature to cryogenic temperature that will result in a loss of approximately 40-50 W/kA heat loss per current lead at cold temperature.

The fault current bypass restricts the fault current – some schemes turn off the switches to interrupt the current, other modulate the fault current to keep it within the acceptable limits.

Disadvantages of Electromagnetic Dynamic Fault Current Limiter Disadvantages of solid state limiters 1) 2) 3) 4) Harmonics introduced due to switching devices Voltage drop introduced during faults Needs external trigger for operation High loss also at standby 1) Complicate in structure 2) Difficult to be applied in high power capacivity system F. Hybrid FCL E. Electromagnetic Dynamic Fault Current Limiter In 2001, Shi et al proposed a novel Triggered Vacuum Switch based FCL. Hybrid Fault Current Limiters uses a combination of mechanical switches, solid state FCL(s), superconducting and other technologies to create current mitigation.

Fault Current Limiter

A superconducting FCL is a device that uses superconductors to instantly limit electrical surges before they reach a circuit breaker.

In their superconducting state, they pass electricity continuously without power losses at normal levels while limiting current surges.

The main advantages of superconducting FCLs are their fast response to over-current conditions, response without an external trigger, and negligible influence on an electrical network under normal operating conditions.

There are several types of superconducting FCLs but they fall into two basic categories: resistive and inductive.

A resistive superconducting FCL operates as described above.

An inductive superconducting FCL is designed to remain superconducting and stores the fault energy within the coils of the superconductor while providing the necessary impedance to limit the fault current.

The inductive superconducting FCL is not usually preferred because of its greater size and cost, which are driven by the large volume of superconductor required.

Fault Current Limiter & Current Limiting Reactors CLR

Implementation of Nuclear Reactors for current limiting purposes.

How many limiting reactors must be placed in network to efficiently deal with fault current?

Implementation of these reactors is also a good option to deal with fault current.

Transient stability has critical role in electrical systems it is related to electric alternating current power systems and demonstrates a situation in which a number of synchronous machines of the power system remain in synchronism after a fault occurs.

Superconducting Fault Current Limiters is another practical way to improve the transient stability of a power system by limiting the fault current regarding technical and economical constraints.

As superconductors have a high non-linear resistance the superconductor can be used as a Fault Current Limiter.

Below is the example of motor connected in a system placement of fault current limiter.

Fault Current Limiter

A fault current limiter, also known as fault current controller, is a device which limits the prospective fault current when a fault occurs without complete disconnection.

Because these increase the amount of power that can be supplied, all of the branch circuits must have their bus bars and circuit breakers upgraded to handle the new higher fault current limit.

This limits the rate at which current can increase, which limits the level the fault current can rise to before the breaker is opened.

A fault current limiter is a nonlinear element which has a low impedance at normal current levels, but presents a higher impedance at fault current levels.

After the faulting branch is disconnected, the fault current limiter automatically returns to normal operation.

“Superconducting fault current limiters exploit the extremely rapid loss of superconductivity above a critical combination of temperature, current density, and magnetic field.

If a fault develops, the superconductor quenches, its resistance rises sharply, and current is diverted to a parallel circuit with the desired higher impedance.

Post Idea #28: Electric current

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Electric Current: Definition, Types, Properties, Effects, Video And FAQs

Do you know what is current? In this article, let us learn and find how electric current has revolutionised modern day living.

Visualizing Electric Current To gain a deeper understanding of what an electric current is and how it behaves in a conductor, we can use the water.

There are some limitations but they serve as a very basic illustration of current and current flow.

Properties of Electric Current After we define electric current, let us learn the properties of electric current.

It is important to know what is current and the properties of the electric current.

There are two types of electric current known as alternating current and direct current.

After defining electric current, let us learn various effects of electric current.

Electric Current

The SI unit of electric current is the ampere, or amp, which is the flow of electric charge across a surface at the rate of one coulomb per second.

Current intensity is often referred to simply as current.

Since current can be the flow of either positive or negative charges, or both, a convention is needed for the direction of current that is independent of the type of charge carriers.

Alternating current can also be converted to direct current through use of a rectifier.

An old name for direct current was galvanic current.

