34 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-05

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-05.

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Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Terahertz radiation

Related Articles – Summarized

Terahertz Radiation

Terahertz radiation – also known as submillimeter radiation, terahertz waves, tremendously high frequency, T-rays, T-waves, T-light, T-lux or THz – consists of electromagnetic waves within the ITU-designated band of frequencies from 0.3 to 3 terahertz, although the upper boundary is somewhat arbitrary and is considered by some sources as 30 THz. One terahertz is 1012 Hz or 1000 GHz. Wavelengths of radiation in the terahertz band correspondingly range from 1 mm to 0.1 mm = 100 µm. Because terahertz radiation begins at a wavelength of around 1 millimeter and proceeds into shorter wavelengths, it is sometimes known as the submillimeter band, and its radiation as submillimeter waves, especially in astronomy.

Terahertz radiation falls in between infrared radiation and microwave radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum, and it shares some properties with each of these.

The earth’s atmosphere is a strong absorber of terahertz radiation, so the range of terahertz radiation in air is limited to tens of meters, making it unsuitable for long-distance communications.

As of 2012, viable sources of terahertz radiation are the gyrotron, the backward wave oscillator, the organic gas far infrared laser, Schottky diode multipliers, varactor multipliers, quantum cascade laser, the free electron laser, synchrotron light sources, photomixing sources, single-cycle or pulsed sources used in terahertz time domain spectroscopy such as photoconductive, surface field, photo-Dember and optical rectification emitters, and electronic oscillators based on resonant tunneling diodes have been shown to operate up to 700 GHz. There have also been solid-state sources of millimeter and submillimeter waves for many years.

Unlike X-rays, terahertz radiation is not ionizing radiation and its low photon energies in general do not damage living tissues and DNA. Some frequencies of terahertz radiation can penetrate several millimeters of tissue with low water content and reflect back.

The first images generated using terahertz radiation date from the 1960s; however, in 1995 images generated using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy generated a great deal of interest.

A study published in 2010 and conducted by Boian S. Alexandrov and colleagues at the Center for Nonlinear Studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico created mathematical models predicting how terahertz radiation would interact with double-stranded DNA, showing that, even though involved forces seem to be tiny, nonlinear resonances could allow terahertz waves to “Unzip double-stranded DNA, creating bubbles in the double strand that could significantly interfere with processes such as gene expression and DNA replication”.

ScienceDirect Topics

0.1 THz corresponds to 1.7 K, 1 THz to 17 K, and 10 THz to 170 K. Thus, terahertz passive imaging is well suited to the imaging of objects at temperatures well below room temperature.

Illustrates a micrograph of a THz detector that consists of a Bowtie antenna which is coupled to a CMOS based FET that has detect THz radiation beyond 2 THz with high sensitivity.

A good technique would be to use intense pulses of THz radiation to induce coherent damped oscillations in the population of the two low-lying states.

For a slab that is too thick for a pulse to transmit due to the strong absorption of the material and the low power of typical THz sources, the information on the complex refractive index of the sample can be obtained by the reflection measurement of the THz pulse.

Since we are dealing with a THz pulse in the time-domain it is important to realize that the phase angle of the electric field depends on the time that the pulse spends in propagating some optical path and finally reaching the plane of detection.

Reflection of THz pulses from an opaque sample and opaque reference in the case of normal incidence of the pulses.

Causality-based K-K analysis and also MEM are useful in determining the time origin in THz emission spectroscopy, that is, to get an estimate of the moment when ultra-short optical pulse excitation causes charge carriers to emit THz radiation.

Terahertz Radiation And The Skin: A Review

Among all biological specimens, skin tissue is an optimal sample for the application of THz-based methods because it allows for overcoming some intrinsic limitations of the technique, such as a small penetration depth.

Aim: We summarize the modern research results achieved when THz technology was applied to the skin, considering applications in both imaging/detection and treatment/modulation of the skin constituents.

Approach: We perform a review of literature and analyze the recent research achievements in THz applications for skin diagnosis and investigation.

Results: The reviewed results demonstrate the possibilities of THz spectroscopy and imaging, both pulsed and continuous, for diagnosis of skin melanoma and non-melanoma cancer, dysplasia, scars, and diabetic condition, mainly based on the analysis of THz optical properties.

Conclusions: The rapid development of THz technologies and the obtained research results for skin tissue highlight the potential of THz waves as a research and therapeutic instrument.

The perspectives on the use of THz radiation are related to both non-invasive diagnostics and stimulation and control of different processes in a living skin tissue for regeneration and cancer treatment.

Keywords: cancer detection and treatment; regenerative medicine; skin; terahertz spectroscopy and imaging; terahertz technology.

Terahertz Radiation, Explained By RP Photonics Encyclopedia; Far Infrared, Submillimeter Wave, Lasers, Photoconductive Antenna, Difference Frequency, Applications

Terahertz radiation is typically understood to be electromagnetic radiation in the frequency range from roughly 0.1 THz to 10 THz, corresponding to wavelengths from 3 mm down to 30 μm. Such frequencies are higher than those of radio waves and microwaves, but lower than those of infrared light.

As the wavelengths are in the range of 0.03 mm to 3 mm, and often below 1 mm, terahertz radiation is also sometimes called submillimeter radiation.

For a long time, terahertz radiation was little used in science and technology, essentially since there were neither good terahertz sources nor suitable detectors available.

Terahertz radiation finds a large and still expanding range of applications.

Although direct terahertz transmission through cables or fibers is extremely limited by the high losses, one can transmit optical signals through optical fibers which carry terahertz signals in the form of optical frequency differences.

Some kind of photomixer can thereafter be used to generate the terahertz radiation, e.g. for radiation via an antenna.

2049735 J. Dai et a l., “Terahertz wave air photonics: terahertz wave generation and detection with laser-induced gas plasma”, IEEE J. Sel.

The Truth About Terahertz

Orbiting terahertz instruments have a big advantage over their terrestrial counterparts: They’re in space! Specifically, they operate in a near-vacuum and don’t have to contend with a dense atmosphere, which absorbs, refracts, and scatters terahertz signals.

The successful space-based instruments mentioned earlier merely detect terahertz radiation that celestial bodies and events naturally emit; although some of those instruments use a low-power source for improved sensitivity, they don’t as yet attempt to transmit at terahertz frequencies.

Most of the electrical terahertz sources we reviewed in 2007 had much steeper power-frequency curves that basically fell off into the abyss as they were pushed into the terahertz range.

Despite recent progress in cracking the terahertz nut, it is still exceedingly difficult to efficiently produce a useful level of power from a compact terahertz device.

We also need a better understanding of material properties at terahertz frequencies, as well as general terahertz phenomenology.

Many of the topics discussed in this article, including terahertz applications and the development of terahertz sources, are treated in greater technical detail in the inaugural issue of IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol.

Mark J. Rosker and H. Bruce Wallace discuss some of the challenges of terahertz imaging in their paper “Imaging Through the Atmosphere at Terahertz Frequencies,” IEEE MTT-S International Symposium, June 2007.

Terahertz Radiation May Offer A Potential Treatment For Cancer

Researchers from the RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics and collaborators have discovered that terahertz radiation, contradicting conventional belief, can disrupt proteins in living cells without killing the cells.

This finding implies that terahertz radiation, which was long considered impractical to use, may have applications in manipulating cell functions for the treatment of cancer, for example, but also that there may be safety issues to consider.

Terahertz radiation is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and infrared light, which is often known as the “Terahertz gap” because of the lack so far of technology to manipulate it efficiently.

Because terahertz radiation is stopped by liquids and is non-ionizing-meaning that it does not damage DNA in the way that x-rays do-work is ongoing to put it to use in areas such as airport baggage inspections.

Using fluorescence microscopy, they looked at the effect of terahertz radiation on the growth of chains in an aqueous solution of actin and found that it led to a decrease in filaments.

According to Shota Yamazaki, the first author of the study, published in Scientific Reports, “It was quite interesting for us to see that terahertz radiation can have an effect on proteins inside cells without killing the cells themselves. We will be interested in looking for potential applications in cancer and other diseases.”

“Terahertz radiation is coming into a variety of applications today, and it is important to come to a full understanding of its effect on biological tissues, both to gauge any risks and to look for potential applications.”

Is Terahertz Radiation Dangerous? Effects Of Terahertz Radiation.

Is terahertz radiation dangerous? Effects of terahertz radiation.

The terahertz region is between the radio frequency region and infrared.

Both the IEEE RF safety standard and the ANSI Laser safety standard have limits into the terahertz region, but both safety limits are based on extrapolations.

To understand the interaction between terahertz waves and the living, it must be taken into account that terahertz waves are strongly absorbed by polar molecules such as water.

As a result, the power of a terahertz wave is reduced by 99% after 500 μm of skin.

The power required to achieve thermal effects are difficult to achieve for conventional laboratory systems.

The question of the safety of terahertz waves is still relevant and is the subject of research in laboratories all over the world.

Post Idea #2: Data analysis techniques for fraud detection

Related Articles – Summarized

®2014 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc. 6 of 16 Types of Data That Can Be Analyzed Relevant data comes from numerous sources and takes numerous forms Accounting and financial data Human resources data Customer data Vendor data Internal communications and documents External benchmarking data ®2014 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc. 7 of 16 Types of Data That Can Be Analyzed Structured data Sales records Payment or expense details Payroll details Inventory records Financial reports Found in accounting software, databases, spreadsheets, etc.

®2014 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc. Unstructured data Email and instant messages Payment text descriptions Social media activity Corporate document repositories News feeds 8 of 16 Types of Data That Can Be Analyzed Big data: Gartner: “High volume, high velocity, and/or high variety information assets that require new forms of processing to enable enhanced decision-making, insight discovery, and process optimization.” Information of extreme size, diversity, and complexity that will eventually tell a story once all the data sets and pieces from different sources are connected.

®2014 Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Inc. 9 of 16 Population Analytics Although testing a sample of data is a valid audit approach, it is not as effective for fraud detection purposes.

To detect fraud, data analysis techniques must be performed on the full data population.

Need to define population boundaries, including amount of historical data to include.

Gain insight into how well internal controls are operating.

Compare data from diverse sources to identify instances of fraud or noncompliance.

Some Effective Techniques Of Fraud Detection

Fraud detection means the identification of actual or expected fraud to take place within an organization.

Fraud Data analytics play a crucial role in the early detection and monitoring of fraud.

These data analytic techniques will help the organization to detect the possible instances of fraud and implement an effective fraud monitoring program to protect the organization.

Fraud analytics is the combination of analytic technology and Fraud analytics techniques with human interaction which will help to detect possible improper transactions like fraud or bribery either before the transaction is done or after the transaction is done.

When analytics is added to such traditional methods, it enhances fraud detection capabilities and gives a new dimension to the fraud detection techniques.

Many insurance companies use different Fraud detection tools to detect fraud.

Companies should always look out for any additional sources of data and should integrate them with the current fraud detection program to build the most efficient and effect fraud detection program.

Data Analysis Techniques For Fraud Detection

Data analysis techniques for fraud detection refer to the techniques that make use of statistical techniques and artificial intelligence to detect fraud in any company.

The data analysis techniques used for fraud detection were first employed by banks, telephony companies and insurance companies.

The Falcon fraud assessment system in banking industry is one of the early examples of successful data analysis techniques implementation.

Detection and prevention of fraud is not an easy task, so special techniques like data analysis techniques are used for detecting and preventing fraud.

Types of data analysis techniques for fraud detection.

Data analysis techniques for fraud detection mainly fall into two main classes – artificial intelligence and statistical techniques.

Data analysis techniques for fraud detection in the area of accounting.

With the rise of Internet, fraud has evolved substantially and profit loss continues to be a key reason to invest in fraud detection tools and techniques, allowing to implement preventive measures to forecast future frauds and corrective measures to stop ongoing frauds.

It’s the traditional approach where Fraud analysts define business rules based on their experience and business knowledge to implement an program based on that rules to filter data and extract the possible cases of fraud.

Allow to find silent fraud alarms by using Regression to Predict a continuous target variable like the “Amount of fraud”, or, classification to score “Probability of fraud” with binary category target variable “Fraud” vs “No-fraud” or multiclass category “Severe fraud”, “Medium fraud”, “No fraud”.

Expected fraud Amount = “Probability of fraud” x “Amount of fraud”.

Don’t detect fraud that wasn’t included in the historical database of fraud cases from which the predictive model was learned.

Analyzing these changes over a period of time helps to better understand usage patterns and fraud signals such as abrupt clustering changes and analyze which attributes changed most significantly and trigger clustering migration.

Fraud investigators can detect data patterns through the graph representation of the network, where nodes are individuals/organizations and edges are interdependencies.

Data Analysis For Fraud Detection

In recent years, the number of people and businesses falling victim to fraud has increased at an alarming rate.

Health care fraud estimated to cost over $500 billion.

Fraud prevention requires innovative solutions that can both fight fraudulent practices and protect individuals and businesses from disruption and loss of productivity.

Three Steps to Data Analysis Identification – identifying the data that needs to be used.

Data Analysis Techniques That Can Help Visualization – help analysts identify potential areas of concern.

Geospatial analysis to map relationships between data and location.

To learn more about how data analysis can be utilized for fraud detection, check out the infographic below, brought to you by Stetson University’s online Master of Accountancy Program.

Use Data Analytics For Fraud Prevention & Detection

As per data from the Association of Certified Fraud Examiners’ 2018 report, most typical organizations ran the risk of losing approximately 5% of their revenues due to fraud.

The process of fraud detection involves identifying an actual or expected fraud that might take place in an organization.

Now, with easy access to data from internal and external sources, fraud analytics, which combines analytic technology and fraud analytics techniques, help in the detection and prevention of fraudulent activity either before or after it occurs.

By combining data from various sources, fraud analytics simplifies the process of integrating the data into a model.

Big Data provides access to new sources of data as well as real-time events, which can be used as inputs for Decision Support System tools and models for fraud detection.

Perform SWOT. Before implementing fraud analytics solutions, the organization should analyze its strengths and weaknesses so that a suitable fraud detection program can be devised to suit its specific requirements.

The use of fraud detection models and machine learning can help in more accurate detection of anomalies as well as more efficient scoring to reduce the number of false alarms.

The job of a data scientist is to take the unstructured data of the company and make it structured.

The process used by a data scientist to detect fraud in an enterprise is known as fraud detection analysis.

The data points that are similar to each other are kept in one set and the data points which are different are divided into another set.

Data scientists use a six-step method to detect data fraud.

Several companies are looking for a data scientist that can identify, integrate, and harness their data.

In order to learn data science, you need to master data analytics courses that will teach you about decision storytelling.

The data science courses taught in these institutions will teach you about the importance of data science, which would help you get a good salaried job later.

Post Idea #3: Picture archiving and communication system

Related Articles – Summarized

Picture Archiving And Communication System

Image Transfer from the ModalitiesThe PACS system needs to accept images sent by the various imaging modalities.

A process within the PACS system needs to parse out the study and image data contained in the DICOM header, which is verified against the study and patient data transferred from the RIS to ensure that the correct images are matched to the correct study and patient.

System standards might include UNIX and Windows NT operating systems, transmission control protocol/Internet protocol, DICOM communication protocols, structured query language, ACR-NEMA and DICOM image formats, C and C++ programming languages, X Window user interface, American Standard Code for Information Interchange text representation for message passing, and health level-7 for health care database information exchange.

An on-demand system allows a user to log on and access any image from any workstation.

Images requested from the long-term archive, either those retrieved before the procedure or those requested by the user at the workstation, are also moved to the RAID. Users at any workstation can query the database server to receive any image in the system.

One level is required by the multivendor equipment implemented in PACS. As a result of integration, PACS receive also data from other information systems working in the hospital, the Hospital Information System, or the Digital Voice System and then gives some outlines of how to implement image standardization functions in clinical PACS.Read full chapter.

The author notes how PACS can improve the imaging department workflow compared to film-based technologies and emphasizes that the practical implementation of PACS requires a high degree of integration with the Radiology Information System and/or the Hospital Information System for scheduling, workload management, and radiology reports.

Picture Archiving And Communications System

The Picture Archiving and Communications System refers to a computer system that is used to capture, store, distribute and then display medical images.

A PACS consists of four major components: the imaging modalities such as CT and MRI, a secure network to transmit patient information, workstations for interpreting and reviewing images, and long- and short-term archives to store and retrieve images and reports.

What is PACS? PACS allows images such as X-rays and scans to be stored electronically and viewed on video screens, so that doctors and other health care professionals can access the information and compare it with previous images at the touch of a button, delivering more efficient imaging processes.

How is Kalispell Regional Healthcare’s PACS delivered?Our PACS network is delivered via wide area network T1 lines.

Ensured access to images: Our PACS allows images to be shared outside individual facilities within the network.

Integration of images with patient records: Our PACS is tightly integrated with Meditech, removing the traditional barrier between images and other patient records and providing a single source for clinical information.

What are the benefits of Kalispell Regional Healthcare’s PACS? PACS enables clinicians to access the right image in the right place at the right time to support an efficient, accurate and well-communicated diagnosis.

Picture Archiving And Communication System

Picture archiving and communication system is a modality of imaging technology which helps in image transmission from the site of image acquisition to multiple physically-disparate locations.

Image storage device/server for short or long term storage of data.

Display stations: imaging workstation and user interface.

Camera: to convert into hard-copy images on need basis.

Integration with radiology information system and hospital information system.

A system for rapid transfer of images, while maintaining the original quality is a vital, albeit complex technological need.

The major limitation of PACS or teleradiology devices, is the quality of images, which may be compromised by suboptimal resolution display monitors at different locations.

Picture Archiving And Communication Systems

Picture archiving and communication systems are extremely versatile systems that facilitate the transfer of digital images and patient data throughout a healthcare enterprise.

PACS are most commonly used in radiology departments to process images from diagnostic imaging modalities, such as digital radiography devices and magnetic resonance imaging systems.

In this article, we evaluate three such systems from three of the largest PACS suppliers-the Agfa IMPAX, GE PathSpeed, and Siemens Sienet.

Our testing focused on whether, and to what degree, the systems could meet this goal.

We did identify significant differences-along with some noteworthy limitations-with respect to system design and operation, external integration capabilities, and supplier support and professional services.

We have ranked the systems for each of these factors to help healthcare facilities identify the system that will best meet their needs.

Also in this Evaluation, we present an overview of the technology, a Glossary of PACS terminology, selection guidance, and discussions of PACS-related topics, including data compression options, the role of the DICOM standard, and concerns about data security in many of today’s systems.

Picture Archiving And Communication System

A picture archiving and communication system is a medical imaging technology which provides economical storage and convenient access to images from multiple modalities.

The universal format for PACS image storage and transfer is DICOM. Non-image data, such as scanned documents, may be incorporated using consumer industry standard formats like PDF, once encapsulated in DICOM. A PACS consists of four major components: The imaging modalities such as X-ray plain film, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, a secured network for the transmission of patient information, workstations for interpreting and reviewing images, and archives for the storage and retrieval of images and reports.

Electronic image integration platform: PACS provides the electronic platform for radiology images interfacing with other medical automation systems such as Hospital Information System, Electronic Medical Record, Practice Management Software, and Radiology Information System.

The communication with the PACS server is done through DICOM messages that are similar to DICOM image “Headers”, but with different attributes.

The back-up infrastructure may also be capable of supporting the migration of images to a new PACS. Due to the high volume of images that need to be archived many rad centers are migrating their systems to a Cloud-based PACS. A full PACS should provide a single point of access for images and their associated data.

All PACS, whether they span the entire enterprise or are localized within a department, should also interface with existing hospital information systems: Hospital information system and Radiology Information System.

Diagnosis Report is created based on the images retrieved for presenting from PACS Server by physician/radiologist and then saved to RIS System.

June 29, 2021 HC3: Sector Alert TLP: White Report: 202106291300 Picture Archiving Communication Systems Vulnerabilities Executive Summary Picture Archiving Communication Systems are widely used by hospitals, research institutions, clinics and small healthcare practices for sharing patient data and medical images.

In 2019, researchers disclosed a vulnerability in these systems that demonstrated if the systems were exploited there could potentially be an issue with exposed patient data.

There continues to be several unpatched PACS servers visible and HC3 is recommending entities patch their systems immediately.

According to the most recent reporting, there are 130 health systems exposing about 8.5 million case studies, representing over 2 million patients, with approximately 275 million images related to their exams.

PACS systems should be configured in accordance with the documentation that accompanies them from their manufacturer.

The vulnerabilities associated with PACS systems range from known default passwords, hardcoded credentials and lack of authentication within third party software.

The attack surface and overall security posture for all PACS systems should be reviewed, updated and maintained according to basic cybersecurity hygiene guidelines.

2022 Reviews, Pricing & Demos

UltraLinqUltraLinqUltraLinq is a cloud-based PACS, offering a comprehensive platform for medical imaging.

VEPRO PACS EMRVEPRO PACS EMRVEPRO PACS is a cloud-based, HL7 compliant electronic medical recording and report image sharing solution.

A PACS consists of four major components: the image modality such as MRI or CT, the network by which images and patient information are securely transmitted, the individual client workstations for viewing images and a database for storing image data.

Finally, radiology centers often purchase PACS integrated with radiology information systems to have one integrated package to manage images and corresponding clinical patient data.

These buyers work for private practices with robust enough imaging needs to warrant a formal PACS. These practices typically have multiple physicians on staff specializing in orthopedics, cardiology, neurology, ophthalmology and other image-intensive specialties.

The critical metric for any PACS system is that the costs to store, review and retrieve images go down.

The costs associated with these tasks can be far-reaching, ranging from the staff required for repetitive tasks of putting away and pulling images, the time spent manually reviewing series of images and the direct costs of paper, shelving and other materials required to store physical images.

Post Idea #4: The Home Depot

Related Articles – Summarized

The Home Depot On The App Store

Shop over one million products and find the info you need most.

A GPS FOR YOUR SHOPPING LISTUse the Product Locator to find what you’re looking for and check store inventory.

SHOP SPECIAL BUYS & VIEW LOCAL ADLook for a new Special Buy on the app home screen each day.

Plus, check out your local ad for all the latest from your Home Depot.

TAKE PRODUCTS ON A TEST DRIVE With Augmented Reality, your imagination has an assistant – see products in your home before you buy.

The developer, The Home Depot, Inc., indicated that the app’s privacy practices may include handling of data as described below.

Family Sharing Up to six family members can use this app with Family Sharing enabled.

220 Shares In The Home Depot, Inc. Acquired By Future Financial Wealth Managment LLC

Future Financial Wealth Managment LLC bought a new stake in shares of The Home Depot, Inc. in the 4th quarter, according to the company in its most recent filing with the SEC. The fund bought 220 shares of the home improvement retailer’s stock, valued at approximately $90,000.

Quantinno Capital Management LP now owns 1,730 shares of the home improvement retailer’s stock worth $568,000 after purchasing an additional 27 shares during the period.

Northwest Investment Counselors LLC now owns 9,271 shares of the home improvement retailer’s stock worth $3,043,000 after buying an additional 28 shares during the period.

Charter Oak Capital Management LLC now owns 2,465 shares of the home improvement retailer’s stock worth $809,000 after buying an additional 29 shares during the period.

Jackson Hole Capital Partners LLC now owns 1,260 shares of the home improvement retailer’s stock worth $414,000 after buying an additional 29 shares during the period.

Home Depot last posted its earnings results on Monday, February 21st. The home improvement retailer reported $3.21 EPS for the quarter, topping analysts’ consensus estimates of $3.18 by $0.03.

The Home Depot, Inc engages in the sale of building materials and home improvement products.

The Home Depot

Our One Home Depot strategy aims to deliver shareholder value and grow our market share by providing best-in-class customer service through a seamless, interconnected shopping experience for our customers.

We are continuously improving our online and in-store experience and providing enhanced training for our associates.

To ensure we are the product authority in home improvement, we strive to provide unique and comprehensive product offerings, continued innovation, and exceptional convenience and value.

To execute our strategy, we have committed approximately $11 billion over a multi-year period to investments across our stores, associates, digital experience and supply chain.

