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Instant payment is a method of exchanging money and processing payments, allowing for almost immediate transfer of money between bank accounts, instead of the more typical one to three business days.
Many countries have implemented instant payment systems, and many instant payment systems and platforms are currently under development worldwide, due to increased need for faster and reliable transactions.
Electronic retail payment solutions available 24/7/365 and resulting in the immediate or close-to-immediate interbank clearing of the transaction and crediting of the payee’s account with confirmation to the payer.
Merchants require faster and more reliable money transfer systems to keep up with consumers’ demands.
Traditional electronic payments like simple bank transfers, that perform the electronic funds transfer within few business days, are not in line with user expectations.
It is predicted [by whom?] that, in the next year,[when?] instant payments will become the standard for electronic fund transfers, where customers will be able to digitally access their insurers and manage their funds.
Philippines InstaPay Russia Sistema bystrykh platezhey [ru] – Fast Payments System, available from 2019 Sweden Swish, since 2012, retail since 2014 United Kingdom Faster Payments Service, available since 2008, which is operated by VocaLink United States Zelle, available since 2016 and Venmo, available since 2018 and RTP – Real-Time Payments, available since 2017.
In e-commerce, instant payments eliminate the risk for online merchants of not getting paid, as the release of goods and services can be easily synchronised with the payment.
For business-to-business payments, instant payments improve cash flow, make it easier to manage funds, reduce late payments and speed up the payment of invoices.
Payment service providers are not obliged to offer instant payments to their customers.
The ECB is interested in instant payments because we are responsible for the safety and efficiency of electronic payments in euro.
To promote innovation in payments, we work with the financial industry to agree on common rules and standards and remove any remaining obstacles to payments across countries within the EU. The ECB also chairs a group – called the Euro Retail Payments Board – which brings together representatives of providers and users of payment services, who work together to make the payments market in the EU more integrated, innovative and competitive.
The Euro Retail Payments Board has driven the work on pan-European instant payments and is monitoring progress as they become more widely used.
The TARGET instant payment settlement service will be launched in November 2018 and should provide an additional incentive for payment service providers to offer instant payments because it will make it easier for them to reach the customers of other payment service providers across Europe, and to do it at a low cost.
So what is behind the names that promise just that: Instant Payments, Faster Payments, Real-Time Payments or SWIFT gpi? What opportunities do they present and what are their limitations? We take a closer look at these options as well as at a solution that holds great potential for businesses: EBICS SEPA Instant Credit Transfer and the SWIFT gpi technology with the SWIFT for Corporates project.
Instant Payments, Faster Payments, Real-Time Payments: What are they?Definition Instant Payments and SEPA Instant Credit TransferDefinition Faster PaymentsDefinition Real-Time PaymentsOpportunities and limitations of real-time payment systemsWhat solutions do globally active businesses need?SWIFT gpi: fast payments without bordersHow SWIFT gpi worksThe SWIFT for Corporates projectPayments in real-time: our conclusion.
While in many ways terms such as instant payments, faster payments and real-time payments are used interchangeably, three distinct official regional systems have been established: Instant Payments for the SEPA area, Faster Payments for the UK and Real-Time Payments in the US. Definition: Instant Payments and SEPA Instant Credit Transfer.
Using the European payments infrastructure, the Single Euro Payments Area has introduced the following Instant Payments system: SEPA Instant Credit Transfer, developed by the European Payment Council.
Instant payments for the SEPA area, Faster Payments for the UK and Real-Time Payments in the US – all of these clearing systems offer payments processing within seconds but, as mentioned, are confined to the limits of their own networks.
While clearing systems such as Instant Payments, Faster Payments or Real-Time Payments present new opportunities for consumers and E-commerce, they are non-integrated solutions and don’t enable payments across different systems.
Conversely, the EBICS SEPA Instant Credit Transfer standardization efforts and the SWIFT gpi for Corporates project do offer real potential for corporate treasury: they make payments fast, traceable and transparent: a real leap for corporate payments.
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Available on current & saving accounts in CZK. At the same price as domestic payments: no extra fees for processing.
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GoodLife Fitness was founded on the traditional lands of the Anishinaabek, Haudenosaunee, Lūnaapéewak and Attawandaron Peoples, on lands connected with the London Township and Sombra Treaties of 1796 and the Dish with One Spoon Covenant Wampum.
This land, and the land on which all GoodLife Fitness Clubs operate, continues to be home to diverse Indigenous Peoples whom we recognize as contemporary stewards of the land and vital contributors of our society.
GoodLife Fitness is a highly individualized fitness and wellness program under the close supervision and instruction of our nationally certified exercise physiologists.
Any adult interested in improving their overall fitness and meeting their goals under the supervision of a qualified professional should join our program.
GoodLife Fitness also works in conjunction with rehabilitation services including inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation, lymphedema management and specialized therapies.
The GoodLife Fitness exercise physiologists are qualified to work with adults of varying fitness and health levels to identify and design a unique exercise program to both maintain and progress your fitness.
In addition to individualized fitness training sessions, GoodLife Fitness offers a variety of specialized exercise and wellness groups and educational seminars.
Get Started Today! Complete the enrollment packet and return it to a GoodLife Fitness location.
Complete an initial assessment with an exercise physiologist or exercise specialist.
Join one of our many fitness plans: personal training, group, or virtual.
High Performance Training, with GoodLife Fitness is the most effective, high-intensity training program around.
We specialize in pushing people to peak fitness performance.
Our fitness regimen offers the most unique, exciting and motivating experience.
Workouts are held both in studio and virtually, providing creative and truly inspiring workouts for all fitness levels.
Now…have you started and then stalled your fitness routine? Are you bored with the same exercises? Do you lack motivation to get the results you desire? Then Goodlife Fitness.
Good Life Fitness/N-10sive Boot Camps is Lincoln’s premier fitness facility with 2 locations!! With over 100 fitness boot camps and group fitness cla.
See more of Good life fitness n-10sive boot camps on Facebook.
You’ll be able to get your workout in again, as GoodLife Fitness is reopening their doors.
All GoodLife clubs will undergo intensive cleaning prior to opening.
There are protective barriers throughout the gym, where staff can meet with members.
While you don’t need to book a workout time, GoodLife Fitness is running at a reduced capacity, which means staff will only let people in if there’s enough space.
Gym users can book a time as early as June 15th through the Member Portal and app.
To ensure GoodLife Fitness is upholding safety measures, certain amenities will be unavailable.
Are you looking forward to heading back to GoodLife Fitness?
First the good: Like all GoodLifes, it has a very good selection of cardio machines and a pretty good selection of plate-loaded/selectorized machines.
