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Post Idea #1: Predictive maintenance

Related Articles – Summarized

Predictive Maintenance

Where traditional maintenance management programs rely on routine servicing of all machinery and fast response to unexpected failures, a predictive maintenance program schedules specific maintenance tasks, as they are actually required by plant equipment.

In reality, predictive maintenance is a condition-driven preventive maintenance program.

To determine the average improvement, actual repair times before the predictive maintenance program were compared to the actual time to repair after one year of operation using predictive maintenance management techniques.

Use of microprocessor-based predictive maintenance techniques has further reduced the annual operating cost of predictive maintenance methods so that any plant can achieve cost-effective implementation of this type of maintenance management program.

Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition-based maintenance.

Most recently, predictive maintenance has been leading the way to additional savings over preventive maintenance.

Predictive maintenance does not substitute for traditional maintenance systems; it is merely a tool that produces updated information allowing the evaluation of the future behavior of the equipment.

What Is Predictive Maintenance?

Predictive maintenance is a technique that uses data analysis tools and techniques to detect anomalies in your operation and possible defects in equipment and processes so you can fix them before they result in failure.

Ideally, predictive maintenance allows the maintenance frequency to be as low as possible to prevent unplanned reactive maintenance, without incurring costs associated with doing too much preventive maintenance.

Predictive maintenance uses historical and real-time data from various parts of your operation to anticipate problems before they happen.

These tools capture information using predictive maintenance sensors, industrial controls, and businesses systems.

Some examples of using predictive maintenance and predictive maintenance sensors include vibration analysis, oil analysis, thermal imaging, and equipment observation.

When predictive maintenance is working effectively as a maintenance strategy, maintenance is only performed on machines when it is required.

Predictive maintenance programs have been shown to lead to a tenfold increase in ROI, a 25%-30% reduction in maintenance costs, a 70%-75% decrease of breakdowns and a 35%-45% reduction in downtime.

How PdM Works And When To Use It

Predictive maintenance is a proactive maintenance technique that uses real-time asset data, historical performance data, and advanced analytics to forecast when asset failure will occur.

The result of PdM is that maintenance work can be scheduled and performed before an asset is expected to fail with minimal downtime.

More about how predictive maintenance works is described in the following section.

As with condition-based maintenance, predictive maintenance utilizes sensors and nondestructive testing to evaluate an asset’s performance and condition.

Combined Benefits of Other Maintenance Techniques: PdM combines the preemptive repair or replacement concept of preventive maintenance with asset performance data collected with condition-based maintenance to help you optimize maintenance resources.

Lower MRO Inventory Costs: An effective PdM program helps maintenance teams plan ahead, reducing the need for last-minute purchases of under-stocked parts, expedited shipping costs, or costs incurred by overstocking inventory.

To see how FTMaintenance can help you improve your maintenance operations, schedule your demo today.

A Complete Guide To Predictive Maintenance

According to a predictive maintenance report from Market Research Future, the global predictive maintenance market is expected to grow to 23B by 2025.

To know if predictive maintenance is a strategy that could be useful to your organization, you first need to understand what it is, how it works, what are its pros and cons, and how one goes about implementing a predictive maintenance program.

Predictive maintenance lets you know when certain maintenance actions have to be taken and CMMS helps you manage your resources and incorporate those tasks into your maintenance schedule.

The main difference between preventive maintenance and predictive maintenance is in the setup of the maintenance calendar.

While predictive maintenance uses condition monitoring sensors and predictive algorithms to guide maintenance schedules, preventative maintenance calendar is based on equipment usage and time intervals.

The same report mentioned above indicates that manufacturers’ savings from using predictive maintenance could reach between $240 and $630bn globally by 2025.a. The everyday applications of predictive maintenance in manufacturing are numerous.

Prescriptive maintenance is a maintenance strategy that looks to build upon predictive maintenance as PdM improves upon CBM and preventive maintenance.

What Is Predictive Maintenance?

Predictive maintenance achieves this by predicting when maintenance is required, allowing the maintenance frequency to be as low as possible for an asset.

Predictive maintenance should not be confused with preventive maintenance, which is also a proactive maintenance strategy that has the same goal of predictive maintenance in preventing or minimizing the likelihood of equipment breakdowns.

Predictive maintenance requires more advanced steps for accuracy, and uses technology to assess when equipment requires maintenance.

Computerized maintenance management system – A CMMS is crucial for the maintenance aspect of predictive maintenance, it creates a work order for a technician to complete when an anomaly occurs.

Due to the fact that preventive maintenance only involves labor costs compared with the high initial capital investment on sensors, software, setup, and training that are indicative of predictive maintenance, preventive maintenance costs significantly less money to implement for your business.

A maintenance engineer may not be necessary for your predictive maintenance program if you have a clear understanding of the failure modes of your equipment.

Using predictive maintenance that uses sensors and flight data recorder, it can predict where irregularities may occurs and schedule planned maintenance ahead of time.

6.2.4 Equipment Cost/Payback As indicated earlier, the cost of thermography equipment varies widely depending on the capabilities of the equipment.

Below is a listing of equipment and program needs recommended by a company recognized as a leader in the world of IR program development: Level I thermographic training Level II thermographic training Ongoing professional development IR camera and accessories Report software Laptop computer Color printer Digital visual camera Personal Protective Equipment for arc flash protection Payback can vary widely depending on the type of facility and use of the equipment.

6.3.3 Types of Equipment Although independent laboratories generally perform oil analysis, some vendors do provide analysis equipment that can be used on-site to characterize oil condition, wear particles, and contamination.

Typical equipment applications include: O&M Best Practices Guide, Release 3.0 6.15 Predictive Maintenance Technologies Turbines Boiler feed pumps Electrohydraulic control systems Hydraulics Servo valves Gearboxes Roller bearings Anti-friction bearings Any system where oil cleanliness is directly related to longer lubricant life, decreased equipment wear, or improved equipment performance 6.3.5 Equipment Cost/Payback For facilities utilizing a large number of rotating machines that employ circulating lubricant, or for facilities with high dollar equipment using circulating lubricant, few predictive maintenance technologies can offer the opportunity of such a high return for dollars spent.

Some equipment is a stand-alone design and performs analysis in the field independent of computer interface while other equipment designs interface tranducers directly with a PC where analysis software is utilized to interpret the signal data.

6.6.4 Equipment Cost/Payback As indicated earlier, motor analysis equipment is still costly and generally requires a high degree of training and experience to properly diagnosis equipment problems.

First, generate a master equipment list, then prioritize the equipment on the list to define which pieces of equipment are critical to your facility’s operation, important to personnel safety, or can have a significant budget impact.

Predictive Maintenance

Predictive maintenance techniques are designed to help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to estimate when maintenance should be performed.

“The main promise of predictive maintenance is to allow convenient scheduling of corrective maintenance, and to prevent unexpected equipment failures. The key is”the right infor equipment lifetime, increased plant safety, fewer accidents with negative impact on environment, and optimized spare parts handling.

Predictive maintenance differs from preventive maintenance because it relies on the actual condition of equipment, rather than average or expected life statistics, to predict when maintenance will be required.

Some of the main components that are necessary for implementing predictive maintenance are data collection and preprocessing, early fault detection, fault detection, time to failure prediction, maintenance scheduling and resource optimization.

Reliability-centered maintenance emphasizes the use of predictive maintenance techniques in addition to traditional preventive measures.

One goal is to transfer the predictive maintenance data to a computerized maintenance management system so that the equipment condition data is sent to the right equipment object to trigger maintenance planning, work order execution, and reporting.

In 2010, the mining company Boliden, implemented a combined Distributed Control System and predictive maintenance solution integrated with the plant computerized maintenance management system on an object to object level, transferring equipment data using protocols like Highway Addressable Remote Transducer Protocol, IEC61850 and OLE for process control.

Post Idea #2: Human papillomavirus infection

Related Articles – Summarized

Human Papillomavirus

What is HPV? HPV is the most common STI. There were about 43 million HPV infections in 2018, many among people in their late teens and early 20s. There are many different types of HPV. Some types can cause health problems, including genital warts and cancers.

HPV is a different virus than HIV and HSV. How is HPV spread?

