19 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-05

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Post Idea #1: Fertility testing

Related Articles – Summarized

Fertility Testing

Clinicians also commonly measure E2 levels in women as part of ovarian reserve testing.

In some studies, lower IVF success rates were reported for both low and high E2 levels, whereas others found that baseline E2 levels have no effect on IVF success.

In 637 IVF cycles, no patients developed OHSS with peak E2 levels <3500 pg/mL, 1.5% developed hyperstimulation with peak E2 levels 3500-5999 pg/mL, and 38% developed OHSS with E2 levels >6000 pg/mL. While many factors contribute to cycle monitoring and prevention of OHSS, studies have shown that monitoring E2 levels reduces incidence of OHSS. Although the upper threshold of E2 that confers the highest risk of OHSS is inconsistent in the literature, most clinicians agree that risk of OHSS with a peak E2 level <3000 pg/mL is low risk.

These findings suggest that a low response is not a good reason to exclude patients from IVF. On the opposite end of the spectrum, AMH also may be useful for predicting OHSS. This hypothesis is based on the idea that an exaggerated response to gonadotropins may be secondary to high AMH. Two prospective trials have demonstrated that basal levels of AMH >3.5 ng/mL are associated with OHSS. Further studies are needed to determine whether stimulation treatment should be stratified based on AMH levels to avoid OHSS. Inhibin B. Inhibin B is one of the beta subunits of the dimeric protein inhibin, and like AMH, it is produced by pre-antral and early antral follicles.

Changes in inhibin B levels that occur with reproductive aging are similar to those of FSH and AMH. As women age, FSH levels increase, and both inhibin B and AMH decrease.

Progesterone levels <3 ng/mL imply anovulation, except when assessed immediately after a woman ovulates or prior to menses when progesterone levels are at a physiological low.

Two prospective studies suggested that the higher the mid-follicular endogenous LH level, the lower the probability of ongoing pregnancy achieved via IVF. In comparison, a recent meta-analysis demonstrated there was no association between low LH levels and decreased success of an ongoing pregnancy achieved via IVF. Reasons to Celebrate.

Fertility Tests For Women: Pap Smear, Ovulation Tests, And More

If you and your partner are trying to have a baby but haven’t been able to, you may start to wonder if you should get fertility tests.

Experts say it’s time to check with a doctor if you’ve had regular sex without birth control for 12 months if you are under the age of 35 and for 6 months if you are over 35.

Doctors use a variety of ways to identify any problems that might help cause fertility trouble.

Your doctor may also run tests on your thyroid, or check for other hormonal problems, to rule out conditions that might cause missed or irregular ovulation.

Your doctor puts a thin, flexible tube – with a camera on the end – through the cervix and into the uterus.

A doctor may order other tests to check for fertility problems.

Your doctor may also suggest a blood test to check for anti-müllerian hormone.

Fertility Tests For Men And Women

Fertility tests are an essential part of fertility evaluation and treatment.

The more invasive fertility tests, like diagnostic laparoscopy, are only done when symptoms or other tests point in that direction, or when a cause for infertility cannot be found otherwise.

Diagnostic laparoscopy, which may be the most invasive of the fertility tests.

These tests can’t fully evaluate your fertility and are not recommended.

The mail-order male fertility tests don’t look at these things.

Insurance companies won’t cover tests that are specified as being for fertility purposes only.

It’s very important you talk to your fertility clinic’s financial department before you do any fertility tests.

What Is Fertility And Fertility Testing?

Something we get asked frequently at Modern Fertility is, “What is fertility testing?” It’s a simple but important question, especially considering that the word “Fertility” can be interpreted ambiguously and mean different things to different people, like getting your period, your monthly cycle, hormones, eggs, and ability to conceive.

OK – then what does “Fertile” mean? “Fertile” is defined as, “Capable of breeding or reproducing.” Putting the two together, we land on the following definition of fertility: “The quality or state of being capable of breeding or reproducing.” In human speak, fertility is your ability to conceive, get pregnant, and have kids au naturel, with just a sperm and an egg and no assistance from reproductive technologies or medical interventions.

Fertility testing tests your body’s ability to do this.

Is it just us, or is the word “Infertility” used more often and better understood than “Fertility” in today’s world? It’s mind-boggling that fertility testing is primarily offered only when someone is already having difficulty conceiving or infertility is diagnosed.

Fertility testing’s inaccessibility, expense, and annoying habit of showing up way too late to the party is why Modern Fertility was born.

For $159, Modern Fertility offers a fertility testing kit that can be completed in the comfort of your home.

At Modern Fertility, we’re dedicated to starting the fertility conversation outside of the infertility clinic and before you ever need to step foot inside one, and making the cost and number of hoops you have to jump through as low as possible.

Fertility Tests For Men: Options And How They Work

If you’re planning to father a child, know that fertility is a 50-50 deal: half egg, half sperm.

A good kit, like SpermCheck Fertility can reliably tell you whether your sperm count is typical, low, or very low.

According to a 2015 study done in India, as much as 2 percent of all men have sperm measurements that aren’t optimal.

How are the sperm shaped? Believe it or not, the majority of sperm in your sample won’t be perfect.

Sperm cells pass all the standard medical tests for fertility, but you still have trouble growing your family.

The pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and testicles work together when it comes to sperm production.

Genetic abnormalities are found in 10 percent to 20 percent of men who have severe disorders with sperm production.

Lack Of Fertility Treatment On Vancouver Island

Even though about one in six couples experience infertility, there are no fertility ­clinics on Vancouver Island that offer full IVF services.

Even though about one in six couples experience infertility, there are no fertility ­clinics on Vancouver Island that offer full IVF services, regarded as the most successful treatment option.

The two full-time reproductive endocrinologists and fertility specialists live in Victoria like PCRM, Olive Fertility Centre will operate as a satellite office to headquarters in Vancouver, and egg retrieval and transfer will happen on the mainland.

Spencer had a fertility condition that could be treated with medication, but after a diagnosis of “Male-factor infertility” they took a deep dive into fertility treatments and side-effects that included a suspected blood clot.

Spencer used Olive Fertility Centre in Vancouver, one of about 10 fertility clinics in the province, but said it was a fertility coach that was her personal saviour – which is why she sought out the same profession.

DEMAND ON THE RISE. Fertility clinics have seen a surge in demand for both fertility treatment and egg freezing during the pandemic.

Graham, who worked at the former Victoria Fertility Centre with Hudson prior to PCRM buying the clinic, and convinced Taylor to set up a satellite office in Victoria in hopes of providing more services locally, is optimistic a second fertility clinic could ease waitlists.

Fertility Testing

Fertility testing is the process by which fertility is assessed, both generally and also to find the “Fertile window” in the menstrual cycle.

General health affects fertility, and STI testing is an important related field.

Test Method Invasiveness Anti-Müllerian hormone testing Lab test Blood draw Cycle-day-three follicle-stimulating hormone testing Lab test Blood draw Clomiphene citrate challenge test Lab test Blood draw Antral follicle count Ultrasound imaging Non-invasive X-ray hysterosalpingography X-ray imaging Minimally invasive Hystero contrast sonography Ultrasound with contrast dye Minimally invasive Saline infusion sonohysterography Ultrasound with saline Minimally invasive Hystero foam sonography Ultrasound with foam Minimally invasive Ovarian ultrasound Ultrasound Minimally invasive Three-dimensional sonography Ultrasound with 3D imaging Minimally invasive Hysteroscopy Transvaginal endoscope Invasive Laparoscopy with chromotubation Abdominal laparoscope Invasive [edit].

AMH testing is considered to be one of the most accurate estimates of ovarian reserve, can be used for assessment at any point in the menstrual cycle, and is non-invasive.

The clomifene citrate challenge test is similar to cycle-day-three FSH testing.

Fertility testing for men involves semen testing and genetic testing, as other factors such as impotence are obvious.

In some cases the hamster zona-free ovum test may also be used to diagnose fertility.

Post Idea #2: Image sensor

Related Articles – Summarized

Introduction To Image Sensors

Sensors can be classified in several ways such as its structure type, chroma type, or shutter type.

They can also be classified by resolution, frame rate, pixel size, and sensor format.

Understanding these terms can help one better understand which sensor is best for their application.

They are classified, the purpose of image sensors are the same; to convert incoming light into an electrical signal that can be viewed, analyzed, or stored.

Image sensors are a solid-state device and serve as one of the most important components inside a machine vision camera.

Every year new varieties of sensors are manufactured with improvements to sensor size, resolution, speed, and light sensitivity.

In this article we discuss some of the basics of image sensor technology found inside machine vision cameras and how those relate to their classifications.

What Is An Image Sensor?

The size of a digital camera’s image sensor is one of the most important specs in determining overall performance.

An image sensor is a device that allows the camera to convert photons – that is, light – into electrical signals that can be interpreted by the device.

Today’s small, yet powerful silicon-based image sensors show up in all kinds of devices: Scanners, mobile phones, webcams, and more.

In addition to RGB, there are specialized or legacy filter arrangements like CYGM. After light strikes the photodiodes in the image sensor, the “Picture” is converted into electrical signals and pushed on to several internal devices in turn: A serial shift register, capacitor, and amplifier.

Although there are many kinds of image sensors, CMOS sensors have captured the imagination of today’s vision system engineers.

There are several specialized image sensors, but until recently, most have been variations on the CMOS. Now, innovative technologies such as Back-Illuminated Sensors are starting to appear.

Many components play a role in how an imaging system works, but the image sensor is perhaps the most important.

CMOS Image Sensors

Since 1999 ST has been an industry leader in the design and manufacture of imaging sensors.

The current product portfolio spans a wide range of traditional image sensors from entry level VGA to 24 Mpixels and will soon offer products with 100’s of millions of pixels.

STMicroelectronics provides a wide range of imaging solutions and continues to enhance our customers’ products with different product categories such as CMOS image sensors, CMOS photonic sensors, processors and CIS foundry.

Mastering all aspects of the imaging chain, ST is well placed to offer custom design services to key customers with a number of custom sensors, ISPs and imaging modules already on the market.

ST’s sensors now address an increasing number of imaging applications in the automotive, security, gaming, medical and high-end traditional camera market.

Camera modules featuring extended depth of field, where the consumer benefits from an enhanced imaging experience over a traditional fixed focus approach, was first industrialized by ST. Leveraging extensive system on chip knowhow, a wide range of features can be integrated on the same silicon die as the pixel array including autofocus drivers and lens shading correction algorithms, as well as innovative solutions, such as high dynamic range technology, at an affordable cost.

At the forefront of silicon process development, ST’s dedicated in-house CMOS imaging manufacturing facilities is ramping up for new products featuring state-of-the-art backside illumination techniques, as well as innovative design features such as deep trench isolation that addresses the key challenge of pixel crosstalk.

Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Digital Imaging In Optical Microscopy

The arrival of high-resolution solid state imaging devices, primarily charge-coupled devices and complementary metal oxide semiconductor image sensors, has heralded a new era for optical microscopy that threatens to eclipse traditional image recording technology, such as film, video tubes, and photomultipliers.

Charge-coupled device camera systems designed specifically for microscopy applications are offered by numerous original equipment and aftermarket manufacturers, and CMOS imaging sensors are now becoming available for a few microscopes.

The photodiode, often referred to as a pixel, is the key element of a digital image sensor.

Presented in Figure 2 are digital images captured by a high-resolution optical microscope of a typical Bayer filter array and the underlying photodiodes.

In contrast, CMOS image sensors with digital readout utilize an analog-to-digital converter for every column, and conversion is conducted in parallel for each pixel in a row.

A greater demand for miniature electronic imaging devices, such as surveillance and telephone cameras, has prompted designers to drop pixel sizes even further.

Optical packaging techniques, which are critical to imaging devices, require clean rooms and flat-glass handling equipment not usually found in plants manufacturing standard logic and processor integrated circuits.

Post Idea #3: Active-pixel sensor

Related Articles – Summarized

Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, High Energy Astrophysics Division, Cambridge MA. Abstract We describe the need for and benefits of a targeted program to develop Active Pixel Sensor detector technology for the focal plane Active Pixel Sensor Imager array and Critical Angle Transmission Grating Spectrometer readout of the SMART-­‐X mission.

SMART-­‐X 1 Active Pixel X-­‐ray Sensors Active Pixel X-­‐ray Sensor Technology Development for the SMART-­‐X SMART-­‐X: Science Goals & Sensor Requirements SMART-­‐X will observe a variety of cosmic X-­‐ray sources from black holes and galaxies at high redshift z>6 , to clusters of galaxies both locally and as distant as they can be found, to supernova remnants in the Milky Way and nearby local group galaxies, to stars and star forming regions within our galaxy.

While scientific sensor development will capitalize on these trends, we believe that some essential requirements for astronomical sensors can only be met through, targeted, publicly-­‐sponsored technology development.

2 SMART-­‐X Active Pixel X-­‐ray Sensors 2.3 Active pixel sensor architectures & current implementations Active pixel sensors now under development for scientific applications use one of two architectures.

2.3.1 Monolithic Sensors Description, strengths & weaknesses Monolithic sensors incorporate both the detection and sensing functions on a single wafer.

Recently the advantages of back-­‐illuminated sensors have been recognized for low light level performance and these are becoming the industry standard for monolithic sensors.

7 SMART-­‐X Active Pixel X-­‐ray Sensors Hybrid sensors can solve this problem by placing the circuitry underneath the photosensitive layer.

Active Pixel Sensor

CCD’s provide good image quality, but they are expensive, power hungry, and with the required accessory chips, bulky.

Recognizing the shortcomings of CCD technology, and with the continuing need for lightweight imaging systems especially for interplanetary spacecraft applications, the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory began research on a second-generation solid state image sensor technology.

By consolidating functions and reading images more efficiently, the APS requires 1% the power of a CCD system and is less than 10% the size.

Photobit, an entrepreneurial spin-off company of JPL, has applied this revolutionary solid state image sensor technology to new markets where small size and low power consumption are needed such as digital cameras, PC video conferencing, camcorders, and portable PC video phones.

Acquisition of images through APS technology has reduced x-ray exposures from 90 to 99% in a couple of these medical and dental applications.

For dentists, digital feedback of dental images can now replace conventional x-ray film and produce sharp images that appear almost instantly on a computer monitor.

Further, these images are easier to store than x-ray film, and can be manipulated, colorized, and enhanced to provide additional information.

Active-Pixel Sensor

An active-pixel sensor is an image sensor where each pixel sensor unit cell has a photodetector and one or more active transistors.

The term ‘active pixel sensor’ is also used to refer to the individual pixel sensor itself, as opposed to the image sensor.

In this case, the image sensor is sometimes called an active pixel sensor imager, or active-pixel image sensor.

The term active pixel sensor was coined by Nakamura while working on the CMD active-pixel sensor at Olympus.

Many other small image sensor companies also sprang to life shortly thereafter due to the accessibility of the CMOS process and all quickly adopted the active pixel sensor approach.

The early CMOS sensor market was initially led by American manufacturers such as Micron, and Omnivision, allowing the United States to briefly recapture a portion of the overall image sensor market from Japan, before the CMOS sensor market eventually came to be dominated by Japan, South Korea and China.