The Home Depot

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The Home Depot

In mid-2006, the Home Depot acquired Home Decorators Collection, which was placed as an additional brand under its Home Depot Direct division.

Interline Brands became fully integrated with The Home Depot in August 2016 with the Interline Brands website merging with The Home Depot website.

The Home Depot was the title sponsor of The Home Depot Center in Carson, California, home to the Los Angeles Galaxy of Major League Soccer; the venue was formerly the home of Chivas USA of MLS, which folded in 2014, and the Los Angeles Riptide of Major League Lacrosse, which folded in 2008.

Home Depot Canada is the Canadian unit of the Home Depot and one of Canada’s top home improvement retailers.

In terms of big box stores, the Home Depot has more stores than RONA. As of 2007, RONA pulled ahead of The Home Depot in total retail sales, due to aggressive consolidation efforts by RONA, combined with the loss of The Home Depot’s industrial supply division, HD Supply, in July 2007.

The Home Depot increased its presence in Mexico in 2004, with the acquisition of Home Mart, the second largest Mexican home improvement retailer.

In December 2006, The Home Depot announced its acquisition of the Chinese home improvement retailer The Home Way.

Post Idea #5: Infant formula

Related Articles – Summarized

Infant Formula Feeding

In February 2022, Similac, Alimuntum, and EleCare powdered infant formulas were recalled for possible Cronobacter contamination.

To find out if the product you have is included in this recall, review product lot code on the bottom of the package and enter it on Abbott Nutrition’s websiteexternal icon.

Other lots of Similac, Alimentum, and EleCare powdered formula were recalled on February 17, 2022.

First two digits are 22 through 37, AND. Code on the container contains “K8,” “SH,” or “Z2,” AND. Use-by date is 4-1-2022 or later.

If you are feeding your baby infant formula, there are some important things to know such as how to choose an infant formula and how to prepare and store your infant’s formula.

Infant Formula: Your Questions Answered

Is one brand of infant formula better than another? Are generic brands OK? Is soy-based formula better than cow’s milk formula? Here’s what you need to know about infant formula.

Most infant formula is made with cow’s milk that’s been altered to resemble breast milk.

Soy-based infant formulas might also be an option for babies who are intolerant or allergic to cow’s milk formula or to lactose, a carbohydrate naturally found in cow’s milk.

Ready-to-use formula is the most convenient type of infant formula.

All infant formulas sold in the United States must meet the nutrient standards set by the FDA. Although manufacturers might vary in their formula recipes, the FDA requires that all formulas contain the minimum recommended amount of nutrients that infants need.

Some studies suggest that including DHA and ARA in infant formula can help infant eyesight and brain development, but other research has shown no benefit.

Questions and answers for consumers concerning infant formula.

Newborn And Infant Formula

Feed their tummy with vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients to promote growth, support their brain development, nourish their body, and help them move forward to all those incredible milestones ahead. How much formula should you feed an infant?

First days: If your baby is exclusively formula feeding, offer them 1 to 2 fl oz of formula every two to three hours, or about eight to 12 times in 24 hours.

The need for formula will decrease as you begin introducing solid foods into their diet.

Important? While only you and your pediatrician can determine the best infant formula.

Consider formulations that target their particular needs, such as soy-based infant formula.

Our formulas give every baby the amount of DHA found in average breast milk.

Enfamil® Enspire™ is a formula closest to breast milk that has lactoferrin.

According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, cow’s milk formula is the most prevalent type of formula on the market and makes up about 80% of all formula sold.

Hydrolyzed formulas may be either partially or exclusively hydrolyzed and are often marketed as “Calm” or “Gentle.” These types of formulas are designed for babies who can’t tolerate cow’s milk or soy-based formulas or for babies with a protein allergy.

Soy formulas may be recommended if you’re looking to exclude animal products from your baby’s diet or if your baby is allergic or intolerant to cow’s milk formula or lactose.

“Changing formulas may stress an already fussy baby. I recommend keeping the formula consistent when possible and taking the time to speak with your doctor before changing to one of the specialty formulas,” she says.

If you’re breastfeeding your baby and looking to supplement with formula, or trying to make the switch altogether, you’ll probably notice lots of formula marketed toward breastfed babies.

If you can’t find your favorite formula, it’s safe to switch formulas unless your child requires a special type of formula.

Best Baby Formula to Prevent GasWhy We Love It. When it comes to babies who have extra-sensitive tummies, finding the right formula can be a bit of trial and error.

American Family Physician

Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative.

Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based.

Although the American Academy of Family Physicians and the American Academy of Pediatrics promote breastfeeding as optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose infant formula as an acceptable alternative.

Jump to section +. Most infants tolerate standard formula, but family physicians should screen for the minority of infants with feeding intolerance.

9,10 In these cases, family physicians can guide parents toward appropriate specialized formulas.

Family physicians should direct parents toward breastfeeding and cow’s-milk-based formulas in most cases.

Because toddler formulas are significantly more expensive than whole milk, family physicians can counsel parents against routine use.

5 Best Infant Formulas

Where do you start? Is regular cow’s milk formula a safe bet? Or should you opt for soy infant formula? And what is hydrolyzed formula, anyway? Whether you’ve decided to formula-feed exclusively or simply want to supplement breastfeeding with the occasional bottle, selecting the best infant formula is no easy task.

Lactose-reduced formulas won’t be suitable for infants with protein sensitivities, and hydrolyzed formulas may not work for those who have difficulty digesting lactose.

Anti-regurgitation formula: Anti-regurgitation formulas are cow’s milk formulas which are thickened with different starches, the most common of which include rice, potato, and corn starches.

Hydrolyzed protein formulas: Last, but certainly not least, in the category of cow’s milk formulas are hydrolyzed, or hydrolysate, infant formulas.

Although some infants with cow’s milk sensitivities may find goat’s milk formulas somewhat easier to digest, it’s important to note that babies with milk allergies or intolerances are still likely to have an adverse reaction to goat’s milk formulas.

Extensively hydrolyzed powdered formulas can cost double that for equal volumes, but these formulas are a vital necessity for babies with milk allergies.

Lactose-reduced formulas may help reduce painful gas caused by lactose sensitivities, and whey-dominant formulas can be easier to digest.

At Least Eight Additional Babies Sickened By Recalled Formula, Lawyer Says

Powdered baby formula may be linked to at least five infant illnesses, including possibly two deaths, the Food and Drug Administration warned earlier this week.

Four months later, there was a potential answer – the Similac formula that Hayes’ parents used to feed him is among the four recently recalled brands of powdered baby formula.

In February, the FDA reported five infants – all of whom consumed the now recalled formula, according to their parents – contracted either Salmonella or Cronobacter, which can cause meningitis or sepsis.

He’s so far representing eight families with babies that have allegedly consumed recalled Abbott products that are not included in the FDA’s case count, he said.

During an FDA inspection of the Sturgis plant in September, the agency issued five citations, including inadequate hand washing and improper maintenance of a building used to produce and package infant formula.

During another inspection, the FDA found “Several positive Cronobacter results from environmental samples.” A FDA review of Abbott’s internal documents also indicated that Abbott previously destroyed formula due to this contamination.

“The recent infant illnesses and deaths with exposure to certain recalled powdered infant formulas produced at an Abbott facility is tragic and of great concern to us all. Our first and foremost priority is ensuring that any recalled product is taken off the market and working with the USDA and manufacturers to ensure that parents have access to alternative, safe infant formula,” Frank Yiannas, FDA deputy commissioner for food policy and response, told CBS News in a statement.

Post Idea #6: Chip shortage

Related Articles – Summarized

2020-Present Global Chip Shortage

The 2020-present global chip shortage is an ongoing crisis in which the demand for integrated circuits is greater than the supply, affecting more than 169 industries and has led to major price increases, shortages and queues amongst consumers for automobiles, graphics cards, video game consoles, computers, and other products that require semiconductors.

Cars account for 15% of global chip production, while personal electronics account for around 50%. Chip revenues are even more skewed towards non-automotive sectors.

The chip shortage is expected to cost the global automotive industry US$210 billion in revenue in 2021.

The global chip shortage made it difficult to acquire new graphics cards, while an increase in cryptocurrency mining in 2021 increased the demand even more.

On February 24, 2021, U.S. President Joe Biden signed an executive order trying to address the chip shortage by reviewing options to strengthen the semiconductor supply chain.

On July 22, 2021, Intel CEO Pat Gelsinger said he expects the chip shortage will get worse in the second half of 2021 and that it will be a year or two before supplies return to normal.

Barra said that the company will source more semiconductors directly from chip manufacturers instead of suppliers to adapt to the ongoing global chip shortage.

Google Pixel 6a And Pixel Watch Rumored Release Date Delayed

The tip comes from noted tech leaker Jon Prosser – who was the first to treat us to the high quality renders of the Pixel Watch – and has been keeping tabs on the upcoming release of both the watch and the budget Pixel 5a successor.

The Pixel Watch and Pixel 6a were recently spotted listed together in the inventory of an unnamed U.S. cellular carrier, fueling rumors that both devices would be released at the same time, if not as a carrier bundle.

The inventory listing also shed some light on the color options that both devices will come in, as well as storage capacity.

We have speculated in the past that a coordinated launch will take place for both these devices, and it is still my opinion that there is no reason why Google can’t still tease them at I/O with a “Coming Soon” or “Summer 2022” release date.

We have waited this long to see a Pixel Watch come to pass, and at this point, we are so close I can practically taste it.

At Ford, The Chip Shortage Isn’T Getting Any Better. There Are More Output Cuts.

Ford Motor is taking more downtime because of a lack of chips.

The chip shortage “Continues to affect Ford’s North American plants, along with automakers and other industries around the world,” a Ford spokesman told Barron’s in an email.

Ford is taking down time at a Kentucky truck plant and Ohio assembly plant.

Ford management said deliveries would fall “a high single to low digit decline in the first quarter” back on their fourth-quarter earnings conference call in early February.

Ford delivered about 508,000 vehicles in the U.S. in the fourth quarter of 2021, down about 6% compared with the fourth quarter of 2020.

For the full year, Ford expects improvement in the chip situation and plans to ship 10% to 15% more cars than in 2021.

Ford delivered 2.4 million vehicles in the U.S. in 2019, before the chip shortage and the Covid-19 pandemic.

Chip Shortage Forces Ford To Cut SUV, Truck Production At Two Plants

Ford is once again cutting production of highly profitable trucks and SUVs due to an ongoing global shortage of semiconductor chips.

Vehicles impacted include Ford Super Duty pickups, Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator SUVS, medium-duty trucks and chassis cabs.

Ford Motor is once again cutting production of highly profitable trucks and SUVs due to an ongoing global shortage of semiconductor chips that has wreaked havoc on the automotive industry for more than a year.

Ford on Thursday confirmed production downtime next week for Ford Super Duty pickups and Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator SUVs at a plant in Kentucky and medium-duty trucks and chassis cabs at a plant in Ohio.

The fact that Ford is cutting pickup and SUV production shows automakers continue to battle with the problem despite many in the industry expecting a gradual improvement in the supply of chips in 2022.

The chip shortage dates to early 2020, when Covid caused rolling shutdowns of vehicle assembly plants.

The production cuts also come after Ford unveiled plans to split its electric vehicle and legacy auto businesses into two units, in a bid to streamline and boost its EV output.

TSMC Executive Says Chip Shortage To Last Several More Years

One of the top executives at TSMC gave an interview recently on the chip shortage, and surprise, surprise, there’s no silver bullet that will end it any time soon.

In the interview, Dr. Mii offered a very simple explanation for both the cause of the chip shortage, and why it won’t be ending any time soon: supply and demand.

“Right now, the industry is investing a tremendous amount of capital into building extra capacity to solve this chip shortage problem,” Mii says.

“We have a much clearer picture of future demand today than we had two years ago.” Mii does say that he thinks COVID-19 played a role in crashing the global economy, but he thinks the increased demand for semiconductors is more to blame for today’s woes.

These types of concerns have taken on new urgency in the wake of the current situation in Ukraine, with people pondering the repercussions of a potential similar action by China against Taiwan, which is where TSMC is headquartered.

Dr. Mii, who is a 26-year veteran of TSMC and was transferred to the R&D wing of the company when it begun making 90nm wafers, also discussed the difficulty companies are facing as manufacturing processes continue to shrink.

“We are approaching atomic scale,” Mii told the IEEE. “Before, we could achieve the next-generation node by fine-tuning the process, but now for every generation we must find new ways in terms of transistor architecture, materials, processes, and tools.” He summarized this thoughts by noting, “In the past, it’s pretty much been a major optical shrink, but that’s no longer a simple trick.” Interestingly the 3nm node is just now coming online two and a half years after TSMC ramped up production at 5nm, giving us a glimpse into future time tables.

Could AI-Powered Silicon Remastering Be A Solution To The Chip Shortage?

MORE FROMFORBES ADVISOR. This Is Tricky, Let’s Get The AI To Do It. To reiterate the high-level problem here, generally speaking, re-targeting old chip designs to a new modern manufacturing process nodes is both costly and time-consuming, but that’s where AI could come to the rescue.

As I covered back in December, chip design tools bellwether, Synopsys, is making great strides at harnessing machine learning in many areas of chip design, from place and route, to verification and even someday pulling-in the actual software workloads that will run on chips in an effort to help further optimize designs.

The latest AI-fueled innovation Synopsys has on tap is, you guessed it, Silicon Remastering of legacy chips in newer, more modern chip fab processes.

The beauty of chip designs is that they’re all simulated and verified in various EDA tools before they’re sent to produce mask sets and eventually the silicon wafer fab itself.

Synopsys claims its design remastering AI can not only retarget modern chip fab process nodes, but some day also provide derivative designs and full remakes as well.

Synopsys could then achieve even better performance and power characteristics as well, after training the AI with that same design on a more advanced chip fab process that has inherently better characteristics for speed and power efficiency.

The early results of this technology are very encouraging, and in concert with its IDM 2.0 chip fab and foundry service expansion, Intel is already getting on board with Synopsys Silicon Remastering.

Why The Heck Is There Still A Chip Shortage For Cars?

For myriad important reasons, “The chip shortage is still very much a problem,” said Sam Fiorani, vice president of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions.

Overall vehicle production was dramatically reduced in 2021 because of the chip shortage.

“OEMs stepped out of line and the manufacturers that make chips reallocated that factory space to much more profitable, much more in-demand chips for iPhones. and PlayStations. and other things,” he added.

Foreign companies can increase capacity, or we could make more of them here in the US. Schuster said both strategies are likely key to solving this issue because global chip demand is only going to increase, and not just from the automotive sector.

Converting an existing building into a chip factory is not really an option because they’re so specialized.

One additional option is forming some sort of automotive industry chip consortium.

Schuster said the chip shortage should ease this year, though LMC Automotive projects it will likely take all of 2022 and maybe a portion of ’23 for things to start getting back to normal, whatever normal is in a COVID-19.

Post Idea #7: Ford F-Series Super Duty

Related Articles – Summarized

Ford Super Duty

The Ford Super Duty is a series of trucks manufactured by the Ford Motor Company.

Introduced in 1998 for the 1999 model year, the F-Series Super Duty trucks marked the addition of a heavy-duty pickup to the Ford F-Series range with the new versions of the F-250, F-350, and F-450 trucks, while the previous 1987-1997 F-Super Duty chassis cabs were replaced by the F-450 chassis cab and F-550 Super Duty.

The F-Series Super Duty has been used as the base chassis of the Ford Excursion full-sized SUV. Ford F-250 to F-550 Super Duty trucks are assembled at the Kentucky Truck Plant in Louisville, Kentucky, while medium-duty F-650 and F-750s are assembled at Ohio Assembly in Avon Lake, Ohio.

The Centennial Edition also came with special leather-bound owners manual with the embossed signatures of Henry Ford, Edsel Ford, Henry Ford II, and William Clay Ford Jr. Ford offered a special Harley-Davidson Super Duty truck from 2004 to 2007.

To bridge the gap between the pickup line and the much larger medium-duty F-650/F-750, Ford introduced the F-450 and F-550 variants of the Super Duty; with an available GVWR from 17,950 to 19,500 lb, it pushes the Super Duty into the Class 5 truck market.

The Super Duty Tremor Off-Road Package has the highest approach angle and departure angle of any Super Duty model ever built.

While the chassis and other components would be common to both manufacturers, Ford and International would each source their own bodywork and powertrain; the cab for the Ford trucks would be common with other Super Duty models.

2022 Ford Super Duty Review, Pricing, And Specs

Overview A 2022 Ford Super Duty-either the F-250, F-350, or F-450-is more truck than most people need.

A properly equipped Super Duty can tow up to 37,000 pounds and haul up to 7850 pounds of payload. While heavy-duty rivals from Ram offer higher torque and tow ratings, as well as nicer interiors, Ford’s fanciest crew-cab models provide upscale environs and enormous passenger space.

The Chevy Silverado HD and GMC Sierra HD both have better driving manners, but the 2022 Super Duty touts more high-tech features and various driver assists.

Pricing and Which One to Buy Ford hasn’t yet released pricing for the 2022 Super Duty lineup, which the company has said will go on sale this summer.

The Super Duty also offers an off-road package-called Tremor-that adds a lift kit and meatier tires along with other trail-ready upgrades.

Every version boasts generous ratings in both categories, but Ford fanboys who want the most impressive figures will appreciate that the strongest Super Duty can haul a 7850-pound payload, pull up to 24,200 pounds with a conventional trailer hitch, and lug a massive 37,000 pounds with a fifth-wheel and gooseneck hitch.

Even stripped-down Super Duty interiors are ergonomic environments with straightforward controls and materials meant to get messy.

Ford Recalls F-Series Super Duty Trucks For Drive Shaft Fractures

DETROIT – Ford is recalling nearly a quarter-million heavy duty pickup trucks in the U.S. because the drive shafts can fracture and cause a loss of power.

The recall covers certain F-250 and F-350 Super Duty pickups from the 2017 through 2022 model years.

The trucks have gasoline engines and aluminum drive shafts.

Ford says in documents posted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration that heat and noise insulators below the body can loosen, and touch the drive shaft.

The shaft can fracture, causing a power loss, or loss of control if it hits the ground.

Dealers will inspect the drive shafts and repair them if necessary, and properly attach the insulators.

Ford’s F-Series pickup trucks for years have been the top-selling vehicles in the U.S..

Ford Recalling F-250, F-350 Heavy-Duty Pickups; Drive Shafts Can Break – CBS Dallas / Fort Worth

DETROIT – Ford is recalling nearly 250,000 select heavy duty pickups in the U.S. because the drive shaft can fracture and cause a loss of power.

The recall covers certain F-250 and F-350 Super Duty pickups from the 2017 through 2022 model years.

The trucks have gasoline engines and aluminum drive shafts.

In documents posted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Ford says that heat and noise insulators below the body can loosen, and touch the drive shaft.

The shaft can fracture, causing a power loss, or loss of control if it hits the ground.

Dealers will inspect the drive shafts and repair them if necessary, and properly attach the insulators.

The automaker recalled about 185,000 F-150 light duty pickups in the U.S. for the same problem back in December.

DETROIT – Ford is recalling nearly a quarter-million heavy duty pickup trucks in the U.S. because the drive shafts can fracture and cause a loss of power.

The trucks have gasoline engines and aluminum drive shafts.

Ford says in documents posted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration that heat and noise insulators below the body can loosen, and touch the drive shaft.

The shaft can fracture, causing a power loss, or loss of control if it hits the ground.

Dealers will inspect the drive shafts and repair them if necessary, and properly attach the insulators.

The Dearborn, Michigan, automaker recalled about 185,000 F-150 light duty pickups in the U.S. for the same problem back in December.

Ford’s F-Series pickup trucks for years have been the top-selling vehicles in the U.S..

Ford Recalls 250,000 Heavy-Duty Pickups For Drive Shaft Fractures

Ford is recalling nearly a quarter-million heavy duty pickup trucks in the U.S. because the drive shafts can fracture and cause a loss of power.

The recall covers certain F-250 and F-350 Super Duty pickups from the 2017 through 2022 model years.

The trucks have gasoline engines and aluminum drive shafts.

Ford says in documents posted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration that heat and noise insulators below the body can loosen, and touch the drive shaft.

The shaft can fracture, causing a power loss, or loss of control if it hits the ground.

Dealers will inspect the drive shafts and repair them if necessary, and properly attach the insulators.

The Dearborn, Michigan, automaker recalled about 185,000 F-150 light duty pickups in the U.S. for the same problem back in December.

Next-Gen 2023 Ford Super Duty Redesign

2023 Ford Super Duty The Ford Super Duty lineup received an update for the 2020 model year that includes revised styling, new technology, and the addition of the Ford 7.3L V8 Godzilla, among other 2023 Ford Super Duty Changes.

As previously reported by the Ford Authority, the 2022 Super Duty will lose the service light on the underside, while the OffRoad Tremor package will no longer be available on trucks equipped with the XLT. Recently, Ford Authority spies spotted a pair of 2023 Ford Super Duty Truck revolving around a sports AV gear used for hands-free driving technology, which could indicate that Ford is planning to introduce its new BlueCruise function soon.

The only visual changes to the Super Duty 2023 pickup include a new Atlas Blue exterior color, Baja interior colors for the Lariat interior, Navy Pier and Light Slate for the Limited models, and different appearance packages for the F250 and F350. Read next: 2023 Ford Ranger: The Next Phenomenal Ford Ranger Review.

“The new Tremor package brings even more off-road versatility to the 2021 Ford Super Duty F250 / F350 models. The 2021 Super Duty Tremor package features 18″ matte black alloy wheels covered with 35″, 10.8″ Goodyear Wrangler Duratrac front linkage tires.” Ground clearance.

Either way, the F250, F350, and F450 Super Duty models are all built to handle tough jobs – the choice depends on the difficulty of the job, as the F450 is better prepared for the tougher jobs than the F250. Ford Super Duty Towing and Payload Capacity.

Ford Super Duty 2023 MPG. Since the EPA doesn’t test heavy vehicles like Super Duty and its giant competitors, we can only judge them based on our testing.

Ford declined to comment when it received an update with the new Pro Power Onboard generator available on the 2021 F150. As for the Ford Super Duty 2023, we are very much expected to arrive next summer.

Post Idea #8: Food prices

Related Articles – Summarized

Our World In Data

You find their full set of results in our Food Prices Data Explorer.

A useful way to bring context to food prices is to compare the cost of a healthy diet with the median income of countries across the world.

Following the rise in food prices over the period 2005-2008, several authors – including the World Bank – attributed the largest driver to be increased biofuel production in the United States and European Union.

Market integration in Japan, Indonesia and India – average correlation coefficient vs. distance, 1750-1914 – Van Zanden21Anglo-American wheat Trade, volume and price, 1800-2000 – O’Rourke & Williamson22Evidence of the increase of food tradeAverage distance of world wheat production from London, 1866-1930 – Olmstead & Rhode23Kerala Study of the Effect of Mobile Phone Adoptions on Price Volatility – The Digital ProvideMobile phone adoption by fishermen – Jensen24Prices and mobile phone service in Kerala – Jensen25The Effect of ProtectionismDecomposition of ‘world’ price variance, 1830-1913 – Federico and Persson26Determinants of Food ExpenditureEngel’s Law.

“The FAO Food Price Index is a measure of the monthly change in international prices of a basket of food commodities. It consists of the average of five commodity group price indices , weighted with the average export shares.”28.Historical Statistics on Food PricesFood Price Data by David JacksData: David Jacks an expert in agricultural history publishes many food price series on his website.

Data on Food Prices in Recent DecadesFAO – Food and agricultural price statisticsData: Food prices of over 200 commodities for primary crops, live animals and livestock – “Representing over 97 percent of the world’s value of gross agricultural production”.

FAO – Food Price Level IndexFAO – GIEWS Food Price Data and Analysis ToolData: Database with over 1170 series of prices of different food commodities.