Cancer often takes years, even decades, to develop after a person gets HPV. Genital warts and cancers result from different types of HPV. There is no way to know who will develop cancer or other health problems from HPV. People with weak immune systems may be less able to fight off HPV. They may also be more likely to develop health problems from HPV. How can I avoid HPV and the health problems it can cause?

Some adults age 27 through 45 years who are not already vaccinated may decide to get the HPV vaccine after speaking with their healthcare provider about their risk for new HPV infections and the possible benefits of vaccination.

How common is HPV and health problems that develop from HPV? HPV: CDC estimates that there were 43 million HPV infections in 2018.

Genital warts: Prior to HPV vaccines, genital warts caused by HPV affected roughly 340,000 to 360,000 people yearly.

Is there treatment for HPV or health problems that develop from HPV? There is no treatment for the virus itself.

Symptoms And Causes

HPV infection is a viral infection that commonly causes skin or mucous membrane growths.

Some types of HPV infection cause warts, and some can cause different types of cancer.

Nearly all cervical cancers are caused by HPV infections, but cervical cancer may take 20 years or longer to develop after an HPV infection.

The HPV infection and early cervical cancer typically don’t cause noticeable symptoms.

If you’re pregnant and have an HPV infection with genital warts, it’s possible your baby may get the infection.

Touching someone’s warts or not wearing protection before contacting surfaces that have been exposed to HPV – such as public showers or swimming pools – might increase your risk of HPV infection.

To reduce the risk of contracting HPV infections that cause plantar warts, wear shoes or sandals in public pools and locker rooms.

Human Papillomavirus Infection

An HPV infection is caused by human papillomavirus, a DNA virus from the papillomavirus family.

HPV infection of the skin in the genital area is the most common sexually transmitted infection worldwide.

Clearance rates of high risk types of HPV Months after initial positive test 8 months 12 months 18 months % of men tested negative 70% 80% 100%. Clearing an infection does not always create immunity if there is a new or continuing source of infection.

Three vaccines are available to prevent infection by some HPV types: Gardasil, Gardasil 9 and Cervarix; all three protect against initial infection with HPV types 16 and 18, which cause most of the HPV-associated cancer cases.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says that male “Condom use may reduce the risk for genital human papillomavirus infection” but provides a lesser degree of protection compared with other sexual transmitted diseases “Because HPV also may be transmitted by exposure to areas that are not covered or protected by the condom.”

In the United States, it is estimated that 10% of the population has an active HPV infection, 4% has an infection that has caused cytological abnormalities, and an additional 1% has an infection causing genital warts.

The Ludwig-McGill HPV Cohort is one of the world’s largest longitudinal studies of the natural history of human papillomavirus infection and cervical cancer risk.


If there are no signs, why do I need to worry about HPV? There are over 100 different kinds of HPV and not all of them cause health problems.

Some kinds of HPV may cause problems like genital warts.

Some kinds of HPV can also cause cancer of the cervix, vagina, vulva, or anus.

The FDA approved the HPV test to be used for women over 30 years old.

Women who have the HPV test still need to get the Pap test.

Can I prevent HPV? FDA has approved vaccines that prevent certain diseases, including cervical cancer, caused by some types of HPV. Ask your doctor if you should get the HPV Vaccine.

There are treatments for the health problems that HPV can cause, such as genital warts, cervical changes, and cervical cancer.

Human Papilloma Virus: Causes, Testing, Treatment & Prevention

How common is HPV? HPV that affects the genitals is very common.

Since there is no treatment for HPV that has no symptoms, most men with the infection are not treated.

HPV prevention is still important for men, as the virus has been linked to uncommon cancers such as penile, anal, and head and neck.

Genital HPV is spread through contact with the skin of someone who has an HPV infection.

What are the symptoms of HPV? In many cases, HPV causes no symptoms.

There is no cure for the virus itself, but many HPV infections go away on their own.

Using condoms correctly every time you have sex can help reduce the risk of HPV. You should be aware that condoms do not cover all of the genital skin, so they are not 100 percent effective in protecting against the spread of HPV. A person with genital warts should not have sex until the warts are removed.

Human Papillomavirus Infection: Symptoms And Prevention

Some cases of genital HPV infection may not cause any health problems.

Often, HPV infection doesn’t cause any noticeable symptoms or health problems.

Many men who contract an HPV infection have no symptoms, although some may develop genital warts.

Like with men, many women that get HPV don’t have any symptoms and the infection goes away without causing any health problems.

Routine screening for HPV and cervical cancer is important for identifying, monitoring, and treating health problems that may result from HPV infection.

Explore the treatment options for HPV. Anyone who’s had sexual skin-to-skin contact is at risk for HPV infection.

The Gardasil 9 vaccine is available for the prevention of genital warts and cancers caused by HPV. The vaccine can protect against nine types of HPV known to be associated with either cancer or genital warts.

Signs And Symptoms Of Human Papillomavirus Infection

Human papillomavirus is the most common sexually transmitted infection.

The most frequent symptom of HPV infection is actually no symptoms at all.

An HPV infection that occurs and then clears is called a transient infection.

If you do develop symptoms of HPV infection it is likely because you have developed genital warts from the virus.

Genital itching is not a symptom that is specific to HPV infection.

The significant complications of HPV infection are related to the high-risk strains of HPV. Fortunately, the majority of HPV infections are cleared by your body within a year or two.

Remember that HPV infection and especially infection with high-risk HPV rarely if ever cause any symptoms until it has developed into an advanced gynecologic cancer, which is why appropriate check-ups and follow-ups are important.

Post Idea #3: Vanderlande

Related Articles – Summarized

Reliable Partner For Future-Proof Logistic Process Automation

Vanderlande is the global market leader for future-proof logistic process automation at airports.

The company is also a leading supplier of process automation solutions for warehouses and in the parcel market.

Thinking of automating your logistics processes in your warehouse or distribution centre and not sure which direction to take? Don’t worry – Vanderlande’s Solution Finder is here to help!

We are the global market leader for future-proof logistic process automation at airports.

More about our company The latest developments in logistic process automation February 16, 2022 Automation made easy with Vanderlande’s new ‘Solution Finder’.

Vanderlande has launched a new online tool aimed at helping warehousing companies who are thinking of automating their logistics processes.

Vanderlande’s concept for a self-screening passenger security checkpoint solution for airports has been selected by the US Department of Homeland Security for further design, development and operational testing.


Vanderlande is a material handling and logistics automation company based in Veghel, Netherlands.

In 2021, the company reported revenue of 1.789 billion Euro making it the world’s fourth-largest materials handling systems supplier.

Well known as a major supplier of baggage handling systems.

Currently, more than 600 airports in the world are using Vanderlande’s baggage handling systems, including 17 of the 25 largest airports in the world.

Apart from its headquarters and “Innovation centre” in Veghel, Vanderlande has additional production and service locations in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, France, Spain, the United Kingdom, Canada, China, India, South Africa, and the United States.

Vanderlande employs more than 7,500 people worldwide.

Toyota Industries agreed to pay 140 billion yen, almost 1.2 billion euros.

Vanderlande Industries To Create 500 Jobs In Georgia

Global material handling and logistics company Vanderlande Industries Inc. will invest $59 million to expand its North American headquarters in Cobb County, GA. The expansion project will create 500 new jobs, bringing the Netherlands-based company’s total employment to more than 1,250 people in Georgia.

“Vanderlande’s commitment to creating hundreds of jobs for hardworking Georgians also speaks to the high-quality workforce pipeline in our state. I look forward to seeing Vanderlande continue to prosper and create jobs in the number one state for business.”

“Supply chain and logistics is a growing industry in Cobb County, and Vanderlande’s expansion in Marietta is a great example of how our county is attracting high-quality jobs and investment in this sector,” said Sharon Mason, President and CEO of the Cobb Chamber.

“We are grateful to work with our economic development partners to help companies expand in our county and look forward to supporting Vanderlande in their continued success.”

“We are pleased that Vanderlande is expanding its operations and presence here in metro Atlanta,” said Katie Kirkpatrick, President and CEO of the Metro Atlanta Chamber.