His contributions include the first digital-pixel CMOS image sensor in 1994; the first scientific linear CMOS image sensor with single-electron RMS read noise in 2003; the first multi-megapixel scientific area CMOS image sensor with simultaneous high dynamic range, fast readout and ultra-low read noise in 2010.

While APS technology is still in its infancy, it is easy to extrapolate to the demise of CCDs. The APS technology preserves all the desirable features of CCDs, yet circumvents the major weaknesses of CCD technology.

A new imaging sensor technology that preserves the positive attributes ofthe CCD yet eliminates the need for charge transfer could quickly eclipse the CCD. Continued advancement in microlithography feature size reduction for the production of semiconductor circuits such as DRAMs and microprocessors since the invention of the CCD in 1970 enables the consideration of a new image sensor technology, called the Active Pixel Sensor.

At any instant, only one row is active, so that power dissipation in the APS is less than that of the CCD. The physical fill-factor of the APS can be approximately 50% or higher, and the use of on-chip microlenses or binary optics can increase the effective fillfactor to over 80%. Sensitivity, read noise, and dynamic range are similar to the CCD. Thus, the APS preserves the high performance of the CCD but eliminates the need for charge transfer.

Even as the scientific CCD has become the baseline detector technology for visible imaging and spectrometer systems, its weaknesses have also gained in importance and driven the development of alternative imaging technologies, with the high performance CCD as a benchmark.

The five major issues are the radiation softness of CCDs, a difficulty to achieve large array sizes, an incompatibility of CCDs with the requirements for instrument miniaturization, difficulty in increasing the spectral responsivity range of CCDs, and difficulty in increasing the readout rate of CCDs. These issues are described below.

The drive power requirement for CCDs also grows with array size since CCDs are capacitive in nature, and the entire CCD must be driven to achieve the output of a single pixel.

Extension of spectral range Future astrophysics and planetary instruments will benefit from large, monolithic detector arrays that extend the nominal 0.4 – 1.0 micron spectral range of CCDs. Increasing the spectral responsivity range of CCDs requires the utilization of materials other than silicon, and/or the removal of structures integral to CCD operation.

Since bit-line voltage changes linearly with time during discharging compared to exponentially during charging, discharging time limits row readout time and can be very slow.

To reduce the readout time to the charging time, the bit line may be reset to a low-voltage value after each row readout by pulsing the gate of the current source.

In most APS implementations aimed at high frame-rate operation, each column, or group of columns, share an ADC. The readout time TR is defined as the time from the access transistor turning on to the output voltage vo reaching to within half a bit of its steady state value.

Reducing bias current also leads to an increase in output voltage swing, S , which is given by S = vo 0 vo = vin 0 vT F 0 Ib Kn 0 vo: As bias current is reduced from 1.9 to 0.1 A, voltage swing increases from 1 to 1.08 V. The energy consumed by the APS circuit during readout can be calculated by integrating the power consumed during readout, which gives E = CT vdd  ln 2( 0 )( + ) + vo 0 vo : As bias current is reduced from 1.9 to 0.1 A, the energy consumed drops by 20% as shown in Fig.

A more accurate model for the follower current is given by If = Kn ; 2 for 1 < < 2: In this case, neglecting other nonidealities, the readout time can be readily calculated to be : Readout time is plotted in Fig.

For ideal operation and worst case analysis, the discharge time is given by 2 C TR = T (vo 0 vo Assuming a typical 0.35-m CMOS technology, and the same circuit parameters as in Sections III and IV, the readout time through the discharge operation can be up to 30 times longer than the charging time for smaller bias current.

5 plots the readout time for technologies down to 0.1 m. Note that readout time decreases almost linearly with minimum feature size.

CMOS Active Pixel Sensor

Active Pixel Sensor is an image sensor, made up of an array of pixel sensors.

In these pixel sensors, each pixel sensor consists of a photo detector and an amplifier.

Out of these APS, the most notable is the CMOS Active Pixel Sensor.

They are also called active pixel sensor imager and also active pixel image sensor.

The wide use of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors began during the year 1993.

During the early 1960’s, before the discovery of active pixel sensors, there were only passive pixel sensors.

In 1969, the active pixel sensor was first introduced by adding independent amplifiers for each pixel.

MAPS for charged particle detection Results so far 3T-pixel Pipeline pixels Digital sensors/pixels MAPS in an experiment STAR Belle ILC: vertex and calorimetry Conclusion 2 SNIC 2006 3 CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor-invented at the beginning of ’90s: JPL, IMEC, Standard CMOS technology all-in-one detector-connectionReadout control readout = Monolithic small size / greater integration low power consumption radiation resistance system-level cost Increased functionality pixel- parallel processing) random access Column-parallel ADCs Data processing / Output stage I2C control increased speed design only – + – + R. Turchetta et al.

With a number of technologies/epi thickness: AMS 0.6/14, 0.35/∞, 0.35/14, 0.35/20, AMIS 0.35/4, 0.25/2, TSMC 0.35/10, 0.25/8, 0.25/∞, UMC 0.18/∞ Noise 93% active without active edge processing 20 CAP3 SNIC 2006 ~120Kpixel sensor TSMC 0.25µm Process 5-deep double pipeline 36 transistors/pixel 5 sets CDS pairs 5 metal layers 21 22 SNIC 2006 Distribution of signals From different types of pixels.

Single diode 15 µm pixel No rad 1015 S/N varies over pixel between 12 and 4 before irradiation.

G. Villani 24 SNIC 2006 Single pixel S/N dependence on impact point.

4-diode 15 µm pixel No rad No rad 1015 1014 Less variation in S/N varies over pixel before and after irradiation.

Cluster in S/N Signal spread Number of pixels in a “3×3” cluster SNIC 2006 26 FAPS Hit resolution Hit Resolution≠spatial resolution!!! Take hits found in cell 2 Reconstruct x and y each cell using Centre-of-Gravity Calculate average hit position Determine residual position for each memory cell Hit resolution approximately 1.3 µm J. Velthuis SNIC 2006 27 FAPS efficiency estimate Find hits in all cells Plot max S/Npixel in 3×3 area around expected hit position if hit not found Define: # missed seed cut Missed = # seeds cell Clearly, strongly dependent on seed cut.

Leakage current measurements 3MOS E End reset Measure reset Measure pedestal 3MOS A Slope is due to leakage current – Measure pedestal-reset(time) – Fit straight line – Plot average slope versus dose No significant increase in leakage current.

Post Idea #4: Docosahexaenoic acid

Related Articles – Summarized

Docosahexaenoic Acid

DHA is metabolically related to other n-3 fatty acids: it can be synthesised from the plant essential fatty acid α-linolenic acid.

Young infants may be more efficient converters of ALA to DHA than many adults, although the conversion rate is variable among infants.

DHA is found in fairly high amounts in seafood, especially fatty fish, and in various forms of n-3 supplements.

Breast milk contains DHA. DHA is found esterified into complex lipids within the bloodstream, in adipose stores and in cell membranes.

DHA is accumulated in the brain and eye late in pregnancy and in early infancy.

A lower DHA content is linked to poorer cognitive development and visual function.

DHA affects cell and tissue physiology and function through numerous mechanisms, including alterations in membrane structure and function, in membrane protein function, in cellular signalling and in lipid mediator production.

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID: Overview, Uses, Side Effects, Precautions, Interactions, Dosing And Reviews

Egert, S., Fobker, M., Andersen, G., Somoza, V., Erbersdobler, H. F., and Wahrburg, U. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy volunteers.

Grimsgaard, S., Bonaa, K. H., Hansen, J. B., and Myhre, E. S. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on hemodynamics in humans.

Hansen, J. B., Grimsgaard, S., Nilsen, H., Nordoy, A., and Bonaa, K. H. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia.

Horby, Jorgensen M., Holmer, G., Lund, P., Hernell, O., and Michaelsen, K. F. Effect of formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on fatty acid status and visual acuity in term infants.

Mori, T. A., Watts, G. F., Burke, V., Hilme, E., Puddey, I. B., and Beilin, L. J. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on vascular reactivity of the forearm microcirculation in hyperlipidemic, overweight men.

Schwellenbach, L. J., Olson, K. L., McConnell, K. J., Stolcpart, R. S., Nash, J. D., and Merenich, J. A. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides.

Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordoy A. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids.

Docosahexaenoic Acid Information

Goldberg RJ, Katz J. A meta-analysis of the analgesic effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for inflammatory joint pain.

Harper CR, Jacobson TA. The fats of life: the role of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of coronary heart disease.

2008 Jun;87(6):1981S-90S. Jeschke MG, Herndon DN, Ebener C, Barrow RE, Jauch KW. Nutritional intervention high in vitamins, protein, amino acids, and omega-3 fatty acids improves protein metabolism during the hypermetabolic state after thermal injury.

Kromhout D. Omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease.

Behavioral effects of omega-3 Fatty Acid supplementation in young adults with severe autism: an open label study.

Saravanan P, Davidson NC, Schmidt EB, Calder PC. Cardiovascular effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids.

Stanke-Labesque F, Molière P, Bessard J, Laville M, Véricel E, Lagarde M. Effect of dietary supplementation with increasing doses of docosahexaenoic acid on neutrophil lipid composition and leukotriene production in human healthy volunteers.

Docosahexaenoic Acid

DHA’s structure is a carboxylic acid with a 22-carbon chain and six cis double bonds; with the first double bond located at the third carbon from the omega end.

DHA is a major fatty acid in brain phospholipids and the retina.

DHA is the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in the brain and retina.

In humans, DHA is either obtained from the diet or may be converted in small amounts from eicosapentaenoic acid via docosapentaenoic acid as an intermediate.

Desaturation at the fourth carbon of docosapentaenoic acid by a Δ4 desaturase to produce DHA. DHA can be metabolized into DHA-derived specialized pro-resolving mediators, DHA epoxides, electrophilic oxo-derivatives of DHA, neuroprostanes, ethanolamines, acylglycerols, docosahexaenoyl amides of amino acids or neurotransmitters, and branched DHA esters of hydroxy fatty acids, among others.

A major structural component of the mammalian central nervous system, DHA is the most abundant omega−3 fatty acid in the brain and retina.

Certain species of marine algae produced rich nutrients, leading to the development of an algae-based, vegetable-like oil that contains two polyunsaturated fatty acids, DHA and arachidonic acid.

Docosahexaenoic Acid: Health Benefits, Side Effects, Uses, Dose & Precautions

Egert, S., Fobker, M., Andersen, G., Somoza, V., Erbersdobler, H. F., and Wahrburg, U. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid or docosahexaenoic acid on parameters of glucose metabolism in healthy volunteers.

Hansen, J. B., Grimsgaard, S., Nilsen, H., Nordoy, A., and Bonaa, K. H. Effects of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on fatty acid absorption, incorporation into serum phospholipids and postprandial triglyceridemia.

Horby, Jorgensen M., Holmer, G., Lund, P., Hernell, O., and Michaelsen, K. F. Effect of formula supplemented with docosahexaenoic acid and gamma-linolenic acid on fatty acid status and visual acuity in term infants.

Mori, T. A., Watts, G. F., Burke, V., Hilme, E., Puddey, I. B., and Beilin, L. J. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on vascular reactivity of the forearm microcirculation in hyperlipidemic, overweight men.

Schwellenbach, L. J., Olson, K. L., McConnell, K. J., Stolcpart, R. S., Nash, J. D., and Merenich, J. A. The triglyceride-lowering effects of a modest dose of docosahexaenoic acid alone versus in combination with low dose eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary artery disease and elevated triglycerides.

Woodman, R. J., Mori, T. A., Burke, V., Puddey, I. B., Barden, A., Watts, G. F., and Beilin, L. J. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on platelet, fibrinolytic and vascular function in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients.

Grimsgaard S, Bonaa KH, Hansen JB, Nordoy A. Highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in humans have similar triacylglycerol-lowering effects but divergent effects on serum fatty acids.

12 Health Benefits Of DHA

Here are 12 science-backed health benefits of DHA. 1.

In one study in 154 obese adults, daily doses of 2,700 mg of DHA for 10 weeks increased the omega-3 index – a blood marker of omega-3 levels that’s linked to a reduced risk of sudden heart-related death – by 5.6%. The same daily dose of EPA increased the omega-3 index of the same participants by only 3.3%. DHA also decreased blood triglycerides more than EPA – 13.3% versus 11.9% – and increased “Good” HDL cholesterol by 7.6% compared to a slight decrease for EPA. Notably, DHA tends to increase “Bad” LDL cholesterol levels but mainly the number of large, fluffy LDL particles, which – unlike small, dense LDL particles – aren’t linked to increased heart disease risk.

Summary Thoughboth DHA and EPA support heart health, DHA may be more effective at increasingyour omega-3 index, decreasing triglycerides and improving your cholesterolprofile.

In a study in 82 babies, the mothers’ DHA levels before childbirth accounted for 33% of the difference in the child’s problem-solving ability at age one, suggesting a link between higher DHA levels in mothers and better problem-solving in their children.

In a study in 31 preterm babies, daily doses of 55 mg per pound of DHA for one month after birth prevented the drop in DHA typically seen after preterm birth, compared to a placebo.

Experts have not set a Reference Daily Intake for DHA, but 200-500 mg of DHA plus EPA per day are generally advised for good health.

There isn’t an upper limit on how much DHA you can take, but the FDA has advised limiting total DHA and EPA intake from all sources to 3,000 mg daily, with only 2,000 mg of this limit coming from supplements.

Docosahexaenoic Acid-Epa 120 Mg-180 Mg Capsule

Generic name:No detailed drug information available.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

In Canada – Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects.

You may report side effects to Health Canada at 1-866-234-2345.

Canada residents can call a provincial poison control center.

HOW TO USE THIS INFORMATION: This is a summary and does NOT have all possible information about this product.

Always ask your health care professional for complete information about this product and your specific health needs.

Post Idea #5: Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas

Related Articles – Summarized

Bangko Sentral Ng Pilipinas

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas is the central bank of the Philippines.

In 1900, the First Philippine Commission passed Act No. 52, which placed all banks under the Bureau of the Treasury and authorizing the Insular Treasurer to supervise and examine banks and all banking activity.

The Central Bank Act authored by then Congressman José J. Roy was signed into law in June of the same year by the newly proclaimed President Elpidio Quirino, who succeeded the late President Roxas, affixing his signature on Republic Act No. 265 or the Central Bank Act of 1948.

The law also gives the Bangko Sentral fiscal and administrative autonomy which the old Central Bank did not have.

The Monetary Stability Sector, which takes charge of the formulation and implementation of the BSP’s monetary policy, including serving the banking needs of all banks through accepting deposits, servicing withdrawals and extending credit through the rediscounting facility;.

The Bangko Sentral has 19 currencies directly convertible with the Philippine peso, which serves as a benchmark for all Philippine banks.

In 2000, the General Banking Law mandated the BSP to recognize microfinance as a legitimate banking activity and to set the rules and regulations for its practice within the banking sector.

Bangko Sentral Ng Pilipinas

The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas is the Philippines’ central monetary authority.