There are two full dumbbell racks, three power cages, stretching areas, a group class room, spin class room, nice change rooms and showers etc.
The not-so-good: Crowded and smelly – especially the free weight area.
The floor space isn’t efficiently allocated for this location – as mentioned, the free weight area is always crowded, but the huge cardio area is never at more than 50% capacity, and I’ve never, ever seen anyone use a spin bike in the adjacent spin class room.
The spin area and part of the cardio area should be repurposed with more benches, free weights and plate-loaded machines.
The gym had a large room where fitness classes were held, but it was very underutilized.
I’m sitting in the co-ed gym right now and there are 4 women in here but only one in the women’s only gym – which seems typical on my visits.
Goodlife Fitness Centres Inc. is the largest health club company in Canada with over 450 locations across the country, under the banner of four brands.
GoodLife also has yoga-focused fitness centre brand named Oxygen Yoga & Fitness with 60 locations.
In 2009, GoodLife Fitness expanded into Eastern Canada by acquiring Nubody’s family of clubs.
On April 1, 2013, GoodLife Fitness announced its acquisition of Extreme Fitness Inc., a leading operator of fitness clubs in the Greater Toronto Area and surrounding region.
In 2005, a federal Competition Bureau investigation found that GoodLife Fitness clubs had published misleading ads.
In January 2011, GoodLife Fitness was caught in a media backlash, after one customer who was attempting to cancel his membership was roughed-up by security guards at its Rideau Centre location; And after another, at its Orleans location, was chastised and banned for chatting about the benefits of other fitness clubs.
In 2011, GoodLife Fitness was fined $300,000 for illegally using automated calling devices, known as robocalls, to contact its members, without their prior consent, to advertise the opening of a new club.
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These 5 parts of physical fitness are also linked to health but less so than the health-related components.
Each part of physical fitness is described in more detail in the two following features: The Six Parts of Health-Related Fitness and The Five Parts of Skill-Related Fitness.
She can probably run a long distance without tiring; thus she has good fitness in at least one area of health-related physical fitness.
Does she have good fitness in all six parts? Running is an excellent form of physical activity, but being a runner doesn’t guarantee fitness in all parts of health-related physical fitness.
Regular physical activity can improve anyone’s health-related physical fitness.
Just as the runner in our example may not achieve a high rating in all parts of health-related physical fitness, she also may not rate the same in all parts of skill-related physical fitness.
No matter how you score on the skill-related parts of physical fitness, you can enjoy some type of physical activity.
Physical activity programs that include more than one type of physical activity are most successful at reducing falls and fall-related injuries.
Different types of physical activity include aerobic, muscle strengthening, and balance physical activities.
Doing 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity, if able, plus muscle-strengthening activity improves your ability to manage pain and do everyday tasks and improves quality of life.
For older adults, multicomponent physical activity is important to improve physical function and decrease the risk of falls or injury from a fall.
Multicomponent physical activity is physical activity that includes more than one type of physical activity, such as aerobic, muscle strengthening, and balance training.
You don’t have to do high amounts of activity or vigorous-intensity activity to reduce your risk of premature death.
Benefits start to accumulate with any amount of moderate- or vigorous-intensity physical activity.
Being physically fit lowers your risk of developing dementia, according to one of the largest studies to test this idea so far.
Edward Zamrini at George Washington University in Washington DC and his colleagues studied the link between cardiovascular fitness and dementia in over 650,000 people who had previously served in the US military.
The team found that a person in the least-fit group would reduce their risk of developing dementia by 13 per cent if they moved into the second-least-fit group.
If they joined the fittest group, their risk of developing dementia dropped by 33 per cent.
Despite the study only including people who didn’t show any explicit dementia symptoms at the outset, some people with dementia have no symptoms early on in their condition, and so some participants may have started developing dementia before they took part in the study.
Next, the team plans to look for biomarkers that can link cardiovascular fitness to the risk of developing dementia.
“This work has a clear demonstration of a stepwise effect of aerobic fitness on risk for dementia,” says Ozioma Okonkwo at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
The Space Force plans to rely on wearable fitness monitors to track troops’ sleep routines, heart rates and physical activity, one of the few details leadership has begun to discuss ahead of the rollout of the service’s new health assessment next year.
When asked about the upcoming fitness standards by Military.com, Gen. John Raymond, the service’s chief of space operations, told reporters at the Air Force Association’s annual conference in Orlando on Friday that he wants to focus on overall fitness, versus having Guardians prepare for one physical training test.
As the newest service branch, the Space Force has been working to carve out its own identity separate from that of the overarching Air Force through its uniforms and lingo – and now by approaching physical fitness and health differently.
To date, the Space Force has relied on the Air Force’s standard PT test, which includes sit-ups, push-ups and a 1.5-mile run.
As the holistic health assessment continues to be workshopped, Raymond said he has directed new Space Force members to stick to a physical training test they’re familiar with for this year.
When asked about the concerns of having Guardians’ private health data shared frequently with the Space Force, Towberman said that troops need to accept that using the trackers is part of their service, pointing to other communities that are using the wearable technology successfully.
Space Force is the latest service aiming to reform long-standing physical fitness standards among the ranks.
People who are more physically fit are less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than people who are less physically fit, according to a preliminary study released today, February 27, 2022, that will be presented at the American Academy of Neurology’s 74th Annual Meeting being held in person in Seattle, April 2 to 7, 2022 and virtually, April 24 to 26, 2022.
“One exciting finding of this study is that as people’s fitness improved, their risk of Alzheimer’s disease decreased-it was not an all-or-nothing proposition,” said study author Edward Zamrini, MD, of the Washington VA Medical Center in Washington, D.C., and a member of the American Academy of Neurology.
“So people can work toward making incremental changes and improvements in their physical fitness and hopefully that will be associated with a related decrease in their risk of Alzheimer’s years later.”
The group with the lowest level of fitness developed Alzheimer’s at a rate of 9.5 cases per 1,000 person-years, compared to 6.4 cases per 1,000 person-years for the most fit group.
The case rate decreased as the level of fitness increased, with a rate of 8.5 for the second least fit group, 7.4 for the middle group and 7.2 for the second most fit group.
When researchers adjusted for other factors that could affect risk of Alzheimer’s disease, they found that the people in the most fit group were 33% less likely to develop Alzheimer’s disease than those in the least fit group.
The second most fit group was 26% less likely to develop the disease, while the middle group was 20% less likely and those in the second least fit group were 13% less likely to develop the disease than those in the least fit group.