Director Kristi Brigman represented the Georgia Department of Economic Development’s Global Commerce division on this project in partnership with the Metro Atlanta Chamber, Cobb Chamber, and Georgia Power.

“Vanderlande’s success and continuous growth are a testament to that strong relationship and a result of our unmatched global connectivity and proximity to countless e-commerce and logistics companies. Many thanks to Vanderlande for their ongoing investment in our state and to our economic development partners in Cobb County for supporting our existing industries’ success.”

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Post Idea #4: Internet backbone

Related Articles – Summarized

Internet Backbone

The Internet backbone may be defined by the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected computer networks and core routers of the Internet.

These data routes are hosted by commercial, government, academic and other high-capacity network centers, as well as the Internet exchange points and network access points, that exchange Internet traffic between the countries, continents, and across the oceans.

Internet service providers, often Tier 1 networks, participate in Internet backbone traffic by privately negotiated interconnection agreements, primarily governed by the principle of settlement-free peering.

Because of the overlap and synergy between long-distance telephone networks and backbone networks, the largest long-distance voice carriers such as AT&T Inc., MCI, Sprint, and CenturyLink also own some of the largest Internet backbone networks.

In order for data to navigate this web, it is necessary to have backbone routers-routers powerful enough to handle information-on the Internet backbone and are capable of directing data to other routers in order to send it to its final destination.

Certain countries around the Caucasus have very simple backbone networks; for example, in 2011, a 70 year old woman in Georgia pierced a fiber backbone line with a shovel and left the neighboring country of Armenia without Internet access for 12 hours.

Japan’s Internet backbone needs to be very efficient due to high demand for the Internet and technology in general.

What Is The Internet Backbone And How It Works

The internet generates massive amounts of computer-to-computer traffic, and insuring all that traffic can be delivered anywhere in the world requires the aggregation of a vast array of high-speed networks collectively known as the internet backbone, but how does that work?

The individual core networks are privately owned by Tier 1 internet service providers, giant carriers whose networks are tied together.

In addition to being physically connected, these backbone providers are held together by a shared network protocol, TCP/IP. They are actually two protocols, transport control protocol and internet protocol that set up connections between computers, insuring that the connections are reliable and formating messages into packets.

The internet backbone is made up of the fastest routers, which can deliver 100Gbps trunk speeds.

Tier 3 providers provide businesses and consumers with access to the internet.

In order to do that, Tier 2 ISPs contract with Tier 1 ISPs for access to the global backbone, and in that way make the entire internet accesssible to their customers.

That traffic goes from a source computer to a Tier 3 ISP that routes it to a Tier 2 ISP that routes it to a Tier 1 backbone provider that routes it to the appropriate Tier 2 ISP that routes it to a Tier 3 access provider that delivers it to the destination computer.

What Is The Internet Backbone?

The public Internet is a complex mesh of almost one hundred thousand different, but ‘open’ networks – linked together with an almost limitless inventory of network hardware and millions of kilometers of fiber-optic cable.

Autonomous Systems communicate route information and steer traffic to each other using a protocol known as the Border Gateway Protocol, or BGP. At the core of the Internet is the Internet backbone.

Internet networks are primarily owned and operated by commercial, educational, government or military entities.

Collectively, they facilitate a stable foundation for the Internet Service Providers, content and cloud providers who provide Internet access or online content, applications and services to end-users and businesses.

Positioned at the top of the Internet ecosystem, these networks are sufficiently comprehensive that they don’t purchase IP Transit from anyone else.

Tier 1 networks exchange Internet backbone traffic on the basis of privately negotiated interconnection agreements, usually on the principle of settlement-free IP peering.

In general, networks lower down in the hierarchy pay for upstream IP Transit and networks of similar size and merit peer with each other.

What Does Internet Backbone Mean?

An Internet backbone refers to one of the principal data routes between large, strategically interconnected networks and core routers on the Internet.

Major cloud providers are connected to the internet backbone to be able to offer you as a customer Infrastructure as Service.

Major internet backbone examples include commercial, educational, government, and military entities.

Some examples of the largest companies that make the internet backbone include: Sprint, UUNET, AT&T, GTE, Nextel, and more.

Internet Backbone Provider Shuts Off Service In Russia

Cogent Communications, an internet backbone provider that routes data across intercontinental connections, has cut ties with Russian customers over its invasion of Ukraine, as first reported by The Washington Post.

The US-based company is one of the world’s largest internet backbone providers and serves customers in 50 countries, including a number of high-profile Russian companies.

Cogent similarly told The Verge that it “Terminated its contracts” with Russian customers in compliance with the European Union’s move to ban Russian state-backed media outlets.

As Doug Madory, an internet analyst at network tracking company Kentik points out, some of the company’s most prominent Russian customers include the state-backed telecom giant Rostelecom, Russian search engine Yandex, and two of Russia’s largest mobile carriers: MegaFon and VEON. Unplugging Russia from Cogent’s global network will likely result in slower connectivity, but won’t completely disconnect Russians from the internet, Madory notes.

WTF Cogent? Cutting Russians off from internet access cuts them from off from sources of independent news and the ability to organize anti-war protests.

“Cutting Russians off from internet access cuts them off from sources of independent news and the ability to organize anti-war protests,” Eva Galperin, the director of cybersecurity at the digital rights group Electronic Frontier Foundation, said on Twitter.

Cogent CEO Dave Schaeffer told The Post that Cogent’s move isn’t intended to “Hurt anyone,” and the company doesn’t want to keep Russian civilians from accessing the internet.

Major US Internet Backbone Provider Terminates Service With Russia

The war in Ukraine is causing a major internet backbone provider to terminate business with its Russian customers, which is expected to disrupt and slow down internet connectivity across Russia.

Still, the company is effectively kicking off all Russian corporate customers from using its internet backbone services.

According to the Post, Cogent has “Several dozen customers in Russia,” including the state-owned telecommunications company Rostelecom, which markets itself as the country’s largest digital services provider.

Cogent points out its Russian customers can migrate to other internet backbone providers.

The service termination is expected to drag down internet connectivity for Russian users over the ensuing days and weeks.

“Disconnecting their customers in Russia will not disconnect Russia, but it will reduce the amount of overall bandwidth available for international connectivity,” wrote Doug Madory at Kentik, a network monitoring company in San Francisco.

“Cutting Russians off from internet access cuts them from off from sources of independent news and the ability to organize anti-war protests. Don’t do Putin’s dirty work for him,” tweeted Eva Galperin, director of cybersecurity at the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Major US Internet Backbone Provider Terminates Service With Russia

The war in Ukraine is causing a major internet backbone provider to terminate business with its Russian customers, which is expected to disrupt and slow down internet connectivity across Russia.

Still, the company is effectively kicking off all Russian corporate customers from using its internet backbone services.

According to the Post, Cogent has “Several dozen customers in Russia,” including the state-owned telecommunications company Rostelecom, which markets itself as the country’s largest digital services provider.

Cogent points out its Russian customers can migrate to other internet backbone providers.

The service termination is expected to drag down internet connectivity for Russian users over the ensuing days and weeks.

“Disconnecting their customers in Russia will not disconnect Russia, but it will reduce the amount of overall bandwidth available for international connectivity,” wrote Doug Madory at Kentik, a network monitoring company in San Francisco.

“Cutting Russians off from internet access cuts them from off from sources of independent news and the ability to organize anti-war protests. Don’t do Putin’s dirty work for him,” tweeted Eva Galperin, director of cybersecurity at the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Post Idea #5: Backbone network

Related Articles – Summarized

Backbone Networks: Types & Uses

Backbone networks are those that provide the foundation for different network parts.

Discover what a backbone network is and explore the different types, including serial backbone, distributed backbone, collapsed backbone, and parallel backbone, and the uses of each.

Like the backbone of the human body that holds and balances all the body parts together, the same holds true for networks.

A backbone network is a network containing a high capacity connectivity infrastructure that forms the main link, or backbone, to the different parts of the network.

The backbone has a capacity that far exceeds that of the individual networks connected to it.

A backbone network normally consists of cabling, switches, bridges, routers, and gateways in varying segments.

Individual nodes do not connect directly to the backbone but do so through their LANs and ISPs or larger organizational infrastructures.