On July 3, 1993, the BSP was established and it replaced the Central Bank of the Philippines.

From 1935 to 1941, during the Commonwealth period, there was a discussion that a Philippine central bank will promote price stability and continue to grow the economy, though at the time, the Department of Finance and National Treasury administered the country’s monetary system.

In 1939, the Tydings-McDuffie Act required the Philippine legislature to pass a law to establish a central bank.

Discussions on the formation of a central bank for the Philippines resumed post-World War II. In 1946, then Finance Secretary Miguel Cuaderno, Sr. was tasked by President Manuel Roxas to draft a charter for a central bank.

Financial Supervision: Monitor bank and non-bank institutions performing banking functions.

Museo ng Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas: The Money Museum exhibits the bank’s collection of currencies, studies and preserved coins, paper notes, medals, artifacts, and monetary items found in the Philippines.

Bangko Sentral Ng Pilipinas

How does the BSP select new designs and security features for our new generation currency notes?

What are the considerations in the selection of security features for our new currency?

The BSP did research and benchmarking on security features that are available from global suppliers and are being used by other central banks.

The security features range from level 1 to level 4 or from highly visible to hidden security elements that can be detected only by sophisticated equipment.

These are the “Look”, “Feel”, “Tilt” elements in the notes such as watermark, security thread, security fibers, and others.

Level III: The hidden or covert security features reserved for the use of the Bangko Sentral.

Level IV: Forensic security features for the use of law enforcers in testifying whether a banknote is genuine or counterfeit.

2,603 Foreclosed Properties From Bangko Sentral Ng Pilipinas For Sale

As of October 2020, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas released its lists of foreclosed properties for sale from their website.

A total of 2,603 foreclosed house and lot properties are available for purchase.

To see all the properties, you may click this [link].

The sale of the properties shall be on an “As is, Where is” basis and the buyer as may be approved by the Committee on Disposal of Real Properties or the Monetary Board shall undertake the responsibility to acquire and maintain peaceful possession and enjoyment of the property at his expense and without seeking the assistance of the BSP. Prices are subject to change without prior notice.

4,000+ BSP Foreclosed Properties For Negotiated Sale ForeclosurePhilippines.Com

More than 4,000 BSP foreclosed properties are available for for negotiated sale, according to their latest list updated as of December 14, 2021.

For easy searching and filtering, you may view the entire list of BSP foreclosed properties below.

> Click for all BSP foreclosed properties for negotiated sale.

Wait, there’s more! You can also search from our database that includes multiple banks and lending institutions that have foreclosed properties for sale.

How to buy BSP foreclosed properties through negotiated sale.

“The sale of the properties shall be on an”As is, Where is” basis and the buyer as may be approved by the Committee on Disposal of Real Properties or the Monetary Board shall undertake the responsibility to acquire and maintain peaceful possession and enjoyment of the property at his expense and without seeking the assistance of the BSP. Prices are subject to change without prior notice.

Disclosure: Nothing to disclose, since we no longer broker foreclosed properties, you should contact BSP directly through their contact details above.

What Is The Role Of BSP In The Economy? – SidmartinBio

What is the role of BSP in the economy? The BSP’s main responsibility is to formulate and implement policy in the areas of money, banking and credit with the primary objective of preserving price stability.

What is the role of monetary standard in the Philippines?

In accordance with Republic Act No. 265, The Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas or BSP is the central monetary authority of the Republic of the Philippines.

The primary objective of BSP’s monetary policy is to promote price stability because it has the sole ability to influence the amount of money circulating in the economy.

The Monetary Board exercises the powers and functions of the BSP, such as the conduct of monetary policy and supervision of the financial system.

A Monetary System is defined as a set of policies, frameworks, and institutions by which the government creates money in an economy.

There are three common types of monetary systems – commodity money, commodity-based money, and fiat money.

“The #BSP’s decision to invest in the fund bolsters our sustainability efforts and supports our sustainable central banking agenda,” Gov. Benjamin Diokno said.

Ly/BSPPR17WATCH: The #BSP signed the contract for the Architectural and Engineering Design Services for the New BSP Complex in NCC held on Feb 28, 2022.

EXPLORE control feature #BSP #cyberhygiene #BeCyberSecure”This KX-3 is a valuable opportunity to exchange views on the various potentials: policy and technical considerations of #CBDC, particularly form a #FinancialInclusion perspective.” – BSP Governor Benjamin Diokno at the Knowledge Exchange Program- 3.

LeaveNoOneBehind”The targets to roll out a pilot #CBDC implementation that aims to build organizational capacity & enhance the knowledge of key aspects of CBDC that are relevant for the use case around addressing frictions in the national #PaymentSystem.” – BSP Governor Diokno.

BSP supports EO No. 162 institutionalizing the acceptance of PhilID or PhilSys as proof of identity and age in all gov’t & private transactions.

BSP also issued M-2021-057 on 21 Oct 2021, reminding BSFIs to accept PhilID as sufficient proof of identity.

Our resource speakers will present regional economic developments in Regions 11, 12, Cotabato City, and Maguindanao province, as well as regional banking system developments.

Post Idea #6: Credit rating

Related Articles – Summarized

Credit Rating Definition

Individual credit is scored by credit bureaus such as Experian, Equifax, and TransUnion on a three-digit numerical scale using a form of Fair Isaac Corporation credit scoring.

A high credit rating indicates a strong possibility of paying back the loan in its entirety without any issues while a poor credit rating suggests that the borrower has had trouble paying back loans in the past and might follow the same pattern in the future.

Credit ratings are never static, which means borrowers must remain diligent in maintaining a high credit rating.

An entity with good credit but a short credit history is not viewed as positively as another entity with equally good credit but a longer credit history.

If the economic future looks bright, the credit rating tends to be higher but if the borrower does not have a positive economic outlook, the credit rating will fall.

Details on each credit factor can be found in a credit report, which typically accompanies a credit score.

S&P Global has a credit rating scale ranging from AAA to C and D. Credit scores, on the other hand, apply only to individuals and are reported as a number, generally ranging from 300 to 850.

What Is A Good Credit Score?

For a score with a range between 300 and 850, a credit score of 700 or above is generally considered good.

The good news is all the consumer FICO® and VantageScore credit scores rely on the same underlying information-data from one of your credit reports-to determine your credit scores.

Credit scoring models use your credit reports to determine your score, but they can’t score reports that don’t have enough information.

With an Experian CreditWorks℠ Premium membership, you can get your FICO® Score 8 scores based on your Experian, Equifax and TransUnion credit reports-plus multiple other FICO® Scores based on your Experian credit report.

Learn More About Credit ScoresUnderstanding Credit ScoresTypes of Credit Scores A credit score is a number lenders use to help them decide how likely it is that they will be repaid on time if they….How to Improve Your Credit ScoreThere are steps you can take to increase your credit score, and the sooner you address certain factors, the faster your credit score will go up.

What is a Credit Utilization Rate?Your credit utilization rate, sometimes called your credit utilization ratio, is the amount of revolving credit you’re currently using divided by the total amount of revolving credit you have….How to Build CreditBuilding a good credit score can take time, so it’s important to start working now so you can build a good score for when you need it.

Understanding your score and how it fits into a scoring range will help….What Is a Bad Credit Score?Based on the FICO Score range of 300 to 850, a credit score below 669 is considered either fair or bad..

Overview, Types, And Users Of Credit Ratings

A credit rating is an opinion of a particular credit agency regarding the ability and willingness an entity to fulfill its financial obligations in completeness and within the established due dates.

A credit agency evaluates the credit rating of a debtor by analyzing the qualitative and quantitative attributes of the entity in question.

A credit agency is not involved in the transaction of the deal and is deemed to provide an independent and impartial opinion of the credit risk carried by a particular entity seeking to raise money through loans or bond issuance.

Each credit agency uses its own terminology to determine credit ratings.

Intermediaries such as investment bankers utilize credit ratings to evaluate credit risk and further derive pricing of debt issues.

Use credit ratings as an independent evaluation of their creditworthiness and credit risk associated with their debt issuance.

A FICO score, more commonly known as a credit score, is a three-digit number that is used to assess how likely a person is to repay the credit if the individual is given a credit card or if a lender loans them money.

Credit Rating

A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor, predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.

The credit rating represents an evaluation of a credit rating agency of the qualitative and quantitative information for the prospective debtor, including information provided by the prospective debtor and other non-public information obtained by the credit rating agency’s analysts.

Credit reporting – is a subset of credit rating – it is a numeric evaluation of an individual’s credit worthiness, which is done by a credit bureau or consumer credit reporting agency.

A sovereign credit rating is the credit rating of a sovereign entity, such as a national government.

Ratings are assigned by credit rating agencies, the largest of which are Standard & Poor’s, Moody’s and Fitch Ratings.

While Moody’s, S&P and Fitch Ratings control approximately 95% of the credit ratings business, they are not the only rating agencies.

Under the EU Credit Rating Agency Regulation, the European Banking Authority has developed a series of mapping tables that map ratings to the “Credit Quality Steps” as set out in regulatory capital rules and map the CQS to short run and long run benchmark default rates.

Credit Reports And Scores

Credit reports help lenders decide if they’ll give you credit or approve a loan.

Credit reporting agencies collect and maintain information for your credit reports.

Credit companies calculate your credit score using information from your credit report.

The credit reporting agencies that maintain your credit reports do not calculate these scores.

Your free annual credit report does not include your credit score, but you can get your credit score from several sources.

Anyone who denies you credit, housing, insurance, or a job because of a credit report must give you the name, address, and telephone number of the credit reporting agency that provided the report.

Under the Fair Credit Reporting Act, you have the right to request a free report within 60 days if a company denies you credit based on the report.

S&P Global Ratings

Credit Ratings also foster the development and smooth functioning of capital markets by providing transparent information and insight to market participants.

Distribution of Credit Ratings Our Credit Ratings are provided for distribution to public or private markets or, where applicable, available for internal management use only.

Public ratings: distributed via our websites and various news media, for issuers of publicly rated securities or private loan transactions of any size.

Private ratings: distributed via a secure website for distribution to up to 75 named third-parties.

Preliminary ratings, with the ‘prelim’ suffix, may be assigned to obligators or obligations, including financial programs, in the circumstances described in S&P Global Ratings Definitions.

Assignment of a final rating is conditional on the receipt by S&P Global’s appropriate documentation.

If a final rating is issued, it may differ from the preliminary rating.

Post Idea #7: Philippines

Related Articles – Summarized


The Philippines is bounded by the South China Sea to the west, the Philippine Sea to the east, and the Celebes Sea to the southwest, and shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and Brunei to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.

On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of Manuel Roxas.

The Armed Forces of the Philippines consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy.

A craniometric study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%. Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially from Latin America.

The University of the Philippines, a system of eight constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.

The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2. Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy.

Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a central square or plaza mayor, but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción Church in Ilocos Sur, and Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo.

Note 1: for decades, the Philippine archipelago was reported as having 7,107 islands; in 2016, the national mapping authority reported that hundreds of new islands had been discovered and increased the number of islands to 7,641 – though not all of the new islands have been verified; the country is favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia’s main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait.

Note 2: Philippines is one of the countries along the Ring of Fire, a belt of active volcanoes and earthquake epicenters bordering the Pacific Ocean; up to 90% of the world’s earthquakes and some 75% of the world’s volcanoes occur within the Ring of Fire.

Note 3: the Philippines sits astride the Pacific typhoon belt and an average of 9 typhoons make landfall on the islands each year – with about 5 of these being destructive; the country is the most exposed in the world to tropical storms.

The government had intended for international migration to be temporary, but a lack of jobs and poor wages domestically, the ongoing demand for workers in the Gulf countries, and new labor markets in Asia continue to spur Philippine emigration.

Although 2017 saw a new record year for net foreign direct investment inflows, FDI to the Philippines has continued to lag regional peers, in part because the Philippine constitution and other laws limit foreign investment and restrict foreign ownership in important activities/sectors – such as land ownership and public utilities.

Note(s) – the Philippine Coast Guard is an armed and uniformed service under the Department of Transportation; it would be attached to the AFP in wartime; the Philippine National Police Force falls under the Ministry of Interior and Local Government.

In addition to its typical roles of patrolling and defending the country’s maritime claims, the Navy conducts interdiction operations against terrorist, insurgent, and criminal groups around the southern islands; in 2017, the Philippines began conducting joint maritime patrols with Indonesia and Malaysia to counter regional terrorist activities, particularly in the Sulu Sea; the Philippine Marine Corps assists the Army in counterinsurgency operations.

History, Map, Flag, Population, Capital, & Facts

Both are part of the National Capital Region, located on Luzon, the largest island.

The islands spread out in the shape of a triangle, with those south of Palawan, the Sulu Archipelago, and the island of Mindanao outlining its southern base and the Batan Islands to the north of Luzon forming its apex.

Historically, the total number of islands in the archipelago was held to be 7,107, but in 2016 the National Mapping and Resource Information Authority of the Philippines announced the discovery of more than 500 previously uncharted islands.

The island of Taiwan lies north of the Batan group, the Malaysian portion of the island of Borneo is to the south of Palawan, and the eastern islands of Indonesia lie to the south and southeast of Mindanao.

The large islands fall into three groups: the Luzon group in the north and west, consisting of Luzon, Mindoro, and Palawan, the Visayas group in the centre, consisting of Bohol, Cebu, Leyte, Masbate, Negros, Panay, and Samar, and Mindanao in the south.

The several distinct volcanic areas are in south-central and southern Luzon and on the islands of Negros, Mindanao, Jolo, and elsewhere.

The largest lake in the archipelago, with an area of 356 square miles, is Laguna de Bay, on the island of Luzon.

United States Department Of State

COVID-19 Vaccine Distribution 2022 The U.S. and COVAX delivered 2.8 million doses of the Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccines to the Philippines on January 9 and 10.

The U.S. donated 769,860 more Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine doses to the Philippines through our partnership with COVAX, on March 2.

2021 As part of President Biden’s commitment to donate more than 500 million COVID-19 vaccine doses worldwide, on July 16 we delivered through COVAX the first half of 3.2 million doses to our friends, partners, and allies in the Philippines, our oldest treaty ally in the region.

On August 3, we delivered via COVAX an additional 3 million doses of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine to the Philippines.

The U.S. delivered an additional 5.57 million doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine to the Philippines on October 5 to help end the COVID-19 pandemic.

On October 11, the U.S. delivered an additional 1.84 million doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine to the people of the Philippines.

The U.S. delivered an additional 2,098,980 doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine to the Philippines on October 31 through COVAX. On December 21, the U.S., in partnership with COVAX, provided an additional 3.4 million doses of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine to the Philippines to help end the pandemic.

If a traveler is found to have any amount of drugs on his or her person, or nearby, when arriving or departing from the Philippines, he or she will be charged with trafficking.

If you intend to enter the Philippines with a prescribed controlled substance, obtain clearance from the Philippine government first.

Since June 2016, Philippine authorities have conducted a public campaign against illegal drugs.

The Philippine Bureau of Immigration may consider the participation of foreigners in demonstrations or political rallies in the Philippines to be a violation of the terms of admission.