Sushil Kumar To Give Wrestling, Physical Fitness Coaching To Fellow Tihar Jail Inmates- The New Indian Express
By PTI. NEW DELHI: Two-time Olympic medallist Sushil Kumar, lodged in Tihar Jail in the Chhatrasal Stadium brawl case, will soon be giving coaching classes on wrestling and physical fitness to his fellow inmates, prison authorities said on Friday.
The Tihar Jail administration said they had earlier planned to involve Kumar in sports activities, but the plan had to be halted in view of the third wave of COVID-19 in Delhi.
“We had decided to allow this earlier but could not do so in view of the third wave of Covid. Now, with normalisation of the situation, routine activities in prisons are being restored. So, we will allow Sushil Kumar to give coaching classes on wrestling and physical fitness to other inmates who are interested,” Director General Sandeep Goel told PTI. Prison officials said since Kumar is a trained professional wrestler, his coaching classes on fitness and wresting will benefit inmates who want to learn a new sport and will also help them stay fit and healthy.
In September 2021, before the third wave of COVID-19 hit the national capital, the Delhi Prisons Department had started an initiative to impart professional training to inmates of Tihar Jail in various sports.
Kumar was arrested along with co-accused Ajay Kumar on May 23 last year from outer Delhi’s Mundka area in the Chhatrasal Stadium case and is currently lodged in Central Jail no 2 of Tihar.
The first charge sheet which was filed by the police on August 2 last year named 13 accused, including Sushil Kumar as the main accused.
In the first charge sheet, the police had said that the brawl at the stadium was the result of a conspiracy hatched by Sushil Kumar, who wanted to re-establish his supremacy among younger wrestlers.
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Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones Also in Spanish.
How to avoid overheating during exercise Also in Spanish.
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Founded in 1921, O’Neal Steel has been a trusted metals supplier for over 100 years.
Our dedicated employees, customers, and suppliers have cultivated relationships that stand the test of time.
O’Neal Steel supplies a wide range of carbon and alloy steel, stainless steel, and aluminum products for companies nationwide.
Founded in 1921 and headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, O’Neal Steel has 18 strategically located distribution centers throughout the country that offer inventory and value-added processing capabilities tailored to market needs, all while providing high levels of customer service.
O’Neal Steel’s industry-leading online platform, PRONTO®, provides continuous access to inventory, pricing, ordering, and account management.
Do people feel their work has a clear sense of purpose?
Do people feel they are appreciated as a person at work?
Material Handler in Greensboro, NC.on February 7, 2022.The people were good people that worked there hood benefits weekly pay raises were non existence work was steady not climate controlled overall a descent job.
Warehouse Lead Man in Houston, TX.on August 20, 2021.Company lacks true direction and doesn’t offer proper compensation for the type of work being done.
Questions and answersPeople have asked 32 questions about working at O’Neal Steel.
Explore work from home during COVID-19, remote work support and work-life balance.
Explore leadership during COVID-19, working conditions and WFH support.
The Regional Sales Director is responsible for the commercial growth of an assigned large territory or group of territories within any given Region.
May manage multiple inside or outside sales teams and is a senior leader within a Regional Management Team.
Sets short- and long-term sales strategies and evaluates effectiveness of current sales programs for multiple teams and/or territories.
Develop sales data used to plan, budget and forecast for the division.
A deep understanding of commercial markets and an expertise in developing and executing sales strategies.
Founded in 1921 and headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama, O’Neal Steel has 18 strategically located distribution centers throughout the country that offer inventory and value-added processing capabilities tailored to market needs, all while providing high levels of customer service.
Employees who have access to the compensation information of other employees or applicants as a part of their essential job functions cannot disclose the pay of other employees or applicants to individuals who do not otherwise have access to compensation information, unless the disclosure is in response to a formal complaint or charge, in furtherance of an investigation, proceeding, hearing, or action, including an investigation conducted by the employer, or consistent with the contractor’s legal duty to furnish information.
O’Neal Steel, an O’Neal Industries affiliate, was founded in 1921 and is headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
O’Neal Steel is one of the nation’s largest family-owned, full-line metal distributors and service centers.
Today, O’Neal Steel operates 19 facilities across the United States and supplies a wide range of carbon and alloy steel, stainless steel and aluminum products.
O’Neal Steel also offers metal-processing services such as forming, laser cutting, plasma cutting, shearing, oxy-fuel cutting, and sawing.
In 2019, O’Neal Steel launched an industry leading e-commerce platform, PRONTO®.
Providing products and services that range from steel beams and plates to specialty alloys and complex manufactured components and tubing, ONI supplies customers across a variety of industries worldwide.
Together, O’Neal Steel’s affiliates – G&L Tube, Leeco Steel, O’Neal Manufacturing Services, Stainless Tubular Products, TW Metals, and United Performance Metals – represent the United States’ largest family-owned network of metals service centers and component and tube manufacturing businesses.
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The first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks.
Another traditional firefighting method that survived was the bucket brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire.
Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting crews.
A fire can rapidly spread and endanger many lives, but with modern firefighting techniques, catastrophe can often be avoided.
Firefighting requires skills in fire suppression, rescue, and hazardous materials mitigation.
The chief officer must direct the activities of a fire department and supervise all firefighting activities.
Their duties include investigating any fire alarms, ensuring the fire department is contacted, directing the evacuation of the facility, activating or delaying activation of fire suppression equipment such as halon and sprinklers, meeting the fire department and taking them to the location of the alarm or to the fire past any security or locked doors, and, if necessary, fighting the fire until the fire department arrives.
Firefighting, activity directed at limiting the spread of fire and extinguishing it, particularly as performed by members of organizations trained for the purpose.
Firefighters, skilled in the use of specific equipment, proceed as rapidly as possible to the site of the fire; in most urban areas, fire stations housing a company of firefighters and their equipment occur frequently enough that an alarm receives a response within two or three minutes.
Most fire services in towns inhabited by 5,000 persons or more will dispatch an engine company, a truck company, and a rescue vehicle to the scene.
If the fire involves a structure occupied by many persons, two or more companies may respond to the first alarm.
The first firefighters arriving will assess the fire to determine the techniques to be used in putting it out, taking into account the construction of the burning building and any fire protection systems within it.
Systematic firefighting involves four steps: protection of currently uninvolved buildings and areas; confinement of the fire; ventilation of the building; and extinguishment of the fire.
The final stage of fighting a fire is extinguishment.
Investigators: Salt Lake City uses Fire Investigators to determine the cause of fires that happen within the city.
In Salt Lake City, our Fire Investigators also help other cities to determine causes of fires that happen within their cities.