Similarly in Computer Networks a Backbone Network is as a Network containing a high capacity connectivity infrastructure that backbone to the different part of the network.

Actually a backbone network allows multiple LANs to get connected in a backbone network, not a single station is directly connected to the backbone but the stations are part of LAN, and backbone connect those LANs.

So the alternative for using a single LAN is to use low cost low capacity LANs in each building or department and then interconnection all these LANs with high capacity LAN. such a network is called as Backbone LAN. the backbone network allows several LANs to be connected.

In the backbone network, no station is directly connected with backbone, instead each station is a part a LAN, and the LANs are connected to the backbone.

The backbone itself is a LAN, it uses a LAN protocol such as ethernet, Hence each connection in the backbone is itself another LAN. The two very common used architectures are: Bus backbone, Star backbone.

In above the Bus backbone structure is used as a distribution backbone for connecting different buildings in an organization.

Each building may have either a single LAN or another backbone which comes in star backbone.

Backbone In Networking

Backbone in networking is the part of your network that ties different departmental networks into a single whole.

Refers to using cabling to directly join each departmental network’s main hub or router using backbone cabling to a central hub, switch, or router in a star topology.

Distributed backbones generally have a greater degree of fault tolerance than collapsed ones, because the collapsed backbone unit forms a single point of failure.

Collapsed backbones are also easier to manage because they bring all the backbone switching and routing equipment into a single room or building.

Backbone cabling should have the highest bandwidth of any cabling in your network, since backbones are used to join together hubs, switches, and routers, linking departmental LANs or subnetworks into building-wide or campus-wide internetworks.

The term “Backbone” is also used to refer to the collection of networking components that form the supporting network into which workgroup and departmental LANs are connected and joined together.

You should put considerable thought and planning into the design and implementation of your network’s backbone, as the overall performance of networking services is largely dependent on the bandwidth and reliability of the backbone.

Types And Uses Of Backbone Networks

A backbone is a component of the computer network infrastructure that connects multiple networks and provides a conduit for data to flow between them.

A backbone may connect different local area networks in workplaces, campuses, or buildings.

As a result, a hybrid backbone network topology that combines a distributed backbone with a few hubs or switches has emerged, that is, a structure of structure subnetworks such as token ring.

On the other hand, a collapsed backbone uses a cable to connect each department or level of a building network to a central hub or switches, which is usually found in a wiring closet or computer management, resulting in a star-wired backbone.

A backbone is used to connect to numerous networks to link into the campus environment or connect networks via large area networks similarly.

The star backbone uses wiring hubs and switches to create a backbone to connect multiple LANs or subnetworks.

The star backbone connects each floor’s LAN to the star backbone.

What Are Backbone Networks?

Backbone networks are key portions of a computer network structure that help to give stability to that network.

This approach can make it possible to link several networks together for the purpose of managing certain tasks and sharing specified types of data, while still allowing each of the networks connected to the backbone to function independently.

There are a number of examples of backbone networks in use today.

Most backbone networks make use of a wide range of communication strategies in order to create the connections and move data back and forth.

It is important to distinguish backbone networks from an Internet backbone.

While an internal backbone may provide ways to remotely access the networks by using the Internet, those interconnected networks within companies are still closed unless the proper credential are used to gain entrance.

Architects of the backbone network can structure the communication process so that the means of entry are limited, meaning that even if an employee has access to a couple of networks connected to the backbone, he or she may not have access to other networks residing in the connected community.

What Is The Internet Backbone And How It Works

The internet generates massive amounts of computer-to-computer traffic, and insuring all that traffic can be delivered anywhere in the world requires the aggregation of a vast array of high-speed networks collectively known as the internet backbone, but how does that work?

The individual core networks are privately owned by Tier 1 internet service providers, giant carriers whose networks are tied together.

In addition to being physically connected, these backbone providers are held together by a shared network protocol, TCP/IP. They are actually two protocols, transport control protocol and internet protocol that set up connections between computers, insuring that the connections are reliable and formating messages into packets.

The internet backbone is made up of the fastest routers, which can deliver 100Gbps trunk speeds.

Tier 3 providers provide businesses and consumers with access to the internet.

In order to do that, Tier 2 ISPs contract with Tier 1 ISPs for access to the global backbone, and in that way make the entire internet accesssible to their customers.

That traffic goes from a source computer to a Tier 3 ISP that routes it to a Tier 2 ISP that routes it to a Tier 1 backbone provider that routes it to the appropriate Tier 2 ISP that routes it to a Tier 3 access provider that delivers it to the destination computer.

Backbone Network

The pieces of the network connections that bring these departments together is often mentioned as network backbone.

The theory, design principles, and first instantiation of the backbone network came from the telephone core network when traffic was purely voice.

The core network was the central part of a telecommunications network that provided various services to customers who were connected by the access network.

A distributed backbone is a backbone network that consists of a number of connectivity devices connected to a series of central connectivity devices, such as hubs, switches, or routers, in a hierarchy.

In a distributed backbone network, all of the devices that access the backbone share the transmission media, as every device connected to this network is sent all transmissions placed on that network.

The distributed backbone must be designed to separate network traffic circulating on each individual LAN from the backbone network traffic by using access devices such as routers and bridges.

A serial backbone is the simplest kind of backbone network.

Post Idea #6: Encryption

Related Articles – Summarized

How Encryption Protects Your Data

There are two types of encryption systems: symmetric encryption and asymmetric encryption.

Asymmetric encryption uses two keys for encryption and decryption.

Data Encryption Standard is considered a low-level encryption standard.

Here’s how it works: It encrypts, decrypts, and encrypts data – thus, “Triple.” It strengthens the original DES standard, which became regarded as too weak a type of encryption for sensitive data.

Your workplace may have encryption protocols, or it may be subject to regulations that require encryption.

Most email clients come with the option for encryption in their Settings menu, and if you check your email with a web browser, take a moment to ensure that SSL encryption is available.

Encryption is designed to protect your data, but encryption can also be used against you.

What Is Encryption? Data Encryption Defined

With more and more organizations moving to hybrid and multicloud environments, concerns are growing about public cloud security and protecting data across complex environments.

Enterprise-wide data encryption and encryption key management can help protect data on-premises and in the cloud.

Cloud service providers may be responsible for the security of the cloud, but customers are responsible for security in the cloud, especially the security of any data.

An organization’s sensitive data must be protected, while allowing authorized users to perform their job functions.

A centralized management console for data encryption and encryption key policies and configurations.

Encryption at the file, database and application levels for on-premise and cloud data.

Automated key lifecycle processes for on-premise and cloud encryption keys.


For technical reasons, an encryption scheme usually uses a pseudo-random encryption key generated by an algorithm.

Modern encryption techniques ensure security because modern computers are inefficient at cracking the encryption.

In public-key encryption schemes, the encryption key is published for anyone to use and encrypt messages.

Only the receiving party has access to the decryption key that enables messages to be read. Public-key encryption was first described in a secret document in 1973; beforehand, all encryption schemes were symmetric-key.

The Computer Security Institute reported that in 2007, 71% of companies surveyed utilized encryption for some of their data in transit, and 53% utilized encryption for some of their data in storage.

The length of the encryption key is an indicator of the strength of the encryption method.

These more recent threats to encryption of data at rest include cryptographic attacks, stolen ciphertext attacks, attacks on encryption keys, insider attacks, data corruption or integrity attacks, data destruction attacks, and ransomware attacks.

What Is Encryption?

There are 3 steps involved in the Encryption of data.

The algorithm will then change the data given in the input using the Encryption key, and it will send the output.

While data Encryption stops anyone from reading the data, one other major benefit of Encryption is that once done; a hacker cannot alter the data to commit any fraud.

Data Encryption is not only useful for companies or the military, but normal computer users can also use it to store sensitive information such as Bank Account details, medical records, etc.

While there are so many methods to Encrypt data, such as AES and RSA, we can categorize Encryption into two types: Symmetric and Asymmetric.

Asymmetric: Asymmetric Encryption is the type when 2 keys are used by both parties, one key for Encryption and another for the Decryption of data.