Foreign nationals who participate in demonstrations, political rallies, or other activity deemed anti-government in nature may be detained and deported for violating Philippine immigration laws.

LGBTI Travelers: There is no prohibition on entry into the Philippines by LGBTI individuals.

According to Philippine law, an individual’s sex must match that assigned at birth as reflected on the official birth certificate, even in cases of post-operative sex reassignment.

Philippines 2022: Best Of Philippines Tourism

With more than 7,000 islands consisting of rice paddies, volcanos, mega-metropolises, world-class surf spots, and endemic wildlife, the Philippines is one of the most dazzling and diverse countries in all of Asia.

Not to mention, it’s home to some of the world’s best beaches, too.

Philippines Travel Guide

The Philippines is defined by its emerald rice fields, teeming megacities, graffiti-splashed jeepneys, smouldering volcanoes, bug-eyed tarsiers, fuzzy water buffalo and smiling, happy-go-lucky people.

With more than 7000 tropical islands to choose from, the Philippines is a beach bum’s delight.

The Philippines is justifiably famous for its beaches, but sporty types need not feel left out.

The Philippines is also, unofficially, the zipline capital of the world.

The Philippines is a land apart from mainland Southeast Asia – not only geographically but also spiritually and culturally.

Rather than let the weather defeat them, in the Philippines travelers can embrace meteorological uncertainty and use it as an excuse to go with the flow.

Domestic travel is cheap and fun, and is best done spontaneously.

Post Idea #8: Benjamin Diokno

Related Articles – Summarized

Benjamin Diokno

Benjamin Estoista Diokno is a Filipino economist serving as the governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas and ex officio chairman of the Anti-Money Laundering Council since 2019.

Diokno is the first cousin thrice removed of Atty. Jose Manuel “Chel” Diokno of the Free Legal Assistance Group and is six degrees apart from the attorney Sen. Jose W. Diokno, the father of human rights.

During the Aquino administration, Diokno provided technical assistance to several major reforms such as the design of the 1986 Tax Reform Program, which simplified income tax and introduced the value-added tax, and the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines.

During the Estrada administration, Diokno initiated and instituted several reforms that would enhance transparency and improve the efficiency of the delivery of government services.

Diokno initiated the reform of the government procurement system through the adoption of rapidly improving information and communications technology.

In early 2000, Diokno and USAID successfully concluded a substantial technical assistance program for the DBM’s budget reform programs, which now included procurement reform.

In his third tour of duty as Budget Secretary, Diokno intends to pursue an expansionary fiscal policy to finance investments in human capital development and public infrastructure.

Benjamin E. Diokno

He finished his Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration from the University of the Philippines, and earned his Master’s Degree in Public Administration and Economics from the same university.

He also holds a Master of Arts in Political Economy from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, USA and a Ph.D. in Economics from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, USA. Prior to his appointment as BSP Governor, he served as Budget Secretary from 2016 to 2019.

On his third tour of duty at the Department of Budget and Management, he pursued an expansionary fiscal policy to finance investments in human capital development and public infrastructure.

His policy expertise and research contribution extend to various areas of public economics, such as the structure and scope of government, tax policies and reforms, public expenditure management analysis, fiscal decentralization, national budget and public debt among other topics.

He has extensive experience in implementing reforms at the public sector, having also served as Budget Undersecretary from 1986 to 1991 and Budget Secretary from 1998 to 2001.

Over more than 40 years, he taught the following courses: Public Sector Economics, Microeconomics, Macroeconomics, Development Economics and Special Topics.

Some of the major policy reform contributions of Dr. Diokno include: providing technical assistance to the 1986 Tax Reform Program to simplify the income tax system and introduce the value-added tax, helping design the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines, initiating a What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get policy to streamline the release of funds, sponsoring the internationally-lauded Government Procurement Reform Act to modernize, regulate, and standardize government procurement activities in the Philippines.

Benjamin Diokno

Benjamin Diokno is Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

Prior to his appointment, he served as Budget Secretary in three different administrations.

Dr. Diokno is also a strong advocate of the Philippine ID System.

His policy expertise and research contribution extend to various areas of public economics, such as the structure and scope of government, tax policies and reforms, public expenditure management analysis, fiscal decentralization, national budget and public debt, among other topics.

He has extensive experience in implementing reforms in the public sector, having also served as Budget Undersecretary from 1986 to 1991 and Budget Secretary from 1998 to 2001.

Dr. Diokno has a Bachelor’s degree in Public Administration and a Master’s degree in Public Administration and Economics from the University of the Philippines.

He also holds a Master of Arts degree in Political Economy from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, USA and a Ph.D. in Economics from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, USA..

Benjamin E Diokno: New Normal, New Approach, New Horizon

Succeeding cuts, to date, resulted in a cumulative reduction of 200 basis points, or from four percent to a record low of two percent.

We can expect a GDP growth of 5.5 percent in 2021, 7 to 9 percent in 2022, and 6 to 7 percent in 2023 and 2024.

On inflation, BSP is forecasting 2 to 4 percent in 2022 up to 2024, provided the national government continues to address supply-side factors affecting food items.

The December 2021 inflation of 3.6 percent falls within the 2 to 4 percent target range of the government.

Compared to paper banknotes, polymer banknotes are more hygienic, difficult to counterfeit, durable, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly than paper banknotes.

The chemical component of a polymer banknote makes its surface smooth and resistant to dirt, bacteria, and viruses.

Polymer notes are estimated to last at least 2.5 times longer than paper banknotes and can withstand extreme temperatures.

Financial Stability Board

Benjamin E. Diokno is the current Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.

Prior to his appointment as Governor, he served 3 Administrations-as Budget Secretary from 2016 to 2019, Budget Secretary from 1998 to 2001, and as Budget Undersecretary from 1986 to 1991.

Some of his major policy reform contributions include: providing technical assistance to the 1986 Tax Reform Program to simplify the income tax system and introduce the value-added tax, initiating a What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get policy to streamline the release of funds, sponsoring the internationally-lauded Government Procurement Reform Act to modernize, regulate, and standardize government procurement activities in the Philippines, among others.

He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Public Administration from the University of the Philippines, a Master’s Degree in Public Administration and Economics from the same university, a Master of Arts in Political Economy from the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, and a Ph.D. in Economics from the Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University in Syracuse, New York, USA..

Benjamin Diokno, Philippine Politician

Taal Diokno also served as Undersecretary for Budget Operations at the Department of Budget and Management, from 1986 to 1991, during the administration of President Corazon Aquino.

During the Aquino administration, Diokno provided technical assistance to several major reforms such as the design of the 1986 Tax Reform Program, which simplified income tax and introduced the value-added tax, and the 1991 Local Government Code of the Philippines.

During the Estrada administration, Diokno initiated and instituted several reforms that would enhance transparency and improve the efficiency of the delivery of government services.

The first major reform instituted was the “What you see is what you get” or WYSWIG policy that is a simplified system of fund release for the General Appropriations Acting.

Diokno initiated the reform of the government procurement system through the adoption of rapidly improving information and communications technology.

By August 1999, the DBM had two documents necessary to initiate reforms in public procurement.

Diokno is currently a professor at the University of the Philippines School of Economics.

Post Idea #9: Consumer price index

Related Articles – Summarized

U.S. Bureau Of Labor Statistics

The Consumer Price Index is a measure of the average change over time in the prices paid by urban consumers for a market basket of consumer goods and services.

Average price data for select utility, automotive fuel, and food items are also available.

Charts 12-month percentage change, Consumer Price Index, selected categories, January 2022, not seasonally adjusted.

6.0% Commodities less food and energy commodities.

4.9% News Releases CPI for all items rises 0.6% in January; food, electricity, and shelter indexes increase.

In January, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers rose 0.6 percent, seasonally adjusted, and rose 7.5 percent over the last 12 months, not seasonally adjusted.

The index for all items less food and energy increased 0.6 percent in January; up 6.0 percent over the year.

Consumer Price Index Definition

Changes in the CPI are used to assess price changes associated with the cost of living.

The CPI gives the government, businesses, and citizens an idea about price changes in the economy and can act as a guide in order to make informed decisions about the economy.

According to the BLS, the cost-of-living adjustments of more than 50 million people on Social Security as well as military and federal civil services retirees are linked to the CPI. The CPI statistics cover professionals, self-employed and unemployed people, people whose incomes are below the federal poverty threshold, and retired people.

Critiques of CPI Methodology For several years, there has been some controversy about whether the CPI overstates or understates inflation, how it is measured, and whether it is an appropriate proxy for inflation.

The overall result tends to be a lower CPI. However, critics view the methodological changes and the switch from a COGI to a COLI as a purposeful manipulation that allows the U.S. government to report a lower CPI. Today, critics of the CPI argue that the understated inflation metric does not capture the true rise in prices felt by consumers.

Investors pay close attention to the CPI as an indicator of where the economy is headed, influencing price forecasts for inflation-sensitive assets such as bonds and commodities.

The CPI is the weighted-average price of a broad cross-section of goods and services.

United States Consumer Price Index

The annual inflation rate in the US accelerated to 7.5% in January of 2022, the highest since February of 1982, as soaring energy costs, labour shortages, and supply disruptions coupled with strong demand weigh.

Excluding volatile energy and food categories, the CPI rose 6%, the most since August of 1982.

Consumer Price Index CPI in the United States averaged 118.02 points from 1950 until 2021, reaching an all time high of 280.13 points in December of 2021 and a record low of 23.51 points in January of 1950.

This page provides the latest reported value for – United States Consumer Price Index – plus previous releases, historical high and low, short-term forecast and long-term prediction, economic calendar, survey consensus and news.

United States Consumer Price Index – data, historical chart, forecasts and calendar of releases – was last updated on March of 2022.

Consumer Price Index CPI in the United States is expected to be 284.92 points by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations.

In the long-term, the United States Consumer Price Index is projected to trend around 297.72 points in 2023 and 303.38 points in 2024, according to our econometric models.

Investors Brace For U.S. CPI Reading Of Close To 8% Next Week As Risk Of Durable Inflation Grows

MARKET EXTRA. A combination of unrelated forces is raising the likelihood that higher-than-normal U.S. inflation could turn durable, lasting anywhere from a few years to a full decade, according to investors bracing for next week’s latest update on price gains.

Russia’s attack on Ukraine in the past week has shifted the calculus, by putting a much longer stretch of high U.S. inflation firmly within the realm of possibilities.

Inflation should persist at 3% or higher for the next 12 months, he says, though it’s also “Fair” to say price gains could stay elevated for the next two years.

“The commodity-price shock is a new and a potent driver of higher inflation and we’re still in the early innings of trying to understand what that means for the U.S. outlook,” said Bill Adams, the Toledo, Ohio-based chief economist for Comerica Inc. “It’s easier to imagine us getting into a stagflationary scenario than it was pre-Russia and Ukraine, but that’s not my base case,” Adams said via phone.

“My base case is that we see high inflation over the next few months, before CPI falls off to 4% year-over-year in the fourth quarter as the pandemic fades, labor force participation rises, and shortages ease. We could see disinflationary effects play out. Russia-Ukraine is clearly inflationary, it’s just a question of the magnitude and persistence of the shock.”

Weekly jobless benefit claims are published Thursday, followed by Friday’s release of the University of Michigan consumer sentiment index and a preliminary reading of five-year inflation expectations.

He says “a reasonable goal” for inflation “Is 3% long term for the next decade.”

Philippines Consumer Price Index MoM

The Consumer Price Index measures the change in the prices of goods and services contained in a basket of consumer items.

The Central bank pays very close attention to this figure in its role of maintaining price stability.

A reading that is stronger than forecast is generally supportive for the PHP , while a weaker than forecast reading is generally negative for the PHP..

Taiwan Consumer Price Index MoM

The Consumer Price Index measures the change in the price of goods and services from the perspective of the consumer.

It is a key way to measure changes in purchasing trends and inflation.

The impact on the currency may go both ways, a rise in CPI may lead to a rise in interest rates and a rise in local currency, on the other hand, during recession, a rise in CPI may lead to a deepened recession and therefore a fall in local currency.

Definition, How To Calculate, And Uses

The Consumer Price Index is a measure of the aggregate price level in an economy.

The market basket used to compute the Consumer Price Index is representative of the consumption expenditure within the economy and is the weighted average of the prices of goods and services.

The Consumer Price Index expresses the change in the current prices of the market basket of goods in a period compared to a base period.

An index of 110 means that there’s been a 10% rise in the price of the market basket compared to the reference period.

The probability of bread A being chosen as the representative bread is 70%. After a representative bread is chosen, its price is monitored for the next four years, after which a new representative bread will be chosen.

Uses of the Consumer Price IndexTo serve as an Economic Indicators.

Limitations of the Consumer Price IndexThe Consumer Price Index may not be applicable to all population groups.

Post Idea #10: Inflation rate

Related Articles – Summarized

United States Inflation Rate

The annual inflation rate in the US accelerated to 7.5% in January of 2022, the highest since February of 1982 and well above market forecasts of 7.3%, as soaring energy costs, labour shortages, and supply disruptions coupled with strong demand weigh.

Energy remained the biggest contributor, with gasoline prices surging 40%. Inflation accelerated for shelter; food, namely food at home; new vehicles; used cars and trucks; and medical care services.

Inflation Rate in the United States averaged 3.25 percent from 1914 until 2022, reaching an all time high of 23.70 percent in June of 1920 and a record low of -15.80 percent in June of 1921.

This page provides – United States Inflation Rate – actual values, historical data, forecast, chart, statistics, economic calendar and news.

United States Inflation Rate – data, historical chart, forecasts and calendar of releases – was last updated on March of 2022.

Inflation Rate in the United States is expected to be 7.20 percent by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations.

In the long-term, the United States Inflation Rate is projected to trend around 1.90 percent in 2023, according to our econometric models.

Current US Inflation Rates: 2000-2022

The annual inflation rate for the United States is 7.5% for the 12 months ended January 2022 – the highest since February 1982 and after rising 7.0% previously, according to U.S. Labor Department data published February 10.

The next inflation update is scheduled for release on March 10 at 8:30 a.m. ET. It will offer the rate of inflation over the 12 months ended February 2022.

The chart and table below display annual US inflation rates for calendar years from 2000 and 2012 to 2022.

If you would like to calculate accumulated rates between two different dates, use the US Inflation Calculator.

Since figures below are 12-month periods, look to the December column to find inflation rates by calendar year.

The rate of inflation in 2021 was 7.0%. The last column, “Ave,” shows the average inflation rate for each year using CPI data, which was 4.7% in 2021.

Annual rates of inflation are calculated using 12-month selections of the Consumer Price Index which is published monthly by the Labor Department’s Bureau of Labor Statistics.

What Is The Current U.S. Inflation Rate?

Current Annual inflation for the 12 months ending in January 2022 is 7.48% Jump to Current Inflation Table.

We calculate the Current Inflation rate (see table below) to two decimal places while the Bureau of Labor Statistics only calculates inflation to one decimal place.

The Inflation table above is updated monthly and provides the current Annual US Inflation Rate in the right-hand column and the other columns show various monthly components on a Seasonally Adjusted basis.