Food Prices Jump 20.7% Yr/Yr To Hit Record High In Feb, U.N. Agency Says

World food prices hit a record high in February, led by a surge in vegetable oils and dairy products, to post a 20.7% increase year-on-year, the U.N. food agency said on Friday.

The Food and Agriculture Organization’s food price index, which tracks the most globally traded food commodities, averaged 140.7 points last month against a downwardly revised 135.4 in January.

FAO economist Upali Galketi Aratchilage said concerns over crop conditions and export availabilities provided only a partial explanation to the increase in global food prices.

“A much bigger push for food price inflation comes from outside food production, particularly the energy, fertilizer and feed sectors,” he said.

FAO said its vegetable oils index rose 8.5% month-on-month in February to chalk up another record high, propelled by rising palm, soy, and sunflower oil prices.

The cereal price index rose 3.0% on the month, with maize prices up 5.1% and wheat prices increasing 2.1%, largely reflecting uncertainty about global supply flows from Black Sea ports.

FAO’s dairy price index increased 6.4%, its sixth consecutive monthly rise, underpinned by tight global supplies, while meat prices rose 1.1% in February.

Global Food Prices Hit Record High

Global food prices hit an all-time high in February, led by sharp increases in vegetable oil and dairy prices as well as higher costs for grains, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

FAO’s food price index averaged 140.7 points last month, breaking the previous record set in February 2011.

FAO’s vegetable oil index rose 15.8% in February, reflecting rising prices for palm, soybean and sunflower oil prices.

Soybean oil prices continued to increase because of “Deteriorating soybean production prospects in South America. International sunflower oil prices also increased markedly, underpinned by concerns over the disruptions in the Black Sea region, which could potentially lower exports,” FAO said Friday.

Dairy prices were up 8.5% from January due to tight supplies.

Corn prices alone rose 5.1% in February, “Underpinned by a combination of continued crop condition concerns in Argentina and Brazil, rising wheat prices, and uncertainty regarding maize exports from Ukraine, a major exporter,” FAO said.

“Concerns over crop conditions and adequate export availabilities explain only a part of the current global food price increases. A much bigger push for food price inflation comes from outside food production, particularly the energy, fertilizer and feed sectors,” said FAO economist Upali Galketi Aratchilage.

Global Food Prices Jumped 20.7% To Hit Record High In Feb., Says FAO

World food prices hit a record high in February, led by a surge in vegetable oils and dairy products, to post a 20.7% increase year-on-year, the U.N. food agency said on Friday.

The Food and Agriculture Organization’s food price index, which tracks the most globally traded food commodities, averaged 140.7 points last month against a downwardly revised 135.4 in January.

Higher food prices have contributed to a broader surge in inflation as economies recover from the coronavirus crisis and the FAO has warned that the higher costs are putting poorer populations at risk in countries reliant on imports.

FAO economist Upali Galketi Aratchilage said concerns over crop conditions and export availabilities provided only a partial explanation to the increase in global food prices.

FAO said its vegetable oils index rose 8.5% month-on-month in February to chalk up another record high, propelled by rising palm, soy, and sunflower oil prices.

The cereal price index rose 3.0% on the month, with maize prices up 5.1% and wheat prices increasing 2.1%, largely reflecting uncertainty about global supply flows from Black Sea ports.

FAO’s dairy price index increased 6.4%, its sixth consecutive monthly rise, underpinned by tight global supplies, while meat prices rose 1.1% in February.

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Food Prices And Spending

Retail pricing strategies, efficient food supply chains, slow wage growth, and relatively low oil prices tempered food price inflation from 2017-2019.

Of the remaining food dollar, 14.7 cents went to food processors, and 12.1 cents to food retailers.

Food prices typically move in the same direction as fuel prices, often with a slight lag, as it takes time before fuel costs are incorporated into food prices.

Over the past 2 decades, motor fuel and household energy prices have experienced double-digit, annual price swings, while food prices have posted annual increases of between 0 and 6 percent, for an average, annual increase of 2.4 percent.

In 2020, food spending by U.S. consumers, businesses, and government entities totaled $1.69 trillion, down from 1.79 trillion in 2019, partly due to the COVID-19 Recession that disrupted typical food consumption.

This resulted in food-at-home spending accounting for 51.9 percent of total food expenditures, the first year it has accounted for more than half of food spending since 2008, during the Great Recession.

High-income countries such as the United States and the United Kingdom have higher food spending in absolute terms, but the share of household consumption expenditures devoted to at-home food is low-less than 10 percent.

Food Prices Going Up: Conflict In Ukraine Could Raise Cost Of Everyday Items.

Prices on some items at the grocery store could soon get even higher.

Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is impacting the global supply of corn and wheat.

Rising inflation already prompted companies like Kellogg and General Mills to raise prices.

Wheat and corn prices have each jumped more than 20% in 2022.

Tuesday, the price of wheat climbed to its highest levels in more than a decade.

Ukraine is also the world’s fourth-largest exporter of corn.

Trading of corn futures was halted Tuesday when it settled at its highest level since May. Analysts at Rabobank predict an ongoing conflict in Ukraine could drive corn prices higher by 20% and wheat prices higher by another 30%. If the price of those grains continues rising, that will drive up the cost of food everywhere – at the grocery store and restaurants.

Post Idea #9: United Nations

Related Articles – Summarized


It would be interesting to understand the value of United Nations, considering that the 3 super powers, 2 of which are taking a very aggressive position now, are members of this body and can and have vetoed everything which does not or may not suit them.

With such a voting structure, why are countries spending billions of dollars for this body?

Surely it should be restructured so it can play a meaningful role in stopping aggression without cause or keep it just as a body to send in forces and aid after the damage has been done.

United Nations

Its work is carried out primarily by subsidiary bodies focused on a wide variety of topics; these include the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which advises UN agencies on issues relating to indigenous peoples; the United Nations Forum on Forests, which coordinates and promotes sustainable forest management; the United Nations Statistical Commission, which co-ordinates information-gathering efforts between agencies; and the Commission on Sustainable Development, which co-ordinates efforts between UN agencies and NGOs working towards sustainable development.

Other UN bodies responsible for women’s rights issues include United Nations Commission on the Status of Women, a commission of ECOSOC founded in 1946; the United Nations Development Fund for Women, created in 1976; and the United Nations International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women, founded in 1979.

In his 1953 address to the United States Committee for United Nations Day, U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower expressed the view that, for all its flaws, “The United Nations represents man’s best organized hope to substitute the conference table for the battlefield”.

Former US Ambassador to the United Nations Daniel Patrick Moynihan explained that “The Department of State desired that the United Nations prove utterly ineffective in whatever measures it undertook. The task was given to me, and I carried it forward with not inconsiderable success.”

The United Nations has inspired the extracurricular activity Model United Nations.

Today, Model United Nations educates tens of thousands on United Nations activity around the world.

Model United Nations has many famous and notable alumni, such as former secretary-general of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon.

United Nations

Bank of the United StatesProposed by Alexander Hamilton, the Bank of the United States was established in 1791 to serve as a repository for federal funds and as the government’s fiscal agent.

National DebtThe national debt is the total amount of money that the U.S. government has borrowed from various sources, including the governments of other nations, from private investors and different federal agencies.

National Park ServiceThe National Park Service, or NPS, is a federal agency within the U.S. Department of the Interior.

The U.S. Congress made Yellowstone America’s first national park in 1872.

Mafia in the United StatesThe American Mafia, an Italian-American organized-crime network with operations in cities across the United States, particularly New York and Chicago, rose to power through its success in the illicit liquor trade during the 1920s Prohibition era.

Citizens United vs. FECIn Citizens United vs. Federal Election Commission, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2010 that political spending is a form of free speech that’s protected under the First Amendment.

The United Nations Headquarters That Never WasWorld War II came to Paul Bellamy’s doorstep in September 1944 when the Rapid City, South Dakota, businessman learned that his 22-year-old son, who piloted a B-17 Flying Fortress, had died in a midair collision over England days earlier.

Definition, History, Founders, Flag, & Facts

United Nations, international organization established on October 24, 1945.

The United Nations was the second multipurpose international organization established in the 20th century that was worldwide in scope and membership.

Despite the problems encountered by the League of Nations in arbitrating conflict and ensuring international peace and security prior to World War II, the major Allied powers agreed during the war to establish a new global organization to help manage international affairs.

The name United Nations was originally used to denote the countries allied against Germany, Italy, and Japan.

On January 1, 1942, 26 countries signed the Declaration by United Nations, which set forth the war aims of the Allied powers.

The first major step toward the formation of the United Nations was taken August 21-October 7, 1944, at the Dumbarton Oaks Conference, a meeting of the diplomatic experts of the Big Three powers plus China held at Dumbarton Oaks, an estate in Washington, D.C. Although the four countries agreed on the general purpose, structure, and function of a new world organization, the conference ended amid continuing disagreement over membership and voting.

The Dumbarton Oaks proposals, with modifications from the Yalta Conference, formed the basis of negotiations at the United Nations Conference on International Organization, which convened in San Francisco on April 25, 1945, and produced the final Charter of the United Nations.

Climate change will be top of the agenda when the world’s leaders meet in New York this week.

The United Nations is an international organisation formed at the end of World War Two in 1945, with the aim of keeping peace around the world.

Thursday is set aside for talks about eliminating nuclear weapons across the world.

On the eve of the debate, a climate action summit was held at which 16-year-old activist Greta Thunberg told world leaders: “You have stolen my dreams and my childhood with your empty words… How dare you?”.

India Prime Minister Narendra Modi said the world was not doing enough to tackle climate change.

Cuba’s Fidel Castro holds the record for the longest General Assembly speech – four-and-a-half hours, in 1960.The delegates sit in alphabetical order, according to the English translation of their names, but the country in the first seat is always selected by the UN secretary-general – and this year it is Ghana.

Three years later, Libyan leader Colonel Gaddafi spoke for more than an hour and a half and at one point complained about delegates leaving the conference hall.

Post Idea #10: Food and Agriculture Organization

Related Articles – Summarized

Food And Agriculture Organization

In 1974, in response to famine in Africa, the FAO convened the first World Food Summit to address widespread hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

FAO and the World Health Organization created the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1961 to develop food standards, guidelines and texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme.

FAO has carried out projects in over 25 countries and inter-agency missions in nearly 60, scaled up its monitoring through the Global Information and Early Warning System on Food and Agriculture, provided policy advice to governments while supporting their efforts to increase food production, and advocated for more investment in agriculture as well as provided funding to distribute and multiply quality seeds in Haiti, which has significantly increased food production, thereby providing cheaper food and boosting.

The aid package falls under the EU’s €1 billion Food Facility, set up with the UN Secretary-General’s High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Crisis and FAO to focus on programmes that will have a quick but lasting impact on food security.

Some countries may denote specific representatives to the FAO, for instance the United States Ambassador to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, who has ambassador rank and is also a part of the United States Mission to the UN Agencies in Rome.

In September of the same year, the journal Society published a series of articles about FAO that included a contribution from the Heritage Foundation and a response by FAO staff member, Richard Lydiker, who was later described by the Danish Minister for Agriculture as “FAO’s chief spokesman for non-transparency”.

Among the problems noted by the IEE were: “The Organization has been conservative and slow to adapt”; “FAO currently has a heavy and costly bureaucracy”, and “The capacity of the Organization is declining and many of its core competencies are now imperilled”.

Food And Agriculture Organization

FAO/WHO Food Control Assessment Tool:The FAO/WHO started the Food Control Assessment Tool to support plans and monitor food control for the developing countries.

JECFA serves as a scientific advisory body to FAO, WHO, and their member governments, and to the CAC. Advice to the CAC on food additives, contaminants, and naturally occurring toxicants is normally provided via the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and advice on residues of veterinary drugs via the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods.

The organization had a membership of 180 countries in 2001.In 1943, world leaders met at Hot Springs, Virginia, the United States, and determined to lay a framework for peace through international cooperation in food and agriculture.

The meeting, the UN Conference on Food and Agriculture, decided on the establishment of permanent organization in the field of food and agriculture and set up an interim commission to prepare a specific plan.

The FAO called the World Food Summit in response to widespread undernutrition and growing concern about the capacity of agriculture to meet future food needs.

17.4.2 Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, and Codex AlimentariusThe FAO and WHO were established by the United Nations to address issues related to food production and public health, respectively, in all areas of the world.

To help address common areas of their mandates, FAO and WHO created Codex Alimentarius in 1963 to develop and harmonize science-based international food standards and other related guidelines for the production of safe food and the protection of consumers’ health.

Food And Agriculture Organization Definition

The Food and Agriculture Organization is a United Nations agency that works on international efforts to defeat hunger by developing agriculture.

Established by the United Nations in 1945, the Food and Agriculture Organization is a neutral intergovernmental organization.

Serving 194 member nations, two associate members, and the European Union, the Food and Agriculture Organization also aims to be a neutral forum where countries can negotiate agreements and debate policy.

The Agriculture and Consumer Protection Department promotes agriculture to eradicate human poverty while also protecting the environment and ensuring safe food practices and standards.

The Food and Agriculture Organization strives to help member countries become independent in providing sufficient food to their indigenous population, while also producing enough to become active trade partners with other countries-being able to generate revenue out of agricultural products, in other words.

Rather than providing food to countries suffering from famine, the FAO strives to set up sustainable food sources in those countries.

Among these was the Haiti Food Security Emergency Tool, which aggregated data on usable roads, crop calendars, land use, livelihood zones, and damage information to help improve food production and distribution in the ravaged country.

FAO started to gather statistical information about each country regarding the quantities of all foodstuffs produced in that country ii FAO and the World Health Organization created the Codex Alimentarius Commission in 1963 to develop food standards, guidelines and texts such as codes of practice under the Joint FAO/ WHO Food Standards Programme.

Iii In the 60-ties and 70-ties FAO worked on its strategy : The areas of concentration: work on high-yielding varieties of basic food crops; filling the protein gap; a war on waste; mobilizing human resources for rural development; assistance to countries in earning and saving foreign exchange.

Under the initiative, FAO contributed to the work of the UN High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Crisis, which produced the Comprehensive Framework for Action.

In May 2009, FAO and the European Union signed an initial aid package worth €125 million to support small farmers in countries hit hard by rising food prices.

The aid package falls under the EU’s €1 billion Food Facility, set up with the UN SecretaryGeneral’s High-Level Task Force on the Global Food Crisis and FAO to focus on programmes that will have a quick but lasting impact on food security Online campaign against hunger.

Intense rivalry followed among organizations, Complaints, that FAO has become essentially irrelevant in combating hunger, Heavy and costly bureaucracy has developed known for mediocrity of its work, Inefficiency of the staff, which became increasingly politicized, FAO has lagged behind other UN organizations in responding to US desires for improvements in program, Too many gatherings were considered a waste of time, including empty talks, Controversial report “Agricultural Biotechnology”.

Questions were raised about independence and intellectual integrity of FAO, FAO has been conservative and slow to adapt, Capacity of FAO was declining and many of its core competences were imperiled, Main critics: non-governmental organizations, think-tanks, environmentalists, farmers, indigenous peoples, US government, even FAO officials i Constitution of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 1945., p.3.-­‐p.23; Constitution was modified at Rome on 27/11/1991 in order to allow European Community accession.

Food And Agriculture Organisation: Learn About FAO Functions And FAO Council

The FAO Council was established in 1947 at the FAO Conference that replaced the original “Executive Committee of FAO”.

The FAO also brings out a number of publications/reports, some of which are, the State of the World, the Global Report on Food Crises, the State of Food and Agriculture, the State of the World’s Forests, etc.

FAO’s Role in Agriculture Innovation FAO focuses on a system-wide approach.

FAO harnesses the power of digital technologies to pilot, accelerate and scale innovative ideas with high potential for impact in food and agriculture, transforming digital solutions and services into global public goods.

The nodal ministry for FAO in India is the Ministry of Agriculture.

The FAO Council also approved India’s membership to the Executive Board of the United Nations World Food Program for 2020 and 2021.

FAQ about Food And Agriculture Organisation Fao.How many countries are members of FAO?How is FAO funded?

Food And Agriculture Organization

The food and agricultural trade dataset is collected, processed and disseminated by FAO according to the standard International Merchandise Trade Statistics Methodology.

This source data is checked for outliers, trade partner data is used for non-reporting countries or missing cells, and data on food aid is added to take into account total cross-border trade flows.

The trade database includes all food and agricultural products imported/exported annually by all the countries in the world.

The processed trade data is essential for the compilation of Supply/Utilization Accounts and Food Balance Sheets.

In case of non-customs trade data, the observation unit is the trade operator.

Statistical population:All trade data on food and agricultural products, including livestock, are compiled by all customs offices in the country.

For intra-EU trade, the statistical population is all trade operators recording trade transactions over a certain threshold.

Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations

The Ituri forest in the northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo is rich in wildlife and important mineral resources.

Find out how FAO, the Center for International Forestry Research, Cirad – La recherche agronomique pour le développement, EU International Partnerships, OACPS Secretariat – Secrétariat OEACP and the Wildlife Conservation Society’s Sustainable Wildlife Management Programme is trying to reduce pressures on the Reserve and improve food security #SWMprogramme #WorldWildlifeDay.

Post Idea #11: Facial recognition system

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Facial Recognition? How Facial Recognition Works

That’s when law enforcement officials used facial recognition to help identify people in the crowd at Super Bowl XXXV. That same year, the Pinellas County Sheriff’s Office in Florida created its own facial recognition database.

The story said that facial recognition algorithms can hit accuracy scores as high as 99.97% on the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Facial Recognition Vendor Test when used in this way.

The Facial Recognition Vendor Test said that middle-tier facial recognition algorithms had error rates that jumped by nearly a factor of 10 when they attempted to match photos of subjects that had been taken 18 years earlier.

How does facial recognition work?A facial recognition system uses biometrics to map facial features from a photograph or video.

Can facial recognition work with a mask?The masks that people are wearing during the COVID-19 pandemic do pose challenges for facial recognition.

What is facial recognition used for? Facial recognition has many uses.

What are the disadvantages of facial recognition? Critics says that facial recognition represents a further eroding of people’s privacy.

Facial Recognition System

Because computerized facial recognition involves the measurement of a human’s physiological characteristics, facial recognition systems are categorized as biometrics.

In 1993, the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency and the Army Research Laboratory established the face recognition technology program FERET to develop “Automatic face recognition capabilities” that could be employed in a productive real life environment “To assist security, intelligence, and law enforcement personnel in the performance of their duties.” Face recognition systems that had been trialed in research labs were evaluated and the FERET tests found that while the performance of existing automated facial recognition systems varied, a handful of existing methods could viably be used to recognize faces in still images taken in a controlled environment.

Viisage Technology was established by a identification card defense contractor in 1996 to commercially exploit the rights to the facial recognition algorithm developed by Alex Pentland at MIT. Following the 1993 FERET face recognition vendor test the Department of Motor Vehicles offices in West Virginia and New Mexico were the first DMV offices to use automated facial recognition systems as a way to prevent and detect people obtaining multiple driving licenses under different names.

DMV offices became one of the first major markets for automated facial recognition technology and introduced US citizens to facial recognition as a standard method of identification.

Because facial recognition algorithms that identify and plot facial features require high resolution images, resolution enhancement techniques have been developed to enable facial recognition systems to work with imagery that has been captured in environments with a high signal-to-noise ratio.

Face recognition has been leveraged as a form of biometric authentication for various computing platforms and devices; Android 4.0 “Ice Cream Sandwich” added facial recognition using a smartphone’s front camera as a means of unlocking devices, while Microsoft introduced face recognition login to its Xbox 360 video game console through its Kinect accessory, as well as Windows 10 via its “Windows Hello” platform.

The case argued that the use of Facial Recognition was a privacy violation on the basis that there was insufficient legal framework or proportionality in the use of Facial Recognition and that its use was in violation of the Data Protection Acts 1998 and 2018.

What is facial recognition? Facial recognition is a way of identifying or confirming an individual’s identity using their face.

How does facial recognition work? Many people are familiar with face recognition technology through the FaceID used to unlock iPhones.

Mobile face recognition allows officers to use smartphones, tablets, or other portable devices to take a photo of a driver or a pedestrian in the field and immediately compare that photo against to one or more face recognition databases to attempt an identification.

Examples of facial recognition technology Amazon previously promoted its cloud-based face recognition service named Rekognition to law enforcement agencies.

Snapchat is one of the pioneers of facial recognition software: it allows brands and organizations to create filters which mould to the user’s face – hence the ubiquitous puppy dog faces and flower crown filters seen on social media.

Since there is no contact required for facial recognition as there is with fingerprinting or other security measures – useful in the post-COVID world – facial recognition offers a quick, automatic, and seamless verification experience.

As the use of facial recognition becomes more widespread, the scope for hackers to steal your facial data to commit fraud – increases.

Face Recognition System

The 3DFACE face recognition system prototype implementing our algorithm demonstrates high recognition accuracy and has the capability to distinguish between identical twins.

18.2.1 Face LocalizationAny face-recognition system requires a prelocalization of the face and facial features necessary for recognition.

Internal face parts do not appear to be more important than external face parts for familiar face recognition until at least 7 years of age.

Children show the same reliance on internal and external face parts as adults for the recognition of ‘unfamiliar’ faces, demonstrating an external face part preference.

In addition to face recognition, significant progress is being made in related areas such as face detection, face tracking, face pose estimation, facial expression analysis, and facial animation.

16.1 INTRODUCTIONEvaluations such as the Face Recognition Vendor Test 2002 make it clear that the current state of the art in face recognition is not yet sufficient for the more demanding biometric applications.

We are particularly interested in 3D face recognition because it has been claimed that the use of 3D data has the potential for greater recognition accuracy than the use of 2D face images.

Facial Recognition

Face API. An AI service that analyzes faces in images.

Features include face detection that perceives facial features and attributes-such as a face mask, glasses, or face location-in an image, and identification of a person by a match to your private repository or via photo ID. Advanced facial recognition.

Verify identity or control access with ready-for-scale face recognition.

Detect one or more human faces along with attributes such as pose, face coverings, and face location, including 27 landmarks for each face in the image.

Determine whether someone is wearing a face mask, and whether the mask covers both the nose and mouth, with the face mask attribute.

With Face, there’s no need to build facial recognition from scratch.

… “By enhancing our service with the Face API, we have a competitive advantage in markets that demand a high degree of facial detection accuracy.”

Electronic Frontier Foundation

The data about a particular face is often called a face template and is distinct from a photograph because it’s designed to only include certain details that can be used to distinguish one face from another.

Mobile face recognition allows officers to use smartphones, tablets or other portable devices to take a photo of a driver or pedestrian in the field and immediately compare that photo against one or more face recognition databases to attempt an identification.

Face recognition may also be used in private spaces like stores and sports stadiums, but different rules may apply to private sector face recognition.

The federal government has several face recognition systems, but the database most relevant for law enforcement is FBI’s Next Generation Identification database which contains more than 30-million face recognition records.

Given the large number of DMV databases using face recognition and the number of Americans whose photos are in the State Department’s database of passport and U.S. visa holders, Georgetown University has estimated close to half of all American adults have been entered into at least one if not more face recognition databases.

Who Sells Face Recognition MorphoTrust, a subsidiary of Idemia, is one of the largest vendors of face recognition and other biometric identification technology in the United States.

In spite of face recognition’s ubiquity and the improvement in technology, face recognition data is prone to error.

Our work is informed by the following key findings and understandings: Facial Recognition Systems Defined – Facial recognition systems predict similarity between two faces in order to attempt to verify or determine someone’s identity.

Each System is Unique – There is no one standard system design for facial recognition systems.

Key Elements of Facial Recognition Systems Before a facial recognition system is put into operation, a few steps are taken: Training the System A machine learning system needs to be trained on a database of images to perform facial recognition and related tasks.

The Matching Process: Match Scores and Match Thresholds The matching process is a fundamental aspect of facial recognition systems and works as follows: Once a probe image is submitted to the facial recognition system, the system generates a match score indicating how similar the probe template is to a template in the enrollment database.