Ensuring Compliance: Considering the value of data security, many organizations, governments, and companies require the data to be secured with Encryption to keep the company or user data safe.

What Is Encryption And How Does It Work?

There are three major components to any encryption system: the data, the encryption engine and the key management.

Symmetric key encryption is usually much faster than asymmetric encryption.

While encryption is designed to keep unauthorized entities from being able to understand the data they have acquired, in some situations, encryption can keep the data’s owner from being able to access the data as well.

Types of encryption Bring your own encryption is a cloud computing security model that enables cloud service customers to use their own encryption software and manage their own encryption keys.

Cloud encryption is almost identical to in-house encryption with one important difference: The cloud customer must take time to learn about the provider’s policies and procedures for encryption and encryption key management in order to match encryption with the level of sensitivity of the data being stored.

Cloud encryption offerings typically include full-disk encryption, database encryption or file encryption.

Hash functions are considered to be a type of one-way encryption because keys are not shared and the information required to reverse the encryption does not exist in the output.

Encryption In Microsoft 365

Get help with encryption tasks like how to set up encryption for your organization and how to password-protect Office documents.

With Office 365, your data is encrypted at rest and in transit, using several strong encryption protocols, and technologies that include Transport Layer Security/Secure Sockets Layer, Internet Protocol Security, and Advanced Encryption Standard.

BitLocker can also be used on client machines, such as Windows computers and tablets Distributed Key Manager in Microsoft datacenters Customer Key for Microsoft 365 Windows IT Center: BitLocker Microsoft Trust Center: Encryption Cloud security controls series: Encrypting Data at Rest How Exchange Online secures your email secrets Service encryption with Customer Key Files in transit between users.

Office 365 Message Encryption with Azure Rights Management, S/MIME, and TLS for email in transit Office 365 Message Encryption Email encryption in Office 365 How Exchange Online uses TLS to secure email connections in Office 365 Chats, messages, and files in transit between recipients using Microsoft Teams.

Microsoft 365 provides Microsoft-managed solutions for volume encryption, file encryption, and mailbox encryption in Office 365.

Microsoft provides encryption solutions that you can manage and control.

How do I… To do this task See these resources Set up encryption for my organization Set up encryption in Office 365 Enterprise View details about certificates, technologies, and TLS cipher suites Technical details about encryption Work with encrypted messages on a mobile device View encrypted messages on your Android deviceView encrypted messages on your iPhone or iPad Encrypt a document using password protection.

The Best Encryption Software For 2022

If your needs involve sharing secrets with others, you may want to consider using an email encryption tool instead of, or in addition to, a local encryption utility.

Whole-disk encryption is an effective line of defense for a single device, but it doesn’t help when you need to share encrypted data.

Of course, the VPN’s encryption doesn’t just magically rub off on files you share.

Encrypted data in the cloud has a much bigger attack surface than encrypted data on your own PC. Which is better? It really depends on how you plan to use encryption.

Some encryption products avoid this problem by encrypting the file in place, literally overwriting it on disk with an encrypted version.

The U.S. government has settled on Advanced Encryption Standard as a standard, and all the products gathered here support AES. Even those that support other algorithms tend to recommend using AES. If you’re an encryption expert, you may prefer another algorithm, Blowfish, perhaps, or the Soviet government’s GOST. For the average user AES is just fine.

If you want to share a file with someone and your encryption tool doesn’t support PKI, there are other options for sharing.

Post Idea #7: Polyethylene

Related Articles – Summarized


PE is usually a mixture of similar polymers of ethylene, with various values of n. It can be low-density or high-density: low-density polyethylene is extruded using high pressure and high temperature, while high-density polyethylene is extruded using low pressure and low temperature.

Polyethylene is usually thermoplastic, but it can be modified to become thermosetting instead, for example, in cross-linked polyethylene.

The Ziegler- and metallocene-based catalysts families have proven to be very flexible at copolymerizing ethylene with other olefins and have become the basis for the wide range of polyethylene resins available today, including very-low-density polyethylene and linear low-density polyethylene.

For common commercial grades of medium- and high-density polyethylene the melting point is typically in the range 120 to 130 °C. The melting point for average commercial low-density polyethylene is typically 105 to 115 °C. These temperatures vary strongly with the type of polyethylene, but the theoretical upper limit of melting of polyethylene is reported to be 144 to 146 °C. Combustion typically occurs above 349 °C. [edit].

Not only could the bacteria from the guts of the Plodia interpunctella moth larvae metabolize polyethylene, they degraded it significantly, dropping its tensile strength by 50%, its mass by 10% and the molecular weights of its polymeric chains by 13%. In 2017, researchers reported that the caterpillar of Galleria mellonella eats plastic garbage such as polyethylene.

Such polyethylene types offer extremely high stiffness, toughness, strength, stress crack resistance and an increased crack propagation resistance.

The resulting polymer network is uniform, of low tension and high flexibility, whereby it is softer and tougher than PE-Xc. Silane crosslinking: In the presence of silanes polyethylene can initially be Si-functionalized by irradiation or by a small amount of a peroxide.

Polyethylene Plastic: Properties, Uses & Application

Applications of High Density Polyethylene Excellent combination of properties makes HDPE an ideal material in diverse applications across industries.

Applications of Low-Density Polyethylene Low-Density Polyethylene uses majorly revolve around manufacturing containers, dispensing bottles, wash bottles, tubing, plastic bags for computer components, and various molded laboratory equipments.

The most popular application of low-density polyethylene is plastic bags.

These short branches are able slide against each other upon elongation without becoming entangled like LPDE. In the present-day scenario, linear low-density polyethylene has been quite successful in replacing Low Density Polyethylene.

Cross linked polyethylene is produced from polyethylene under high pressure with organic peroxides which creates a free radical.

LDPE LLDPE HDPE Polymer Full Name Low Density Polyethylene Linear Low Density Polyethylene High Density Polyethylene Structure High Degree of short chain branching + long chain branching High Degree of short chain branching Linear Catalyst and process Using radical polymerization using tubular method or auto clave method Using Ziegler-Natta catalyst or metallocene catalyst Ziegler-Natta catalyst in:- Single-stage polymerization.

Find Suitable Polyethylene Grade View a wide range of polyethylene grades available today, analyze technical data of each product, get technical assistance or request samples.

ScienceDirect Topics

PEs densities are relatively low when compared to other conventional polymers; the values range between 0.916 and 0.940 g/cm3 for LLDPE and 0.840-0.970 g/cm3 for HDPE. Generally, PEs has not only good processability but also shows a remarkable water vapor barrier functions, which is necessary for various water-sensitive food products, such as dried and liquid food stuffs.

Woodhead Publishing Limited; 2012.Based on similarities in terms of structure, the following are often grouped under LLDPE; very low-density PE, ultra-low-density PE, and medium density PE, while HDPE is ultrahigh molecular weight PE. LDPE can be made with free radical initiators while LLDPE and HDPE can be made with the same catalyst like that of PP.Read full chapter.

The term HDPE is an acronym for high-density polyethylene.

Fibre grade PE resins are mainly HDPE and LLDPE. Low MFR HDPE resins are used for filament applications.

Depending on the mode of polymerization, three basic types of PE are frequently used: linear HDPE, branched LDPE, and LLDPE. PEs are crystalline thermoplastics that possess toughness, excellent chemical resistance and excellent electrical insulating properties, near-zero moisture absorption, low coefficient of friction and ease of processing.

HDPE possesses greater stiffness, rigidity, improved heat resistance, and increased resistance to permeability than LDPE and LLDPE. HDPE has a low degree of branching and thus greater intermolecular forces and tensile strength.

99-135.98°C whereas HDPE-10%SiC+Al2O3 was taken 90.07 J/g energy for temperature transition of 123.32-133.79°C. In the second cycles it was recorded that virgin HDPE material was unestablished after one heating and one cooling cycle as energy integral energy of virgin HDPE was reduced from 654.71 to 515.42 mJ whereas integral energy of HDPE-10%SiC+Al2O3 was reduced only to small difference from 405.34 to 395.83 mJ only.

What Is Polyethylene? Monomer, Types, Properties, Applications

Some modified polyethylene plastics exhibit thermosetting properties.