Engineer: Engineers are firefighters who have training to drive fire trucks and fire engines.
The Fire Marshal assists in identifying buildings or other types of situations that might be dangerous for firefighters or residents of our City.
One kind of Deputy Fire Marshal helps the Fire Marshal prevent fires and other problems before they ever happen.
Another kind of Deputy Fire Marshal has a team of fire investigators that go to fires after they are put out.
Fire trucks at the airport are specially equipped to respond in these types of emergencies.
Firefighting Simulator lets you experience what it means to fight fires up close as an active part of a major US city’s firefighting team.
Operate faithfully reproduced Rosenbauer America fire trucks, extinguish fires, and rescue civilians in need – together with up to three friends in the co-op multiplayer or with the help of AI team members in the single player mode.
Fire alert incoming!! What are you waiting for? Every minute counts! Pull on your boots, start the engine of your fire truck, turn on the lights and siren, and take the shortest route to the deployment location to fight the fire and save lives.
The multiplayer co-op mode allows you to play in a team with up to three friends to save lives and, of course, fight fires.
In single player mode, you will experience up close what it means to fight fires in a major US city as the leader of an experienced firefighting team.
Advanced fire simulation, including water, smoke, heat, back drafts, flashovers, grease fires, and a wide range of other causes of fires, such as electronics, chemicals, and explosions.
Use authentic equipment by well-known US firefighting industry brands, such as Cairns®, MSA G1® SCBA, and HAIX®.Great replay value thanks to 30 different deployment locations, each offering several ways to beat the fires, both day and night.
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Brachytherapy is a type of internal radiation therapy in which seeds, ribbons, or capsules that contain a radiation source are placed in your body, in or near the tumor.
Interstitial brachytherapy, in which the radiation source is placed within the tumor.
Intracavity brachytherapy, in which the radiation source is placed within a body cavity or a cavity created by surgery.
Radiation can be placed in the vagina to treat cervical or endometrial cancer.
Once the catheter or applicator is in place, the radiation source is placed inside it.
How long it remains in place depends on the type of radiation source, your type of cancer, where the cancer is in your body, your health, and other cancer treatments you have had. Types of brachytherapy.
With brachytherapy, the radiation source in your body will give off radiation for a while.
Internal radiation therapy allows a higher dose of radiation in a smaller area than might be possible with external radiation treatment.
The implant procedure is usually done in a hospital operating room designed to keep the radiation inside the room.
Implants are kept in containers that hold the radiation inside so it can’t affect others.
The length of time an implant is left in place depends on the type of brachytherapy you are getting.
The type of implant you get will depend on the kind of cancer, where it is in your body, your general health, and other treatments you have had. If an implant is permanent, the radiation fades over time and at some point won’t give off any more radiation.
Depending on the type of implant, once it is removed, your body will likely no longer give off radiation.
Over a few weeks to months, permanent implants will slowly stop giving off radiation.
Cervical cancer brachytherapy in patients with a uterus is commonly performed with a tandem and ovoid applicator.
The same brachytherapy techniques employed for VCB in endometrial cancer are the same ones used in vaginal cancer.
Curative endobronchial brachytherapy is useful for cancers in patients that are not surgical candidates either through personal medical history or because their cancer in surgically inoperable.
8.Skowronek J. Pulsed dose rate brachytherapy – is it the right way? J Contemp Brachytherapy.
11.Smith GL, Jiang J, Buchholz TA, Xu Y, Hoffman KE, Giordano SH, Hunt KK, Smith BD. Benefit of adjuvant brachytherapy versus external beam radiation for early breast cancer: impact of patient stratification on breast preservation.
15.Mendez LC, Morton GC. High dose-rate brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer.
16.Han Q, Deng M, Lv Y, Dai G. Survival of patients with advanced pancreatic cancer after iodine125 seeds implantation brachytherapy: A meta-analysis.
Permanent brachytherapy uses implants called pellets or seeds.
In temporary brachytherapy, implants are removed after the treatment has ended.
Implants, such as hollow needles, catheters, or balloons filled with fluid, are inserted into or near the cancer for a period of time, then removed.
You may need anesthesia when the implants are placed in your body.
If the brachytherapy implant is a low dose implant, it may be left in for several days.
High dose implants may be removed after only a few minutes.
Your doctor may remove temporary implants after you have the complete dose of radiation.
Radiation therapy typically is delivered as high-energy beams that are aimed directly at a patient’s tumor.
It delivers radiation therapy with small pieces of radioactive material that are placed inside the patient’s body as close to the tumor as possible.
This allows doctors to deliver very high doses of radiation directly to the patient’s tumor while limiting radiation exposure to healthy tissue.
Brachytherapy is used to treat several different diseases, including breast cancer, gynecologic cancers and prostate cancer.
Procedure Details How should I prepare for brachytherapy?
The procedure varies depending on the brachytherapy type and cancer.
Brachytherapy may occur inside the tumor or near the tumor.
You’ll need to stay in the hospital while undergoing HDR brachytherapy.
Side effects from brachytherapy vary depending on treatment type and the cancer being treated.
Brachytherapy is a highly effective treatment for certain types of cancer.
Compared to external radiation therapy, brachytherapy targets just the tumor, sparing nearby healthy tissue and organs.
The global market for brachytherapy reached US$680 million in 2013, of which the high-dose rate and LDR segments accounted for 70%. Microspheres and electronic brachytherapy comprised the remaining 30%. One analysis predicts that the brachytherapy market may reach over US$2.4 billion in 2030, growing by 8% annually, mainly driven by the microspheres market as well as electronic brachytherapy, which is gaining significant interest worldwide as a user-friendly technology.
The use of HDR brachytherapy enables overall treatment times to be reduced compared with EBRT. Patients receiving brachytherapy generally have to make fewer visits for radiotherapy compared with EBRT, and overall radiotherapy treatment plans can be completed in less time.
Brachytherapy to treat prostate cancer can be given either as permanent LDR seed implantation or as temporary HDR brachytherapy.
Brachytherapy to treat breast cancer is usually performed with HDR temporary brachytherapy.
Post surgery, breast brachytherapy can be used as a “Boost” following whole breast irradiation using EBRT. More recently, brachytherapy alone is used to deliver APBI, involving delivery of radiation to only the immediate region surrounding the original tumour.
The option of brachytherapy may be particularly important in ensuring that working women, the elderly or women without easy access to a treatment centre, are able to benefit from breast-conserving therapy due to the short treatment course compared with WBI. There are five methods that can be used to deliver breast brachytherapy: Interstitial breast brachytherapy, Intracavitary breast brachytherapy, Intraoperative radiation therapy, Permanent Breast Seed Implantation and non-invasive breast brachytherapy using mammography for target localization and an HDR source.