Natural observable examples of electric current include lightning, static electric discharge, and the solar wind, the source of the polar auroras.

To provide a definition of current independent of the type of charge carriers, conventional current is defined as moving in the same direction as the positive charge flow.

The Physics Hypertextbook

Despite referring to many different things, the word current is often used by itself instead of the longer, more formal “Electric current”.

As with all quantities defined as a rate, there are two ways to write the definition of electric current – average current for those who claim ignorance of calculus.

The ratio of current to area for a given surface is known as the current density.

Well actually, it’s because current density is defined as the product of charge density and velocity for any location in space.

In fluid mechanics stands for mass density, while in electric current it represents charge density.

To express the intensity of a current as a number, suppose that another arbitrary current is chosen for comparison.

Let us use i and i′ for the ratios of the intensities of two given currents to the intensity of the reference current taken as unity.

What Is Electric Current?

While it is a bit dicey to compare electric current to the flow of water in a pipe, there are some similarities that might make it somewhat easier to understand.

In the case of alternating current, where the current changes direction 50 or 60 times per second, most of the electrons never make it out of the wire.

Most of the electricity that we use comes in the form of alternating current from the electric power grid.

Alternating current is produced by electric generators that operate on Faraday’s Law of Induction, by which a changing magnetic field can induce an electric current in a conductor.

As the coils rotate, they open and close with respect to the magnetic field and produce an electric current that reverses direction every half turn.

What is becoming more and more important is the ability for electric current to convey information, most notably in the form of binary data.

Although the Internet connection to your computer uses only a tiny fraction of the electric current of, say, an electric heater, it is becoming more and more important to modern life.

What Is Electric Current » Electronics Notes

Electric current results when electric charges move – these may be negatively charged electrons or positive charge carriers – positive ions.

Electric Current Tutorial Includes:What is electric current Current unit – Ampere AC & DC. Electric current is one of the most basic concepts that exists within electrical and electronic science – electric current is at the core of the science of electricity.

An electric current is a flow of electric charge in a circuit.

More specifically, the electric current is the rate of charge flow past a given point in an electric circuit.

Conventional current flow: The conventional current flow is from positive to the negative terminal and indicates the direction that positive charges would flow.

Effects of current When an electric current flows through a conductor there are a number of signs which tell that a current is flowing.

As electric current is such a key factor in electrical and electronic circuits, knowing what current is flowing is very important.

Properties Of Electric Current, Simple Electric Circuit, Current Intensity & Potential Difference

The two parallel lines in the electric circuit refer to the dry cell where, The tallest line represents the positive pole, The smallest line represents the negative pole, The electric lamp illuminates in the circuit as all components of the circuit are connected with each other, The electric lamp doesn’t illuminate in the circuit as the circuit is open.

Is the electric current intensity passing through a circuit when a quantity of charge of one coulomb passes through a given cross-section in time of one second, The coulomb is the quantity of charge transferred by a constant current intensity of one ampere in time of one second.

In the electric circuit, the ammeter is connected in series to measure the electric current intensity passing through the circuit.

If two charged conductors touch or are connected with a wire and one of them conductor has an electric potential higher than the other conductor, electric energy will flow from to until their electric potential becomes equal the transference of charges does not depend on their amount, But it depends on the difference in their potential.

If the work done to transfer an electric charge between two points is 20 joule, and the time of charge flows through the conductor is 2 seconds, calculate the electric current intensity passes through the circuit.

The electric source acts as a pump to maintain a continuous flow of electric current in the electric circuit.

If you need to charge your mobile phone, you should use the electric transformer t.o reduce the electric potential of the current used and get a suitable electric potential to charge the mobile.

Post Idea #29: DroneDeploy

Related Articles – Summarized

DroneDeploy Flight App On The App Store

The free DroneDeploy app is the leading software for drones with millions of flights flown by over 100,000 pilots!

FLIGHT APPDownload the DroneDeploy app to upgrade your drone with autonomous and free flight capabilities for automated capture in just a few taps.

DroneDeploy is the only flight app that provides instant offline maps without hours of processing time using Live Map technology.

Even manage a fleet of drones and pilots with DroneDeploy Fleet Management.

DroneDeploy has everything you need to create a smart drone program for any organization.