The Federal Reserve monitors the inflation rate for its targeting purposes using the “Core Inflation Rate” which excludes food and energy leading some people to mistakenly believe that the U.S. government doesn’t track those items in the inflation rate.

We believe a picture is worth a thousand words, so we track the recent inflation rate in chart form to give you a better sense of the current direction of inflation and also the longer term inflation trends.

The inflation rate is calculated using the Consumer Price Index or CPI. To calculate inflation from a month and year to a later month and year, Try our Inflation calculator.

You can instantly see the current inflation trend in our chart of the Annual Inflation Rate.

What’S More Expensive Because Of Inflation – Forbes Advisor

Inflation keeps going up, and it shows no signs of abating.

The January CPI inflation report shows that consumers’ wallets continue to bear the brunt of some of the highest inflation in decades.

The price for goods and services has increased 7.5% from January 2021 to January 2022, accounting for the highest inflation rate since February 1982.

Things like gasoline and airfare saw giant price increases over the last year, partly due to prices being deflated by lack of demand at the onset of the pandemic.

Reports in January suggested that inflation would start to subside by the end of the year, but some lawmakers now worry that the Russian invasion of Ukraine could drive inflation higher.

Recent polls show that nine out of 10 Americans are worried about inflation.

During his State of the Union speech, President Joe Biden acknowledged the difficulties Americans face due to rising inflation.

The Biden Inflation Octopus

First, the Biden administration is in such denial of inflation that it sounds to Americans simply callous and indifferent to the misery it has unleashed.

The administration assures us that consumer prices are rising only at an annualized rate of 7.5 percent – as if the steepest increase in 40 years actually is not all that bad. Yet the middle class knows that inflation is far worse when it comes to the stuff of life: buying a house, car, gas, meat or lumber.

Third, inflation is ubiquitous, inescapable, omnipotent – and humiliating.

Inflation attacks everyone in 24/7, 360-degree fashion.

Fourth, inflation undermines a civil and ordered society.

Fifth, Americans know that our current inflation is self-induced, not a product of a war abroad, an earthquake or the exhaustion of gas and oil deposits.

Americans know the inflation octopus was willfully birthed.

Questions About The Inflation Rate

The most recent data show the inflation rate during the past year was 7.5%. In the 21st century, the annual inflation rate was above 3% only four times, and it never rose more than 4% until last year.

A 7.5% inflation rate means the average weighted price of products and services rose 7.5% over the year.

In 1981, the inflation rate was 10.3%. In 1980, it was 13.5%. Are there other countries experiencing a high inflation rate today?

Yes, several countries are enduring higher inflation rates, such as Germany and the UK at near 6%, Mexico at 7%, and Russia at almost 9%. But, at least we’re lower than Cuba’s 77% inflation rate and Venezuela’s recent 472% inflation rate.

Some argue increased government spending would decrease the inflation rate.

The Fed certainly has the tools to slow the economy and reduce the inflation rate.

Inflation hasn’t been a big worry in the economy for four decades, so many individuals are witnessing the debates about inflation for the first time.

The Inflation Conundrum

In January, the core inflation rate, excluding more volatile goods like food and energy, was up 6 percent over January 2021.

With inflation in the range of 5 to 6 percent for at least the next several months, the Fed will be under pressure to raise rates significantly, and also to sell off some of its $9 trillion portfolio of Treasury and mortgage-backed security bonds.

If inflation is running around 5 percent, that’s a negative rate of return; and if the Fed starts dumping its own holdings of mortgage-backed securities onto the market, the value of those securities also has to tank.

All of these are likely to be at the dovish end of the Fed’s spectrum on interest rate policy, in contrast to the more hawkish representatives of the regional Fed banks.

The moderately good news here is that Fed chair Powell seems to be more aware of these risks than his predecessor Paul Volcker, who deliberately used sky-high rates in 1979 to slow inflation by creating a deep recession.

The slow drip of several small rate increases, which now looks likely, would weaken the economy while doing little to restrain inflation.

One of the most extreme cases of these is the ocean shipping industry, which enjoys antitrust immunity, and has used it to jack up shipping rates and profits, adding to price inflation in the entire range of imports.

Post Idea #11: Cast acrylic

Related Articles – Summarized

Cast Acrylic

There are several types of acrylic sheets available, with cast acrylic being the highest grade.

Benefits of Cast AcrylicFor starters, cast acrylic is more resistant to solvents than other varieties of acrylic, making it a desirable choice for environments with harsh chemicals.

Cast acrylic alternatives might be thicker than extruded acrylic thanks to the casting process.

Cast & Extruded AcrylicCast and extruded acrylic are the two most common types of acrylic.

Even though cast acrylic and extruded acrylic are two different materials with their own set of benefits and drawbacks.

The melting point of extruded acrylic is lower than that of cast acrylic.

Scratch-resistant: Extruded acrylic is less scratch-resistant than cast acrylic.

Clear Cast Acrylic Sheets

Choose cast acrylic sheets if you are looking to construct aquariums, POP displays, acrylic furniture, trade showpieces or even retail accessories.

Acme Plastics’ Acrylic Cast Clear Sheets are available in a wide range of thicknesses and sizes.

Cast acrylic sheets are lightweight, available in a variety of colors and thicknesses, and features greater thermal stability than in extruded form.

Of the two, cast acrylic sheets have greater optical clarity.

When engraved, cast acrylic sheets result in a frosted appearance, as opposed to clear engraving on extruded sheets.

Common applications for cast acrylic sheets include Point-Of-Purchase and store displays, skylights, furniture, picture frames, products for the aerospace industry, and because of its greater resistance to temperature fluctuation, ice rinks.

Looking for ways to cut your clear cast sheets? Watch our video for a professional demonstration on cutting acrylic.

Cast Acrylic Sheets

Acrylic is a remarkably versatile material, because it is as transparent as the finest optical glass but it is also ten times as strong and only half the weight.

Due to its flexibility and impact resistance, cast acrylic sheets are used in a wide variety of applications, from replacing glass in windows to structural glazing.

Cast acrylic is also an excellent insulator with chemical resistance and the ability to be cut, drilled, routed, shaped, turned, filed, sanded, or polished to suit your particular set of needs.

If you demand superior optical clarity without compromise, cast acrylic may just be the solution you need for that upcoming project.

Cut-to-size requests may take one to two business days to process, or you can visit one of our store locations to get custom cast acrylic sheets in five minutes or less, from start to finish.

Our highly trained experts can promptly provide a quote for any cut-to-size request.

Please feel free to contact TAP Plastics today with any questions or concerns.

Cast Acrylic Product Range

The market, forced for environmental reasons and to reduce consumption, has a preference towards high-efficiency light sources.

A high light transmission(both to the white light, and to colours).

A high spreading effect to eliminate the typical “Hot spot”, characteristic of LEDs as a pointy light source.

The colours are formulated to meet the typical wavelength of LED – colours that are on the market today, in order to maintain the same tone with or without light.

The formulation of Seta-LED® sheets in five standard colours: white, orange, red, green, blue.

Colour intensity or light transmission remains constant up to 10mm thickness.

Cast Acrylic

Cast Acrylic is a form of poly(methyl methacrylate).

Cast acrylic has a better ability to be reworked hot and it is known for its superior surface finish and optical properties.

Also cast acrylic is more scratch resistant than extruded acrylic.

Cast acrylic is also preferred over extruded in applications that require machinings, such as turning on Engine Lathe or milling/drilling.

Even with slow speeds and much coolant, extruded acrylic does not produce the surface finish and tight tolerances achievable with cast acrylic.

Advantages of Acrylic: Excellent optical clarity & transparency Highly resistant to variations in temperature Up to 17 times the impact resistance of ordinary glass Half the weight of glass and ideal for precision machining Highly resistant to many different chemicals Acrylic has certain properties making it an ideal material for use in a wide range of applications, including medical, life sciences and food/beverage testing.

Medical phantoms mri scanners Medical Phantoms & Light Guides manufactured from Acrylic.

Emco Industrial Plastics

Acrylic is an optically transparent thermoplastic material unaffected by moisture and offers a high strength-to-weight ratio.

General-purpose acrylic can be easily heat-formed without loss of optical clarity.

Acrylic is used in a wide variety of applications because it can be easily cemented.

Acrylic has outstanding resistance to the damaging effects of sunlight and outdoor weathering.

Most commercial acrylics have been UV stabilized for good weatherability and resistance to prolonged sunlight exposure.

Emco Industrial Plastics doesn’t claim to represent all of the manufacturers or trade name products listed.

This list is intended as a guide of typical materials available for purchase from Emco Industrial Plastics, Inc. For additional information, contact an Emco Industrial Plastics representative by filling out the form below.

Post Idea #12: Poly(methyl methacrylate)

Related Articles – Summarized

Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

PMMA depolymerization at 300-400°C produces volatile monomers of methyl methacrylate.

Since PMMA does not play a role in inducing new bone formation, recent work has investigated the addition of small quantities of bioactive glass, ceramics, and osteogenic growth factors to PMMA resulting in the formation of “Bioactive” bone cements.

PMMA siRNA condensation capacity was marginally improved by adding phosphonium containing methacrylate monomers compared to their corresponding ammonium analogs.

Nanoparticles made of methacrylate core and chitosan and PEI shell were synthesized by emulsion polymerization to improve the in-vivo delivery of plasmid DNA. Generally, the interaction of PMMA with cell membrane is low and requires some further modification for enhanced penetration.

PMMA can be polymerized in situ and cross-linked from a slurry containing PMMA and methylacrylate monomers; thus, it is used as a common bone grafting material, mainly in the fixation of orthopedic prosthetic materials for hips, knees, and shoulders.

Denture base polymers are multiphase polymer systems where the monomer of MMA is mixed with prepolymerized powder beads of PMMA. Interestingly, the acrylic polymer PMMA was introduced to the market as a denture base material in 1937.

In 1943, polymer chemists discovered that polymerisation of methyl methacrylate would take place by itself under ambient conditions if a co-initiator was added, and the companies Degussa and Kulzer established a procedure for the chemical manufacture of PMMA bone cements by utilising tertiary aromatic amines.

Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

Aeroplane pilots whose eyes were damaged by flying shards of PMMA fared much better than those injured by standard glass, demonstrating better compatibility between human tissue and PMMA than glass.

The glass transition temperature of atactic PMMA is 105 °C. The Tg values of commercial grades of PMMA range from 85 to 165 °C; the range is so wide because of the vast number of commercial compositions which are copolymers with co-monomers other than methyl methacrylate.

Methyl methacrylate “Synthetic resin” for casting may be used in conjunction with a polymerization catalyst such as methyl ethyl ketone peroxide, to produce hardened transparent PMMA in any shape, from a mold.

Spectator protection in ice hockey rinks is made from PMMA. Historically, PMMA was an important improvement in the design of aircraft windows, making possible such designs as the bombardier’s transparent nose compartment in the Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress.

Acrylic prosthetic construction Pre-polymerized, powdered PMMA spheres are mixed with a Methyl Methacrylate liquid monomer, Benzoyl Peroxide, and NN-Dimethyl-P-Toluidine, and placed under heat and pressure to produce a hardened polymerized PMMA structure.

PMMA polymer and methyl methacrylate monomer mix is then injected into a flask containing a gypsum mold of the previously designed prosthesis, and placed under heat to initiate polymerization process.

Since the bases of dental prosthetics are often constructed using PMMA, adherence of PMMA denture teeth to PMMA denture bases is unparalleled, leading to the construction of a strong and durable prosthetic.

Know Your Materials: Polymethyl Methacrylate

Because of its high transparency, PMMA is also known as “Acrylic glass” or “Plexiglass.” The material characteristics of PMMA are noteworthy for a few reasons: it is a highly translucent, glass-like material that offers high impact and environmental resistance, making it an excellent alternative for true glass in applications where shatter resistance is a desired trait.

PMMA is produced through polymerization, which involves placing the methyl methacrylate monomers into a mold with a catalyzing agent.

PMMA can be thermoformed without losing any of the material’s optical clarity.

Despite being created from methyl methacrylate, which is a known irritant and suspected carcinogen, PMMA is extremely biocompatible, leading to the material finding use in various medical applications, including contact lenses, dentures, bone replacements, and even cosmetic surgery, where it is used to help reduce wrinkles or scars.

While PMMA can be food-grade, it is not safe to use in microwaves or dishwashers, as the material is only dimensionally stable to temperatures of 149°F. Typically, glass is recommended over PMMA for applications involving food.

Display windows may be crafted from an outer layer of scratch- and shatter-resistant PMMA and an inner layer of a wind-resistant and highly impact-resistant material like PC. PMMA also offers a cost-effective alternative to PC when a given application would benefit from greater tensile and flexural strength, light transmissibility, surface polishability, and UV resistance.

There are a number of reasons you might want to consider using PMMA for your product, but ultimately, it’s up to you to determine which materials are best suited for your parts- ideally with the help of a trusted manufacturing partner.


PMMA implantation can be used to improve the skin’s contour and reduce depressions in the skin due to scars, injury or lines.

Facial lines and features that can be corrected using PMMA implantation Frown lines that run between the eyebrows.

Smoker’s lines which are vertical lines on the mouth.

Almost all people are suitable for augmentation with PMMA. PMMA microspheres are biologically inert and should be well tolerated by most people.

Possibly a few individuals may react to PMMA. However, suitability for PMMA augmentation is also dependent.

Procedure for PMMA treatments Wash your face thoroughly with soap and water.

A similar encapsulation process occurs with PMMA microspheres when Metacrill® is used.

Poly(Methyl Methacrylate)

Or PMMA, is widely known as a plastic component used in products such as plexiglass and other transparent glass substitutes, it is appearing as an ingredient in a number of cosmetics and aestheticians’ offices as a filler for wrinkles and fine lines.

According to Wikipedia, Poly(methyl methacrylate) is chemically “Is the synthetic polymer of methyl methacrylate”.

It’s naturally compatible with human tissue, and was a frequent component of contact lenses in the past; it’s also been used for dentures and bone replacement, when combined with bovine collagen.

When used in cosmetic surgery, Poly(methyl methacrylate) microspheres are suspended in biological fluid and injected under the skin to reduce wrinkles or scars permanently.

More recently, small particles are purified and used as a filler for foundation, or as a lubrication enhancer for powder and liquid foundation.

It “Can be added to make it easier to apply cosmetics smoothly, cover up wrinkles, and change their texture. Porous particles are usable as absorber, and elastic particles providing a soft feel are also available.”

Poly(methyl methacrylate) is produced by free‐radical polymerization of methyl‐ Structure methacrylate in mass or suspension polymerization according to the following chart: Properties Physical and PMMA is a linear thermoplastic polymer.

As in the case with other thermoplastics, the mechanical properties of PMMA vary as the temperature changes.

PMMA is one of the polymers that is most resistant to direct sunshine exposure.

These properties of PMMA make it suitable for products intended for long open‐air operation.

PMMA is suitable for injection moulding, extrusion, extrusion blow moulding Processing , thermoforming, casting.