What are the Physical and Chemical Properties of Polyethylene? Physical Properties The mechanical strength of polyethylene is relatively lower than other plastics.

The melting points of commercial grades of high-density polyethylene and medium-density polyethylene lie in the range of 120 – 180 degrees Celsisus.

Polyethylene can be classified into several different types based on the density of the plastic and the degree of branching in its structure.

Different types of polyethylene exhibit different mechanical properties.

The crystallinity of polythene is known to range from 35% for low-density polyethylene to 80% for high-density polyethylene.

Uses of Polyethylene The most important application of polyethylene is in packaging products.

Properties, Structures, Uses, & Facts

Polyethylene, light, versatile synthetic resin made from the polymerization of ethylene.

This simple structure, repeated thousands of times in a single molecule, is the key to the properties of polyethylene.

Branched versions are known as low-density polyethylene or linear low-density polyethylene; linear versions are known as high-density polyethylene and ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene.

The basic polyethylene composition can be modified by the inclusion of other elements or chemical groups, as in the case of chlorinated and chlorosulfonated polyethylene.

History Low-density polyethylene was first produced in 1933 in England by Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. during studies of the effects of extremely high pressures on the polymerization of polyethylene.

Since that time, by using different catalysts and polymerization methods, scientists have produced polyethylene with various properties and structures.

The plastic recycling code number of HDPE is #2. Linear polyethylene can be produced in ultrahigh-molecular-weight versions, with molecular weights of 3,000,000 to 6,000,000 atomic units, as opposed to 500,000 atomic units for HDPE. These polymers can be spun into fibres and then drawn, or stretched, into a highly crystalline state, resulting in high stiffness and a tensile strength many times that of steel.

Material Properties Of Polyethylene Thermoplastic

Polyethylene is the most widely used thermoplastic polymer for fabricated parts and components.

It is available in a variety of grades and formulations to suit different needs.

In general, polyethylenes offer excellent chemical and impact resistance, electrical properties and low coefficient of friction.

Polyethylenes are lightweight, easily processed and offer near-zero moisture absorption.

See details of its material properties in the chart below.

There are four categories of polyethylene thermoplastic material based on density/property: low, medium, high and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

Contact a Dielectric Manufacturing knowledge expert in Wisconsin to discuss the use of polyethylene for fabrication of your plastic parts.

Solutions For PE Products

Polyethylene is widely used in the world today to efficiently protect and transport all types of products.

The versatility and simple structure of polyethylene delivers multiple types of sustainable solutions throughout the value chain.

Dow offers a broad range of polyethylene products with a variety of properties for new innovation.

Low density polyethylene with the flexibility and melt strength for containers, bottles, tubing, membranes, computer components and laboratory equipment.

High density polyethylene with a balance of stiffness, toughness, ESCR, heat resistance and organoleptic properties for bottles, caps and closures, fitments, crates, pails, lids and thin wall containers.

High molecular weight high density polyethylene for pipe, large drums, industrial bulk containers and lumber.

Medium density polyethylene with a balance of stiffness, toughness, ESCR and sintering properties for rotomolded articles such as recreational playground equipment, kayaks and industrial bulk containers and tanks.

Post Idea #8: Ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene

Related Articles – Summarized

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene

The UHMWPE fibers maintain performance at below −50°C.Owing to the molecular structure of UHMWPE fibers, they exhibit surface and chemical properties that are rare in high-performance polymers and do not absorb water readily.

3.1.1 Development of high-strength UHMWPE fibersUltra-high molecular weight polyethylene fibers are the strongest and lightest fibers available, due to their combination of high strength and low density.

3.1.4 Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fibersUltrahigh molecular weight polyethylene fibers are produced via a gel-spinning process in which a low-concentration solution of UHMWPE is extruded to form a gel precursor fiber.

Spectra is one of the commercial UHMWPE fibers made by Honeywell, which offers superior UV resistance, very high initial modulus, superior breaking strength, and high flex strength.

UHMWPE fiber is odorless, tasteless, and nontoxic, and shows high resistance to corrosive chemicals except oxidizing acids, and extremely low moisture absorption.

The melting point of UHMWPE fibers is 147°C, and application temperature is limited to 80-90°C. UHMWPE fibers provide high impact resistance for composite laminates even at low temperatures, so it is a good body armor raw material.

Property details of UHMWPE are listed in Table 2.65.Because the excellent mechanical properties of UHMWPE fiber are the result of high drawn ratio during the fiber processing, evident fibrils are often found on the surface of the high-performance fibers, as shown in Fig.

Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene: Mechanics, Morphology, And Clinical Behavior

The effects of gamma radiation sterilization and ageing on the structure and morphology of medical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

Thermomechanical behavior of virgin and highly crosslinked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene used in total joint replacements.

Meyer RW, Pruitt L. The effect of cyclic true strain on the morphology, structure, and relaxation behavior of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

Pruitt LA. Deformation, yielding, fracture and fatigue behavior of conventional and highly cross-linked ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

Shaw JH. The effect of gamma irradiation on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

Recent advances of mechanical performance and oxidation stability in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene for total joint replacement: highly crosslinked and a-tocopherol doped.

The combined effects of crosslinking and high crystallinity on the microstructural and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene.

UHMWPE Properties & Material Uses

Applications include UHMW wear strips, chain guides, packaging machinery parts, and marine dock fender pads.

Is UHMW right for your next project? Our plastics experts can answer your questions and advise on material applications, and machined or fabricated parts.

UHMW Liners- UHMW sheet is often used for lining chutes and hoppers to protect metal surfaces and to keep solid materials like sand, wood chips, or coal moving smoothly.

UHMW Parts- Easy to fabricate, UHMW is also used for packaging, conveyor, and food processing machinery parts including star wheels, idler sprockets, and under-chain wear strips.

UHMW Wood Replacement- UHMW offers very low moisture absorption and is a popular choice for marine construction applications like dock fender pads, pile guards, and anti-skid walkways.

UHMW Grades- Several grades of UHMW are available, including reprocessed, enhanced bearing and wear, and FDA compliant.

Explore the physical, mechanical, thermal, electrical, and optical properties of UHMW. Sort, compare, and find the plastic material suited for your application using our interactive properties table.

Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Guide

AIP has over 37 years of experience machining complex components from thermoplastics like ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

UHMWPE is a part of the family of polyethylene thermoplastics.

Applications of UHMWPE. Common applications for UHMWPE include: food processing equipment, water treatment, conveyor lines, wear strips, bearings, gears, pistons, valves, marine equipment and wet environments that require harsh cleaning.

Grades of UHMWPE. At AIP, we machine various grades and brand name ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene.

Machining UHMWPE. Annealing UHMWPE. Thermoplastics are prone to stress cracking and premature part failure when placed under high heat and tensile load. Therefore, annealing is crucial if you want a quality, precision machined part out of the stock shape.

The annealing process at AIP greatly reduces the chances of these stresses occurring from the heat generated during machining UHMWPE and other polymers.

UHMWPE is one of several thermoplastics we machine for the medical and life sciences sector.

Sterling Plastics Inc.- Blaine MN Plastics Distributor

UHMW is a thermoplastic that belongs to the polyolefin group of material.

Molecular density characterizes polyethylene, with UHMW being the most dense with a molecular weight of 3.1 million or higher.

UHMW is light weight, has no moisture absorption, has high tensile and impact strength, is shatter resistant, is long wearing, abrasion and corrosion resistant, is self-lubricating, and has excellent chemical resistance.

This makes it ideal for wear parts in machinery and equipment as well as linings in material handling systems or storage containers.

Automotive and railroad. Material handling.

Properties Outstanding abrasion/corrosion resistance.

Contact us for manufacturers’ complete material property datasheets.

Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight Polyethylene

These molecules are several orders of magnitude longer than those of familiar high-density polyethylene due to a synthesis process based on metallocene catalysts, resulting in UHMWPE molecules typically having 100,000 to 250,000 monomer units per molecule each compared to HDPE’s 700 to 1,800 monomers.

The high qualities of UHMWPE filament were discovered by Albert Pennings in 1968 but commercially viable products were made available by DSM in 1990.