Want more? Extend DroneDeploy’s capabilities with over 80 apps available for install within DroneDeploy’s App Market, including AirMap for instant LAANC authorizations.

Over 100 million acres have been mapped by DroneDeploy in more than 180 countries.


Getting Started Welcome to DroneDeploy! Your first stop on understanding everything you need to know to get started with DroneDeploy.

Flight & Ground Capture Plan to fly varied elevations, capture a virtual walkthrough, or create a high-quality model for inspection + more!

Upload & Process How to process your captured data into actionable maps, models, exports, and reports.

Explore Explore your data through inspection tools, analysis, exports, and more – everything your need to know post-processing.

Report Instantly deliver beautiful reports of your roofs, stockpile data, inspections, and progress.

Share & Export With the click of a button: email an export, invite a user to collaborate, or provide them view-only access.

App Market & Integrations Explore our extensive app market for additional tools, or integrate with ProCore, BIM +many more!

Drone Platform For Developers

Automatic cross-platform support means your app is available to thousands of drone operators, across more than 160 countries.

Your apps will be put to work by the companies around the world-so you can reap rewards with straightforward revenue share.

Simple APIs integrate your app or service with the DroneDeploy platform and discovered in the world’s largest drone app market.

Post Idea #30: Dairy product

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Some minor metabolic end products and degradation of proteins and lipids also contribute to the flavor of dairy products.

Are packaged using different materials and technologies, and these are combined in different ways specific for each dairy product, and are designed to preserve the quality and provide the expected shelf life of the product.

Because dairy products are so diverse with different quality attributes, both inherent and demanded by consumers, together with a spectrum of perishability properties, combinations of packaging materials and technologies are carefully selected for each product.

Dairy product consumption, in the form of fluid milk, cheeses, yogurts, and other products, continues during childhood and throughout adulthood.

Due to these high consumption rates, it is essential to public health efforts that dairy products be produced and distributed to the consumer in a manner that retains the nutritional integrity of the product while minimizing the risk of foodborne illness.

The improvement of dairy product safety depends on the following factors: preventing and more efficiently controlling human and animal diseases; detecting the presence of S. aureus contaminants in fresh milk through strengthened HACCP procedures; controlling storage and processing temperatures to prevent S. aureus growth and toxin production; educating and training handlers in dairy product factories on the HACCP; developing better detection methods for toxins; and identifying the minimum amount of SE that causes SFP and clarifying the underlying mechanisms.

Tracking the evolution of product microstructure during the formulation, processing, storage, and consumption cycle greatly enhances our understanding of food behavior and can be critical in solving product problems and facilitating the development of new products.

Definition, Types, Nutritional Content, & Production

Dairy product, milk and any of the foods made from milk, including butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurt, and condensed and dried milk.

Most milk is manufactured into more stable dairy products of worldwide commerce, such as butter, cheese, dried milks, ice cream, and condensed milk.

In general, the processing technology described for cow’s milk can be successfully applied to milk obtained from other species.

The Holstein-Friesian cow produces the greatest volume, but other breeds such as Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Guernsey, and Jersey, while producing less milk, are known for supplying milk that contains higher fat, protein, and total solids.

Many factors influence the composition of milk, including breed, genetic constitution of the individual cow, age of the cow, stage of lactation, interval between milkings, and certain disease conditions.

Since the last milk drawn at each milking is richest in fat, the completeness of milking also influences a sample.

Goat milk has about the same nutrient composition as cow’s milk, but it differs in several characteristics.

Dairy Products & Foods

Dairy products and foods are truly versatile and take a variety of forms-from foods you can bite into or eat with a spoon and beverages you can sip or slurp.

Millions of people around the world rely on a variety of dairy products and foods for a delicious, nutritious way to balance their diet.

Whether you rely on milk or yogurt for your overnight oats or cheese on your taco, there are countless ways to enjoy dairy in your everyday life.

Dairy products are derived from milk, which has been an important source of nutrition for people for thousands of years.

These include products made from milk, such as cheese, yogurt, kefir, ice cream and butter.

Dairy products like milk, cheese and yogurt each contain nutrients your body needs.

There are a wide range of dairy products, including hundreds of types of cheese, yogurt and milk and milk products.