Brachytherapy for skin cancer provides good cosmetic results and clinical efficacy; studies with up to 5 years follow-up have shown that brachytherapy is highly effective in terms of local control, and is comparable to EBRT. Treatment times are typically short, providing convenience for patients.
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The pressure measurement made Katrina the fifth most intense Atlantic hurricane on record at the time, only to be surpassed by Hurricanes Rita and Wilma later in the season; it was also the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Gulf of Mexico at the time, before Rita broke the record.
The hurricane subsequently weakened due to another eyewall replacement cycle, and Katrina made its second landfall at 1110 UTC on August 29, as a Category 3 hurricane with sustained winds of 125 mph, near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana.
The storm surge also devastated the coasts of Mississippi and Alabama, making Katrina one of the most destructive hurricanes, the costliest natural disaster in the history of the United States, and the deadliest hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane.
On September 3, 2005, Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff described the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as “Probably the worst catastrophe or set of catastrophes,” in the country’s history, referring to the hurricane itself plus the flooding of New Orleans.
On August 29, 2005, Hurricane Katrina made landfall near Buras-Triumph, Louisiana, with 125 mph winds, as a strong Category 3 hurricane.
The hurricane made its final landfall near the mouth of the Pearl River, with the eye straddling St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, and Hancock County, Mississippi, on the morning of August 29 at about 9:45M CST. Hurricane Katrina also brought heavy rain to Louisiana, with 8-10 inches falling on a wide swath of the eastern part of the state.
Hurricane Rita – Category 5 hurricane which struck the Gulf Coast of the United States at Category 3 intensity just a month after Katrina impacted Louisiana.
If you have been to the gas pump this week, you’re likely aware that prices are continuing to rise.
According to GasBuddy, some of the cheapest gas here in the Gainesville area, is the BP station along NE 23rd Avenue at $3.59 a gallon for regular.
The average price for a gallon of regular gas, here in Florida is $3.67 compared to nationally at $3.83 and there’s more according to AAA. The majority of U.S. states and cities have seen sharp increases, with the national average rising 11 cents since Monday.
With prices hitting a national average of $3.83, AAA says gas is at the highest cost since September 2012 and rising at a pace we haven’t seen since Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
Earlier this week, San Francisco became the first major city in the country to reach an average price of $5 per gallon, while prices have passed the $4 per gallon mark in nine other states, and according to GasBuddy, the national average is expected to get there soon.
AAA annouced Friday, that driving habits are the biggest factor that impacts vehicle fuel consumption and reminds drivers to follow the speed limit to save on fuel.
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US gas prices are surging at pace drivers haven’t seen since Hurricane Katrina in 2005.
The national average price for a gallon of regular gas stood at $3.84 a gallon Friday, according to AAA. That is the highest price since September 2012 and 11 cents higher than Thursday.
Gas prices have soared 18 cents since Wednesday and 29 cents since Russia’s invasion of Ukraine eight days ago.
Each of those increases marks the largest price hikes since Hurricane Katrina slammed into the US Gulf Coast in 2005, devastating the nation’s oil and gas industry, according to the Oil Price Information Service, which collects data from 140,000 gas stations nationwide for AAA’s price averages.
“This is not the end of it. We’re already up another 14 cents on wholesale gas prices this morning,” said Tom Kloza, global head of energy analysis for OPIS. He said the wholesale gas price increases are likely to be passed onto consumers in short order.
The average household uses about 90 gallons a month, said Kloza, so a $1.09 increase in gas prices costs that household about $98 a month, or just less than $1,200 over the course of a year.
He said the rapid rise in the price of gas is making a particularly strong impression on the public, compared to a slow but steady increase in prices.
On August 23rd, a tropical depression formed over the southeastern Bahamas, becoming Tropical Storm Katrina on August 24th as it moved into the central Bahamas.
After moving west across south Florida and into the very warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, Katrina intensified rapidly and attained Category 5 status for a period of time as it moved northwest on August 28th. Katrina weakened to a Category 3 before making landfall along the northern Gulf Coast, first in southeast Louisiana and then made landfall once more along the Mississippi Gulf Coast.
Katrina finally weakened below hurricane intensity late on August 29th over east central Mississippi.
As Katrina set new minimum central pressure records while approaching the northern Gulf Coast on Sunday, August 28th, the storm made its final turn to the north as it moved toward southeastern Louisiana.
Katrina then weakened to a Category 4 hurricane as it moved across the north central Gulf and weakened further to a strong Category 3 hurricane shortly before making landfall in southeast Louisiana.
As early as two days before landfall, the NWS Office in Mobile issued a Hurricane Local Statement that foretold of the historic storm surge values of 8-12 feet well east of Katrina’s center.
TORNADOES. The outer bands of Hurricane Katrina produced numerous tornadoes throughout the southeastern US on August 28-29, especially across southern Alabama and the northwest Florida panhandle.
An estimated 1,200 people died as a direct result of the storm, which also cost an estimated $108 billion in property damage, making it the costliest storm on record.
The devastating aftermath of Hurricane Katrina exposed a series of deep-rooted problems, including controversies over the federal government’s response, difficulties in search-and-rescue efforts, and lack of preparedness for the storm, particularly with regard to the city’s aging series of levees-50 of which failed during the storm, significantly flooding the low-lying city and causing much of the damage.
The city of New Orleans and other coastal communities in Katrina’s path remain significantly altered more than a decade after the storm, both physically and culturally.
Katrina then weakened to a tropical storm, since hurricanes require warm ocean water to sustain speed and strength and begin to weaken over land.
The storm then crossed back into the Gulf of Mexico, where it quickly regained strength and hurricane status.
During intense hurricanes, oncoming storms can push seawater onto land, creating what is known as a storm surge.
As Hurricane Katrina hit, New Orleans and surrounding parishes saw record storm surges as high as 19 feet.
Mississippi At the Mississippi barrier islands: Cat, Petit Bois, Horn, and Ship Island, preparations were made for a direct impact from the massive storm.
Though barrier islands can protect the mainland from storms, these islands were no match for Hurricane Katrina’s immense storm surge.
On August 29, the Category 3 hurricane barreled towards Mississippi and it’s barrier islands.
These surges overtopped Ship Island’s Fort Massachusetts but failed to undermine the structure.
The surge also wiped out the facilities including picnic shelters, snack bars, the pier and boardwalk on West Ship Island as well as several structures on Horn Island.
East Ship Island’s forest was demolished and the trees along the entire beach were either snapped or their bark ripped off completely to heights of eight meters.