12 Facial characterization and analysis systems can also be used to observe facial expressions, and attempt to link them to attributes such as emotional state, mental health, personality, attractiveness, etc.13 The developers of a facial characterization system establish how the process will work – which facial characteristics are to be detected and categorized, and how the categories will be determined.

These systems can make some aspects of life easier, and at the same time can amplify civil liberties and human rights concerns, including challenges of bias.15 16 Many factors, including who is in the images used in facial recognition systems, how the images are collected, how long they are stored, how they are processed, and the purposes for which they are used, have important implications for the performance of these systems, and for the wellbeing of the people affected by them, either directly or indirectly.

Purpose What is the problem you hope to solve through the use of facial recognition systems? What stakeholders, such as affected individuals and communities, were consulted to help define the problem and create solutions? What type of facial recognition system is necessary to solve this problem? Are there alternative systems or processes that achieve the same goals? Is the specific use of facial recognition systems limited to the minimum necessary to resolve the problem? How are your systems expected to evolve in the next few years? 2.

Post Idea #12: RAK Ceramics

Related Articles – Summarized

RAK Ceramics: Ceramic Wall Tiles

RAK Ceramics is one of the largest ceramics’ brands in the world.

Specialising in ceramic and gres porcelain wall and floor tiles and sanitaryware we produce 110 million square metres of tiles and 5 million pieces of sanitaryware per year at our 16 state-of-the-art plants across the United Arab Emirates, India, Bangladesh and Iran.

Quality standardRAK Ceramics was the first company in United Arab Emirates being awarded with ISO 9001 certification by internationally recognized UK certification body “CICS” for ceramics tiles and sanitarywares.

Recently, Bureau Veritas Certifications verified the implementation of RAK Ceramics’ quality management system and certified the company in compliance with the requirements of ISO 9001:2015 with the scope covering the design, development, production and supply of ceramics and porcelain floor and wall tiles, porcelain slabs and vitreous china sanitary wares, including acrylic baths and shower bases, toilet seats and covers.

Bureau Veritas Certifications also certified RAK Ceramics for ISO 14001:2015SustainabilitySustainability in every sphere of business is one of the main elements of RAK Ceramics mission statement.

RAK Ceramics is the first ceramics manufacturing company in its region to produce a global reporting initiative sustainability and corporate social responsibility report, based on the latest gri-gr4 guidelines.

RAK ceramics has also been awarded ‘Brand of the Year’ at the prestigious World Branding Awards 2015.

After 30 years of creating iconic products with a specialisation in ceramic and grès porcelain wall and floor tiles, RAK Ceramics can count itself as one of the world’s largest ceramics brands.

With their passion and vast knowledge of the industry coupled with hi-tech innovations, RAK Ceramics ultimately gives its clients the ability to choose from a range of integrated ceramics solutions and allow for renewed creativity when designing their bathroom space.

As with everything they do, RAK Ceramics has invested considerable time and attention in their effort to help create the ideal shower area by designing the RAK-Feeling shower tray.

Like it’s sanity ware and ceramic offerings, RAK Ceramics bathroom furniture is high-quality and luxurious in its simplicity, offering both practicality and attractiveness.

RAK-Resort furniture is another option in the RAK Ceramics product lineup and an economical one that maximizes the space of your bathroom without sacrificing style.

With a comprehensive assortment of different sizes, shapes, styles, and materials, there’s no doubt you’ll find a basin suited for your bathroom from RAK Ceramics.

Narrowing your selection down isn’t difficult either, especially if you’ve decided to outfit your bathroom with other RAK Ceramics products.

RAK Ceramics

RAK Ceramics P.J.S.C is one of the largest ceramics brands in the world.

Rak Ceramics UAE supplies to more than 150 countries worldwide, Some major consumers of Rak Ceramics are Pakistan and the United Kingdom.

In 2010 RAK Ceramics becomes the world’s largest ceramics manufacturer and by 2012, RAK Ceramics had supplied 1 billion square metres of tiles to projects around the world since the company began.

In August 2015 the company acquired the remaining 20% minority share of its Iran facility, making RAK Iran a wholly owned subsidiary of RAK Ceramics.

In October 2015 the company acquired the remaining 8% minority share of its India facility, making RAK India a wholly owned subsidiary of RAK Ceramics.

In 2015 RAK Ceramics focused on acquisitions aimed at strengthening the control of the Group over its subsidiaries, acquiring 100% of its subsidiaries in Iran and India, and in early 2016 RAK Ceramics acquired the remaining shares in its subsidiaries in the UK, Italy, Germany and Australia.

In tiles RAK Ceramics offers one of the largest collections of ceramic wall and floor tiles, gres porcelain and super-sized slabs in the industry.

Post Idea #13: Nova Scotia

Related Articles – Summarized

Nova Scotia

“Nova Scotia is located along the 45th parallel north, so it is midway between the Equator and the North Pole. The true halfway point that also goes through Nova Scotia is at 45°08’36.5″N. [edit].

British military forces based at Halifax succeeded in preventing American support for rebels in Nova Scotia and deterred any invasion of Nova Scotia.

The Loyalist exodus created new communities across Nova Scotia, including Shelburne, which briefly became one of the larger British settlements in North America, and infused Nova Scotia with additional capital and skills.

Nova Scotia has many museums reflecting its ethnic heritage, including the Glooscap Heritage Centre, Grand-Pré National Historic Site, Hector Heritage Quay and the Black Cultural Centre for Nova Scotia.

Nova Scotia is ordered by a parliamentary government within the construct of constitutional monarchy; the monarchy in Nova Scotia is the foundation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

Academy Award nominee Elliot Page was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; five-time Academy Award nominee Arthur Kennedy called Nova Scotia his home; and two time Golden Globe winner Donald Sutherland spent most of his youth in the province.

The Nova Scotia Government also provides a digital archive of past newspapers via the Nova Scotia Archives website.

Explore Nova Scotia, Canada’S Ocean Playground

Providing Nova Scotia tourism and travel information since 1996.

“Accommodations” banner photo courtesy of Anchorage House Inn & Cottages.

“Things to Do” photo courtesy of Greg Trowse.

History, Map, Points Of Interest, & Facts

Nova Scotia, Canadian province located on the eastern seaboard of North America, one of the four original provinces that constituted the Dominion of Canada in 1867.

Roughly 360 miles long but not more than about 80 miles wide at any point, the province comprises the peninsula of Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, and a number of small adjacent islands.

Along the narrow Chignecto Isthmus, which seems to thrust the peninsula into the Atlantic Ocean, runs the province’s only land boundary, with New Brunswick to the west.

Two arms of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Northumberland and Cabot straits, separate Nova Scotia respectively from Prince Edward Island to the north and the island of Newfoundland to the northeast.

Nova Scotia is one of Canada’s Maritime Provinces, and both its past and its present are tied closely to the maritime life of fishing, shipbuilding, and transatlantic shipping.

Land Relief, drainage, and soils Nova Scotia’s upland regions reach a maximum elevation of more than 1,700 feet above sea level in the Cape Breton Highlands.

Yearly precipitation varies considerably, depending on the section of the province, with total annual amounts ranging from less than 49 inches along the Northumberland Strait to more than 63 inches on the Cape Breton Highlands plateau.

Nova Scotia 2022: Best Of Nova Scotia Tourism

From Yarmouth to Sydney, Nova Scotia is full of scenic landscapes, rich history, and interesting local culture.

Sights and fun experiences abound in Nova Scotia, and there is a little bit of something for everyone.

Soak up the beauty and serenity to be found in the Annapolis Royal Historic Gardens, or head to Cape Breton Highlands National Park for the stunning landscape and wildlife.

Explore the history of the area at Louisbourg’s Fortress Louisbourg, or hike the Skyline Trail in Ingonish.

Nova Scotia Maps & Facts

The Strait of Canso separates the mountainous Cape Breton Island from the Nova Scotia mainland.

Located in the northern highlands of Cape Breton Island is White Hill, which rises to an elevation of 532m and is the highest point in the Nova Scotia Province.

The Canadian Province of Nova Scotia is administratively divided into a total of 50 municipalities.

Km, Nova Scotia is the 2nd smallest and the 2nd most densely populated Canadian Province.

Located along the Halifax Harbor on the Atlantic coast of the province is Halifax, – the provincial capital and the largest city of Nova Scotia.

The Province of Nova Scotia is located in the Canadian Maritimes region, in the eastern part of Canada, in the continent of North America.

The Nova Scotia province is bounded by the Bay of Fundy in the west and by the Atlantic Ocean in the south and east.

Post Idea #14: Interrupter

Related Articles – Summarized

Interrupter Definition & Meaning

Eric Lach, The New Yorker, 29 Jan. 2022 How violence interrupter programs work Safe Streets was launched in Baltimore in 2007 in the McElderry Park neighborhood.

Deena Zaru, ABC News, 24 Jan. 2022 According to Butts, this key measure of success was also found in a 2017 evaluation of violence interrupter programs in New York City.

Deena Zaru, ABC News, 9 Nov. 2021 The violence interrupter model started in Chicago in 1995, and over the past 15 years, it has been adopted by major cities across the country.

Deena Zaru, ABC News, 9 Nov. 2021 Jovan’s father, Jovan Davis Sr., who works with the city as a violence interrupter, said he is comforted to know that his son is safe, learning and supervised in school all day.

Audrey Conklin, Fox News, 13 Aug. 2021 Indianapolis’ violence interrupter program has a $400,000 budget and is funded through The Indianapolis Foundation’s 2020 Violent Crime Prevention Grants Program, which uses city money.

Elizabeth Depompei, The Indianapolis Star, 11 Aug. 2021 That includes violence interrupter programs such as Gideon’s Army or Cure Violence Global, which started in Chicago and has branched out to other cites.

BostonGlobe.com, 7 Aug. 2021 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘interrupter.

Definition Of Interrupter By The Free Dictionary

One that interrupts: an inveterate interrupter of other people’s conversations.

Electronics A device that periodically and automatically opens and closes an electric circuit, producing pulses.

An electromechanical device for opening and closing an electric circuit.

A device for interrupting or periodically opening and closing a circuit, as in a doorbell.

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection.


An interrupter in electrical engineering is a device used to interrupt the flow of a steady direct current for the purpose of converting a steady current into a changing one.

The physician Golding Bird designed his own interrupter circuit for delivering shocks to patients from a voltaic cell through an induction coil.

His interrupter worked automatically by magnetic induction and achieved a switching rate of around 5 Hz. The faster the interrupter switches, the more frequently an electric shock is delivered to the patient and the aim is to make this as high as possible.

A rather more cumbersome interrupter was constructed by the American Charles Page slightly earlier in 1838 but Bird’s work was entirely independent.

Although there is little in common between the two interrupter designs, Page takes the credit for being the first to use permanent magnets in an automatic interrupter circuit.

Bird’s interrupter had the medically disadvantageous feature that current was supplied in opposite directions during the make and break operations, although the current was substantially less during the make operation than the break.

A modified version of the interrupter was produced by Henry Letheby which could output only the make, or only the break currents by a mechanism consisting of two spoked wheels.

What Does Interrupter Mean?

0.00 / 0 votes)Rate this definition:interrupternoun.

A device for automatically interrupting an electric current.

A device for opening and closing an electrical circuit.

0.00 / 0 votes)Rate this definition:Interrupternoun.

The numerical value of interrupter in Chaldean Numerology is: 8.Pythagorean Numerology.

The numerical value of interrupter in Pythagorean Numerology is: 2.

Translations for interrupter From our Multilingual Translation Dictionary interrumpidor, interruptor.

The Interrupters

The Interrupters presents unforgettable profiles in courage, as three former street criminals in Chicago place themselves in the line of fire to protect their communities.

The two-hour film follows the lives of these “Violence Interrupters,” who include the charismatic daughter of one of the city’s most notorious former gang leaders, the son of a murdered father, and a man haunted by a killing he committed as a teenager.

As they intervene in disputes to prevent violence, they reveal their own inspired journeys of struggle and redemption.

What Did Interrupter Gear Do? – Idsemergencymanagement.Com

Development of fighter aircraft in the form of an interrupter gear, or gun-synchronizing device, designed by the French engineer Raymond Saulnier.

August 1st, 1915.Lieutenant Oswald Boelcke was the first pilot to successfully use the interrupter gear to shoot down another airplane on August 1st, 1915.

In military aircraft: Fighters in the form of an interrupter gear, or gun-synchronizing device, designed by the French engineer Raymond Saulnier.

Encyclopedia – Interrupter Gear Improving upon the French invention of the so-called ‘ deflector gear ‘, which enabled fighter pilots to use machine guns to fire through aircraft propeller blades, Anton Fokker devised the much-improved interrupter gear in 1915.How did Franz Schnider create the interrupter gear?

When the war broke out, Franz Schnider worked under pressure from the German Air Force to complete and build a working interrupter gear for their planes.

Schnider created blueprints for an interrupter gear design however it was not produced because it was too expensive.

World War One was a catalyst to the interrupter gear because the idea was not being progressed and required the prospect and creation of war for it to have become reality.

Post Idea #15: Power management integrated circuit

Related Articles – Summarized

Power Management Integrated Circuits Aatmesh Shrivastava Need for PMIC Course: Power Management is one of the most critical infrastructural function for an integrated circuit.

The power management integrated circuits industry has come out of its own in the semiconductor business and is an industry in its own right with a yearly business of around $40B. With the Moor’s law hitting power wall, the emphasis on low power and energy efficient design is more than ever.

The PMIC are now playing one of the most important role in reducing the system power and achieving energy optimization.

The computer architectures are now including power management features.

Another technological development over the last few years have been the pervasiveness of mobile electronics which further puts emphasis on power management and now even on energy harvesting from ambient sources.

Course Description/Objective : This course presents power management circuits with a focus on modern system on a chip.

The coursework will include weekly or bi-weekly home-works, 1-2 in class test, and a final project, which will include complete design of a power management circuit.

Power Management Integrated Circuits

Power Management Integrated Circuits offer a way to manage the power requirements of your system,often extending battery life, reducing the need for bigger, higher capacity batteries, and ultimately reducing the size of the device.

When you have a need for low power circuit design, turning to an expert in power management ICs can make all the difference in how portable and functional your product will be.

Particularly for battery-operated devices that need a smaller footprint, power management integrated circuits can make your design sleek and streamlined.

The design effort when using a fully integrated power management IC is less than other solutions, and the total footprint of a power management integrated circuit could save you greater than 50% of required space for a significantly smaller platform.

Also power management integrated circuits can offer better performance on issues like output noise and emissions.

Our low-power mixed-signal ASICs make use of power management circuits to meet application requirements.

These circuits and our PMIC design expertise have been used to develop standalone products and IP blocks for end users and Integrated Device Manufacturers.

Power Management Integrated Circuits

Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies delivers a modern treatise on mixed-signal integrated circuit design for power management.

Describes circuit- and architectural-level innovations that meet advanced power and speed capabilities.

Explores hybrid inductive-capacitive converters for wide-range dynamic voltage scaling.

Presents innovative control techniques for single inductor dual output and single inductor multiple output converters.

Discusses cutting-edge design techniques including switching converters for analog/RF loads.

Compares the use of GaAs pHEMTs to CMOS devices for efficient high-frequency switching converters.

Thus, Power Management Integrated Circuits and Technologies provides comprehensive, state-of-the-art coverage of this exciting and emerging field of engineering.

ECE 734 Power Management Integrated Circuits

Review of modern power management converters and circuits; Review modeling and control of converters; Detail discussion of voltage and current mode controllers; Understanding of power converter losses and optimization method, as well as management of power; Integrated circuit design of various power management chips.

Course Objectives Review of modern power management converters and circuits;.

Detail discussion of voltage and current mode controllers;.

Understanding of power converter losses and optimization method, as well as management of power;.

Design a power management voltage and current mode controller circuit.

Design supervisory circuitry – undervoltage lockout, bandgap references.

Design of a complete power management integrated circuit.

Microchip Technology

Optimize battery life, save space and easily integrate power management in your compact mobile device or other embedded system.

Our Power Management ICs combine multiple functions into a single device to reduce the component count and board space needed to easily and cost-effectively manage power in devices that are developed for the Internet of Things, consumer, medical, industrial, automotive and many other applications.

If you need an even more highly integrated solution, we offer a System-on-Module that combines a PMIC with an industrial-grade microprocessor, along with other devices, to simplify your development and speed your time to market.

Power Management Integrated Circuit

Power management integrated circuits are integrated circuits for power management.

The term PMIC refers to a class of integrated circuits that perform various functions related to power requirements.

Power management ICs are solid state devices that control the flow and direction of electrical power.

Many electrical devices use multiple internal voltages and sources of external power, meaning that the power design of the device has multiple requirements for operation.

A PMIC can refer to any chip that is an individual power related function, but generally refer to ICs that incorporate more than one function such as different power conversions and power controls such as voltage supervision and undervoltage protection.

A PMIC may include battery management, voltage regulation, and charging functions.

Some models are known to feature up to 95% power conversion efficiency.

Post Idea #16: Private placement

Related Articles – Summarized

Private Placement Definition

A private placement is a sale of stock shares or bonds to pre-selected investors and institutions rather than on the open market.

Investors invited to participate in private placement programs include wealthy individual investors, banks and other financial institutions, mutual funds, insurance companies, and pension funds.

Instead of a prospectus, private placements are sold using a private placement memorandum and cannot be broadly marketed to the general public.

A Speedier Process Above all, a young company can remain a private entity, avoiding the many regulations and annual disclosure requirements that follow an IPO. The light regulation of private placements allows the company to avoid the time and expense of registering with the SEC. .

A private placement allows the issuer to sell a more complex security to accredited investors who understand the potential risks and rewards.

A More Demanding Buyer The buyer of a private placement bond issue expects a higher rate of interest than can be earned on a publicly-traded security.

A private placement stock investor may also demand a higher percentage of ownership in the business or a fixed dividend payment per share of stock.

Private Placements, Explained

In a private placement, a company sells shares of stock in the company or other interest in the company, such as warrants or bonds, in exchange for cash.

Private placements are regulated by a series of U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission rules known as Regulation D, or Reg D. Under Reg D, companies can issue varying amounts of securities based on the type of investor they are selling them to-accredited or non-accredited investors-without registering those securities with the SEC. In August 2020, the SEC announced changes to its definition of accredited investor that went into effect in December 2020.

A company may choose to raise capital through a private placement for any number of reasons.

If a company is young, it might not yet meet certain public listing requirements, or a company might find benefits to remaining private.

A private placement, on the other hand, allows a company to sell shares that are neither publicly traded nor registered with the SEC, easing both costs and reporting burdens, while also enabling management to retain a greater degree of control over the company.

Up until 2013, the SEC prohibited companies and brokers under Rule 506 from advertising private placements.

The company must also file a brief notice of the offering with the SEC. For investors even after the restricted period ends, they might still struggle to sell those securities, as private placement securities are generally very illiquid.

What Is A Private Placement?

Private placement debt securities are similar to bonds or bank loans and can either be secured, meaning they are backed by collateral, or unsecured, where collateral is not required.

Directly with a private placement investor, such as a large insurance company or other institutional investor.

A private placement issuance is a way for institutional investors to lend to companies in a similar fashion as banks, with a “Buy-and-hold” approach, and with no required trading or public disclosures.

There are important considerations for a company when determining whether to issue a private placement.

Because private placement debt is typically long-term, it is vital for the private placement investor to have the capacity to grow as a financial partner and have the knowledge and experience to help a company navigate during challenging times.

The private placement investor demonstrates a constant appetite for private placement debt throughout market cycles and the calendar year.

If you’re interested in issuing a private placement, Prudential Private Capital is here to help.

Investor Bulletin: Private Placements Under Regulation D

The SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy is issuing this Investor Bulletin to educate investors about investing in unregistered securities offerings, or private placements, under Regulation D of the Securities Act.

For our Investor Alert about red flags to watch out for in an unregistered offering, visit investor.

For our Investor Bulletin about hedge funds, visit investor.

For our Investor Bulletin about accredited investors, visit investor.

For our Investor Alert about generally advertised unregistered offerings, visit investor.

For our Investor Alert about private oil and gas offerings, visit investor.

For additional educational information for investors, see the SEC’s Office of Investor Education and Advocacy’s website for investors, Investor.

DIAGNOS Announces Closing Of Private Placement

BROSSARD, Quebec, March 01, 2022 – DIAGNOS Inc., a leader in early detection of critical health issues through the use of its FLAIRE platform based on Artificial Intelligence, announces that it has closed a non-brokered private placement of 59 units at a price of $10,000 per Unit for gross proceeds of $590,000.

One unsecured convertible Debenture, and.2,500 warrants with an exercise price of $0.33, per Unit.Each Debenture has a term of 36 months and bears interest at the annual rate of 8%. At the option of the holder of the Debenture, the principal amount of the Debenture may be converted at any time during the term into common shares of the Corporation at a price of $0.38 per Share.

Each Warrant entitles the holder to purchase one Share at a price of $0.33 per Share, for a period of 18 months from the date of closing.

If, at any time following the date that is four months and one day following the closing date, the daily volume weighted average trading price of the Shares is or exceeds $0.50 for 15 consecutive trading days, the Corporation shall have the option to accelerate the expiry of the Warrants.

These transactions are exempt from the valuation requirement and the minority approval requirement prescribed in MI 61-101, based on sections 5.5(a) and 5.7(1)(a), as the fair market value of the related parties’ participation in the private placement does not exceed 25% of the Corporation’s market capitalization.

In connection with the private placement, the Corporation paid a cash commission of $25,000 to one qualified person and issued 65,789 broker warrants to the Finder.

About DIAGNOS DIAGNOS is a publicly traded Canadian corporation dedicated to early detection of critical health problems based on its FLAIRE Artificial Intelligence platform.

E2Gold Announces C$2.5 Million Private Placement

TORONTO, ON / ACCESSWIRE / March 4, 2022 / E2Gold Inc. is pleased to announce that it proposes to complete a private placement pursuant to which it will issue units at a price of C$0.10 per Unit, and “Flow-through” units at a price of C$0.11 per FT Unit in any combination to raise aggregate gross proceeds of up to C$2,500,000.

The gross proceeds raised from the sale of FT Units will be used for exploration at the Hawkins Gold Project where the Company recently completed a 10,000 metre drill campaign.

Each Unit will be comprised of one common share of the Company and one half of one Common Share purchase warrant; each FT Unit will be comprised of one Common Share that qualifies as a flow-through common share as defined in subsection 66(15) of the Income Tax Act and one-half of one Warrant; each whole Warrant shall be exercisable to acquire one additional Common Share at an exercise price of C$0.20 per Warrant for a period of 24 months from the date of issuance thereof.

An amount equal to the gross proceeds from the sale of the FT Units will be used for expenditures which qualify as Canadian exploration expenses and “Flow-through mining expenditures” as is equal to up to 6% of the aggregate number of Units and FT Units issued in the Offering.

ABOUT E2GOLD INC. E2Gold Inc. is a Canadian gold exploration company with focus on Its large flagship property, the Hawkins Gold Project in north-central Ontario, about 140 km east of the Hemlo Gold Mine.

The district-scale, 80 km long project is anchored by the McKinnon Zone Inferred Resource, with 328,800 ounces of gold hosted in 6.2 million tonnes at 1.65 g/t gold,1 open in all directions.

Note : NI 43-101 compliant, Inferred Resource estimated by P&E Mining Consultants, containing 6.2 million tonnes, at a grade of 1.65 g/t Au, for 328,800 ounces of gold, found in the Company’s Final Long Form Propsectus, December 2020.

BnSellit Technology Inc. Announces Private Placement Of Convertible Debentures

TORONTO, ON / ACCESSWIRE / March 4, 2022 / BnSellit Technology Inc. announced today it will issue on a private placement basis unsecured convertible debentures in the aggregate principal amount of up to $700,000 at a price of $1,000 per principal amount of the Convertible Debentures.

The Convertible Debentures will have a maturity date of 18 months from the date the Convertible Debentures are issued.

The Convertible Debentures will be convertible at the option of the holder into Class A Common shares of the Corporation at any time prior to the close of business on the Maturity Date.