Another advantage in automotive applications is the reduced weight of UHMWPE rope over steel cables.

In climbing, cord and webbing made of combinations of UHMWPE and nylon yarn have gained popularity for their low weight and bulk.

The fiber’s very high lubricity causes poor knot-holding ability, and it is mostly used in pre-sewn ‘slings’ – relying on knots to join sections of UHMWPE is generally not recommended, and if necessary it is recommended to use the triple fisherman’s knot rather than the traditional double fisherman’s knot.

High-performance lines for sailing and parasailing are made of UHMWPE, due to their low stretch, high strength, and low weight.

In turn, in high performance parachutes used for swooping, UHMWPE is replaced with Vectran and HMA, which are even thinner and dimensionally stable, but exhibit greater wear and require much more frequent maintenance to prevent catastrophic failure.

UTEC has a molecular weight about 10 times higher than High Density Polyethylene resins.

The ultra high molecular weight of UTEC results in excellent mechanical properties such as high abrasion resistance, impact strength and low coefficient of friction.

Figure 1 compares the impact strength of the most important commodities resins and engineering plastics with UTEC. UTEC is an excellent material for sliding applications, working as a selflubricating material.

Figure 2 compares the static and dynamic coefficient of friction of UTEC with other engineering thermoplastics, where it can be seen that, even without additives, UTEC is still the best performance solution for sliding applications.

Molecular Chain Length injection Figure 3 – Comparing polyethylenes for injection, blow and extrusion molding with UTEC® UHMWPE polymeric chain blow extrusion UHMWPE Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene Chemical Resistance UTEC is extremely resistant to a wide variety of substances.

Figure 4 compares the relative wear resistance of UTEC with other materials used in high wear applications such as tubes, liners, silos, containers and other equipment.

Known for innovative solutions such as I’m green Polyethylene™ made from renewable sugarcane and UTEC,® the company’s own trademarked Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene for high performance applications, Braskem’s products and technologies enable the automotive, packaging, healthcare, and construction industries to produce goods that enhance quality of life for people around the world.

Post Idea #9: Molecular mass

Related Articles – Summarized

Learn About Molecular Mass. Formula, Unit, Molar Mass

Learn Average Molecular Mass. We have studied that the mass of the atoms of an element is known as its atomic mass.

e. Calculate Molecular Mass of Oxygen Atomic mass ofWe know that the atomic mass of oxygen isThus, the molecular mass of oxygen molecule.

Relative Molecular Mass.) The relative molecular mass of a compound is the average mass of one molecule compared to of one carbon-(12) atom.

Gram Molecular Mass or Molar Mass. When the molecular mass is expressed in grams, it is called gram molecular mass or gram molecule or mole molecule.

From this article, we learnt the importance of molecular mass and how to measure the molecular mass of an element, calculating the molecular mass, relative molecular mass and molar mass.

What is molecular mass used for?Ans: Molecular mass is a measure of the sum of the atomic masses of the atoms in a molecule.

What does a molecular mass mean or indicate?Ans: The molecular mass is represented as Due to the different isotopes of an element, different molecules of the same compound can have different molecular masses.

Definition, Formula & Examples Of Molar Mass

Relative molar mass is defined as the smallest mass unit of a compound with one twelfth of the mass of one carbon – 12 atom.

The definition of atomic mass, the mole, and molar mass are all directly or indirectly related to carbon-12.

The mass of one atom of carbon-12 the atomic mass of carbon-12 is exactly 12 atomic mass units.

The mass of one mole of carbon-12 atoms is exactly 12 grams; its molar mass is exactly 12 grams per mole.

They differ only in units; atomic mass is measured in atomic mass units, and molar mass is measured in grams per mole.

The molar mass of acetic acid as determined with a mass spectrometer is about 60g/mol.

First calculate the molar mass corresponding to the simplest formula CH2O then find the multiple by dividing the actual molar mass, 60g/mol by the molar mass of CH2O. MM CH2O = 12.01 g/mol + 2(1.008 g/mol) + 16.00 g/mol.

ScienceDirect Topics

About MMD.MMD is characterized by the function w(M), where dw is the mass share of the fraction with molecular mass.

Molecular Mass Measurement of ProteinsThe molecular mass.

Of one molecule is its mass expressed in unified atomic mass units.

MW is the ratio of the mass of the molecule to 1/12 of the mass of isotope carbon-12.

The nominal molecular mass of a molecule is calculated using these nominal atomic mass values.

72.Even mass spectroscopists use the terms “Exact mass” and “Accurate mass” interchangeably when they probably should not.

An exact molecular mass is the mass calculated from the accepted exact atomic masses of the isotopes for a specified empirical formula.

Calculation, Unit & Formula

This method can find the formula unit mass or the molecular mass of any substance.

Difference Between Molecular Mass and Molar Mass. For both the formula unit mass and the molecular mass, the units used are atomic mass units because the mass is for just one formula unit of an ionic compound or one molecule of a molecular compound.

Since these formulas are not for specific molecules, they are called formula units instead of molecules, and the masses are called formula unit mass.

The number of atoms of each element in a molecule is shown in the formula for the molecule and the mass is called the molecular mass.

The same process is used to find the formula unit mass or the molecular mass.

Second, find the mass of each element from the periodic table and multiply the mass by the number of each atom in a formula unit or a molecule.

The final step is to add the masses of each element together to get the formula unit mass for ionic compounds and the molecular mass for molecular compounds.

Molecular Mass

The related quantity relative molecular mass, as defined by IUPAC, is the ratio of the mass of a molecule to the unified atomic mass unit and is unitless.

The molecular mass and relative molecular mass are distinct from but related to the molar mass.

The molecular mass is more commonly used when referring to the mass of a single or specific well-defined molecule and less commonly than molecular weight when referring to a weighted average of a sample.

The molecular masses of macromolecules, such as proteins, can also be determined by mass spectrometry; however, methods based on viscosity and light-scattering are also used to determine molecular mass when crystallographic or mass spectrometric data are not available.

Water has a relative molecular mass of 18.0153(3), but individual water molecules have molecular masses which range between 18.010 564 6863(15) Da and 22.027 7364(9) Da. Atomic and molecular masses are usually reported in daltons which is defined relative to the mass of the isotope 12C. Relative atomic and molecular mass values as defined are dimensionless.

In mass spectrometry, the molecular mass of a small molecule is usually reported as the monoisotopic mass, that is, the mass of the molecule containing only the most common isotope of each element.

Mass photometry can measure molecular mass to an accurate degree over a wide range of molecular masses.

Molecular Weight Calculator

This online calculator you can use for computing the average molecular weight of molecules by entering the chemical formulas3 ). Or you can choose by one of the next two option-lists, which contains a series of common organic compounds and all the elements.

The molecular mass calculator will recognize the entered formula’s, which are included in the list of organic compounds.

Atom Molar Mass Subtotal Mass Subtotal Mass. !!! Lenntech BV cannot be held responsible for errors in the calculation, the program itself or the explanation.

Molecular mass or molar mass are used in stoichiometry calculations in chemistry.

In related terms, another unit of mass often used is Dalton or unified atomic mass unit when describing atomic masses and molecular masses.

It is defined to be 1/12 of the mass of one atom of carbon-12 and in older works is also abbreviated as “Amu”.

The term “Mole” is defined in that one mole of a substance with a molecular mass of one, will have a mass of 1 gram.

Definition And Different Elements

The mass of an atomic particle is known as the atomic mass.

The mass of an atom can be represented by the whole of the mass of protons and neutrons which is practically equal to the atomic mass.

Mass of the water molecule is equal to the normal atomic mass of hydrogen increased by two or more the atomic mass of oxygen.

The molecular mass of elements relies on the constituent atoms of the molecule.

The total mass of protons and neutrons, which is nearly equal to the atomic mass, can be used to represent the mass of an atom.

We will study atomic mass and molecular mass in this post, as well as what the atomic mass of iron is and what the atomic mass of potassium is, as well as the atomic and molecular masses in general.

Water molecules have a mass equal to the standard atomic mass of hydrogen multiplied by two or more times the atomic mass of oxygen.