Katrina’s extreme storm surge resulted in massive erosion on all of the island and also widened the separation or the “Camille cut” between West Ship and East Ship islands.
Development The storm that would later become Hurricane Katrina surfaced on August 23, 2005, as a tropical depression over the Bahamas, approximately 350 miles east of Miami.
On the morning of August 29, the storm made landfall as a category 4 hurricane at Plaquemines Parish, Louisiana, approximately 45 miles southeast of New Orleans.
A storm surge more than 26 feet high slammed into the coastal cities of Gulfport and Biloxi, Mississippi, devastating homes and resorts along the beachfront.
Damage In New Orleans, where much of the greater metropolitan area is below sea level, federal officials initially believed that the city had “Dodged the bullet.” While New Orleans had been spared a direct hit by the intense winds of the storm, the true threat was soon apparent.
The levee system that held back the waters of Lake Pontchartrain and Lake Borgne had been completely overwhelmed by 10 inches of rain and Katrina’s storm surge.
Some levees buttressing the Industrial Canal, the 17th Street Canal, and other areas were overtopped by the storm surge, and others were breached after these structures failed outright from the buildup of water pressure behind them.
New Orleans Mayor Ray Nagin had ordered a mandatory evacuation of the city the previous day, and an estimated 1.2 million people left ahead of the storm.
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PVC has mainly an atactic stereochemistry, which means that the relative stereochemistry of the chloride centres are random.
About half of the world’s PVC production capacity is in China, despite the closure of many Chinese PVC plants due to issues complying with environmental regulations and poor capacities of scale.
The largest single producer of PVC as of 2018 is Shin-Etsu Chemical of Japan, with a global share of around 30%. The second largest PVC manufacturer is Formosa Plastics Corp of Taiwan.
Melting temperatures range from 100 °C to 260 °C depending upon manufacture additives to the PVC. The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good flame retardancy, the limiting oxygen index being up to 45 or more.
PVC can be usefully modified by chlorination, which increases its chlorine content to or above 67%. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride,, as it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the free-radical chlorination.
A study commissioned by the European Commission on “Life Cycle Assessment of PVC and of principal competing materials” states that “Recent studies show that the presence of PVC has no significant effect on the amount of dioxins released through incineration of plastic waste.”
Recycled PVC is used in place of virgin PVC in various applications: coatings for swimming pools, shoe soles, hoses, diaphragms tunnel, coated fabrics, PVC sheets.
Alternatives like calcium-zinc formulations are often used to stabilize medical-grade PVC. Heat stabilizers trap the hydrogen chloride that is generated when PVC decomposes at high temperatures.
Rigid PVC suffers more severe adverse effects than flexible PVC when inappropriate procedures of this type are used.
Autoclave sterilization: Steam sterilization in autoclaves is conducted at temperatures from 121°C to 134°C. The temperature used is above the glass transition temperature of PVC. Rigid unplasticized PVC is unsuitable for use in steam and autoclave sterilizations as the material and parts will warp and distort when exposed to that temperature range.
PVC resins are normally mixed with other additives such as impact modifiers and stabilizers, providing hundreds of PVC based materials with a variety of engineering properties.
The surface of PVC can be tailored by sorbent to get reversible and proficient enrichment of metal ions.
Degradation indexes of pure PVC and plasticized PVC irradiated films as a function of radiation dose.13.Figure 8.16.
Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas putida AJ, and Ochrobactrum TD are the microorganisms used for biodegradation of PVCs. Limited reports have been registered on the biodegradation of PVC polymers and plastics.
What is PVC? Polyvinyl Chloride is an economical and versatile thermoplastic polymer widely used in the building and construction industry to produce door and window profiles, pipes, wire and cable insulation, medical devices, etc.
He exposed vinyl chloride gas sealed in a tube to sunlight and produced a white solid called PVC. It was not until 1913 when German chemist Friedrich Klatte received the first patent for PVC for his method for the polymerization of vinyl chloride using sunlight.
Basic Forms of PVC. Polyvinyl Chloride is widely available in two broad categories: Flexible and Rigid.
This type of PVC is also known as UPVC, PVC-U or uPVC. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride or perchlorovinyl: It is prepared by chlorination of PVC resin.
Its main properties and benefits include:Electrical Properties: PVC is a good insulation material, thanks to its good dielectric strength.
Other additives like processing aids, impact modifiers, are added to enhance mechanical as well as surface properties of PVC. PVC Blend with Other Thermoplastics PVC/Polyester Blends – These blends combine superior physical properties of polyesters with the excellent processing characteristics of PVC. Benefits include abrasion resistance, tensile properties and tear resistance.
Flexible PVC has lower chemical resistance than rigid PVC. Rigid PVC has low continuous service temperature of 50°C. Processing of Vinyl Plastic.
PVC is the third most commonly used material in the world.
In this article, let us learn more about PVC, its properties and benefits.
Later in the 20th century PVC was commercially used by the Russian chemists Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatte.
Depending on additives used in manufacturing with PVC, many qualities can be imbued in products including anti-mist, different colours, elasticity, fire retarding, flexibility, impact resistance and microbe prevention.
Properties of PVC By nature, PVC is a lightweight, sturdy and abrasion-resistant material.
Applications Plasticized PVC is used in flooring or unplasticized PVC is used in making window frames.
PVC fabric is used in the manufacture of aprons shower curtains, raincoats, jackets and sports bags.
The chemical polyvinyl chloride formula isₙ or alternatively, it can be written as the repeating units of the monomer CH₂=CH-Cl. The polyvinyl chloride structure is very similar to that of the polythene except that the hydrogen atom attached to every carbon in the backbone chain is replaced with a chlorine atom.
Some of the physicochemical properties of PVC is as follows:-.
40 MV/m.Some of the Characteristic Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride are as Follows:-PVC has high Mechanical properties and hardness.
PVC has good resistance properties towards acid salt-based fats and alcohols and that’s why it is also resistant to the corrosion effect of sewage.
The two most commercially viable methods for the production of polyvinyl Chloride are Emulsion Polymerization and Suspension Polymerization.
Normally the PVC that is formed has less than 1 part per million content of VCM. Some of the other production processes such as micro-suspension polymerization on emulsion polymerization produce smaller particle sizes of PVC that have slightly different properties and a different set of applications.
Polyvinyl Chloride Uses.The major uses of polyvinyl chloride are as follows:-.
Polyvinyl chloride, commonly referred to as PVC or Vinyl, is the world’s 3rd most synthesised thermoplastic material.