Subject to the approval of the Canadian Securities Exchange, the Convertible Debentures will be convertible into the Shares at a conversion price of $0.25 per Share.

Upon conversion, holders will not be entitled to receive interest accrued since the last interest payment, or the Closing Date if an interest payment date has not yet occurred, unless they convert their Convertible Debentures on an interest payment date, in which case they will be entitled to receive such interest payment.

If, following the closing of the Offering and prior to the Maturity Date, the volume weighted average price of the Shares on the CSE for 10 consecutive trading days equals or exceeds $0.40, the Corporation may force conversion of all of the principal amount of the Convertible Debentures at the Conversion Price, upon giving Convertible Debenture holders 15 days advance written notice, in accordance with the conversion terms.

Completion of this private placement is subject to regulatory approval including, but not limited to, the approval of the CSE. The Convertible Debentures issued under this private placement will be subject to a four month hold period from the date of closing.

Post Idea #17: Christian Dubé

Related Articles – Summarized

La Maladie À Coronavirus Au Québec

L’information contenue sur le site ne remplace en aucun cas l’avis d’une ressource professionnelle de la santé.

Si vous avez des questions concernant votre état de santé, consultez une ressource professionnelle.

National Assembly Of Québec

Senior vice-president and chief financial officer, Domtar.

Vice-president of strategy, mergers and acquisitions, Domtar.

Community and Political Involvement Member of the board of directors, Quebecor.

Member of the board of directors, Bombardier Transportation.

Member of the investment committee, Cycle Capital Management.

Member of the board of directors, Héroux-Devtek.

Member of the board of directors, National Bank Financial.

Christian Dube Age Wife, Family Net Worth And Party

Sixty-four years old, Christian Dube is a Canadian politician, who is married to Josee Perreault.

Christian Dube is a Canadian Politician who is a member of the National Assembly of Quebec.

Christian became the Minister of Health and Social Services on 22 June 2020 as per his profile featured on Wikipedia.

The couple is blessed with a child named Charles Olivier Dube.

Dube has not revealed more information about his parents and other family members in public yet.

The net worth of Christina Dube has not been revealed in public yet.

Christian belongs to the Coalition Avenir Quebec party he started his career with this political party when he was first elected as a representative of Levis in the 2012 election.

Député De La Prairie

Nous avons débuté ce matin les consultations particulières pour le projet de loi 11.

l’occasion des remarques préliminaires, j’ai pu bien expliquer notre vision pour le futur de notre réseau de la santé.

Pour nous, il est clair que les Québécois doivent avoir un meilleur accès la première ligne.

Pour améliorer l’accessibilité, on doit notamment améliorer la gestion de nos ressources humaines, de l’utilisation des données et des systèmes d’information.

Christian Dubé Net Worth 2022, Age, Wife, Partner, Children, Height, Family, Politics

Read the complete write-up of Christian Dubé net worth, age, wife, children, family, parents, siblings, salary, politics as well as other information you need to know.

On 3 September 2018, Christian Dubé announced that he would run for the 2018 election in the riding of La Prairie, replacing Stéphane Le Bouyonnec as the CAQ’s candidate.

On 22 June 2020, as part of a cabinet shuffle, Christian Dubé was named the new Minister of Health and Social Services, succeeding Danielle McCann.

Christian Dubé is married to his longtime partner Josée Perreault.

The couple has a child together, Charles-Olivier Dubé.

How much is Christian Dubé worth? Christian Dubé net worth is estimated at around $5 million.

Dubé successful career has earned him luxurious lifestyles and some fancy cars trips.

Christian Dubé · Canadian Space Agency · 6767 Route De L’Aéroport, Saint-Hubert, Quebec J3Y 8Y9, Canada

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Post Idea #18: Lactic acid

Related Articles – Summarized

Lactic Acid Test: MedlinePlus Medical Test

If lactic acid levels get too high, it can lead to a life-threatening condition known as lactic acidosis.

A lactic acid test can help diagnose lactic acidosis before it causes serious complications.

A lactic acid test is most often used to diagnose lactic acidosis.

A test for lactate in cerebrospinal fluid is used with a lactic acid blood test to figure out the type of infection.

You may need a lactic acid test if you have symptoms of lactic acidosis.

A high lactic acid level means you likely have lactic acidosis.

There are two types of lactic acidosis: type A and type B. The cause of your lactic acidosis depends on which type you have.

What Is Lactic Acid? Role In Body And How To Prevent Buildup

What can you do to perform more like a highly trained athlete? As explained more below, some of the ways you can prevent too much lactic acid – along with lactic acidosis – include gradually building up exercise intensity, staying hydrated, stretching, taking enough rest days, and fueling with good nutrition before and after workouts.

The definition of lactic acid is “An organic acid present especially in muscle tissue as a by-product of anaerobic glycolysis, produced in carbohydrate matter usually by bacterial fermentation, and used especially in food and medicine and in industry.”

Is lactic acid harmful to the body? What does it mean when your lactic acid is high?

What is the fastest way to get rid of lactic acid? Recall that as mentioned above, lactic acid itself is not responsible for “Delayed-onset muscle soreness”, which produces severe muscle tenderness after tough workouts.

Stiffness and loss of strength and range of motion usually peak about one to three days after the extreme exercise takes place, but how intense these symptoms are does not depend on how much lactic acid accumulates during exercise.

While high lactic acid levels in response to physical exertion should not pose a risk for otherwise healthy people, lactic acidosis can increase the risk of serious complications and even death in people who are already ill.

Final Thoughts What is lactic acid? It’s an organic acid that builds in the body under certain circumstances, especially during strenuous exercise.

Lactic Acid

Compared to acetic acid, its pKa is 1 unit less, meaning lactic acid is ten times more acidic than acetic acid.

DL-Lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting point, which is about 16 to 18 °C. D-Lactic acid and L-lactic acid have a higher melting point.

Lactic acid produced by fermentation of milk is often racemic, although certain species of bacteria produce solely D-lactic acid.

In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria, which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or galactose to lactic acid.

In 2006, global production of lactic acid reached 275,000 tonnes with an average annual growth of 10%. Lactic acid is produced industrially by bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates, or by chemical synthesis from acetaldehyde.

Lactic acid is also responsible for the sour flavor of sourdough bread. In lists of nutritional information lactic acid might be included under the term “Carbohydrate” because this often includes everything other than water, protein, fat, ash, and ethanol.

The energy density of lactic acid is 362 kilocalories per 100 g. Some beers purposely contain lactic acid, one such type being Belgian lambics.

What Is Lactic Acid And Does It Really Cause Muscle Soreness?

First off, while the body technically does produce lactic acid, it quickly dissociates into lactate and a free hydrogen ion.

Even though lactic acid and lactate are often used interchangeably, they aren’t the same thing.

Pyruvate becomes lactate, Hamilton explains, when there isn’t enough oxygen to create more ATP. But don’t stress: that lactate can eventually be metabolized for energy.

“If there’s enough lactate in an area that it’s starting to build up, then the body naturally recognizes that and it will shuttle the lactate either to another cell nearby. Or it will send it off to the heart, where it can be utilized as fuel,” Hamilton says.

You have too much lactate when your lactate production exceeds its clearance rate.

Although you may feel lactic pain mid-workout, Registered Dietitian and Certified Fitness Trainer Justine Chan of Ever After Health says lactate does not cause long-term discomfort.

In conclusion, lactate is different from lactic acid, and neither really have to do with the muscle soreness that comes after an intense sweat session.

Lactic Acidosis: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, And More

Lactic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis that begins when a person overproduces or underutilizes lactic acid, and their body is not able to adjust to these changes.

People with lactic acidosis have problems with their liver being able to remove excess acid from their body.

There are two types of lactic acidosis, Type A and Type B:.Type A lactic acidosis is caused by tissue hypoperfusion resulting from hypovolemia, cardiac failure, sepsis, or cardiopulmonary arrest.

Lactic acidosis has many causes and can often be treated.

The symptoms of lactic acidosis are typical of many health issues.

In people with diabetes, lactic acidosis may be more of a concern if kidney disease is also present.

Based on the root cause, treatments for lactic acidosis often result in full recovery, particularly if treatment is immediate.

Lactic Acid Skin Care: Benefits And Side Effects

People still take milk baths, but most lactic acid used in skin care products and peels is synthetic.

All alpha hydroxy acids exfoliate and improve skin texture, but lactic acid has an extra benefit you won’t get from other AHAs, like glycolic acid and mandelic acid.

Skin Irritation Besides sun sensitivity, lactic acid can also cause skin irritation.

Cleansers Lactic acid cleansers are easy to fit into your skin care routine.

What does the lactic acid in a yogurt mask do for skin? The lactic acid in yogurt can help nourish and exfoliate your skin when applied as a face mask.

Does salicylic acid exfoliate skin better than lactic acid? Salicylic acid.

Lactic acid is an alpha hydroxy acid that is used on the skin to remove dead skin cells and help fade dark spots and soften fine lines.

Lactic Acid Blood Test: High Vs. Low Levels, Normal Range

It’s a test that measures the amount of lactic acid in your blood.

Once you finish your workout or recover from the illness, your lactic acid level tends to go back to normal.

Higher-than-normal lactic acid levels can lead to a condition called lactic acidosis.

If your lactic acid level is normal, you don’t have lactic acidosis.

If your lactic acid level is high, it could be caused by a number of things.

A higher-than-normal lactic acid level in your blood can also be a sign of problems with your metabolism.

Elevated lactic acid levels can also mean you’re not getting enough vitamin B1..

Post Idea #19: Hypertension

Related Articles – Summarized

High Blood Pressure

High blood pressure is a common condition in which the long-term force of the blood against your artery walls is high enough that it may eventually cause health problems, such as heart disease.

Blood pressure is determined both by the amount of blood your heart pumps and the amount of resistance to blood flow in your arteries.

Most people with high blood pressure have no signs or symptoms, even if blood pressure readings reach dangerously high levels.

A few people with high blood pressure may have headaches, shortness of breath or nosebleeds, but these signs and symptoms aren’t specific and usually don’t occur until high blood pressure has reached a severe or life-threatening stage.

If you’re age 40 or older, or you’re 18 to 39 with a high risk of high blood pressure, ask your doctor for a blood pressure reading every year.

The excessive pressure on your artery walls caused by high blood pressure can damage your blood vessels as well as your organs.

This syndrome is a group of disorders of your body’s metabolism, including increased waist size, high triglycerides, decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high blood pressure and high insulin levels.

High Blood Pressure Symptoms And Causes

If you are diagnosed with high blood pressure, talk with your health care team about your blood pressure levels and how these levels affect your treatment plan.

Measuring your blood pressure is the only way to know whether you have high blood pressure.

High blood pressure can damage your arteries by making them less elastic, which decreases the flow of blood and oxygen to your heart and leads to heart disease.

Talk with your health care team about regularly measuring your blood pressure at home, also called self-measured blood pressure monitoring.

Many people with high blood pressure can lower their blood pressure into a healthy range or keep their numbers in a healthy range by making lifestyle changes.

In addition to making positive lifestyle changes, some people with high blood pressure need to take medicine to manage their blood pressure.

Talk with your health care team right away if you think you have high blood pressure or if you’ve been told you have high blood pressure but do not have it under control.


Hypertension is diagnosed if, when it is measured on two different days, the systolic blood pressure readings on both days is ≥140 mmHg and/or the diastolic blood pressure readings on both days is ≥90 mmHg.

The only way to detect hypertension is to have a health professional measure blood pressure.

What are the complications of uncontrolled hypertension?Among other complications, hypertension can cause serious damage to the heart.

The prevalence of hypertension varies across regions and country income groups.

The WHO African Region has the highest prevalence of hypertension while the WHO Region of the Americas has the lowest prevalence of hypertension.

How can the burden of hypertension be reduced?Reducing hypertension prevents heart attack, stroke, and kidney damage, as well as other health problems.

The World Health Organization is supporting countries to reduce hypertension as a public health problem.


High blood pressure is classified as primary hypertension or secondary hypertension.

The high pulse pressure in elderly people with hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension is explained by increased arterial stiffness, which typically accompanies aging and may be exacerbated by high blood pressure.

The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension if a clinic blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or higher.

Improper measurement of blood pressure is common and can change the blood pressure reading by up to 10 mmHg, which can lead to misdiagnosis and misclassification of hypertension.

The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure published in 2003 uses the term prehypertension for blood pressure in the range 120-139 mmHg systolic or 80-89 mmHg diastolic, while European Society of Hypertension Guidelines and British Hypertension Society IV use optimal, normal and high normal categories to subdivide pressures below 140 mmHg systolic and 90 mmHg diastolic.

The 2020 International Society of Hypertension guidelines define hypertension based on office blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or home monitoring blood pressure ≥135/85 mmHg, or 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure average ≥130/80 mmHg.

Blood pressure rises with age in childhood and, in children, hypertension is defined as an average systolic or diastolic blood pressure on three or more occasions equal or higher than the 95th percentile appropriate for the sex, age and height of the child.

Hypertension: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

People should avoid consuming alcohol and recreational drugs to cope with stress, as these can contribute to elevated blood pressure and the complications of hypertension.

Eventually, people with hypertension may need to combine two or more drugs to manage their blood pressure.

High blood pressure that is not due to another condition or disease is known as primary or essential hypertension.

A person with hypertension may not notice any symptoms, and so people often call it a “Silent killer.” Without detection, hypertension can damage the heart, blood vessels, and other organs, such as the kidneys.

The International Society of Hypertension defines hypertension as blood pressure that is consistently higher than 140 over 90 millimeters of mercury.

A person has hypertension when their blood pressure is consistently high.

The International Society of Hypertension defines grade 1 hypertension as a consistent reading of at least 140/90 mm Hg. However, the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommend that people with hypertension maintain their blood pressure below 130/80 mm Hg. Hypertension can increase a person’s risk of developing a range of heart-related conditions, such as heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke.

Hypertension Health Center

One of the most dangerous things about hypertension – or high blood pressure – is that you may not know you have it.

Nearly one-third of people who have high blood pressure don’t know it.

That’s because high blood pressure doesn’t have any symptoms unless it’s very severe.

The best way to know if your blood pressure is high is through regular checkups.

This is especially important if you have a close relative who has high blood pressure.

Hypertension, also called high blood pressure, affects almost half of U.S. adults.

Over time, it can damage the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, and other parts of the body.

Complications can include heart attacks, heart failure, stroke, and chronic kidney disease.

High blood pressure is managed with lifestyle changes including healthy eating, being physically active, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and managing and coping with stress.

If lifestyle changes alone don’t lower blood pressure enough, medicines may be used to treat the disease.

Post Idea #20: Hydrochlorothiazide

Related Articles – Summarized

Hydrochlorothiazide: MedlinePlus Drug Information

Hydrochlorothiazide is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat high blood pressure.

Hydrochlorothiazide comes as a tablet, capsule, and solution to take by mouth.

Continue to take hydrochlorothiazide even if you feel well.

Do not stop taking hydrochlorothiazide without talking to your doctor.

If you are taking cholestyramine or colestipol, take them 1 hour before or 4 hours after taking hydrochlorothiazide.

Your doctor may tell you not to take hydrochlorothiazide.

Your doctor will check your skin for skin cancers during your treatment with hydrochlorothiazide.

Hydrochlorothiazide: Uses, Dosage, Side Effects

Avoid drinking alcohol, which can increase some of the side effects of hydrochlorothiazide.

If you are being treated for high blood pressure, keep using hydrochlorothiazide even if you feel fine.

If you take hydrochlorothiazide during pregnancy, your newborn baby may develop jaundice or other problems.

Take hydrochlorothiazide exactly as prescribed by your doctor.

Keep using hydrochlorothiazide as directed, even if you feel well.

Hydrochlorothiazide may increase your risk of skin cancer.

Drinking alcohol with hydrochlorothiazide can cause side effects.

Hydrochlorothiazide Description And Brand Names

Hydrochlorothiazide is used alone or together with other medicines to treat high blood pressure.

High blood pressure adds to the workload of the heart and arteries.

This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, heart failure, or kidney failure.

High blood pressure may also increase the risk of heart attacks.

These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled.

Hydrochlorothiazide is also used to treat fluid retention that is caused by congestive heart failure, severe liver disease, kidney disease, or treatment with a steroid or hormone medicine.

Information is for End User’s use only and may not be sold, redistributed or otherwise used for commercial purposes.


There have been countless studies showing that when hydrochlorothiazide is prescribed at doses of 12.5 mg to 25 mg per day, it can lower the systolic blood pressure by 5 mmHg to 7 mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure by 4 mmHg to 5 mmHg over a 24 hour period.

While hydrochlorothiazide is an effective diuretic and does lower blood pressure, the question that has been asked for decades is whether the drug also lowers the risk of cardiovascular disease, like the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Why hydrochlorothiazide does not lower cardiovascular harm while decreasing blood pressure is not known, but laboratory studies suggest that the drug may not be as effective as the other agents in decreasing platelet aggregation or vascular relaxation.

Despite the above concerns, hydrochlorothiazide is still the drug of choice for treating hypertension in many patients.

The long-term actions of hydrochlorothiazide when it comes to reduction in blood pressure are not well understood.

Following chronic use, hydrochlorothiazide appears to be reducing blood pressure by decreasing peripheral resistance.

Even though hydrochlorothiazide has been the most widely used thiazide drug for hypertension, more recent evidence indicates that it may not be as effective as some of the other thiazide diuretics.

Hydrochlorothiazide Oral: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing

Many people using this medication do not have serious side effects.

Tell your doctor right away if you have any serious side effects, including: decrease in vision, eye pain.

This is not a complete list of possible side effects.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or at www.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345..


Hydrochlorothiazide is a diuretic medication often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling due to fluid build up.

Hydrochlorothiazide is less potent but not necessarily less effective than chlorthalidone in reducing blood pressure.

All thiazide diuretics including hydrochlorothiazide can inhibit excretion of uric acid by the kidneys, thereby increasing serum concentrations of uric acid.

Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to thiazide class of diuretics.

In a double-blind, randomized study, the effects of 25 mg/day vs. 50 mg/day of hydrochlorothiazide were evaluated in geriatric patients with isolated systolic hypertension.

Hydrochlorothiazide is available as a generic drug under a large number of brand names, including Apo-Hydro, Aquazide, BPZide, Dichlotride, Esidrex, Hydrochlorot, Hydrodiuril, HydroSaluric, Hypothiazid, Microzide, Oretic and many others.

Use of hydrochlorothiazide is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency for its ability to mask the use of performance-enhancing drugs.

Hydrochlorothiazide: Side Effects, Dosage, Uses, And More

Hydrochlorothiazide belongs to a class of drugs called thiazide diuretics.

Some can interfere with how well a drug works, while others can cause increased side effects.

Taking hydrochlorothiazide with certain drugs that lower cholesterol levels may make hydrochlorothiazide less effective.

If you take hydrochlorothiazide with diabetes drugs, your doctor may increase your dosage of your diabetes medications.

If your kidneys don’t work as well, this drug may build up in your body and cause more side effects.

The drug information contained herein is subject to change and is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects.

The absence of warnings or other information for a given drug does not indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective, or appropriate for all patients or all specific uses.

Post Idea #21: Uranium Energy

Related Articles – Summarized

Uranium Energy Corporation: Home

Uranium demand will double in 10 years, here’s why – Amir Adnani.

An interview of CEO Amir Adnani with Curzio Research “Why uranium has more upside potential than I’ve ever seen”.

Nuclear Fuel Facts: Uranium

Uranium mined from the earth is stored, handled, and sold as uranium oxide concentrate.

Uranium was discovered in 1789 by Martin Klaproth, a German chemist, who isolated an oxide of uranium while analyzing pitchblende samples from the Joachimsthal silver mines in the former Kingdom of Bohemia, located in the present day Czech Republic.

Uranium is now used to power commercial nuclear reactors that produce electricity and to produce isotopes used for medical, industrial, and defense purposes around the world.

Isotopic Properties of UraniumNatural Uranium – contains a 238U concentration of 99.27 percent, 235U concentration of 0.711 percent and very little 234U.Low Enriched Uranium – contains a 235U concentration between 0.711 percent and 20 percent.

Most commercial reactor fuel uses low enriched uranium enriched to between 3 percent and 5 percent 235U. Uranium between 3 and 5 percent 235U is sometimes referred to as “Reactor-grade uranium.”

Highly Enriched Uranium – contains a 235U concentration greater than 20 percent.

Highly enriched uranium is used in naval propulsion reactors, nuclear weapons and in some research reactors.

What Is Uranium? How Does It Work

Uranium has a melting point of 1132°C. The chemical symbol for uranium is U. The uranium atom.

In a nuclear reactor the uranium fuel is assembled in such a way that a controlled fission chain reaction can be achieved.

For most of the world’s reactors, the next step in making the fuel is to convert the uranium oxide into a gas, uranium hexafluoride, which enables it to be enriched.

For reactors which use natural uranium as their fuel the U3O8 concentrate simply needs to be refined and converted directly to uranium dioxide.

About 10% of the world’s electricity is generated from uranium in nuclear reactors.

Bomb-grade uranium is highly-enriched; bomb-grade plutonium is fairly pure Pu-239 and is made in special reactors.

The military uranium is diluted about 25:1 with depleted uranium from the enrichment process before being used in power generation.

Uranium Energy Stock Price, News & Info

Uranium Energy Corporation is a natural resource exploration company engaged in the exploration of properties that may contain uranium minerals in the United States.

Uranium prices are zeroing in on a “Right” price.

Uranium prices keep declining, and they’re taking uranium stocks down with them.

A massive acquisition could be a game changer for the uranium stock.

Uranium Energy is buying spot uranium to take advantage of higher prices.

The stock is benefiting from the rising price of uranium, which inched closer to its multiyear high.

The uranium miner made an announcement that would normally lead to a price drop.

Uranium May Regain ‘Critical’ Status Despite USGS Move

The U.S. Geological Survey removed uranium from the federal critical minerals list, but it may not be long before the U.S. government once again declares the radioactive material “Critical.”

The document described uranium as a material “Of concern,” along with cobalt, tellurium and rare earth elements on the USGS critical minerals list.

Lockdowns against the coronavirus pandemic knocked major uranium mines offline, creating a supply shock that sent the price of uranium skyward.

Despite support for nuclear energy growing more bipartisan, uranium’s inclusion on the 2018 critical minerals list caused consternation among Democratic politicians and environmental activists.

Allowing uranium miners to say their products are critical to the U.S. government allows the industry to get a more captive audience in Washington, said Scott Melbye, president of the trade group Uranium Producers of America.

The Uranium Producers of America asked DOE to include uranium in its “Critical materials” list because USGS “Is clinging to” a legal definition of critical minerals that “Excludes fuel minerals,” he said.

“Everyone we talk to would agree that uranium fits on a strategic critical minerals list because of all the reasons you put a commodity on there,” Melbye said.

Exclusive: U.S. Utilities Push White House Not To Sanction Russian Uranium

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comMarch 1 – The U.S. nuclear power industry is lobbying the White House to allow uranium imports from Russia to continue despite the escalating conflict in Ukraine, with cheap supplies of the fuel seen as key to keeping American electricity prices low, according to two sources familiar with the matter.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comThe National Energy Institute, a trade group of U.S. nuclear power generation companies including Duke Energy Corp and Exelon Corp, is lobbying the White House to keep the exemption on uranium imports from Russia, the sources said.

The NEI lobbying aims to ensure that uranium is not caught up in any future energy-related sanctions, especially as calls intensify to sanction Russian crude oil sales, the sources said.

“We are listening to all inquiries from industry and will continue to do so as we take measures to hold Russia accountable,” a White House official said when asked about the uranium lobbying.

The U.S. nuclear power industry’s use of Russian uranium is likely to spark further questions about where and how the United States procures the materials needed to supply high-tech and renewable-energy products, a dependency that President Joe Biden singled out last week as a national security threat.

Russia’s uranium production is controlled by Rosatom, a state-run company formed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in 2007.