The melt flow index of the methods material varies according to the method of treatment: low melt flow index – materials intended for extrusion; medium melt flow index – general‐purpose PMMA; high melt flow index – PMMA for injection moulding of products having a complex shape.

Misoperation due to higher temperature causes destruction of PMMA, accompa‐ nied by release of methylmethacrylate or other low‐molecule volatile products.

The exposure segment is performed using an inexpensive, in-house built irradiation box while the development part is accomplished using an isopropyl alcohol:H2O developer.

The undercut of the sidewalls due to the uncollimated nature of the irradiation light was dramatically alleviated by using a honeycomb metallic grid in between the irradiation source and the acrylic substrate and by rotating the latter using a direct current motor-driven stage.

Irradiation source The PMMA exposure for this work was performed using an in-house built irradiation source equipped with low pressure mercury vapour ultraviolet lamps.

The twelve 25 Watt germicidal lamps, representing the irradiation source are mounted on the ceiling of the box, as shown in figure 1.

Further, to even-out the irradiation so that no hexagon patterns are formed as a result of positioning the grate above the substrates, the samples were set on top of a rotational stage driven by a 9 Volt DC motor.

The aluminum layer, which served as a hard mask during the irradiation step, was patterned using classic photolithographic techniques.

The most significant difference between direct irradiation and semi-collimated irradiation is, as expected, the undercut.

Post Idea #13: Brüel & Kjær

Related Articles – Summarized

Brüel & Kjær Sound & Vibration Measurement

Brüel & Kjær is a world-leading provider of noise and vibration test and measurement solutions.

Brüel & Kjær supply systems for noise signature management: acoustic ranging of submarines and surface ships; noise source investigation during design and build; and for acoustic trials and self noise monitoring during operations.

Brüel & Kjær also supply systems for underwater acoustics, shock testing, noise and vibration testing and structural dynamics testing.

The Brüel & Kjær acoustic noise ranging system is a complete measurement and analysis system for static and dynamic ranging of surface and underwater vessels.

Acoustic ranging systems determine the underwater acoustics of the vessel’s acoustic signature.

The application of source path contribution can help understanding of how much different inputs contribute to the underwater acoustic noise, and hence the acoustic signature of a vessel.

About Brüel & Kjær. Brüel & Kjær is a world leading provider of noise and vibration test and measurement solutions, boasting over 65 years in the sound and vibration business.

Sound And Vibration Measurement

Product finder APPLICATIONS The ways in which our products are used are constantly changing and expanding.

Applications CUSTOMER CASES Our customer cases contain a selection of case studies from our many areas of expertise.

Customer Cases FEATURED ARTICLE. Architectural Acoustics System The science and engineering of achieving a good sound in an architectural acoustics project is built on quality gear; Brüel & Kjær equip you for the task.

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Brüel & Kjær Vibro

Condition Monitoring Solutions – Brüel & Kjær Vibro We support you in optimizing machine availability and efficiency.

Brüel & Kjær Vibro is the leading worldwide independent supplier of condition monitoring solutions for rotating machinery.

The comprehensive product range comprises vibration sensors, vibration monitors, handhelds and rack-based plant-wide integrated monitoring solutions.

These products plus a suite of comprehensive services fulfil the most demanding applications for safety, condition and performance monitoring of rotating machinery.

Watch our video to find out more about our vision on the future of Condition Monitoring Solutions and how Brüel & Kjær Vibro develops the innovation areas which are required for value creation and envisions the course of innovation progression.

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Jüdischer Friedhof Brüel In Brüel, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

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Product Data Power Amplifier – Type 2713 USES FEATURES: Driving Brüel&Kjær Hydrophones Types 8103, 8104 and 8105 as projectors 100 V, 1 A into capacitive load Driving electrostatic actuators at high voltage levels As general purpose power amplifier for capacitive piezoelectric transducers Frequency range 10 Hz to 200 kHz 0 to 60 dB voltage gain in six 10 dB ranges Switchable maximum output voltage limits Circuit protection against overload The Power Amplifier Type 2713 is designed specifically to drive highly capacitive transducers to high voltage levels, such as when the Brüel&Kjær Hydrophones Types 8103, 8104 or 8105 are employed as projectors in underwater calibration arrangements.

These special requirements place severe demands on the output section of the power amplifier because the voltage and current are out of phase with each other with capacitive loading, so that transistors will not be satisfactory, due to secondary break- Brüel & Kjær B K down limitations.

Switchable voltage limits of 100 V, (141 V (peak for reactive loads, 75 V,. The maximum RMS current availa- ble can be found from the following relationship: 100 + W I = ———- ) 200 Where the output power depends upon the loading and the duty cycle of the amplifier.

In any case the maximum continuous output power available is 100 W. With the “Pure” capacitive loading obtained from the hydrophone, the output power will be 0 W, so the maximum continuous current = 0.5 A When the amplifier is operating with a gated signal, the maximum available RMS current limits the duty cycle to 50% when a current level of 1,41 A is required.

The output voltage can be monitored at the “Monitor” socket on the front panel which gives a calibrated level of 0.1V for each 1.0V at the “Output”.

The “Overload” lamp on the front panel lights, and the signal is prevented from reaching the output section if the output voltage exceeds the preset “Voltage Limit”, or if the output current exceeds the peak value of 1,41 A. The lamp also lights and the output is removed during the “Warm-up” period of the instrument.

Should the output section temperature rise above 120 °C, the “Overload” lamp will light and the output be inhibited.

Amt Sternberger Seenlandschaft

Liegt im Nordosten des Landkreises Ludwigslust-Parchim in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in der gleichnamigen Seenlandschaft.

Juli 2004 kamen die Stadt Brüel und die fünf Gemeinden Blankenberg, Kuhlen-Wendorf, Langen Jarchow, Weitendorf und Zahrensdorf des aufgelösten Amtes Brüel hinzu.

Das Amtsgebiet wird von der Warnow und der Mildenitz durchflossen.

Der Große Sternberger See und der Groß Labenzer See sind die größten der zahlreichen Seen im Amt.

Neben der Landwirtschaft spielt insbesondere der Tourismus an den verschiedenen Seen eine zunehmende Rolle.

Die im Bau befindliche A 14 streift das Amtsgebiet im Nordwesten, der einzig verbliebene Bahnhof in Blankenberg liegt an der Bahnlinie Schwerin-Rostock.

Im Jahr 2006 wurde der Naturpark Sternberger Seenland gegründet und inzwischen schon als Qualitäts-Naturpark ausgezeichnet.

Post Idea #14: Hospital information system

Related Articles – Summarized

Hospital Information System

IHE is an initiative begun by the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society and RSNA to provide an advanced framework based on DICOM and HL-7 to facilitate the two-way migration of information between medical information systems and devices.

The Health Level Seven standard is used to support many hospital-wide system interfaces, such as APLIS-hospital information system interfaces.

Whereas messaging standards help pass information from one system to another, a standard nomenclature ensures that the meaning of the information remains the same in both systems.

Most patient information is stored in the EMR. Some of the information stored in the EMR comes from applications that are part of the HELP/HELP2 System, while some comes from other applications that are interfaced to the HELP/HELP2 System.

A number of medical devices also are interfaced to the HELP/HELP2 System and patient vital signs, medication pump, and ventilator information is automatically stored in the EMR. The main point here is that the clinical information is stored in a common database.

The ideas of integration and Bian-Zhen-Lun-Zhi are the fundamental infrastructure of TCM. With the development of information technology and wide use of the Internet, an immense amount of disparate isolated medical databases, electronic patient records, hospital information systems.

Since influenza couldn’t be diagnosed in hospitals in China before then, influenza-like illness cases in GZ City and XZ City from an influenza surveillance system were selected instead. The target diseases indicated by gastrointestinal syndromic data were bacillary dysentery and infectious diarrhea in GZ City and XZ City, from National Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System.

Communications with patients can be through the same means, interactive kiosks and through web portals 3 INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR PATIENT CARE The Hospital information System can be broadly divided into two halves: 01.

The Managerial Information Systems The clinical and other functions relating to the care of a patient is facilitated by a set of systems which can be given a generic name of Information Systems for the patient care function.

The term Clinical Information System should not be used to mean the whole Information Systems for patient care.

3.1 OBJECTIVES & FUNCTIONS OF PATIENT CARE INFORMATION SYSTEM Being a system for facilitating operations, these set of sub-systems and applications are expected to utilize information technology and computerization optimally to realize the following objectives: a. Productivity b. Effectiveness c. Appropriateness d. Efficiency e. Quality f. Safety To achieve the above objectives, the computerized information system provides the following functions: 01.

Supply of Data for External Organizations The relationships of the systems are as depicted the chart below: Relationships of HIS For the sake of choosing the best of the breed it may be necessary to procure separate systems or from different vendors e.g. for Systems for Clinical Support functions, the Charging-BillingReceipt of Payment Application and various clinical support systems.

3.3 INTEGRATION OF THE PATIENT CARE INFORMATION SYSTEM WITH THE REST OF HIS It is crucial that the Information System for the Patient Care Function is able to integrate with other systems of HIS. It must support the activities of incident reporting, clinical epidemiology, disease surveillance, quality management, utilization review, risk management and similar functions.

4 MANAGERIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM 4.1 FUNCTIONS OF MANAGERIAL INFORMATION SYSTEM The Managerial Information System refer to the set of sub-systems and applications that assist managers in running the hospital as a: business entity provider of hospitality services physical facility The term ‘managerial’ is generic and refers to a set of sub-systems useful for managers.

Hospital Information System Overview: What It Is And How To Select One?

A Hospital Information System supports activities at the operational, tactical, and strategic levels of a hospital.

The problem of finding a hospital information system arises from the need for health centers to properly select a software tool that helps them counteract possible medical negligence, delays in care, surgeries, theft and waste, and operational inefficiencies, etc.

Phases of implementation of a HIS. The phases of a software implementation begin with the stage in which it is decided to implement an HIS system , and not another type of tool.

To know what the HIS is, it is important to know how it is composed: by information systems used for the medical, administrative and financial management of the hospital and obviously, supported by voice and data technology that will serve to communicate internally and externally to the staff of the hospital.

The purchase of a system represents a great investment for the institution, not only financial but also other resources, such as the time and effort of its employees, and the migration of information from one system to another with the risks that this process implies.

A hospital management system, once implemented, is expected to last a few years and accompany the hospital in its projects, plans and business objectives.

For this reason, it is very important to be able to select the system that best suits the needs of the company in various aspects, not only economic; but functional, strategic, technical and inherent to the provider and its service.

Introduction To Hospital Information Systems

The phrase, ‘hospital information system’, is frequently used in discussions about the flow of information throughout a hospital with the assumption that everybody has the same concept in mind.

The author draws on his experience as the Chief Information Officer at University Hospital at Stony Brook to define a hospital information system in terms of the implementation at Stony Brook.

The University Hospital Information System at University Hospital, has received international acclaim and was recently selected by the IBM Quarterly of Australia as the world leader in hospital information systems.

This paper answers four questions: What is a hospital information system? How does a hospital information system work? How do you implement a hospital information system? After the system is operational, where do you go, e.g., critical care data management, physician’s office management? University Hospital at Stony Brook is located on eastern Long Island and is the tertiary care referral hospital for approximately 1.4 million people.

The system operates 24 hours per day, seven days per week.

Access to the system is through 300 terminals and 128 printers throughout the hospital.

In addition to the UHIS terminals, the critical care management system which is called Patient Data Management System,, is available at over 90 ICU beds and in the operating rooms.

Expectations of a country health information system Health information systems serve multiple users and a wide array of purposes that can be summarized as the generation of information to enable decision-makers at all levels of the health system to identify problems and needs, make evidence-based decisions on health policy and allocate scarce resources optimally.

At least one national health accounts completed in last 5 years National database with public and private sector health facilities, and geocoding, available and updated within last 3 years National database with health workers by district and main cadres updated within last 2 years Annual data on availability of tracer medicines and commodities in public and private health facilities Capacity for analysis, synthesis and validation of health data 22.

Country HMIS reports Country health sector reports NHA report Database should separately distinguish public, private and non-profit facilities; should also include key infrastructure, human resources, medicines, equipment and supplies, and service availability Database comprises data from multiple sources, including census, labour force surveys, professional registers, training institutions, facility assessments Aligned to national essential medicines list Ideally, the body should be quasi autonomous or independent and should adhere to Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics 12 Health facility assessments National health sector review Essential medicines reviews; health facility assessments National health sector reports Indicator 23.

The official annual health statistics report has been published within 12 months of the preceding year Definition Indicators cover key issues including health determinants, health system inputs, processes and outputs, use of health care services, mortality, morbidity, health system responsiveness etc Data collection method National health sector reports Validation by an independent reviewer would be needed to ascertain the extent of analysis and validation.

Published health data include meta data descriptors, margins of uncertainty, methodologies Review of annual health statistics report Review of annual health statistics report 13 Annex: selected tools The following provides references and links to key sources of standards, guidelines and quality criteria for different components of the health information system.

General health information systems assessment Health Metrics Network Assessing the National Health Information System An Assessment Tool VERSION 4.00, World Health Organization, Geneva Offers a tool for conducting a systematic assessment of the existing national health information systems – both to establish a baseline and to monitor progress.

Int/nha/docs/English PG.pdf accessed 15 July 2008 World Health Organization Measuring Health Systems strengthening and Trends The toolkit describes a set of indicators, measurement approaches and strategies that will permit the establishment of country health system statistical profiles, thus facilitating monitoring of health systems investments and providing guidance to countries and development partners on where the critical gaps in health systems functioning lie.

Chapter 7: Hospital Information Systems

The purpose of a hospital information system is to manage the information that health professionals need to perform their jobs effectively and efficiently.

Operational Requirements up-to-date factual information necessary for day to day tasks Planning requirements short- and long-term decisions about patient care decisions about hospital management Documentation Requirements the maintenance of records accreditation legal record.

It costs a lot of money to deal with the information in a hospital.

Core Systems patient scheduling admission discharge admission-discharge-transfer Business and Financial Systems payroll accounts receivable Communications and Networking Systems integration of all parts of the HIS order entry & results reporting Departmental-Management Systems the needs of individual departments can be met those subsystems can be useful in a macro-system Medical-Documentation Systems collecting, organizing, storing, and presenting Quality Assurance Medical Support Systems assistance in interpreting data issue alerts, provide advice.

It can be useful to integrate the clinical and the administrative information into the same information system.

Technicon Medical Information System among the oldest developed between Lockheed and El Camino Hospital only accomplished Information Management HELP System developed at the LDS Hospital provided information management, physician guidance, and clinical-research support physician guidance was accomplished through “Knowledge frames” set alarms warning if “This is true” then “Do this” PROMIS developed at the Medical Center Hospital of Vermont and the University of Vermont designed to completely replace paper used by the physician during a session to guide his/her analysis severely constrictive and not well received made an impact upon later HISs.

Local-area communication networks LANs are cheaper and more effective Workstations and personal computers On a LAN you need some computers Bedside terminals Have not caught on yet due to cost Linkages between hospitals and physicians as automation occurs natural links occur.

Best Hospital Management Software In 2022

Patient ModuleThe patient module of the online hospital management system registers every patient, provides him or her a unique registration number, records the patient’s personal information, demographic information, previous medical history, and contact information.