Structure and properties of PVC. Production and processing of PVC. Applications of PVC. Commercial grades of PVC. Properties of PVC. Figure 1.
PVC is a white, brittle solid available in powder form or granules, formed through an addition polymerisation reaction between vinyl chloride monomers.
There are many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties.
Processing of PVC. PVC resin obtained from the above processes is extremely unstable due to low thermal stability and high melt viscosity.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride is manufactured by chlorinating the PVC product, typically increasing its chlorine content from 56% to 66%. This lowers the crystallinity of the polymer, increasing its flexibility and ability to be moulded into useful shapes such as containers and packaging.
Polyester blends combine the excellent processing characteristics of PVC with the superior physical properties of polyesters, increasing abrasion resistance, tensile strength and tear resistance.
Polyvinyl chloride, better known as PVC or vinyl, is an inexpensive plastic so versatile it has become completely pervasive in modern society.
The list of products made from PVC is exhaustive, ranging from phonograph records to drainage and potable piping, water bottles, cling film, credit cards and toys.
In 1913, polyvinyl chloride became the first synthetic product ever patented.
In addition to the toxic chemical processing required to make PVC, mounting research indicates a tendency for some products to leech harmful chemicals, with a possible link to health risks and environmental contamination.
One of the byproducts of the polyvinyl chloride manufacturing process is organochlorine.
Leeching of a softening chemical called DEHP in products like vinyl IV bags used in the neonatal wards of some hospitals has also been a concern.
Though polyvinyl chloride products have been used without apparent problems to human health for many years, the concern is that growing toxic waste created by the process, possible leeching, and plastic’s non-biodegradable status will eventually and inevitably lead to problems that could be catastrophic.
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Is there anything more uncomfortable than a stuffy nose? Nasal congestion affects your speech, your mood, and your ability to go about your day with ease.
If you have sinus pressure, allergies, or a cold, there is a nasal spray for you.
You don’t need a prescription, some of the best sprays are over-the-counter and ready to ship to your home.
We’ve narrowed down the best choices, so you can truly get relief fast.
We’ve researched the best nasal spray options in order to help you overcome any obstacle that keeps your breathing anatomy from working well.
That’s why we developed the Complete Guide to Best Nasal Sprays.
There are basically 3 types of nasal sprays – ones that stop noses from running, ones that un-stuff them, and ones that clean and soothe them.
When deciding which nasal spray is best for you, start with your symptoms and choose a product that is best suited to the relief you need.
Traditional sprays work quickly in most instances and are the form used for most decongestant sprays.
Nasal mists are packaged so that the medicine is atomized into a fine spray as it leaves the bottle rather than a larger stream of medicine and they are used primarily for moisturizing and soothing dry, irritated nostrils and nasal passages.
NeilMed’s Nasogel product is a gel spray meaning it is a bit thicker than traditional sprays and mists, but this product got high marks for immediately soothing dry, irritated nasal passages.
Decongestant sprays shrink swollen blood vessels and tissues in your nose that cause congestion.
Don’t use decongestant nasal sprays longer than three days.
Antihistamine sprays relieve congestion, itchy and runny nose, and sneezing.
These sprays work very well to reduce congestion, sneezing, and itchy, watery eyes.
Examples of steroid nasal sprays available by prescription include beclomethasone, ciclesonide, fluticasone furoate, and mometasone.
It doesn’t work as well as steroid nasal sprays.
You can buy NasalCrom as a nasal spray at the drugstore.
An allergy relief nasal spray can help you tackle your allergy symptoms.
When using decongestant allergy relief nasal sprays for more than a few days, you may experience a rebound effect, and your nasal congestion may worsen.
Long-term use of corticosteroid allergy relief nasal sprays can cause headaches, stinging and burning nasal passages, nosebleeds, and eye conditions such as cataracts.
OTC allergy relief nasal sprays are available for purchase in 0.5 ml, 0.68 ml, and 0.8 ml size plastic or glass spray bottles.
Mid-range allergy relief nasal sprays sell for $8 to $12. Name brands in the higher price range cost between $15 and $24 for a 0.5 ml spray bottle.
A. When your eyes are red and your nasal passages congested, the right allergy relief nasal spray can provide fast-acting relief.
A. OTC saline allergy relief nasal sprays loosen mucus in the nasal passage without medication or side effects.
“If you are experiencing primarily nasal symptoms, you can also take a more localized approach and use nasal sprays to reduce irritation and inflammation, therefore alleviating many of your symptoms,” he says.
“It is important to not use nasal sprays containing oxymetazoline for more than three days because it can result in rebound nasal congestion , and it will make your nasal symptoms worse,” she says.
“Steroid nasal sprays are considered first-line because they are the most potent agent available, the most effective medication to be used alone, and are especially helpful for relieving nasal congestion,” he says.
“Prescription nasal sprays allow for the nasal spray to reach further into the nasal passage and can also offer a combination of medications,” says Dr. Jain.
Decongestant nasal sprays can cause rebound congestion and swelling of the nasal passage.
You can use antihistamine nasal sprays, saline nasal sprays, and steroid nasal sprays as needed for as long as symptoms persist-even long term, says Dr. Jain.
“Many nasal sprays will just say ‘allergy nasal spray’ and do not make it obvious which type of medication is contained in the nasal spray,” Dr. Jain says.
2000 Dec 15;62(12):2695-2696.Types of nasal sprays.
Nasal sprays come in two different kinds of containers: pressurized canisters and pump bottles.
Hold your nasal spray canister as shown in the drawing to the right.
Point the nozzle of the nasal spray container toward the back of your head. If you don’t spray straight, you will waste the medicine and may cause more irritation in your nose.
Sometimes it helps to use an over-the-counter saline nose spray such as SalineX, Ocean Nasal Mist or NaSal just before you use your regular medicine.
If you have nosebleeds, stop using the medicine for a few days and use a saline nasal spray instead. You can also use a cotton swab to spread a thin layer of petroleum jelly inside your nose right after using the saline spray.
Most nasal sprays work best when used regularly and consistently.
You can’t wait to get ahold of your non-prescription nasal decongestant spray so you can find relief for your stuffy nose – ASAP. Cleveland Clinic is a non-profit academic medical center.
“While nasal congestion can be easily treated with an over-the-counter nasal spray, using the spray is not as simple as it might seem,” says pharmacist Jessica Kravchuck, PharmD, RPh. “Correct positioning and technique is key to getting the best results.”
To use them properly, it’s important to make sure to point the nasal spray toward the back of the nose so that you can inhale the medicine.
“You never want the spray to be directed right at the nasal septum, which is the middle portion of your nose,” says Dr. Kravchuck.