Swedish power company Vattenfall AB said last week it would stop buying Russian uranium for its nuclear reactors until further notice, citing the Ukrainian conflict.

FLAGSTAFF, Ariz. – A federal appeals court on Tuesday ruled against environmental groups and an Arizona tribe in their bid to keep a uranium mine south of the Grand Canyon from operating.

The Pinyon Plain Mine, formerly known as the Canyon Mine, lies within a roughly 1,562-square-mile area that was placed off-limits to new mining claims in the Obama administration.

The Obama administration implemented the ban on new mining claims outside the boundaries of Grand Canyon National Park in 2012, partly out of concern that new mining operations could spoil the Colorado River that runs through the Grand Canyon.

Travis Bruner, conservation director for another plaintiff, the Grand Canyon Trust, said the court’s decision Tuesday underlines the urgency in protecting public land from the risk of groundwater contamination.

ADVERTISEMENT.A U.S. Geological Survey study released last year found that most springs and wells in the vast region of northern Arizona known for its high-grade uranium ore met federal drinking water standards despite decades of uranium mining.

Among the exceptions were several sites downslope from an abandoned uranium mine within Grand Canyon National Park.The study was part of an effort to better understand the complex geology and hydrology of the region.

The Pinyon Plain Mine near the Grand Canyon’s South Rim entrance remains on standby as Energy Fuels waits for uranium prices to rebound.

Post Idea #22: Mutual fund

Related Articles – Summarized

Most mutual funds fall into one of four main categories – money market funds, bond funds, stock funds, and target date funds.

Target date funds, sometimes known as lifecycle funds, are designed for individuals with particular retirement dates in mind.

Increased NAV. If the market value of a fund’s portfolio increases, after deducting expenses, then the value of the fund and its shares increases.

With mutual funds, you may lose some or all of the money you invest because the securities held by a fund can go down in value.

Investors buy mutual fund shares from the fund itself or through a broker for the fund, rather than from other investors.

Mutual fund shares are “Redeemable,” meaning investors can sell the shares back to the fund at any time.

A fund with high costs must perform better than a low-cost fund to generate the same returns for you.

Mutual Fund Definition

The average mutual fund holds over a hundred different securities, which means mutual fund shareholders gain important diversification at a low price.

A mutual fund investor is buying partial ownership of the mutual fund company and its assets.

If a mutual fund is construed as a virtual company, its CEO is the fund manager, sometimes called its investment adviser.

Other common types of mutual funds include money market funds, sector funds, alternative funds, smart-beta funds, target-date funds, and even funds of funds, or mutual funds that buy shares of other mutual funds.

Exchange Traded Funds A twist on the mutual fund is the exchange traded fund.

These fees reduce the fund’s overall payout, and they’re assessed to mutual fund investors regardless of the performance of the fund.

Lack of Liquidity A mutual fund allows you to request that your shares be converted into cash at any time unlike stock that trades throughout the day, many mutual fund redemptions take place only at the end of each trading day.

What Are Mutual Funds?

Mutual funds are investment strategies that allow you to pool your money together with other investors to purchase a collection of stocks, bonds, or other securities that might be difficult to recreate on your own.

The price of the mutual fund, also known as its net asset value is determined by the total value of the securities in the portfolio, divided by the number of the fund’s outstanding shares.

For the average small investor, mutual funds can be a smart and cost-effective way to invest.

Most mutual funds hold well over 100 securities.

All mutual funds allow you to buy or sell your fund shares once a day at the close of the market at the fund’s NAV. You can also automatically reinvest income from dividends and capital gain distributions or make additional investments at any time.

There are a variety of fees that may be associated with mutual funds.

Open an account with Fidelity to buy and sell mutual funds.

Mutual Fund

A mutual fund is a professionally managed investment fund that pools money from many investors to purchase securities.

The 2003 mutual fund scandal involved unequal treatment of fund shareholders whereby some fund management companies allowed favored investors to engage in prohibited late trading or market timing.

When a mutual fund distributes dividend income to its shareholders, fund investors will report the distribution as dividend income on their tax return.

The functional aspect of Mutual Funds industry comes under the purview of AMFI, a sub division of SEBI. Formed in August 1995, the body undertook the Mutual Funds Sahi hai campaign in March 2017 for promoting investor awareness on mutual funds in India.

Hybrid funds may be structured as fund of funds, meaning that they invest by buying shares in other mutual funds that invest in securities.

The management fee is paid by the fund to the management company or sponsor that organizes the fund, provides the portfolio management or investment advisory services, and normally lends its brand to the fund.

Fund shareholders must vote on any proposed increase, but the fund manager or sponsor can agree to waive some or all of the management fees in order to lower the fund’s expense ratio.

Guide To Types Of Mutual Funds And How They Work

These types of funds are generally a safer investment but with a lower potential return than other mutual funds.

There are different types of equity funds such as funds that specialize in growth stocks, value stocks, large-cap stocks, mid-cap stocks, small-cap stocks, or a combination of these stocks.

Index funds are popular as they typically require a lower management fee compared to other funds.

Mutual funds are actively managed by a professional who constantly monitors the fund’s portfolio.

Since mutual funds are managed by a manager, there is a loss of control when investing in a mutual fund.

Thank you for reading CFI’s guide on Mutual Funds.

Fund of FundsA Fund of Funds is an investment vehicle where a fund invests in a portfolio composed of shares of other funds rather.

Investing In A Mutual Fund

Vanguard average expense ratio: 0.07%. Industry average expense ratio: 0.20%. All averages are for index mutual funds and ETFs and are asset-weighted.

All investing is subject to risk, including the possible loss of the money you invest.

Diversification does not ensure a profit or protect against a loss.

Understanding The Basics Of Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are divided into closed-end and open-end funds, and the latter is subdivided by load and no load. Closed-end funds have a set number of shares issued to the public through an initial public offering.

Because these shares trade on the open market and closed-end funds don’t redeem or issue new shares like a typical mutual fund, the fund shares abide by the laws of supply and demand and normally trade at a discount to the net asset value.

A majority of mutual funds are open-ended, meaning that the fund does not have a set number of shares.

Mutual funds are actively managed by a professional money manager who constantly monitors the stocks and bonds in the fund’s portfolio.

Finding a mutual fund that fits your investment criteria and style is vital; if you don’t know anything about biotechnology, you probably shouldn’t be investing in a biotech fund.

While some funds don’t have a minimum initial investment, most funds have a minimum initial investment, which can be as low as $25 or as high as $100,000.

This strategy helps to ensure you don’t dump large amounts of money into a mutual fund while the price point is high or overvalued, and it is just as applicable to mutual funds as it is to common stock.

Post Idea #23: Morningstar, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

Morningstar, Inc.

With operations in 29 countries, Morningstar’s research and recommendations are considered by financial journalists as influential in the asset management industry, and a positive or negative recommendation from Morningstar analysts can drive money into or away from any given fund.

In April 2020, Morningstar announced it had reached an agreement to acquire Sustainalytics, a research and rating firm specialized in environmental, social, and governance insights.

Morningstar offers a single end-to-end cloud-based platform for investment advisors, known as Morningstar Office Cloud.

In 2010, Morningstar acquired Realpoint, LLC, a former division of private-equity giant Capmark Finance and a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

Today, Morningstar Credit Ratings issues credit ratings on both structured financial products and corporate/financial institutions.

On May 29, 2019, Morningstar publicly announced its intention to significantly expand the breadth and scope of its ratings business through a $669 million acquisition of DBRS. Morningstar is considered powerful in the investment management industry, and the firm’s ratings and recommendations often influence a fund’s assets under management.

In response, Morningstar provided a quantitative analysis showing that higher-rated funds outperform lower-rated funds, but cautioned against using the ratings as a definitive marker of future performance.

Morningstar Inc. Definition

Morningstar is a Chicago-based investment research firm that compiles and analyzes fund, stock, and general market data.

Morningstar is a respected and reliable source of independent investment analysis for all levels of fund and stock investors, ranging from inexperienced beginners to sophisticated experts.

Morningstar’s Initial Public Offering Morningstar filed for an initial public offering in May of 2005 at $18.50 per share.

Today, Morningstar is listed on Nasdaq under the ticker symbol MORN. As of February 25, 2022, Morningstar’s share price was over $281, and its market capitalization was slightly above $12.14 billion.

Morningstar issues risk ratings-called The Morningstar Rating for Funds or Star Rating-for publicly traded mutual funds and exchange traded funds.

Its managed investment products include Morningstar Indexes, which provide product benchmarking and creation for financial institutions and professionals; Morningstar Managed Portfolios, Advisor Managed Accounts, and other investment management and indexing services.

Its revenue drivers include DBRS Morningstar, Morningstar Data, Workplace Solutions, Morningstar Indexes, and PitchBook-a financial data and software company.

Overview, History, Important Dates

Morningstar Inc. is an international financial services firm offering financial and investment research and investment management services.

A popular publication of Morningstar is its one-pager on Exchange Traded FundAn Exchange Traded Fund is a popular investment vehicle where portfolios can be more flexible and diversified across a broad range of all the available asset classes.

The firm introduced several new products, including the Morningstar Mutual Fund publication.

During the same period, the firm also launched a CD-ROM product, named “Mutual Funds OnDisc.” It was later changed to “Morningstar Principia.” Other noteworthy releases and publications during the first half of the decade included the Morningstar FundInvestor, The Morningstar Mutual Fund 500, the acquisition of MarketBase, and Mutual Fund Documents OnDisc.

Morningstar Inc. concluded a joint venture with Softbank Corporation, which was named “Morningstar Japan K.K.”.

Morningstar Japan held its IPO. Morningstar Norge AS – a Joint VentureA joint venture is a commercial enterprise in which two or more organizations combine their resources to gain a tactical and strategic edge in the market.

1986: The company was renamed to Morningstar Inc. The company went on to introduce “Mutual Funds OnDisc,” which debuted as the companies first CD-ROM merchandise.

Morningstar, Inc. Declares Quarterly Dividend Of 36 Cents Per Share

PRNewswire/ – The board of directors of Morningstar, Inc., a leading provider of independent investment research, today declared a quarterly dividend of 36 cents.

About Morningstar, Inc. Morningstar, Inc. is a leading provider of independent investment research in North America.

Morningstar provides data and research insights on a wide range of investment offerings, including managed investment products, publicly listed companies, private capital markets, debt securities, and real-time global market data.

Morningstar also offers investment management services through its investment advisory subsidiaries, with approximately $265 billion.

These statements are based on our current expectations about future events or future financial performance.

A more complete description of these risks and uncertainties can be found in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K. If any of these risks and uncertainties materialize, our actual future results and other future events may vary significantly from what we expect.

We do not undertake to update our forward-looking statements as a result of new information or future events.

Voloridge Investment Management LLC Boosts Stock Position In Morningstar, Inc.

Voloridge Investment Management LLC lifted its position in shares of Morningstar, Inc. by 50.9% in the third quarter, according to the company in its most recent disclosure with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Voloridge Investment Management LLC’s holdings in Morningstar were worth $1,837,000 as of its most recent SEC filing.

Praesidium Investment Management Company LLC raised its stake in Morningstar by 3.8% in the third quarter.

Praesidium Investment Management Company LLC now owns 243,867 shares of the business services provider’s stock worth $63,169,000 after buying an additional 8,855 shares in the last quarter.

Millennium Management LLC raised its stake in Morningstar by 15.0% in the third quarter.

Millennium Management LLC now owns 219,052 shares of the business services provider’s stock worth $56,741,000 after buying an additional 28,535 shares in the last quarter.

It offers Morningstar data, Morningstar direct, Morningstar investment management, Morningstar advisor workstation, workplace solutions, pitchbook data, Morningstar enterprise components, Morningstar research, Morningstar credit ratings and Morningstar indexes.

Morningstar Launches Research Center To Improve U.S. Retirement System

The Workplace Solutions group within Morningstar Investment Management LLC, a subsidiary of Morningstar, Inc., a leading provider of independent investment research, today launched the Morningstar Center for Retirement and Policy Studies.

The Center will provide the industry with unbiased, actionable data and insight for decision-makers seeking to improve retirement plans and outcomes for retirement savers.

Today, the Center released its inaugural report, “Retirement Plan Landscape Report,” which is designed to help the industry better gauge the health of the U.S. retirement system.

“There is a lot of great research out there, but some of it lacks in transparency and doesn’t dive deep enough into areas like plan investment holdings, plan quality, and participants costs. We want to change that,” said Aron Szapiro, head of retirement studies and public policy at Morningstar, Inc./Morningstar Investment Management LLC. “By using Morningstar’s independent data and capabilities, we can shed light on these areas and bring clarity around the true state of the U.S. retirement system.”

The Center’s primary research team includes Szapiro as well as Jack VanDerhei, director of retirement studies for Morningstar Investment Management LLC, and Lia Mitchell, senior analyst of policy research for Morningstar, Inc. VanDerhei joined Morningstar Investment Management LLC on March 1, 2022 and will be responsible for modeling the impact policy changes and proposals might have on U.S. retirement preparedness, as well as the effects of plan sponsors’ decisions on participants.

“It’s an honor to join Morningstar and be a part of an organization that is known for its independence, investor-first focus, and overall commitment toward improving the retirement space. With the opening of the Center, it’s a terrific opportunity to try to expand access to, and participation in, the retirement system by helping more Americans save for the future they want,” said VanDerhei.

In the Workplace Solutions group at Morningstar Investment Management LLC, a subsidiary of Morningstar, Inc. and a registered investment adviser, our advocacy for the individual investor extends to the workplace retirement market where the responsibility for investing and saving now rests with employees.

Morningstar, Inc. Reports Fourth-Quarter, Full-Year 2021 Financial Results

PitchBook, Sustainalytics, and Morningstar Data were the top contributors to license-based organic revenue growth in the fourth quarter of 2021.

Transaction-based revenue increased 36.7% year over year, or 35.3% on an organic basis, as robust issuance activity across structured finance asset classes drove revenue growth for DBRS Morningstar.

Morningstar began including Sustainalytics revenue in its license-based organic revenue calculation in the third quarter of 2021.

On a consolidated basis, PitchBook, DBRS Morningstar, Sustainalytics, Morningstar Data, and Morningstar Indexes were the top five contributors of organic revenue growth in the fourth quarter of 2021.

For the full year, PitchBook, DBRS Morningstar, Morningstar Data, Workplace Solutions, and Morningstar Indexes were the top five contributors of organic revenue growth.

Morningstar Data grew revenue by 11.9%, or 12.0% on an organic basis in the fourth quarter with strong contribution across geographies.

Morningstar Indexes increased revenue by 70.4%, or 63.5% on an organic basis in the fourth quarter, finishing a record year driven by growth in market data licensing for institutional investors and index licensing as the basis for investable products.

Post Idea #24: Stainless steel

Related Articles – Summarized

Stainless Steel

Austenitic stainless steel is the largest family of stainless steels, making up about two-thirds of all stainless steel production.

A frequent mistake is to assemble stainless steel plates with carbon steel fasteners; whereas using stainless steel to fasten carbon-steel plates is usually acceptable, the reverse is not.

The minimum 10.5% chromium in stainless steels provides resistance to approximately 700 °C, while 16% chromium provides resistance up to approximately 1,200 °C. Type 304, the most common grade of stainless steel with 18% chromium, is resistant to approximately 870 °C. Other gases, such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, chlorine, also attack stainless steel.

Wire rod coils are subsequently processed to produce cold-finished bars on drawing benches, fasteners on boltmaking machines, and wire on single or multipass drawing machines…. World stainless steel production figures are published yearly by the International Stainless Steel Forum.

Austenitic stainless steels Cr-Ni: 54%. Austenitic stainless steels Cr-Mn: 21%. Ferritic and martensitic stainless steels: 23%. Stainless steel is used in a multitude of fields including architecture, art, chemical engineering, food and beverage manufacture, vehicles, medicine, energy and firearms.

The higher acquisition cost of stainless steel components are often offset by improvements in operating and maintenance costs, reduced loss of production costs, and the higher resale value of stainless steel components.

The average carbon footprint of stainless steel is estimated to be 2.90 kg of CO2 per kg of stainless steel produced, of which 1.92 kg are emissions from raw materials; 0.54 kg from electricity and steam, and 0.44 kg are direct emissions.

Definition, Composition, Types, & Facts

Stainless steel, any one of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10 to 30 percent chromium.

Austenitic steels, which contain 16 to 26 percent chromium and up to 35 percent nickel, usually have the highest corrosion resistance.

The most common type is the 18/8, or 304, grade, which contains 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel.

Standard ferritic steels contain 10.5 to 27 percent chromium and are nickel-free; because of their low carbon content, they are not hardenable by heat treatment and have less critical anticorrosion applications, such as architectural and auto trim.

Martensitic steels typically contain 11.5 to 18 percent chromium and up to 1.2 percent carbon with nickel sometimes added.

Duplex stainless steels are a combination of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels in equal amounts; they contain 21 to 27 percent chromium, 1.35 to 8 percent nickel, 0.05 to 3 percent copper, and 0.05 to 5 percent molybdenum.

Precipitation-hardening stainless steel is characterized by its strength, which stems from the addition of aluminum, copper, and niobium to the alloy in amounts less than 0.5 percent of the alloy’s total mass.

White Rock Iron Products Ltd

Professional Welding & Fabrication Since 1969.With 50 years in the welding and fabrication industry, White Rock Iron Products Ltd. has the experience and knowledge to handle projects of various sizes and complexity.

STEEL FABRICATION & ERECTION. STRUCTURAL STEEL. STAINLESSSTEEL. MISCELLANEOUS METALS. A BIT ABOUT US.White Rock Iron Products Ltd. has grown significantly over its humble beginnings on Marine Drive in White Rock, BC. Family owned and operated since 1969, we maintain the highest quality of service for our customers and associates, alike.

We are known and respected in the steel fabrication industry for providing quality workmanship and reliable services.

Our work can be seen throughout the lower mainland of BC and in parts of Western Canada.

We specialize in structural steel, miscellaneous metal projects, and custom fabrication.

Post Idea #25: Artificial turf

Related Articles – Summarized

Turf Outlet: Artificial Grass Wholesaler

A real putting green is very difficult to maintain, our putting green turf.

Is low maintenance and high fun! Are you tired of driving to the golf course only to wait for a tee time? Avoid the traffic and the hassle with artificial putting greens from Turf Outlet.

Our putting greens are of similar quality to those usA real putting green is very difficult to maintain, our putting green turf is low maintenance and high fun! Are you tired of driving to the golf course only to wait for a tee time?

Avoid the traffic and the hassle with artificial putting greens from Turf Outlet.

Our putting greens are of similar quality to those used in professional golf courses throughout the world.

Our helpful and professional staff help you pick out and choose the best artificial putting greens for your backyard and answer any questions you have.

If you have questions about artificial putting greens, then we have the answers you’re looking for.

9 Most Common Problems With Artificial Grass And How To Solve Them

Here we list down the most common fake grass installation problems.

We also have a great guide on how to install artificial grass for those that are ready to go!

It’s just turf, how complicated can it be? What if we told you there were many different variants of artificial grass? Each type is designed for a specific use, with qualities that respond to a particular need.

We’ve laid out the specifications of each grass we offer along with a simple name to make sure you get the right turf for your next project.

This will stop your grass from sinking and prevent all other problems that come with it.

One key benefit of installing fake grass is convenience.

Installing a good weed barrier prevents weeds from growing through the grass.

Artificial Turf

In 2020, Miami’s Marlins Park also switched to artificial turf for similar reasons, while the Texas Rangers’ new Globe Life Field was opened with an artificial surface, as it too is a retractable roof ballpark in a hot weather city; this puts the number of teams using synthetic turf in MLB at five as of 2021.

Field hockey artificial turf differs from artificial turf for other sports, in that it does not try to reproduce a grass “Feel”, being made of shorter fibers.

Artificial pitches were banned from top-flight football in 1991, forcing Oldham Athletic to remove their artificial pitch after their promotion to the First Division in 1991, while relegated Luton Town also removed their artificial pitch at the same time.

The use of artificial turf was later banned by FIFA, UEFA and by many domestic football associations in recent years,[when?] both governing bodies have expressed resurrected interest in the use of artificial surfaces in competition, provided that they are FIFA Recommended.

The 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup took place entirely on artificial surfaces, as the event was played in Canada, where almost all of the country’s stadiums use artificial turf due to climate issues.

New water saving programs, as of 2019, which grant rebates for turf removal, do not accept artificial turf as replacement and require a minimum of plants.

The use of artificial grass for convenience sometimes faces opposition: Legislation frequently seeks to preserve natural gardens and fully water permeable surfaces, therefore restricting the use of hardscape and plantless areas, including artificial turf.

Post Idea #26: Tetrahydrocannabinol

Related Articles – Summarized


Although the chemical formula for THC describes multiple isomers, the term THC usually refers to the Delta-9-THC isomer with chemical name-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol.

THC is an active ingredient in Nabiximols, a specific extract of Cannabis that was approved as a botanical drug in the United Kingdom in 2010 as a mouth spray for people with multiple sclerosis to alleviate neuropathic pain, spasticity, overactive bladder, and other symptoms.

The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 allows any hemp derived product not exceeding 0.3% Δ-9 THC to be sold legally in the US. Since the law counted only Δ-9 THC, Δ-8 THC was considered legal to sell under the farm bill and was sold online.

In August 2020, all forms of THC were deemed illegal above 0.3% under the Controlled Substances Act according to the DEA. The ruling is currently being debated[by whom?] and companies that formerly sold forms of THC are lobbying to keep other forms of THC other than delta-9 legal for commerce.

The status of THC as an illegal drug in most countries imposes restrictions on research material supply and funding, such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration continue to control the sole federally-legal source of cannabis for researchers.

Based on the results of 4 high quality trials and 4 low quality trials, oral cannabis extract was rated as effective, and THC as probably effective in treating central pain and painful spasms.

Cannabinol, a metabolite of THC. Delta-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol, a double bond isomer of THC. Dimethylheptylpyran.

What Is THC?

Delta-9 THC. There are a few different scientific names for it, but most people simply know it as THC. The main active ingredient in marijuana, THC is most famous for getting people high.

Could one of the effects of THC be protecting the brain? While many drugs inhibit the brain’s ability to make new cells, studies have shown that cannabinoids like THC are capable of stimulating brain cell production.

Growing Methods & THC. Marijuana farmers can determine how much THC their crop contains not only through which strains they choose, but also by what grow methods they use.

Will marijuana grown in natural light be stronger than weed grown in artificial light? Is hydroponic or “Bush” weed higher in THC content? While it’s uncertain whether one strategy works over another, it is true that different strains of weed have higher THC levels than others and that this can greatly affect the experience for consumers.

Experienced cannabis consumers are typically familiar with the many different methods of THC ingestion, but with expanding legalization, those who are new to marijuana sometimes struggle to understand the different ways of getting THC into their bodies.

THC FAQ. The following section is for people looking for a quick Q&A or who still have unanswered questions about marijuana and THC. What is THC? THC, also known as tetrahydrocannabinol is the best-known active ingredient in marijuana.

After the THC molecule was discovered, cannabis use had become both stigmatized by some and celebrated by others – and THC became synonymous with a way to get high.


THC or Tetrahydrocannabinol is the major psychoactive component and one of the 113 cannabinoids recognized in cannabis.

Aside from these two synthetic THC formulations of THC that are FDA approved.

Summarize how interprofessional teamwork can improve patient outcomes when using THC for cancer-related nausea.

Patients should be informed not to operate motor vehicles or heavy machinery until reasonably certain they are not impaired by THC. The risk of dependence and misuse must also be assessed, especially in patients with a history of substance abuse or dependence.

Patients must be carefully selected when prescribing THC formulations approved by the FDA for medical use.

The psychoactive effects of THC, such as hallucinations, dysphoria, and paranoia, are intolerable to some patients.

As research grows, there is a good possibility that additional indications will be approved for medical use by the FDA. There must be a thorough discussion between the prescribing/ordering clinician and patient over the benefits and harms of THC. Additionally, interprofessional communication between all healthcare team members, including clinicians, specialists, nursing staff, and pharmacists, can help improve patient outcomes in patients who receive treatment with currently approved indications for THC formulations.