Post Idea #10: YCombinator

Related Articles – Summarized

Y Combinator

In 2009, Sequoia Capital led the $2 million investment round into an entity of Y Combinator to enable it to invest in approximately 60 companies a year.

In 2010, Sequoia led an $8.25 million funding round for Y Combinator to further increase the number of startups the company could fund.

In January 2016, Y Combinator changed the fellowship program, with participating companies receiving $20k investment for a 1.5 percent equity stake.

In 2016, Altman left Y Combinator, becoming president of YC Group, which includes Y Combinator.

In July 2015, Y Combinator introduced the YC Fellowship Program aimed at companies at an earlier stage than the main program.

The fund allows Y Combinator to make pro rata investments in their alumni companies with valuations under $300 million.

In 2018, Y Combinator announced that Lu Qi, a former CEO of Baidu and Bing, would join the company as CEO of YC China.

Latin Startups Continue To Gain Momentum On Y Combinator

Y Combinator is a company that provides initial funding for startups, emphasizing the seed round, which is the earliest and highest risk stage, so it takes care of paying its expenses while it starts operating.

Precisely, Y Combinator has begun to look closely at the technological landscape in Latin America, where several startups have already gained important recognition.

Rappi, the platform for home deliveries and recently for financial services; Frubana, a company that supplies restaurants; and Platzi, the largest technology school in Latin America.

“We found that when we finance successful companies, like Brex and Rappi, there is a flywheel effect where they inspire locals to launch a startup, and we are seeing this in Latin America. We also believe that the distance due to the pandemic contributed. Founders who may not have been able to temporarily move to Mountain View for three months now apply to Y Combinator,” Stephanie Simon, director of admissions for the accelerator firm, told Forbes.

Out of the total companies that debuted this year on the list, 28% are startups located outside the United States.

The greatest growth occurred in Latin America, a region that contributed with seven new companies, two more than Africa.

The five best-valued startups on this year’s list are: Airbnb, Stripe, Instacart, Coinbase and DoorDash, public and private companies of American origin with a value exceeding $150 million.

Drip Capital Named To Y Combinator’S Top Companies List

Drip Capital, Inc., a leading cross-border digital trade finance platform, has been named to Y Combinator’s Top Companies list.

Listed and ranked by valuation, Drip Capital joins other notable Y Combinator fintech alumni like Stripe, Coinbase, and Brex on the Top Companies list.

Published first in 2018, the Top Companies list selects from over 2,000 companies that have gone through the Y Combinator accelerator program since 2005.

Pushkar Mukewar, Co-founder and CEO of Drip Capital, said, “We are honored to be recognized as a top company by Y Combinator – a technology startup accelerator that helped us launch and has been with us every step of the way as we work to bridge the USD 3 trillion trade finance gap. We value their partnership and are excited to continue working alongside them as we bring new innovations to our platform and grow our global team in the coming year.”

To date, Drip has raised nearly USD 520 million through venture capital and debt, including over USD 85 million in equity capital through investors such as Accel Partners, Sequoia Capital, Wing VC, TI platform, and Y Combinator.

Drip Capital is a fintech company that is transforming global trade finance.

Drip Capital offers digitized trade financing solutions in markets like the US, India, and Mexico by providing small and medium business clients access to working capital and currently works with over 3,500 sellers and buyers across 80+ countries.

Y-Combinator Recognises Razorpay As The First Indian Company To Appear In Top 10 Breakthrough Global Companies List

Bengaluru [India], March 2: Razorpay, India’s leading Payments and Banking Platform for businesses, has ranked 10 in Y-Combinator’s Breakthrough Companies 2022 List, making it the First Indian company to be featured in the list, as sorted by the valuation of a company.

The YC Breakthrough Companies 2022 list features a total of 37 high-growth companies, across the world.

Razorpay has also ranked 14 in Y-Combinator’s Top Companies 2022 List, up from 33 last year, securing its place among top global leaders such as Airbnb, Instacart and Reddit.

Every year, YC compiles a list of high-growth companies and this year’s newly launched ‘Breakthrough List’ highlights fast-growing companies that have received between USD 15Mn – USD 300Mn from YC. The Breakthrough List and The Top Companies List, both include private, public, and exited companies valued at USD 150M or more and are sorted by valuation or market cap as of February 2022.

Commenting on being featured in this prestigious list, Harshil Mathur, CEO and Co-founder, Razorpay said, “We are extremely delighted and honoured to become the First Indian Company on YC’s Breakthrough Company List. Y-Combinator was among the first organisations to believe in Razorpay’s vision and since then, they have played a key role in our success. This recognition further validates our vision as we enter the next phase of growth in India and International markets. We started off with a hope to make some difference in India’s financial ecosystem, and today, the dent we’ve created by powering disruptive businesses with intelligent technology only excites us to reach newer heights.”

He added, “We would also like to congratulate all the other Indian and global companies who have made it to the list.”

Founded by alumni of IIT Roorkee, Shashank Kumar and Harshil Mathur, Razorpay is the second Indian company to be a part of Silicon Valley’s largest tech accelerator, Y-Combinator.

What Is A Y-Combinator?

X = f x. The factorial of a natural number can be proved by.

E -> B[x := E] Beta x. E x -> E if x doesn’t occur free in E Eta.

0 = f x. x No application 1 = f x. f x One application 2 = f x. f Twofold 3 = f x. f Successor ADD = n m f x. n f Addition MULT = n m f x. n x Multiplication …. A formal proof that.

ADD 1 2 = f = f x. f z. f = f x. f K = x y. x I = x. x. Beta reduction is not strongly normalizing; not all reducible expressions, “Redexes”, converge to normal form under beta reduction.

K = i. i) a) x. x x) y. y y. diverges under eager applicative-order beta reduction.

A x. x x) x. x x) y. y y) a x. x x) x. x x) g = = g = g (g x. g (x x x. g (x x = g (g (Y g … …. The equivalence.

For Churchian untyped lambda calculus, there has been shown to exist a recursively enumerable infinity of fixed-point combinators besides Y. X = f. -> t fix f = f. Haskell’s laziness normalizes to a finity before all subexpressions have been evaluated.

How Y Combinator Changed The World

Why would a magazine diva join a horde of hoodied nerds, giving up 7 percent of her company for the $125,000 stake that YC offers its startups? But after almost 17 years and 3,200 companies, Y Combinator has evolved into something far beyond a boot camp for tech bros.

Inclusion in the Y Combinator program is definitely a thing; YC has launched companies whose total valuation tops $400 billion; its alumni include such luminaries as Dropbox, Airbnb, Stripe, CoinBase, and DoorDash.

Y Combinator has hosted more than 3,500 companies, but countless more have used its blueprints.

Whether they know it or not, they have cast themselves in the mold of Y Combinator founders.

If Y Combinator were a movie, the plot would be a hero’s journey, with intrepid founders overcoming obstacles to attain glory and eventually win the T-shirt that YC bestows upon companies achieving liquidity by buyout or IPO: “I built something someone wants.” As “a professional billionaire scout,” Graham believes in the goodness of founders.

I imagined their parents glancing at these business plans and saying, “We paid for you to go to Stanford and you’re starting a company to do laundry?” But they’re founders, and attention must be paid! Graham would encourage them to make a slide showing how their idea would scale into something humongous.

The clubbiness of the Y Combinator community has helped fuel a culture war where those cosseted founders and their enablers-entrepreneurs, investors, and tech cheerleaders in general-see themselves as victims of envious criticism from the press and policymakers.

Y Combinator

Whether you’re an investor, job seeker, or potential customer, we hope you explore the directory and use it as a resource when seeking to support Black-founded startups.

If you’re interested in starting or working at a startup, we hope to meet you there.

When we first created Work at a Startup in 2018, our goal was to eliminate friction in finding a job at a startup.

This year presented an exceptional challenge to startups and established companies alike as the world struggled through a full year in the grip of the COVID-19 pandemic.

As we all stayed remote and worked to operate effectively without offices, the startup environment thrived.

We compiled a list of the questions they most frequently asked about startups, and created this Startups for Students Guide.

In February, Michael Seibel and Aston Motes are bringing together a cohort of black engineers who are interested in learning about startups and at fast-growing YC companies.

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