It integrates with the inventory management module of the hospital management system and automatically sends a notification about the items required for operation.

Facility managementThis section tracks the availability and management of various facilities for hospital operations such as rooms for patient’s relatives, ambulance, wheelchairs, cafeteria, etc.

Insurance services integrationThis feature lets the hospital keep accurate records and documents related to the health insurance of patients for claim approvals.

The administrative module provides the management and admin control of the overall HMS software.

Telehealthcare managementHospitals providing telemedicine services can manage their telehealth services through this module of the online hospital management system.

Other featuresHospitals should also see if the HMS software has extra amenities and premium features such as an emergency notification system, incident management module, separate blood bank management module, and the research and development module.

Post Idea #15: Brain–computer interface

Related Articles – Summarized

Brain-Computer Interface

Continual improvements of this BCI, as well as similar visual BCIs in development, hold great promise that BCIs will soon provide patients with successful options for eradicating blindness.

Different techniques are used to measure brain activity for BCIs.

Studies with DOC patients will then demonstrate whether BCI can be purposefully utilized to investigate cognitive processing, to improve diagnosis, or even for social interaction in patients with DOC. It is unknown how much structural and functional integrity and connectivity of the brain is necessary to use a BCI for at least minimal communication.

One view is that electrodes on top of the brain are safer and easier to place, and that they can capture enough signal for effective BCI control.

The pace of knowledge, progress, and technology innovation seems to promise continuing and steady progress to create better BCIs, but the pace can be substantially accelerated when the field integrates a clear definition of goals, regulatory and clinical demands, commercialization potential, and health care system impact, as well as the ELSI of brain interface technology.

Further miniaturization of BCI and neuroprosthetic devices will also increase the adoption of these technologies and facilitate the development of fully implantable BCI systems.

A detailed analysis of the cyber-vulnerabilities of BCIs suggested that security breaches could occur at various phases of the BCI cycle including signal acquisition, feature extraction and decoding.

Brain-Computer Interface: Advancement And Challenges

Bousseta R., El Ouakouak I., Gharbi M., Regragui F. EEG based brain computer interface for controlling a robot arm movement through thought.

Djamal E.C., Abdullah M.Y., Renaldi F. Brain computer interface game controlling using fast fourier transform and learning vector quantization.

Fatourechi M., Bashashati A., Ward R.K., Birch G.E. EMG and EOG artifacts in brain computer interface systems: A survey.

Rezaei S., Tavakolian K., Nasrabadi A.M., Setarehdan S.K. Different classification techniques considering brain computer interface applications.

Chaudhary P., Agrawal R. A comparative study of linear and non-linear classifiers in sensory motor imagery based brain computer interface.

Mohamed E.A., Yusoff M.Z.B., Selman N.K., Malik A.S. Enhancing EEG signals in brain computer interface using wavelet transform.

Mudgal S.K., Sharma S.K., Chaturvedi J., Sharma A. Brain computer interface advancement in neurosciences: Applications and issues.

Brain-Computer Interfaces

BCI is direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.

The Brain-Computer Interfaces project in Microsoft Research aims to enable BCI for the general population.

We go towards interactive BCI, which means response times within seconds and using EEG signals.

Haptic: steady-state somatosensory evoked potential.

BCI as type of HMI. BCI can be treated as another input modality of the human-machine interface.

We target general population in interactive BCI scenarios.

The most promising applications include augmenting the UI of AR/VR glasses with BCI components.

Brain-Computer Interface

Implementations of BCIs range from non-invasive and partially invasive to invasive, based on how close electrodes get to brain tissue.

This 1988 report written by Stevo Bozinovski, Mihail Sestakov, and Liljana Bozinovska was the first one about a robot control using EEG. In 1990, a report was given on a closed loop, bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation potential.

The CNV brain potential was part of the BCI challenge presented by Vidal in his 1973 paper.

Miguel Nicolelis, a professor at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, has been a prominent proponent of using multiple electrodes spread over a greater area of the brain to obtain neuronal signals to drive a BCI. After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, Nicolelis and his colleagues developed BCIs that decoded brain activity in owl monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms.

Partially invasive BCI devices are implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain rather than within the grey matter.

After the BCI challenge was stated by Vidal in 1973, the initial reports on non-invasive approach included control of a cursor in 2D using VEP, control of a buzzer using CNV, control of a physical object, a robot, using a brain rhythm, control of a text written on a screen using P300. In the early days of BCI research, another substantial barrier to using Electroencephalography as a brain-computer interface was the extensive training required before users can work the technology.

While the cellular based BCI technology was developed to initiate a phone call from SSVEPs, the researchers said that it can be translated for other applications, such as picking up sensorimotor mu/beta rhythms to function as a motor-imagery based BCI. In 2013, comparative tests were performed on android cell phone, tablet, and computer based BCIs, analyzing the power spectrum density of resultant EEG SSVEPs.

Brain-Computer Interfaces: Definitions And Principles

Unlike the natural CNS outputs that come from spinal and brainstem motoneurons, BCI outputs come from brain signals that represent activity in other CNS areas, such as the sensorimotor cortex.

If BCIs are to be useful for important communication and control tasks in real life, the CNS must control these brain signals nearly as reliably and accurately as it controls spinal motoneurons.

The ongoing adaptive modifications that maintain effective natural CNS outputs take place primarily in the CNS. The adaptive modifications that maintain effective BCI outputs can also take place in the BCI. This means that the BCI operation depends on the effective collaboration of two adaptive controllers, the CNS and the BCI. Realization of this second adaptive controller, the BCI, and management of its interactions with concurrent adaptations in the CNS comprise another complex and critical challenge for BCI development.

BCIs can use different kinds of brain signals recorded in different ways from different brain areas.

Noninvasive BCIs need to take special care to avoid interpreting nonbrain signals as brain signals.

In the future, the most effective BCIs will probably be those that combine goal selection and process control so as to distribute control between the BCI and the application in a fashion suited to the current action.

The primary measure of BCI development is the extent to which BCI systems benefit people with neuromuscular disorders.

The Introductory Guide To BCI

One study tested a BCI system on its ability to detect and classify brain activity with its paired mental actions.

BCI researchers have also used humanoid robots controlled by BCI devices to manipulate a remote environment.

BCI is being used to study how specific tissue systems respond to electrical stimulation and what that could mean at the cognitive level.

In the future, we may see BCI medical products used in surgery or other medical operations.

BCI enables subjects with motor disabilities to use their brain activity to control objects in their environment and communicate.

BCI software can “Translate” mental commands from EEG data into commands in a video game.

In BCI gaming, instead of using a traditional game controller, the subject uses mental commands to enable movement-based actions in the game – such as “Push,” “Pull” or “Jump.” The BCI processes mental commands from the EEG and triggers the corresponding action in the VR game.

How Does Brain-Computer Interface Work

In invasive BCI, electrodes are applied on the scalp of the human, i.e., EEG-based BCI. While in invasive BCI, the electrodes are directly attached to the brain carrying out surgeries.

BCI can be adaptive, assistive, and rehabilitative technology that reads or interprets older adults’ brain activity and transforms into signals that can be used to operate the devices.

In the last two decades, multiple BCI approaches have been developed based upon slow waves, EPs, SSEPs, and MI paradigms to help escalate the medical field through BCI. The first BCI application was used to move prosthetics, spell, and move the computer cursor.

The role of BCI is widespread in medicine, and it is used in automated wheelchair control through the BCI approach; another exclusive clinical application of BCI is the facilitation of motor function after spinal cord surgery or stroke.

BCIs can be helpful in the diagnosis of certain brain disorders.

Artistic BCI refers to the integration of arts into BCI. David Rosen boom was the first to try different experiments to link brain functions with the musical production, perception of proprioception, and musical forms.

There are some social and ethical concerns regarding the application of BCI. Many factors like user safety, privacy protection, ethics, community acceptance, data confidentiality, and socioeconomic aspects related to BCI ensure user satisfaction.

Post Idea #16: Commodity price shocks

Related Articles – Summarized

Commodity Price Shocks

Commodity price shocks are times when the prices for commodities have drastically increased or decreased over a short span of time.

At the time of the 1973 oil crisis, the price of corn and wheat went up by a factor of three.

The 2007-08 world food price crisis saw corn, wheat, and rice go up by a factor of three when measured in US dollars.

Global commodity prices fell 38% between June 2014 and February 2015.

Demand and supply conditions led to lower price expectations for all nine of the World Bank’s commodity price indices – an extremely rare occurrence.

The commodity price shock in the second half of 2014 cannot be attributed to any single factor or defining event.

Amongst these, the transition of China’s economy to more sustainable levels of growth and the shale-energy boom in the United States were the dominant demand-side and supply-side factors governing the downturn in global commodity prices.

Persistence Of Commodity Shocks

Some shocks are permanent in nature: our research finds that this type of shock accounts for two-thirds of agricultural price variability but less than half of industrial commodity price variability over the past fifty years.

Shocks can also exert a permanent impact on commodity markets.

How much do transitory and permanent shocks contribute to commodity price variability?

This greater contribution of business cycle shocks to metal commodity price fluctuations is in line with the strong response of metal consumption to industrial activity.

Transitory shocks were more relevant to the price variation of industrial commodities, while permanent shocks mattered most in agricultural commodity price movements.

The evolution of permanent shocks differed markedly across commodity groups.

The contribution of permanent shocks to annual agricultural price variability is the highest among all six commodity groups, and these permanent shocks have evolved in a similar manner across annual agricultural prices.

The Economics And Finance Of Commodity Price Shocks

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We use an aggregate measure of qit because measuring purchases at a single retailer would tend to understate a household’s total gasoline consumption, leading us to overstate G.7 In the appendix, we confirm that our results strengthen when we measure qit using data on purchases at the retailer, and we show that our results are robust to allowing that the prices of energy goods other than gasoline are correlated with the price of gasoline.

V. V.A. DESCRIPTIVE EVIDENCE ON FUNGIBILITY Gasoline Grade Choice Figure I plots, separately by decade, the regular-grade share of total US gasoline sales as well as the US average price for regular unleaded gasoline, from the EIA data.

13 of regular gasoline tends to increase when the price of gasoline rises, and to fall when the price of gasoline falls.

In the online appendix, we show that, among households who switch gasoline grades over time, a majority exhibit a tendency to buy regular gasoline more often when the price of gasoline is high.

Using benchmark estimates of the effect of gasoline prices on vehicle purchases, scrappage, and driving intensity, in the online appendix we estimate that a $1 increase in 15 the gasoline price should increase the share of regular gasoline by only 0.03 percentage points in the short run due to vehicle substitution.

If drivers perceive higher octane levels as complementary to sporty driving, and if sporty driving is more expensive when gasoline prices are high, then households might substitute to regular gasoline when gasoline prices are high.

VI.C. Placebo Tests We interpret our findings as evidence that, when purchasing gasoline, consumers are especially sensitive to their total gasoline expenditures, and therefore treat changes in gasoline prices as equivalent to very large changes in income when deciding which grade of gasoline to purchase.

As commodity prices in general-and the price of oil in particular-are an important component of a consumer price index, their evolution and the driving forces behind them are clearly crucial for the conduct of monetary policy.

Regarding the commodity price surge between 2003 and 2008, historical decomposition shows that accumulated past monetary policy shocks contributed to the increase in the broad commodity price index and in its main components, but they explain just a small part of the peak in the price of oil and nothing of that in food prices.

2.1 Monetary Shocks and Commodity Prices Data and Model Details To gauge the quantitative effect of monetary policy shocks on commodity prices, we estimate a VAR for the United States, the largest oil-consuming economy in the world.

9 No. 3 The Impact of Monetary Policy Shocks 131 commodity prices respond to monetary shocks, we simply regress the log change in the commodity price index on a constant, its own lagged values, and lagged values of the policy measure.

The lagged values of the shock series are included to capture the direct impact of shocks on commodity price changes, and the lagged values of commodity price changes are included to control for the normal dynamics of the commodity price index.

3.1 Monetary Policy and Commodity Prices Fluctuations Forecast-Error-Variance Decomposition Given the significant effect of monetary shocks, one may wonder how large is their relative contribution to overall commodity price fluctuations.

Frankel summarizes them as follows: low interest rates tend to reduce the opportunity cost of carrying inventories, increasing the demand for commodities; on the supply side, lower rates create an incentive not to extract exhaustible commodities today, as the cost of holding inventories “In the ground” also decreases; and for a given expected price path, a decrease in interest rates reduces the carrying cost of speculative positions, making it easier to bet on assets such as commodities; under certain conditions, this will put upward pressure on futures prices and, by arbitrage, also on spot prices.

Post Idea #17: Pernod Ricard

Related Articles – Summarized

Pernod Ricard, Créateurs De Convivialité

Our ambition is to turn every social interaction into a genuine and friendly experience of sharing.

As we create and share our Pernod Ricard products we become immersed in this extraordinary human experience of convivialité.

We are respectful and responsible hosts, committed to nurturing every terroir and its biodiversity.

94% of our employees are proud to work for Pernod Ricard.

Experience the heritage and stories behind our brands.

Located in the country of their brand’s origin, Pernod Ricard’s Brand Homes welcome more than 1.5 million visitors per year.

Do not share this website with anyone under legal drinking age.

Pernod Ricard

Pernod Ricard is a French company best known for its anise-flavoured pastis apéritifs Pernod Anise and Ricard Pastis.

After the banning of absinthe, Pernod Ricard was created from the Pernod Fils company, which had produced absinthe.

In 2005, the company acquired a British-based competitor, Allied Domecq PLC. In 2008, Pernod Ricard announced its acquisition of Swedish-based V&S Group, which produces Absolut Vodka.

In 2013, Pernod Ricard joined leading alcohol producers as part of a producers’ commitments to reducing harmful drinking.

1805 – Maison Pernod Fils is founded in Pontarlier, Franche-Comté, eastern France, by Henri-Louis Pernod and begins production of the anise-flavored liquor known as absinthe.

Corby Distilleries – Canadian subsidiary; owner of Wiser’s whisky, Lamb’s rum; Hiram Walker & Sons Limited is majority shareholder of Corby and itself unit of Pernod Ricard.

Pernod Ricard owns a wide variety of beverage brands worldwide.

Dinamično Podjetje Z Dolgoletno Tradicijo

Preberi več KI NO BI PREJEMNIK NAGRADE ZA NAJBOLJŠEGA MEDNARODNEGA PROIZVAJALCA GINA LETA 2021 Na podelitvi nagrad IWSC 2021 je bil Ki No Bi gin nagrajen za najboljšega mednarodnega proizvajalca gina letošnjega leta, v kategoriji žganih pijač.

Preberi več EDINSTVEN VISKI CHIVAS REGAL MIZUNARA V SLOVENIJI Prvi Škotski whisky na svetu, ki je selektivno staran v sodih hrasta mizunara sedaj tudi v Sloveniji.