5 Things To Know About Delta-8 Tetrahydrocannabinol

Some concerns include variability in product formulations and product labeling, other cannabinoid and terpene content, and variable delta-8 THC concentrations.

Some of these products may be labeled simply as “Hemp products,” which may mislead consumers who associate “Hemp” with “Non-psychoactive.” Furthermore, the FDA is concerned by the proliferation of products that contain delta-8 THC and are marketed for therapeutic or medical uses, although they have not been approved by the FDA. Selling unapproved products with unsubstantiated therapeutic claims is not only a violation of federal law, but also can put consumers at risk, as these products have not been proven to be safe or effective.

From December 2020 through July 2021, the FDA received adverse event reports from both consumers and law enforcement describing 22 patients who consumed delta-8 THC products; of these, 14 presented to a hospital or emergency room for treatment following the ingestion.

Delta-8 THC has psychoactive and intoxicating effects, similar to delta-9 THC. The FDA is aware of media reports of delta-8 THC products getting consumers “High.” The FDA is also concerned that delta-8 THC products likely expose consumers to much higher levels of the substance than are naturally occurring in hemp cannabis raw extracts.

Delta-8 THC products often involve use of potentially harmful chemicals to create the concentrations of delta-8 THC claimed in the marketplace.

These products may be purchased online, as well as at a variety of retailers, including convenience stores and gas stations, where there may not be age limits on who can purchase these products.

The FDA is actively working with federal and state partners to further address the concerns related to these products and monitoring the market for product complaints, adverse events, and other emerging cannabis-derived products of potential concern.

THC: Healing Effects, Use, Dosage

The history of THC begins in 1964, when, thanks to Mechoulam, THC was isolated and synthesized from Lebanese hashish.

Sleep A 2017 review of studies on THC and sleep noted that there are mixed results for THC and sleep.

According to research, THC may lead to a paranoid state for some people, although researchers are still unsure why it can cause such extreme opposite effects.

THC is responsible for causing strong cerebral euphoria, while CBD does not cause any intoxicating effects.

Side effects of THC. In addition to its medicinal properties, THC is known for the side effects that are associated with taking this substance.

There is very little evidence to support theories about the effects of long-term THC intake.

There is very little specific evidence to support theories about the effects of long-term THC intake.

What Is THC?

What more is there to know about cannabis’ primary psychoactive component? Whether the question comes as a newbie to the cannabis world or an experienced consumer who would like to know a bit more about the most famous of cannabinoids, THC has likely been synonymous with cannabis in your mind for as long as you’ve known about the plant.

THC is a cannabinoid, but what’s a cannabinoid?

There exist dozens, and potentially more than 100, cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, but THC is most widely known among these due to its abundance and euphoric attributes.

In 1964, Mechoulam isolated and synthesized THC from Lebanese hashish, marking the beginning of cannabis research that would lead to the discovery of many other cannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors throughout the body, and “Endocannabinoids” – the THC-like compounds our body naturally produces to maintain stability and health.

Simply put, THC works by binding to cannabinoid receptors concentrated in the brain and central nervous system to produce intoxicating effects.

Using data from participants who self-reported their cannabis use, researchers found that daily consumers of high-potency THC strains showed differences in corpus callosum microstructure compared to occasional consumers and those who had never consumed cannabis.

The main difference between THC and CBD, both of which are very popular cannabinoids, is in their perceived effects.

What Is THC?

THC attaches to these receptors and activates them and affects a person’s memory, pleasure, movements, thinking, concentration, coordination, and sensory and time perception, according to NIDA. THC is one of many compounds found in the resin secreted by glands of the marijuana plant.

“In some cases, reported side effects of THC include elation, anxiety, tachycardia, short-term memory recall issues, sedation, relaxation, pain-relief and many more,” said A.J. Fabrizio, a marijuana chemistry expert at Terra Tech Corp, a California agricultural company focused on local farming and medical cannabis.

THC can trigger a relapse in schizophrenic symptoms, according to NIDA. Another possible risk of consuming THC comes in the form of impaired motor skills.

“Some of the side effects of THC include a decrease in IQ, memory and cognition, especially in younger people,” said Dr. Damon Raskin, medical director at Cliffside Malibu Treatment Center.

THC can be extracted from marijuana, or synthesized, as is the case for the FDA-approved drug dronabinol.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration reports that the average THC concentration in marijuana is 1 to 5 percent; in hashish, it is 5 to 15 percent, and in hashish oil, it averages 20 percent.

THC in recreational doses of marijuana is highly variable and the lower the THC content in the marijuana, the more the user must consume to produce the desired effects.

Post Idea #27: Medical cannabis

Related Articles – Summarized

Medical Marijuana

Medical marijuana is a term for derivatives of the Cannabis sativa plant that are used to ease symptoms caused by certain medical conditions.

Medical marijuana is also known as medical cannabis.

State laws vary in which conditions qualify people for treatment with medical marijuana.

If you’re considering marijuana for medical use, check your state’s regulations.

Some medical marijuana is formulated to provide symptom relief without the intoxicating, mood-altering effects associated with recreational use of marijuana.

Mayo Clinic campuses in Arizona and Florida do not certify people for medical marijuana or allow its use on campus or in the hospital.

National Conference of State Legislatures: State medical marijuana laws.

Medical Cannabis Patient Program

As required by the Compassionate Use of Medical Cannabis Act, the Illinois Department of Public Health is providing notice to the public of the annual period for submitting petitions for the addition of debilitating medical conditions to the list prescribed by Section 10 of the Act.

Beginning at 12:01AM December 1, 2021 and ending at 11:59PM December 31, 2021, IDPH will accept petitions on forms and in a manner prescribed by IDPH. The forms and instructions are available here.

As of June 22, 2021, the Medical Cannabis Patient Program is no longer mailing medical cannabis registration cards to current patients and new program applicants.

The medical cannabis registration card is now available in your medical cannabis patient account for printing or download..

Medical Marijuana

There are few subjects that can stir up stronger emotions among doctors, scientists, researchers, policy makers, and the public than medical marijuana.

Is it safe? Should it be legal? Decriminalized? Has its effectiveness been proven? What conditions is it useful for? Is it addictive? How do we keep it out of the hands of teenagers? Is it really the “Wonder drug” that people claim it is? Is medical marijuana just a ploy to legalize marijuana in general?

The Obama administration did not make prosecuting medical marijuana even a minor priority.

The most common use for medical marijuana in the United States is for pain control.

Medical marijuana is also reported to help patients suffering from pain and wasting syndrome associated with HIV, as well as irritable bowel syndrome and Crohn’s disease.

This is not intended to be an inclusive list, but rather to give a brief survey of the types of conditions for which medical marijuana can provide relief.

My advice for doctors is that whether you are pro, neutral, or against medical marijuana, patients are embracing it, and although we don’t have rigorous studies and “Gold standard” proof of the benefits and risks of medical marijuana, we need to learn about it, be open-minded, and above all, be non-judgmental.

How Medical Marijuana Works, And Which Conditions It Treats

While every state has laws dictating the use of medical marijuana, more than two thirds of U.S. states and the District of Columbia have actually legalized it for medical treatments and more are considering bills to do the same.

Why hasn’t more research been done? One reason is that the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration considers marijuana a Schedule I drug, the same as heroin, LSD, and ecstasy, and likely to be abused and lacking in medical value.

Medical marijuana uses the marijuana plant or chemicals in it to treat diseases or conditions.

Cannabinoids – the active chemicals in medical marijuana – are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Relax tight muscles in people with MS.Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS.Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children.

Another issue is that the FDA doesn’t oversee medical marijuana like it does prescription drugs.

Medical Cannabis

The purpose of this Act is to allow the beneficial use of medical cannabis in a regulated system to alleviate symptoms caused by debilitating medical conditions and their medical treatments.

Here you will be able to locate applications, find replacement card forms, read current rules and regulations, view basic program statistics, and obtain other information about the NMDOH Medical Cannabis Program.

Medical Cannabis

The genus Cannabis contains two species which produce useful amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids: Cannabis indica and Cannabis sativa, which are listed as Schedule I medicinal plants in the US; a third species, Cannabis ruderalis, has few psychogenic properties.

The FDA issued a 2006 advisory against smoked medical cannabis stating: “Marijuana has a high potential for abuse, has no currently accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, and has a lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision.”

The Ancient Greeks used cannabis to dress wounds and sores on their horses, and in humans, dried leaves of cannabis were used to treat nose bleeds, and cannabis seeds were used to expel tapeworms.

In the United States, the medical use of cannabis further declined with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which imposed new regulations and fees on physicians prescribing cannabis.

The authors of a report on a 2011 survey of medical cannabis users say that critics have suggested that some users “Game the system” to obtain medical cannabis ostensibly for treatment of a condition, but then use it for nonmedical purposes – though the truth of this claim is hard to measure.

Medical cannabis research includes any medical research on using cannabis as a treatment for any medical condition.

For reasons including increased popular support of cannabis use, a trend of cannabis legalization, and the perception of medical usefulness, more scientists are doing medical cannabis research.

Post Idea #28: Cannabinoid

Related Articles – Summarized

What Are Cannabinoids?

Marijuana causes a wide variety of effects, and those effects are due to its cannabinoids.

Finally, the natural cannabinoids in marijuana plants fit perfectly with cannabinoid receptors to create a variety of effects.

While each cannabinoid is useful by itself, scientists have found that cannabinoids enhance each other when taken together.

The “Big six” are THC, CBD, CBG, CBC, CBN, and THCV. Except for THC and CBD, most are considered minor cannabinoids, which means they have concentrations of less than 1%. THCA and CBDA, the chemical precursors to THC and CBD, are also considered minor cannabinoids and have only recently been the subjects of extensive research.

CBC is also one of the cannabinoids responsible for “The entourage effect.” In short, this means that it helps other cannabinoids do their jobs even better.

The parent cannabinoid to all of them is CBGA, the precursor to CBG. How does it work? An enzymatic process turns CBGA into THCA, CBDA, or CBCA. Plants that convert their CBGA into high amounts of THCA will naturally be lower in the other cannabinoids.

In 1998, Dr. Mechoulam helped coin the phrase “The entourage effect” to explain what many medical marijuana patients had already noticed: whole-plant marijuana worked better than synthetic cannabinoids or ones that had been isolated and concentrated.

Cannabinoid Definition & Meaning

a. : any of several substances naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid.

Postexercise euphoria may actually be the result of naturally occurring cannabinoids.

The same family of chemicals that gives marijuana smokers their high, a new study suggests.

Prevention Daniele Piomelli and his colleagues report isolating from cocoa powder and three different brands of chocolate a substance called anandamide, a cannabinoid.

b. : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids.

Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids.

Which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.


The human brain has more cannabinoid receptors than any other G protein-coupled receptor type.

These cannabinoids produce the effects associated with cannabis by binding to the CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the brain.

The mixture of cannabinoids produced by a plant is known as the plant’s cannabinoid profile.

Endocannabinoids are substances produced from within the body that activate cannabinoid receptors.

After the discovery of the first cannabinoid receptor in 1988, scientists began searching for an endogenous ligand for the receptor.

Endocannabinoids serve as intercellular ‘lipid messengers’, signaling molecules that are released from one cell and activating the cannabinoid receptors present on other nearby cells.

Synthetic cannabinoids are particularly useful in experiments to determine the relationship between the structure and activity of cannabinoid compounds, by making systematic, incremental modifications of cannabinoid molecules.

Cannabinoids: Benefits, Side Effects, Dosage, And Interactions

The ECS has far-reaching effects on your body, and that’s why cannabinoids are believed to have so many different medicinal uses.

Cannabinoids are considered to have fewer and milder side effects than many pharmaceutical drugs they may be able to replace.

Don’t make the mistake of thinking that “Natural” products are side-effect free-most natural products, including cannabinoids, can cause side effects and may interact negatively with other drugs.

The specific effects that you may experience depend on what cannabinoids you’re taking.

Drug Interactions Information on potentially negative drug interactions involving cannabinoids is scarce.

A 2016 study involving complex drug regimens including opioids, tricyclic antidepressants, and others found no negative interactions with cannabinoids.

Some products may contain only one cannabinoid while others are “Full spectrum,” which means they contain all the cannabinoids of the hemp plant, or “Broad spectrum,” which means they contain most of the cannabinoids but, usually, not any THC. Full-spectrum and broad-spectrum products may offer more benefits than purely CBD products.

NCCIH thanks D. Craig Hopp, Ph.D., Inna Belfer, M.D., Ph.D., and David Shurtleff, Ph.D., NCCIH, for their review of the 2019 edition of this publication.

This publication is not copyrighted and is in the public domain.

NCCIH has provided this material for your information.

It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your health care provider(s).

We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider.

The mention of any product, service, or therapy is not an endorsement by NCCIH..

Cannabinoids 101: A List Of Cannabinoids And Their Effects

As cannabinoids transform from one form to another, their level or type of psychoactivity and their specific therapeutic effects may change.

These cannabinoids won’t all work the same, and different cannabinoids activate the endocannabinoid system in a variety of ways.

Still, having a general idea of the effects of the major cannabinoids can be a big help in determining which products are best suited to you.

Generally all cannabinoids acids are derived from just one “Mother” cannabinoid-CBGA. The plant must first produce CBGA before converting to the better known cannabinoids like THCA, CBDA, or CBCA. Very little “Activated” THC is found in fresh cannabis flower-most will be in the form of THCA and will be decarboxylated upon smoking.

For many, these side effects can also be reduced by combining THC with other cannabinoids or terpenes.

This group includes CBGV, CBCV, CBDV, and of course THCV. Otherwise known as the “Varins,” these cannabinoids wield a shorter tail than the more known cannabinoids like THC and CBD, which may give them unique pharmacologic activity.

Like all of the cannabinoids mentioned so far, CBG is produced as CBGA. All the primary cannabinoids are created from CBGA. This is how CBGA got its nickname of “Mother of all cannabinoids.” CBG has also been dubbed a non-psychoactive cannabinoid, but similar to CBD this probably isn’t accurate.

A List Of Major Cannabinoids In Cannabis And Their Effects

Cannabis produces a variety compounds known as plant cannabinoids, many of which have not been detected in any other plant.

You’ll often see people report that there are dozens, or even 100+ plant cannabinoids produced by cannabis.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the major cannabinoids that can be found in cannabis products.

Cannabis doesn’t directly make the most famous cannabinoids associated with the plant, THC and CBD. Instead, it synthesizes several cannabinoid acids.

The major cannabinoid acids include CBGA, THCA, CBDA, and CBCA. CBGA is the starting compound that enzymes in the plant use to make the other three.

THC is the only plant cannabinoid that you know for sure has clear intoxicating effects on its own.

While most plant cannabinoids are not intoxicating themselves, their presence can influence how THC affects you.

Post Idea #29: Trupanion,

Related Articles – Summarized


Trupanion is a pet insurance provider based in Seattle, Washington, that offers and administers cat and dog insurance, in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Puerto Rico.

Trupanion is self-underwritten by the American Pet Insurance Company.

Trupanion is a founding member of the North American Pet Health Insurance Association which educates pet owners in North America about the veterinary industry.

In 2010, The Seattle Times Company named Trupanion Seattle’s ‘Most Pet-Friendly Company’ based on the ability of employees to bring their pet to work, and the full-time dog walking company, that works exclusively for Trupanion, to walk employees’ dogs.

The Seattle Times also named Trupanion the company with the ‘Most Unusual Perk’ for offering employees the option of insuring their dog or cat with a $0 deductible.

In 2011 The Huffington Post named Trupanion as one of nine companies across the nation that support a healthy work-life balance for their employees; other companies on the list included Google, Netflix, and Zappos.

In May 2011, Trupanion entered an agreement with the American Humane Association in support of the Second Chance Fund, a program that provides financial assistance to animal welfare organizations.

Medical Insurance For Pets Through Trupanion

Medical insurance for pets makes the decision easier, allowing for the care they need, when they need it most.

Trupanion pets are never penalized for being “Unlucky” and incurring claims.

“Pet medical insurance helps reduce the stress of veterinary medical bills, allowing families to focus on their beloved pet. We’re excited to expand our alliance with Trupanion and offer this product as a way to help even more customers prepare for and recover from the unexpected.”

“We are thrilled to help State Farm better serve all of their customers by making Trupanion’s high-quality medical coverage available for their pets,” said Margi Tooth, Chief Revenue Officer for Trupanion.

Trupanion is the leading provider of medical insurance for pets, insuring more than 500,000 cats and dogs in North America.

Trupanion will provide all pet medical insurance policy servicing.

Policyholders can access their pet medical insurance account and make changes to deductibles through the Trupanion website.

Post Idea #30: Non-small cell lung cancer

Related Articles – Summarized

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment -Patient Version

General Information About Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Key PointsNon-small cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the lung.

There are two main types of lung cancer: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.

Stages of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Key PointsAfter lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the lungs or to other parts of the body.

If non-small cell lung cancer spreads to the brain, the cancer cells in the brain are actually lung cancer cells.

Treatment of Occult Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment of Stage 0 For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of Stage IIIB and Stage IIIC Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Stage IV, Relapsed, and Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer > Fact Sheets > Yale Medicine

There are two primary types of lung cancer, known as non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.

The vast majority of lung cancers fall into the category called non-small cell lung cancer.

“The standard of care for lung cancer treatment has changed just in the last five years, due to advances in clinical research that our patients have contributed to,” says Anne Chiang, MD, PhD, a Yale Medicine medical oncologist who treats lung cancers.

The more you smoke and the earlier in life you begin smoking, the greater your risk for developing NSCLC. Other risk factors include second-hand smoke, exposure to workplace carcinogens, radiation exposure, environmental pollution, family history of lung cancer and previous infection of HIV. What are the symptoms of non-small cell lung cancer?

If lung cancer is confirmed, genetic testing can be done on your lung tissue to identify details about your cancer that can help inform treatment.

Patients who come to Yale Cancer Center at Smilow Cancer Hospital have access to new cancer therapies that are in development.

Since NSCLC is one of the world’s most prevalent and lethal forms of cancer, research is being conducted through Yale Cancer Center’s Specialized Program of Research Excellence for lung cancer, one of the three lung cancer-focused SPOREs funded by the National Cancer Institute.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Smoking causes most cases of non-small cell lung cancer.

Help relieve cancer pain when the cancer has spread to the bones.

If you are age 50 to 80 years old, have a 20 pack-year smoking history, and either currently smoke or used to smoke within the last 15 years, talk with your provider about getting screened for lung cancer.

Cancer – lung – non-small cell; Non-small cell lung cancer; NSCLC; Adenocarcinoma – lung; Squamous cell carcinoma – lung; Large cell carcinoma – lung.

Araujo LH, Horn L, Merritt RE, Shilo K, Xu-Welliver M, Carbone DP. Cancer of the lung: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.

NCCN guidelines insights: non-small cell lung cancer, version 1.2020.

Non-small cell lung cancer treatment – health professional version.

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers and is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide.

Non-small-cell lung cancer, a heterogeneous class of tumours, represents approximately 85% of all new lung cancer diagnoses.

Tobacco smoking remains the main risk factor for developing this disease, but radon exposure and air pollution also have a role.

Most patients are diagnosed with advanced-stage disease owing to inadequate screening programmes and late onset of clinical symptoms; consequently, patients have a very poor prognosis.

Several diagnostic approaches can be used for NSCLC, including X-ray, CT and PET imaging, and histological examination of tumour biopsies.

Accurate staging of the cancer is required to determine the optimal management strategy, which includes surgery, radiochemotherapy, immunotherapy and targeted approaches with anti-angiogenic monoclonal antibodies or tyrosine kinase inhibitors if tumours harbour oncogene mutations.

Palliative care has a central role in patient management and greatly improves quality of life.

Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment

Most people who have lung cancer have NSCLC. Although it’s serious, treatment can sometimes stop it from getting worse.

It’s the most common kind of lung cancer among both smokers and nonsmokers and people under 45.

The treatments your doctor suggests will depend on how far your lung cancer has spread.Causes.

Occult stage: “Occult” means “Hidden.” Cancer cells are in lung fluid or sputum, but the doctor can’t find where the cancer is in your lungs.

Stage III: Cancer in one lung has spread to farther lymph nodes or into nearby structures.

Doctors treat this kind of lung cancer in two ways: They target the cancer itself, and they try to make you feel better.

The radiation comes either from a high-energy beam aimed at the cancer from outside of your body using a special machine, or from a radioactive substance put inside your body in or near the cancer.

Non-Small-Cell Lung Carcinoma

Any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small-cell lung carcinoma.

Non-small-cell lung carcinoma is any type of epithelial lung cancer other than small-cell lung carcinoma.

On relatively rare occasions, malignant lung tumors are found to contain components of both SCLC and NSCLC. In these cases, the tumors are classified as combined small-cell lung carcinoma, and are treated as “Pure” SCLC. [edit].

Adenocarcinoma of the lung is currently the most common type of lung cancer in “Never smokers”.

Large-cell lung carcinoma is a heterogeneous group of undifferentiated malignant neoplasms originating from transformed epithelial cells in the lung.

Epigenetic gene silencing of DNA repair genes occurs frequently in NSCLC. At least nine DNA repair genes that normally function in relatively accurate DNA repair pathways are often repressed by promoter hypermethylation in NSCLC. One DNA repair gene, FEN1, that functions in an inaccurate DNA repair pathway, is expressed at an increased level due to hypo-, rather than hyper-, methylation of its promoter region in NSCLC. The frequent deficiencies in accurate DNA repair, and the increase in inaccurate repair, likely cause the high level of mutation in lung cancer cells of more than 100,000 mutations per genome.

Mobocertinib was approved for medical use in the United States in September 2021, and it is indicated for adults with locally advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer with epidermal growth factor receptor exon 20 insertion mutations, as detected by an FDA-approved test, whose disease has progressed on or after platinum-based chemotherapy.

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common type of lung cancer, according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Sometimes the first sign of non-small cell lung cancer is a spot on a routine chest X-ray.

Thoracentesis collects cancer cells from fluid around the lung.

The stage of lung cancer indicates the size of a tumor and whether it has spread, helping to determine the appropriate treatment options.

Stage 0-The cancer hasn’t spread outside the lung.

If cancer cells have certain types of proteins, doctors may recommend immunotherapy, which uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer.

The five-year survival rate for this type of lung cancer is 25 percent, according to the American Cancer Society.

Post Idea #31: Neoadjuvant therapy

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Objectives of Neoadjuvant TreatmentThe emphasis of neoadjuvant therapy.

The early response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy can identify patients with a high probability of achieving a pathologic complete response15 and thus serve as a predictor for pCR. Indeed, achieving a pCR correlated with improved disease-free survival and overall survival compared with those experiencing a partial or no response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Neoadjuvant Therapy RegimensMost of the attention in neoadjuvant therapy.

Future trials directly comparing neoadjuvant hormonal therapy to neoadjuvant chemotherapy are planned.

229,236,237 As 15% to 20% of resected patients fail to receive adjuvant therapy, neoadjuvant therapy guarantees that a majority of patients will receive some form of chemotherapy chemoradiation.

Neoadjuvant TherapyPreoperative neoadjuvant therapy.

A retrospective analysis of 220 patients receiving either 5-fluorouracil alone or 5-FU and cisplatin prior to surgery compared with 100 patients treated with surgery alone suggested a benefit to neoadjuvant therapy.

Neoadjuvant Therapies For Breast Cancer

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy may also be given to women who have enlarged lymph nodes in the underarm area due to the spread of breast cancer to these lymph nodes.

Neoadjuvant hormone therapy is only used to treat hormone receptor-positive breast cancers.

For HER2-positive breast cancers, neoadjuvant therapy usually includes a combination of the HER2-targeted therapy drugs trastuzumab and pertuzumab.

Neoadjuvant therapy for triple negative breast cancers Pembrolizumab.

For some triple negative breast cancers at high risk of recurrence, neoadjuvant therapy may include pembrolizumab.