List Of Dairy Products

A production plant for the processing of milk is called a dairy or a dairy factory.

Dairy farming is a class of agricultural, or an animal husbandry, enterprise, for long-term production of milk, usually from dairy cows but also from goats, sheep and camels, which may be either processed on-site or transported to a dairy factory for processing and eventual retail sale.

Name Image Origin Description Filled milk Any milk, cream, or skim milk that has been reconstituted with fats, usually vegetable oils, from sources other than dairy cows.

Fermented milk products Also known as cultured dairy foods, cultured dairy products, or cultured milk products, fermented milk products are dairy foods that have been fermented with lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc.

Name Image Origin Description Horse milk Products collected from living horses include mare’s milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols, who let it ferment to produce kumis.

There are three main kinds of food with this name: foods based on curdled milk products like yogurt or cheese are within the realm of dairy products.

Though not widely drunk in any modern culture, sheep’s milk is commonly used to make cultured dairy products.

What Foods Are In The Dairy Group?

All fluid milk products and many foods made from milk are considered part of the Dairy Group.

Foods made from milk that retain their calcium content are part of the group.

Foods made from milk that have little to no calcium, such as cream cheese, cream, and butter, are not part of the Dairy Group.

Calcium-fortified soymilk is also part of the Dairy Group.

Most of your choices within this group should be fat-free or low-fat.

See All about the Dairy Group for examples of specific foods in the Dairy Group.

Dairy Product Crossword Clue, Crossword Solver

Search millions of clues to find answers to crossword puzzle clues.

Wordplays has answers to Quick puzzles, General Knowledge puzzles, Cryptic Crossword Puzzles, and Variety puzzles.

The Crossword Solver find answers to clues found in the New York Times Crossword, USA Today Crossword, LA Times Crossword, Daily Celebrity Crossword, The Guardian, the Daily Mirror, Coffee Break puzzles, Telegraph crosswords and many other popular crossword puzzles.

Dairy Products Made With 100% Natural Source Ingredients

Coast spirit that’s pure BC. We only use 100%natural source ingredients and fresh milk from cows.

Products made with 100% natural source ingredients and with a west coast spirit that’s pure BC Our cows live close to our dairies.

Our products are made with 100% natural source ingredients and are always fresh.

It’s better for everyone: the people and also our cows.

Our Natural lineup is the perfect example of a simple, fresh yogurt.

Enjoy our products made with whole milk and cream on their own or as a natural addition to your favorite dishes.

Discover the products of our Organic lineup made with, fresh, organic milk from our grassfed cows – naturally! Organic yogurt is better for everyone: the people and also our cows.

Post Idea #31: United States Department of Justice

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U.S. Department Of Justice Office Of The Inspector General

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TOP CHALLENGES. DOJ’s top management and performance challenges.

U.S. Department Of Justice

The Department of Justice is a United States executive department formed in 1789 to assist the president and Cabinet in matters concerning the law and to prosecute U.S. Supreme Court cases for the federal government.

The DOJ oversees the following agencies: the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Drug Enforcement Administration, the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives, the U.S. Marshals Service, the Bureau of Prisons, and Interpol Washington.

The Office of the Attorney General was formed under the Judiciary Act of 1789, in order to advise the president on law and to prosecute cases in the Supreme Court.

Gradually the office began adding assistants and hiring private lawyers to handle an increasing number of federal cases until 1870, when Congress enacted An Act to Establish the Department of Justice.

The department became official on July 1, 1870, and covered all criminal prosecutions and civil suits in which the United States had an interest, became the enforcer of all federal laws, and created the office of solicitor general.

The foundation of the department is still based on that act, though it has grown into the largest law office and central enforcer of federal laws in the world.

” To enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the law; to ensure public safety against threats foreign and domestic; to provide federal leadership in preventing and controlling crime; to seek just punishment for those guilty of unlawful behavior; and to ensure fair and impartial administration of justice for all Americans.


Email Addresses are now required – Registrants must have a current and active email address listed on their registration in order to receive important information from the DEA, such as registration renewal notices.

If the registration is not renewed within that calendar month, an application for a new DEA registration will be required.