Preberi več HAVANA CLUB PREJEMNIK 12 MEDALJ NA JESENSKI DEGUSTACIJI “THE SPIRITS BUSINESS IN THE DRINKS BUSINESS” Letna jesenska degustacija SB in DB predstavi najboljše zimske tople pijače in praznične napitke pred praznično sezono.

Preberi več ABERLOUR OSVOJIL ZLATO NA TEKMOVANJU ISC 2020 Prvič v zgodovini znamke Aberlour beležimo zmago celotnega portfelja, ki si je na tekmovanju prislužil zlato odliko.

Preberi več CHIVAS REGAL – sinonim za najboljši viski Od prefinjenosti destilacije do dolgotrajnih postopkov mešanja se ta spremeni v kombinacijo popolnih okusov.

Preberi več … … …. Casillero del Diablo je uvrščen med 100 najboljših nakupov po mnenju vinskih navdušencev Preberi več Vinski trendi, ki jih prinaša leto 2022 Preberi več Družbena odgovornost.

Skupina Pernod Ricard svoj uspeh dosega z nenehno izboljšavo in krepitvijo interne organizacije ter s širitvijo in integracijo svojega portfelja znamk s svetovno najuspešnejšimi znamkami pijač.

Des échanges riches entre les agriculteurs, associations et membres de l’entreprise autour de ces ingrédients, de leur culture leur production en passant par leur utilisation, dans une logique de respect de l’environnement de valorisation de nos régions ⬇. Show this thread.[THREAD] était en direct du ! Nos plantes et racines phares issues de nos terroirs français qui constituent la base de nos spiritueux étaient l’honneur : le fenouil, la gentiane et la betterave sucrière ⬇#SIA2022.

nos côtés, de nombreux invités mettront l’honneur nos ingrédients phares, de leur culture leur consommation dans le respect de nos terroirs et de la biodiversité : le fenouil, la gentiane et la betterave sucrière.

A symbol of sophistication and conviviality, Pernod Ricard is proud to set new standards for single malt whisky, creating a world-class destination for visitors.

Ly/6010JEioa dédié transformation sociétale est disponible dès maintenant !Come on a tour of Pernod Ricard’s Global Flagship in Central Paris – The Island.

At the #LuxePack event in Monaco, Sustainable Business Director Noémie Bauer spoke about Pernod Ricard’s commitment to developing #sustainable #packaging solutions and helping consumers make informed purchasing decisions.

lire ⤵. Pernod Ricard buys the Whisky Exchange in a move that vaults the maker of Absolut vodka and Havana Club rum into one of the liquor industry’s largest online retailers.

Pernod Ricard is delighted to announce the signing of an agreement for the acquisition of , a leading spirits online and physical retailer and a reference for global whisky and fine spirits lovers.

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Post Idea #18: Chemical industry

Related Articles – Summarized

The Chemical Industry

Introduction The chemical industry creates an immense variety of products which impinge on virtually every aspect of our lives.

As explained in the unit on Chemical Reactors, the choice of reactor is often goverened by the amount of chemical that is to be produced.

Basic chemicals, produced in large quantities, are mainly sold within the chemical industry and to other industries before becoming products for the general consumer.

Table 4 Chemical sales per head of population by country in 2014.Data calculated from Facts and Figures 2016, CEFIC. How large are the world’s chemical companies?

Since the chemical industry is its own biggest customer, it makes good sense to group together companies that use chemical products as intermediates in their own manufacturing process.

In spite of dealing with hazardous operations, the chemical industry actually has a lower number of accidents than industry as a whole.

In the 20 years from 1994, the chemical industry in the US saved about 20% energy per unit of production and in the same period energy saved per unit of production in the EU fell by 55%. Greenhouse gas emission per unit of production decreased by 58% and 75% in the US and EU, respectively between 1990 and 2014.

Chemical Industry

Various professionals are involved in the chemical industry including chemical engineers, chemists and lab technicians.

By 1913 German industry produced almost 90% of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold approximately 80% of their production abroad. In the United States, Herbert Henry Dow’s use of electrochemistry to produce chemicals from brine was a commercial success that helped to promote the country’s chemical industry.

A list of the top 25 chemical companies by chemical sales in 2015 appears below.

From the perspective of chemical engineers, the chemical industry involves the use of chemical processes such as chemical reactions and refining methods to produce a wide variety of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials.

Chemical processes such as chemical reactions operate in chemical plants to form new substances in various types of reaction vessels.

Since 2000 the chemical sector alone has represented 2/3 of the entire manufacturing trade surplus of the EU. In 2012, the chemical sector accounted for 12% of the EU manufacturing industry’s added value.

In 2012 the data from the European Chemical Industry Council shows that five European countries account for 71% of the EU’s chemicals sales.

Chemical Industry Spotlight

Manufacturing USA: Manufacturing USA – the National Network for Manufacturing Innovation – consists of linked manufacturing innovation institutes with common goals, but unique concentrations.

Each institute is designed to be a public-private membership organization where industry, academia, and government partners are leveraging existing resources, collaborating, and co-investing to nurture manufacturing innovation and accelerate commercialization.

In the chemicals area, the Institute for Advanced Composites Manufacturing Innovation was created in 2015 with membership from industry, academia, and the public sector.

The IACMI will foster the creation and application of next-generation composites by accelerating the development and adoption of advanced manufacturing technologies in the industry with a focus on vehicles, wind turbines, and compressed gas storage.

Manufacturing Extension Partnership: The Manufacturing Extension Partnership helps U.S. firms by providing individually tailored services to help companies improve their productivity, economic competitiveness and technological capabilities.

Department of Energy’s Advanced Manufacturing Office: Through cost-shared projects, tools, training, and information, the Advanced Manufacturing Office works with a broad spectrum of public-private partners to develop and commercialize technologies/materials and practices that will result in increased energy productivity and savings for U.S. industry.

The BAP provides loan guarantees to assist in the development of manufacturing facilities for advanced biofuels, renewable chemicals and biobased chemical products.

Overview, Importance, & History

Although the chemical industry may be described simply as the industry that uses chemistry and manufactures chemicals, this definition is not altogether satisfactory because it leaves open the question of what is a chemical.

The complicated characteristics of the chemical industry The scope of the chemical industry is in part shaped by custom rather than by logic.

The term petrochemical is used to describe these chemical operations because they are often carried out at the same plant as the primary distillation, the distinction between petroleum industry and chemical industry is difficult to maintain.

Metals in a sense are chemicals because they are produced by chemical means, the ores sometimes requiring chemical methods of dressing before refining; the refining process also involves chemical reactions.

The products are most often end products only as regards the chemical industry itself; a chief characteristic of the chemical industry is that its products nearly always require further processing before reaching the ultimate consumer.

Because of the competitiveness within the chemical industry and among the chemicals, the chemical industry spends large amounts on research, particularly in the highly industrialized countries.

The terms heavy chemical industry and light chemical industry are not precisely exclusive, because numerous operations fall somewhere between the two classes.

Chemicals Industry Profile

More than 96% of all manufactured goods are directly touched by the chemicals industry.

2 With chemical shipments reaching nearly $720 billion in 2010, the chemical industry provides over $226 billion to the U.S. GDP, approximately 2% of the total.

3 The industry exported a record $171 billion in chemicals in 2010, accounting for 10% of all U.S. exports.

The U.S. chemicals industry’s end-use energy consumption totaled almost 5.2 quadrillion Btu in 2006; accounting for about 24% of all energy use in U.S. manufacturing.

The chemicals industry is a keystone of the U.S. economy, converting raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.

Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods as well as thousands of products that are essential inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, computing, telecommunications, construction, and service industries.

The chemicals industry spent approximately $55 billion on R&D in 2010.2 The bulk of chemical R&D dollars are spent on product development.

Industrial Environmental Performance Metrics: Challenges And Opportunities

Used for long-term technology or business planning, particularly to prevent the environmental release of materials that pose the greatest risk in terms of toxicity and dispersion potential.

Ideally, emissions metrics should allow one to rank environmental and health risks.

One current effort to address this situation is a system of potency metrics developed by Imperial Chemical Industries, a U.K. chemical company.

The potential for a catastrophic chemical release is a major concern of the chemical industry.

While there are too few such events for metrics to be applicable, both environmental laws and the Occupational Safety and Health Act require defining a “Worst case” and a “More likely” release scenario for a catastrophe and reporting that to the community.

Chemical plumes, incinerators, noise, landfills, regulated outfalls, remediation sites, and transportation accidents can create concern among the public.

Two types of materials are generally tracked throughout the chemical industry: those intended for inclusion in the product and all other materials purchased, including “Support materials”, maintenance materials, and packaging.

Post Idea #19: Long-term care insurance

Related Articles – Summarized

Long-Term Care Insurance

Use these tips to prepare for covering potential long-term care insurance costs.

Long-term care is a blanket term for the various services required by people who are too chronically ill or infirm to take care of themselves.

Some people pay for long-term care as they need it, some purchase long-term care insurance in advance, some rely on spouses and family to provide care, and others combine these resources.

If you purchase long-term care insurance, will you be able to afford the premiums for the rest of your life?

Will your family chip in to purchase long-term care insurance?

Long-term care insurance premiums vary widely, depending on factors such as the age, health, and gender of the purchaser(s) and where the insurance is purchased.

Currently, the average stay at a nursing home is nearly 2.5 years, and that does not include any care they need or may have received in their home, assisted living, adult day care, etc.1 The annual average cost of care in a nursing facility now exceeds $92,860 and $105,266.

Long-Term Care Insurance Explained

A long-term care insurance policy helps cover the costs of that care when you have a chronic medical condition, a disability or a disorder such as Alzheimer’s disease.

You won’t qualify for long-term care insurance if you already have a debilitating condition, and long-term care insurance carriers won’t approve most applicants over the age of 75.

The majority of people with long-term care insurance buy it in their mid-50s to mid-60s. Whether long-term care insurance is the right choice depends on your situation and preferences.

The number of insurance companies selling long-term care insurance has plummeted since 2000.

A single 55-year-old man in good health buying new coverage can expect to pay an average of $1,700 a year for a long-term care policy with an initial pool of benefits of $164,000, according to the 2020 price index from the American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance.

The American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance advises working with an experienced long-term care insurance agent who can sell products from at least three carriers.

Most states have “Partnership” programs with long-term care insurance companies to encourage people to plan for long-term care.

6 Best Long-Term Care Insurance Companies Of 2022

Long-term care insurance can help you pay for the costs associated with your care as you get older and need help with everyday activities – such as bathing, dressing and eating – or care related to diseases like Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and dementia.

Cons.Doesn’t offer policies directly but connects customers with insurance carriers instead. HIGHLIGHTS.A.M. Best RatingN/AJ.D. Power ScoreN/A. As an online insurance broker, Golden Care partners with industry leaders to help customers find the best options for their long-term care needs.

New York Life offers two types of long-term care insurance options: traditional stand-alone policies and combination long-term care and life insurance policies.

California Long Term Care Insurance Services, also known as CLTC Insurance Services, is an independent insurance brokerage that specializes in selling long-term care insurance and related products in the state of California.

Long-term care insurance provides coverage for home health care or facility care if you can no longer perform at least two of the six basic activities of daily living: personal hygiene, dressing, using the bathroom, ambulation/transferring, continence and eating.

A traditional long-term care insurance policy can reimburse you for some of the costs of the care you receive at home, at a nursing home or in a residential care facility.

To select the best long-term care insurance companies of 2022, we considered the customer satisfaction ratings from J.D. Power’s 2021 Individual Life Insurance Study.

Best Long-Term Care Insurance Of 2022

Founded in 1845, New York Life is one of the top-rated long-term care insurance providers in terms of overall financial strength.

It wins our nod for overall best due to this strength and an innovative long-term care and life insurance policy.

Named one of the best life insurance companies of 2022 by our team at Investopedia, New York Life offers two types of long-term care insurance.

Its combination long-term care insurance plan offers-as the name suggests-a combination of long-term care or a larger life insurance benefit.

Long-term care coverage is offered for the expenses related to a range of choices, including care from a facility, care at home, or care from a family member.

New York Life offers a combination policy that provides long-term care benefits if you need them and a death benefit if you don’t.

The company’s traditional long-term care insurance plan is a better choice for those who want to get the most long-term care coverage per dollar, the broadest range of options of care, and protection for your assets and income during retirement.

Long-Term Care Insurance

Long-term care insurance covers things not normally covered by regular medical insurance.

A newer type of LTC insurance that is becoming more popular is a hybrid policy that includes some of the benefits of whole life insurance.

As we mentioned, long-term care insurance doesn’t cover acute medical needs – and it’s not meant to.

Where LTC insurance comes in is if you need extended care.

The cost of long-term care insurance varies greatly, but traditional policies average out to about $2,100 annually for a 55-year-old couple and $3,700 for a 65-year-old couple, according to the AARP. A hybrid policy will set the same couple back $8,100 at 55 years old and a whopping $13,800 at 65 years old-but remember that there’s a guaranteed payout for the hybrid policy, so the couple’s heirs would receive a return on that money.

Fewer long-term care insurance companies offer LTC coverage now then twenty years ago, because the high payouts often required make it a less profitable type of insurance for insurers.

Chronic care can be difficult or impossible for family members to handle alone, both financially and physically, and a good LTC policy can take the burden off of family members and, instead, place it on the shoulders of health care professionals who are trained to offer this type of care.

Making Sense Of Your Long-Term Insurance Options

One option to pay for such services is long-term care insurance.

Traditional long-term care policies work much like policies for auto or home insurance: You pay premiums, usually for as long as the policy is in effect, and make claims if you ever need the covered services.

The majority of long-term care policies sold today combine coverage for long-term care with another benefit, usually life insurance or, less often, an annuity.

In return, you get long-term care coverage with features like those found in traditional policies, along with some amount of life insurance that will go to your heirs if you never use the long-term care benefits.

The life insurance payouts tend to be modest, Altfest’s Graham says, unless you attach long-term care to a larger, more expensive permanent life insurance policy.

While experts used to suggest shopping for long-term care insurance by your early 60s, many now suggest starting sooner, in your 50s or even your late 40s. Ways to pay for your policy.

You may be able to cover premiums, tax-free, with money from a health care savings account (available only to consumers in certain health plans), Benz says, or you can explore the tax advantages of exchanging an existing life insurance policy or annuity for a long-term care policy.

Average Cost Of Long-Term Care Insurance 2022

People who purchase long-term care insurance at a young age when they are in good health – before they have any noted health concerns that may mean they need care sooner – get the most affordable rates.

Gender: Women pay moreWomen tend to have a higher premium cost for long-term care insurance.

Carrier policies: Rates vary by providerEvery carrier sets its own rates for long-term care policies, creating a large range of rates among providers, based in part on the cost of care in each location and the policy coverage.

It helps seniors meet care needs outside of a long-term care facility by covering services such as adult day primary care, home care, meals, nursing home care and prescription medication.

The American Association for Long-Term Care Insurance estimates that 7.5 million Americans have some type of long-term care insurance.

Given the high cost of long-term care – and the lack of coverage from Medicare and other insurers – it’s important to consider purchasing long-term care insurance.

A policy’s daily benefit can be used to cover the costs of an assisted living facility, a nursing home, adult day care or a memory care or home care facility.

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