To check the response to neoadjuvant therapy, you may have several tests, including a clinical breast exam, a mammogram, a breast MRI and/or a breast ultrasound.

Sentinel node biopsy is usually done after neoadjuvant therapy, at the time of your breast surgery.

Neoadjuvant Therapy: Theoretical, Biological And Medical Consideration

Neoadjuvant therapy is widely utilized in the routine management of cancer patients and various clinical trials for the treatment of breast, ovarian, rectal, esophageal, head and neck, lung, prostate and many other cancer types.

NAT may significantly reduce the tumor burden thus allowing less traumatic surgery.

NAT is often considered as personalized in vivo drug sensitivity test, as it allows rapid evaluation of tumor response to a given therapy and consequent adjustment of further treatment planning.

NAT is an invaluable tool for in-human testing of novel therapeutic compounds, as it deals with yet chemonaive patients and permits pathological and molecular analysis of treatment-exposed tumor tissues.

There are also some arguments against the use of NAT. The delay of surgery may increase the chances for metastatic tumor spread. NAT often results in the selection of treatment-resistant tumor clones, which cannot be eliminated by subsequent adjuvant therapy.

NAT is likely to compromise visual inspection of surgical wound, as it reduces the size of tumor lumps and makes them invisible for the operating physician.

Animal models cannot fully recapitulate the complexity of human cancer biology, the sophistication of modern surgical interventions, and the spectrum of tumor drug sensitivity in neoadjuvant and adjuvant settings.

What Is Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?

Chemotherapy has been traditionally used as an “Adjuvant” treatment in many patients with cancer – administered after surgery to kill microscopic tumor cells that remain in the body after surgical removal of the tumor.

In some cases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy can make for better surgical options for a patient: It can turn an inoperable cancer into a treatable one by decreasing its size.

Patients with an advanced form of laryngeal cancer, to take another example, can often preserve their larynx if they’re treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy, and the same may be true for patients with bladder cancer.

Other types of cancer therapy besides chemotherapy can be used in the neoadjuvant setting – that is, prior to the delivery of the main treatment.

Radiation therapy can itself be a neoadjuvant treatment and is being studied in breast cancer and prostate cancer in clinical trials.

Not all patients are eligible for neoadjuvant treatments.

The decision of whether to proceed with a neoadjuvant therapy depends on factors such as tumor size and location, its responsiveness to therapy, the patient’s overall health, and other considerations.

What’S The Difference: Adjuvant And Neoadjuvant Therapies

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies are often used to treat breast cancer, colon cancer and lung cancer, and may include chemotherapy, hormone therapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy and targeted therapy.

Neoadjuvant therapies are delivered before the main treatment, to help reduce the size of a tumor or kill cancer cells that have spread. Adjuvant therapies are delivered after the primary treatment, to destroy remaining cancer cells.

Most often, neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies are recommended when a patient with early-stage cancer undergoes surgery or radiation therapy and the oncologist believes he or she may benefit from additional systemic treatments-or treatments that affect the entire body, Dr. Alawin says.

Neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies benefit many, but not all, cancer patients.

In some cases, neoadjuvant therapy may make more sense than adjuvant therapy.

An article in JAMA Oncology describes when such cases arise: “Recommendations for adjuvant therapy may be based on response to neoadjuvant therapy. For example, if the first approach was less successful than hoped, a different systemic therapy may be used for adjuvant therapy.”

It’s important to know that neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies may cause side effects, such as the nausea and fatigue that often accompany chemotherapy.

Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Benefits, Side Effects, And Drugs

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is chemotherapy that a person with cancer receives before their primary course of treatment.

In this article, we look at the uses, benefits, side effects, and risks of neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

In the past, doctors used neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of inoperable, locally advanced breast cancer.

Doctors may use several types of drugs for neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Usually, the side effects go away once chemotherapy is complete.

Doctors use neoadjuvant chemotherapy before a person’s primary cancer treatment.

The effectiveness of neoadjuvant chemotherapy depends on many factors, including the type and stage of cancer a person has, as well as their individual response to different drugs.

Neoadjuvant Therapy

Neoadjuvant therapy is the administration of therapeutic agents before a main treatment.

One example is neoadjuvant hormone therapy prior to radical radiotherapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

Neoadjuvant therapy aims to reduce the size or extent of the cancer before using radical treatment intervention, thus both making procedures easier and more likely to succeed and reducing the consequences of a more extensive treatment technique, which would be required if the tumor were not reduced in size or extent.

Another related concept is that neoadjuvant therapy acts on micrometastatic disease.

This systemic therapy or radiation therapy is commonly used in cancers that are locally advanced, and clinicians plan an operation at a later stage, such as pancreatic cancer.

In some cases, magnetic resonance imaging can predict the response of a patient to neoadjuvant therapy, for example in ovarian cancer.

Not everyone is suitable for neoadjuvant therapy because it can be extremely toxic.

Post Idea #32: Bristol Myers Squibb

Related Articles – Summarized

Bristol Myers Squibb Careers

BMS Careers At Bristol Myers Squibb, the work you do-often in support of emerging therapeutic areas that require new methods of thinking and working-will help people prevail over serious diseases.

While our work transforms the lives of patients, it also transforms the lives and careers of those who do it.

Besides finding some of the most interesting work of your career, you can expect transformative opportunities to learn, grow and lead at BMS. Explore Opportunities > Featured Opportunities At BMS, you’ll be inspired every day by interesting and meaningful work.

Innovative on all fronts, Bristol Myers Squibb and its employees have been awarded numerous, distinguished awards and recognitions.

We are proud to be one of the best companies for working mothers, a great place to work for scientists and industry leaders in environment, equality, health and safety.

Bristol Myers Squibb endeavors to make this website accessible to any and all users.

For US Applicants Only The Physician Payment Sunshine Act requires Bristol Myers Squibb to report any transfers of value, including payments made to reimburse interview-related expenses, for candidates who are certain types of US-licensed healthcare professionals.

FDA Approves Expanded Use Of Bristol Myers Cancer Drug Opdivo

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comMarch 4 – Bristol Myers Squibb said on Friday the U.S. Food and Drug Administration had approved the expanded use of its cancer drug Opdivo along with chemotherapy as a first-line treatment for patients with an aggressive form of lung cancer.

The approval was based on data from a late-stage study showing the drug along with chemotherapy improved event-free survival and pathologic complete response compared to chemotherapy alone in patients with resectable non-small cell lung cancer, the drugmaker said.

Non-small cell lung cancer is the most common form of lung cancer, accounting for about 85% of the estimated 2.2 million new cases of lung cancer diagnosed each year worldwide, according to the World Health Organization.

Opdivo, Bristol’s flagship cancer drug that was first approved in 2014, brought in $1.99 billion in sales during company’s last reported quarter.

The drug is used in use in patients with several types of cancer including bladder, lung, blood, head and neck and advanced melanoma.

It belongs to a class of drugs designed to help the body’s immune system fight cancer by blocking a protein called Programmed cell death protein 1.Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com.

Bristol-Myers Squibb Short Interest Update

Bristol-Myers Squibb saw a significant growth in short interest in February.

As of February 15th, there was short interest totalling 70,880,000 shares, a growth of 171.4% from the January 31st total of 26,120,000 shares.

TheStreet raised Bristol-Myers Squibb from a “c+” rating to a “b” rating in a research report on Wednesday, November 17th. BMO Capital Markets initiated coverage on Bristol-Myers Squibb in a research report on Thursday, November 18th. They set an “Outperform” rating and a $72.00 price objective for the company.

Bristol-Myers Squibb last released its quarterly earnings data on Thursday, February 3rd. The biopharmaceutical company reported $1.83 earnings per share for the quarter, beating the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $1.80 by $0.03.

The ex-dividend date is Thursday, March 31st. This represents a $2.16 dividend on an annualized basis and a dividend yield of 3.11%. Bristol-Myers Squibb’s payout ratio is 69.23%. In other Bristol-Myers Squibb news, CEO Giovanni Caforio sold 30,000 shares of the stock in a transaction dated Thursday, February 24th. The stock was sold at an average price of $67.00, for a total value of $2,010,000.

Dynamic Technology Lab Private Ltd increased its stake in shares of Bristol-Myers Squibb by 185.2% during the third quarter.

Bristol Myers Squibb Co engages in the discovery, development, licensing, manufacture, marketing, distribution, and sale of biopharmaceutical products.

Bristol Myers Squibb Expanding San Diego Footprint With Mega Lease In University City

New York-based drugmaker Bristol Myers Squibb will grow its San Diego presence with the long-term lease of a 427,000- square-foot, yet-to-be-constructed building in University City.

With the deal, Bristol Myers Squibb will consolidate its local workforce under one roof and grow its overall headcount by 30 percent at the developer’s sprawling Alexandria Point grounds along Campus Point Drive.

“This represents a significant investment in the San Diego bio-pharma community,” said Neil Bence, Bristol Myers Squibb vice president of oncology discovery and the company’s San Diego site leader.

Bristol Myers Squibb currently employs 450 workers and leases 330,000 square feet of lab and office space in the region; it significantly increased its footprint two years ago when it acquired Celgene for $74 billion in stock and cash.

Bristol Meyers Squibb will take over the entirety of a brand new building in the University City hilltop area sandwiched between Interstates 5 and 805.

The Pasadena-based firm characterized the Bristol Myers Squibb transaction as the second-largest life science lease in its history.

Exact terms of the Bristol Myers Squibb lease were not disclosed, but Alexandria is asking more than $7 a square foot per month, plus expenses, for new construction projects nearby in Torrey Pines, Ryan said.

Analysts’ Revisions Show Improving Sentiment For Bristol-Myers Squibb Company – Stocks Register

Bristol-Myers Squibb Company price is hovering higher on Wednesday, March 02, jumping 0.43% above its previous close.

The company stock has a Forward Dividend ratio of 2.16, while the dividend yield is 3.15%. It is understandable that investor optimism is growing ahead of the company’s current quarter results.

Revisions to the company’s EPS highlights a short term direction of a stock’s price movement, which in the last 7 days came up with no upward and no downward reviews.

0 analyst(s) have tagged the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company stock as Underweight, with 0 recommending Sell.

Turning out attention to how the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company stock has performed in comparison to its peers in the industry, here’s what we find: BMY’s stock is 0.43% on the day and 12.01% in the past 12 months, while Johnson & Johnson traded 1.55% in the latest session and is positioned 3.13% up on its price 12 months ago.

Elsewhere in the market, the S&P 500 Index has rallied 1.36% in today’s early trading, with the Dow Jones Industrial also seeing a positive session on the day with 1.45%. An analysis of the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company stock in terms of its daily trading volume indicates that the 3-month average is 14.18 million.

Current records show that the company has 2.20B in outstanding shares.

IT OPERATIONS SUPPORT, SPECIALIST In Manati, Puerto Rico, United States

Provides technical support to critical systems, like Syncade, Delta V, Empower-Chromatographic Data System, LIMs and others, to assure continuous operations of these computerized systems focused on systems users support.

Works with the site’s Manufacturing, Engineering and Quality Operations Management in the assessment, recommendation, validation, implementation and administration of the Computerized Systems.

Develops validation documentation of computerized system, performs site periodic review of computerized systems validation evaluation and coordinates and performs activities as per approved Validation Plans and Protocols.

Provides assessment, recommendation, implementation, validation, troubleshooting and system administration of computerized systems.

Installation, configuration, qualification and maintenance of Systems servers including Operating System and Applications.

Performs process analysis and recommends improvements to existing processes and participates proactively as a team member of implementation projects for new integrated business application and process automation in equipment such as Building Automation System, Delta V, Factory Talk, SCADA Systems and General PLC’s, providing consulting advice in the use and management of technology.

In-depth knowledge of the science and computerized systems involved in the design, installation, commissioning and validation/qualification of computerized systems as applied to pharmaceutical production environment Proficient knowledge of computer system development life cycle concepts, change control systems and FDA and EMEA regulatory requirements, including 21 CFR Part 11.

Bristol Myers Squibb

Bristol Myers Squibb is an American multinational pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.

The sons of Edward Squibb sold the company to Lowell M. Palmer and Theodore Weicker in 1905, who incorporated the company.

In May 1898, they decided to rename it Bristol, Myers and Company.

The company renamed the plant Bristol Laboratories in 1945 and entered the civilian antibiotics market, where it faced competition from Squibb.

Citing major developments and a market capitalization of US$87 billion and stock appreciation of 61.4%, Bristol-Myers Squibb was ranked as the best drug company of 2013 by Forbes magazine.

According to Bristol Myers Squibb, this move was expected to further sharpen the company’s focus on biopharmaceuticals.

Bristol Myers Squibb reported Total CO2e emissions for the twelve months ending 31 December 2020 at 278 Kt. The company aims to become net neutral carbon by 2040.

Post Idea #33: Chemotherapy

Related Articles – Summarized


Though chemotherapy is an effective way to treat many types of cancer, chemotherapy treatment also carries a risk of side effects.

If there’s a problem, your doctor may delay your treatment or select a different chemotherapy drug and dosage that’s safer for you.

Treating existing infections may reduce the risk of complications during chemotherapy treatment, since some chemotherapy may reduce your body’s ability to fight infections.

Most chemotherapy treatments are given in an outpatient clinic, which means most people are able to continue working and doing their usual activities during chemotherapy.

Ask your doctor or chemotherapy nurses how to prepare for chemotherapy.

Your doctor determines how often you’ll receive chemotherapy treatments based on what drugs you’ll receive, the characteristics of your cancer and how well your body recovers after each treatment.

Chemotherapy treatment can be continuous, or it may alternate between periods of treatment and periods of rest to let you recover.

Chemotherapy To Treat Cancer

You will have chemotherapy and other cancer treatments.

How chemotherapy is used with other cancer treatments.

Chemotherapy not only kills fast-growing cancer cells, but also kills or slows the growth of healthy cells that grow and divide quickly.

You might receive chemotherapy every day for 1 week followed by 3 weeks with no chemotherapy.

Since everyone is different and people respond to chemotherapy in different ways, your doctor and nurses cannot know for sure how you will feel during chemotherapy.

Some people think that severe side effects mean that chemotherapy is working well, or that no side effects mean that chemotherapy is not working.

The truth is that side effects have nothing to do with how well chemotherapy is fighting your cancer.


Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is used.

As a result, there is high variability in the systemic chemotherapy drug concentration in people dosed by BSA, and this variability has been demonstrated to be more than ten-fold for many drugs.

This variability is typical with many chemotherapy drugs dosed by BSA, and, as shown below, was demonstrated in a study of 14 common chemotherapy drugs.

Chemotherapy drugs associated with CIPN include thalidomide, epothilones, vinca alkaloids, taxanes, proteasome inhibitors, and the platinum-based drugs.

These transporters pump out most chemotherapy drugs, which reduces their efficacy for treatment of brain tumors.

Drugs used in chemotherapy can induce cell stress, which can kill a cancer cell; however, under certain conditions, cells stress can induce changes in gene expression that enables resistance to several types of drugs.

Chemotherapy: Uses, Side Effects, And Procedure

Chemotherapy has been proven to effectively attack cancer cells, but it can cause serious side effects that can severely impact your quality of life.

You should weigh these side effects against the risk of going untreated when deciding if chemotherapy is right for you.

Besides treatment for cancer, chemotherapy may be used to prepare people with bone marrow diseases for a bone marrow stem cell treatment, and it may be used for immune system disorders.

Most side effects of chemotherapy subside when treatment is over.

Most people can work during chemotherapy, but you may want to be put on a lighter workload until you know what types of side effects you may be experiencing.

Chemotherapy is typically given in pill form or directly into veins by injection or an IV. In addition to these two forms, chemotherapy may also be administered in several other ways.

You’ll want to tell your doctor about any side effects or treatment-related problems you’re having so that they can make adjustments to your treatment if necessary.

Chemotherapy For Cancer: How It Works, Chemo Side Effects & FAQs

It’s a way to treat cancer that uses drugs to kill cancer cells.

Ease symptoms: In some cases, chemotherapy can’t cure or control the spread of cancer and is simply used to shrink tumors that cause pain or pressure.

Destroy any remaining cancer cells after surgery or radiation therapy – called adjuvant chemotherapy.

How is chemotherapy given?Injection: The drugs are delivered with a shot directly into muscle in your hip, thigh, or arm, or in the fatty part of your arm, leg, or stomach, just beneath the skin.

Pump: Often attached to catheters or ports, it controls the amount of chemotherapy drugs, and how fast they get into your body.

It depends on your overall health, the type of cancer you have, how far along it is, and the amount and type of chemotherapy drugs.

Your doctor may be able to help you manage some of the more severe side effects of chemotherapy.

Understanding Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to destroy cancer cells.

Because cancer cells usually grow and divide faster than normal cells, chemotherapy has more of an effect on cancer cells.

The goals of chemotherapy depend on the type of cancer and how far it has spread. Sometimes, the goal of treatment is to get rid of all the cancer and keep it from coming back.

Chemotherapy given with the goal of delaying cancer growth is sometimes called palliative chemotherapy.

A doctor who specializes in treating cancer with medication, called a medical oncologist, will prescribe your chemotherapy.

Sometimes chemotherapy is injected into an artery that goes directly to the cancer.

The traditional drugs used for chemotherapy are an important part of treatment for many cancers.

Delta B.C. Man Is Battling More Than Just Terminal Cancer

Jeremy Franta says more protection from COVID-19 is required.

His family is doing everything to provide the safest possible environment, including his daughters staying home and doing their school work online.

Franta’s concerns includes the ban of N95 masks in hospital settings.

“Seriously, can you believe a terminally ill patient is asked to change a far superior N95 mask to a surgical mask at the front of the hospital where every person in the whole place walks through?” continued Franta.

“Staff and visitors at all VCH sites are provided with medical grade surgical masks that have been tested and validated for performance requirements including bacterial filtration efficiency with a minimum 95 per cent filtration rate, particulate filtration efficiency, fluid resistance and pressure differential. Proper donning and doffing protocol is in place at all VCH sites, and they must be worn in all clinical settings,” VCH in a response to the Optimist’s inquires.

VCH did add it will not turn people away if they are uncomfortable removing their own mask, provided they are in compliance with public heath masking orders for indoor spaces.

After nearly two years of hospital visits amid COVID, he admits he has found ways to work around the rules, including wearing a medical grade mask, on top of his N95 when he arrives for his appointments he says many of the vulnerable won’t make the same kind of effort.

Post Idea #34: Air Transportation

Related Articles – Summarized

The Geography Of Transport Systems

Airline routes span oceans, the highest mountain chains, the most forbidding deserts, and other physical barriers to surface transport.

Only about 1,400 were members of the International Air Transport Association, and even among IATA members, a relative handful of airlines account for most of the traffic.

Beginning in the 1970s, deregulation freed airlines to expand, consolidate, and reconfigure their hub-and-spoke systems to optimize their performance.

The ability of airlines to spread their networks internationally has been limited both by the persistence of regulations and by the preferences that travelers have for their home country airlines.

Southwest Airlines distributes air traffic more evenly among the top “Focus cities” in its network than is true of any traditional hub-and-spoke airline.

The COVID-19 pandemic has been the most severe crisis in civil aviation since World War II. The International Air Transport Association has estimated worldwide airline industry losses at $84 billion for 2020 and forecasts further losses of $18 billion in 2021.

Pan Am launched the B707 and B747; United launched the B767 and B777; Air France and Lufthansa provided the launch orders for most of Airbus’ early airliners; and Asian carriers such as Singapore Airlines and All Nippon Airways have been significant launch customers since 2000.

ScienceDirect Topics

IATA has standing and special committees that address airlines, airports, cargo and other civil aviation and travel issues.

At one time all airlines issued ‘IATA tickets’, which were multi-layered coupons that made every airline ticket look alike.

The IATA Scheduling Services are responsible for the development and maintenance of standards and procedures for the exchange of schedule data between airlines and airports and airport coordinators, at the six-monthly spaced IATA Schedules Conferences.

One aspect where IATA has total control is the allocation of airline and airport codes.

System generally includes airports, ATC system, and airlines.

The airports represent the ground part of the system’s infrastructure handling the aircraft operated by different airlines transporting passengers and freight/cargo shipments.

Mode is defined by four basic elements: airlines, commercial transport aircraft, the air space used for their flights, and the infrastructure required to supporting their operations, like airports and ATM facilities.

Air Transport: Definition,Types, Development, Advantages Disadvantages Of Air Transport

Air transport is an aircraft design for transporting passengers and freight from one location to another in the air using airplanes, jets, rockets helicopters, and drones.

Each of these type of air transport has a unique way of achieving speed and the sustainability of it voyage there are other types of air transport which may or may not be used for conveying goods, but could be used for recreational purposes, they include,hot air balloons, blimps,gliders,hang gliding,parachuting etc.

Commercial airplanes: these are the common ways in which people travel through the air, the commercial planes provide a fast means of transportation compared to other modes of transport such as road transport, rail transport and water transport.

Air transport is the newest means of transport; this means of transport was introduced in 1903 but developed into full means of transporting people and freights in the 1930s.

Of all transport development of the 20th century, those in air transport have been the most striking ones.

Advantages of Air Transport Air transport is a fast and efficient system which is especially suited to passenger traffic, offering comfort and high quality service; today long distance passenger movements are made almost entirely due to air transport.

Disadvantages of Air Transport Air transport is very expensive and as a result of this, it disqualifies all heavy, bulky or low-value cargoes.

Types Of Air Transport

Aviation is a core component of tourism and there are different types of air transport within the aviation industry.

Put simply, air transport is any type of transport that moves through the air.

Using a jet engine, propellors or a rocket engine, an aeroplane flies through the air and is one of the most popular types of air transport.

Primarily used for tourism, hot air balloons were the first ever successful human-carrying types of air transport.

These types of air transport need to be overpressured in order to fly, and they have propellors too.

Some types of air transport are used predominantly for leisure and tourism, and other have practical functions such as transporting cargo or military operations.

This short overview of the types of air transport has introduced you to the different types of air transport, but if you are studying the topic or if you would like to learn more, then I recommend you consult the further reading tab, below.

Dispatching And Transportation Operations Training In Surrey

A trucking career can involve much more than simply driving a truck.

Trucking, or the transportation operations industry, can cover a wide range of career opportunities.

Consider, for example, the definition given to transportation operations by Industry Canada: “The trucking sector consists of those companies that move goods by means of road transport. It includes firms that undertake the transport of goods for compensation, the trucking operations of firms that maintain their own fleets of vehicles, and the business of owner-operators who haul trailers or other equipment using their own trucks.”

These trucking careers all have very different earning potential, though generally speaking, starting salaries in the transportation operations industry are quite high.

Graduates from the Dispatching and Transportation Operations Program are well positioned to take advantage of the high demand for trained graduates, and may be hired by major transportation companies.

This program has been approved by the Private Training Instititutions Branch of Ministry of Advanced Education.


The most important recent developments for small aircraft have been the introduction of advanced avionics that were formerly found only in large airliners, and the introduction of composite materials to make small aircraft lighter and faster.

Edit] Fighter aircraft’s primary function is to destroy other aircraft.

An aviation accident is defined by the Convention on International Civil Aviation Annex 13 as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as all such persons have disembarked, in which a person is fatally or seriously injured, the aircraft sustains damage or structural failure or the aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible.

Air traffic control involves communication with aircraft to help maintain separation – that is, they ensure that aircraft are sufficiently far enough apart horizontally or vertically for no risk of collision.

ATC is especially important for aircraft flying under instrument flight rules, when they may be in weather conditions that do not allow the pilots to see other aircraft.

In very high-traffic areas, especially near major airports, aircraft flying under visual flight rules are also required to follow instructions from ATC. In addition to separation from other aircraft, ATC may provide weather advisories, terrain separation, navigation assistance, and other services to pilots, depending on their workload. ATC do not control all flights.

Most light piston aircraft burn avgas, which contains tetraethyllead. Some lower-compression piston engines can operate on unleaded mogas, and turbine engines and diesel engines – neither of which require lead – are appearing on some newer light aircraft.

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