Regardless of whether a registration is reinstated within the calendar month after expiration, federal law prohibits the handling of controlled substances or List 1 chemicals for any period of time under an expired registration.

If you are needing to relinquish unused triplicate DEA Order Forms, please send them to DEA Registration Section, 8701 Morrissette Drive, Springfield, Virginia 22152.

Registration for Disposal of Controlled Substances Modify eligible DEA registration to collect pharmaceutical controlled substances from ultimate users.

DEA is announcing that, effective immediately, DOD personal service contractors will be issued a new DEA registration number that begins with the letter “G”. This new first character will be in addition to the current first characters A, B, F of the DEA registration for practitioners.

The G series DEA registration number will be listed in the database provided to NTIS and available on the DEA website validation query system.

Office Of Justice Programs

Access information about JustGrants, including news updates, resources and training opportunities for applicants and recipients of DOJ grant awards, and other forms of federal financial assistance.

Situational crime prevention is a crime reduction strategy used by law enforcement that posits that criminal acts may be deterred by environmental changes.

It focuses on the setting for crime, rather than those committing criminal acts.

The main goal is to make criminal acts less attractive, and requires assistance from public and private entities.

This new fact sheet presents national estimates of delinquency cases handled by juvenile courts in 2019 and analyzes caseload trends since 2005.

The 2022 NCVRW Theme Artwork is now available online.

Use the theme colors; theme poster; and web, social, and other theme artwork in your campaigns to raise awareness about victims’ rights and services.

United States Of America Republic

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA REPUBLIC. . CONTINENTAL CONGRESS ASSEMBLED. . Pursuant to the United States of America Republic Constitution Amendment 19, Section 2, Clause 2, wherein it states; “The United States of America Republic shall make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States of America Republic, or any Department or Officer thereof”, there shall hereby be designated General Provisions for Criminal Code to serve this purpose.

TO ESTABLISH GENERAL PROVISIONS FOR CRIMINAL CODE. To proclaim and establish provisions in accordance with the Constitution and Laws of the United States of America Republic.

WHEREAS the Moorish American People have made a unique contribution in shaping the United States of America Republic as a distinctive and blessed nation of people and citizens;.

WHEREAS the Principles of Love, Truth, Peace, Freedom and Justice inspired concepts of civil government that are contained in our Declaration of Independence and Constitution of the United States of America Republic;.

The Constitution and Laws of the United States of America Republic is “The Rock on which our Republic rests”;.

The Constitution and Laws of the United States of America Republic and knowledge of the aforementioned Holy Scriptures can only strengthen our nation.

NOW be it Resolved by the Continental Congress of the United States of America Republic in Continental Congress assembled, That the President is authorized and requested to designate the administration of said Government.

United States Department Of Justice

The United States Department of Justice, also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the United States government tasked with the enforcement of federal law and administration of justice in the United States.

The department is headed by the U.S. Attorney General, who reports directly to the president of the United States and is a member of the president’s Cabinet.

Following unsuccessful efforts in 1830 and 1846 to make Attorney General a full-time job, in 1867, the U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, led by Congressman William Lawrence, conducted an inquiry into the creation of a “Law department” headed by the Attorney General and also composed of the various department solicitors and United States attorneys.

Grant appointed Amos T. Akerman as Attorney General and Benjamin H. Bristow as America’s first solicitor general the same week that Congress created the Department of Justice.

The “Act to Establish the Department of Justice” drastically increased the Attorney General’s responsibilities to include the supervision of all United States attorneys, formerly under the Department of the Interior, the prosecution of all federal crimes, and the representation of the United States in all court actions, barring the use of private attorneys by the federal government.

In 1933, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order which gave the Department of Justice responsibility for the “Functions of prosecuting in the courts of the United States claims and demands by, and offsenses [sic] against, the Government of the United States, and of defending claims and demands against the Government, and of supervising the work of United States attorneys, marshals, and clerks in connection therewith, now exercised by any agency or officer…”.

The motto’s conception of the prosecutor as being the servant of justice itself finds concrete expression in a similarly-ordered English-language inscription in the above-door paneling in the ceremonial rotunda anteroom just outside the Attorney General’s office in the Department of Justice Main Building in Washington, D.C. The building was renamed in honor of former Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in 2001.

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