“Remember to wipe down the nasal spray bottle and put the cap back on after each use. You never want to share your product with someone else.”
Have you ever used a nasal spray for days on end and all of a sudden you stopped feeling relief? What you may have experienced is called the rebound effect.
“You shouldn’t use a nasal spray if your nasal passages become damaged,” she says.
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Corticosteroids are often referred to by the shortened term “Steroids.” Corticosteroids are different from the male hormone-related steroid compounds that some athletes abuse.
Steroids might be given locally, to the precise place where a problem exists, or systemically, which means throughout the “System” or body.
Steroids are used to treat many conditions in which the body’s defense system doesn’t work properly and causes tissue damage.
The chance of side effects depends on the dose, type of steroid and length of treatment.
If steroid use is brief, it is possible that none of the listed side effects will occur.
The side effects listed here generally do not occur when occasional steroid injections are given for arthritis, tendonitis or bursitis.
If steroid use involves high doses and is prolonged, an increase in the number of side effects might occur.
Summarize the potential adverse effects associated with corticosteroids.
Despite their significant efficacy, their many adverse effects limit the utility of corticosteroids.
The most common adverse effects of corticosteroids include osteoporosis and fractures, suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Cushingoid features, diabetes and hyperglycemia, myopathy, glaucoma and cataracts, psychiatric disturbances, immunosuppression, cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal and dermatologic adverse effects.
Immunosuppression: The desired immune-suppressing and anti-inflammatory effects of corticosteroids can also predispose patients to infection.
Careful patient monitoring and the use of proper preventive measures can reduce the adverse effects of corticosteroids and allow their maximal benefit.
All interprofessional healthcare team members should be ready to educate their patients on corticosteroids and their potential adverse effects, and the modifications that can reduce these harmful effects.
19.Allen DB, Mullen M, Mullen B. A meta-analysis of the effect of oral and inhaled corticosteroids on growth.
Multiple randomized trials indicate that systemic corticosteroid therapy improves clinical outcomes and reduces mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who require supplemental oxygen,1 presumably by mitigating the COVID-19-induced systemic inflammatory response that can lead to lung injury and multisystem organ dysfunction.
2 The COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines Panel’s recommendations for the use of corticosteroids in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are based on results from these clinical trials.
There are no data to support the use of systemic corticosteroids in nonhospitalized patients with COVID-19.RecommendationsFor Nonhospitalized Patients With COVID-19See Therapeutic Management of Nonhospitalized Adults with COVID-19 for the Panel’s recommendations on the use of dexamethasone or other systemic corticosteroids in certain nonhospitalized patients.
There is insufficient evidence for the Panel to recommend either for or against the use of inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19.For Hospitalized Patients With COVID-19See Therapeutic Management of Hospitalized Adults with COVID-19 for the Panel’s recommendations on the use of dexamethasone or other systemic corticosteroids in certain hospitalized patients.
There is insufficient evidence for the Panel to recommend either for or against the use of inhaled corticosteroids for the treatment of COVID-19.Systemic Corticosteroids in Patients With COVID-19 Nonhospitalized Patients.
Although the trial was terminated early, the study results support the RECOVERY trial finding that systemic corticosteroids are beneficial in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.
Please see Tables 4a and 4b for data from clinical trials evaluating corticosteroid use for COVID-19.Systemic Corticosteroids Other Than Dexamethasone.
What are the side effects of systemic corticosteroids?
Corticosteroids have many side effects that can be mild or serious.
These side effects are more apparent when corticosteroids are used at higher doses or for extended periods of time.
This section lists only some of these side effects of corticosteroids.
The long term use of corticosteroids may cause osteoporosis which can result in bone fractures.
Shrinking of the adrenal glands can be caused by the long term use of corticosteroids resulting in the body’s inability to produce cortisol, the body’s natural corticosteroid, when the systemic corticosteroids are discontinued.
Another condition which can result from the long term use of corticosteroids is adrenal necrosis of the hip joints, a very painful and serious condition that may require surgery.
Weigh the benefits and risks of corticosteroids, such as prednisone, when choosing a medication.
Corticosteroid drugs – including cortisone, hydrocortisone and prednisone – are useful in treating many conditions, such as rashes, inflammatory bowel disease and asthma.
Injected corticosteroids can cause temporary side effects near the site of the injection, including skin thinning, loss of color in the skin, and intense pain – also known as post-injection flare.
Ask your doctor about using low-dose, short-term medications or taking oral corticosteroids every other day instead of daily.
Talk to your doctor about switching to nonoral forms of corticosteroids.
Inhaled corticosteroids for asthma, for example, reach lung surfaces directly, reducing the rest of your body’s exposure to them and leading to fewer side effects.
Talk with your doctor to help you better understand the risks and benefits of corticosteroids and make informed choices about your health.
Corticosteroids have several different effects on the body, which means that they can treat a range of medical conditions.
Corticosteroids mimic the effects of hormones, such as cortisol.
Corticosteroids can have substantial effects on the body by suppressing the immune system.
The side effects may differ depending on the specific form of corticosteroid.
A corticosteroid cream that a person applies to the face might have different side effects than a corticosteroid tablet or injection.
Taking lower dosages over shorter periods will reduce the risk of side effects from corticosteroids.
When using corticosteroids, a person should take note of any side effects or changes in symptoms.
In addition to their corticosteroid activity, some corticosteroids may have some progestogenic activity and may produce sex-related side effects.
Not all asthma patients respond to corticosteroids and large sub groups of asthma patients are corticosteroid resistant.
Severe amebic colitis: Fulminant amebic colitis is associated with high case fatality and can occur in patients infected with the parasite Entamoeba histolytica after exposure to corticosteroid medications.
Therapeutically, the bulk of corticosteroid dose is given in the morning to mimic the body’s diurnal rhythm; if given at night, the feeling of being energized will interfere with sleep.
Skeletal: Steroid-induced osteoporosis may be a side-effect of long-term corticosteroid use.
Seven categories are used in the United States to determine the level of potency of any given topical corticosteroid.
Thus a corticosteroid is a “Cortex steroid”.
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Continual improvements of this BCI, as well as similar visual BCIs in development, hold great promise that BCIs will soon provide patients with successful options for eradicating blindness.
Different techniques are used to measure brain activity for BCIs.
Studies with DOC patients will then demonstrate whether BCI can be purposefully utilized to investigate cognitive processing, to improve diagnosis, or even for social interaction in patients with DOC. It is unknown how much structural and functional integrity and connectivity of the brain is necessary to use a BCI for at least minimal communication.
One view is that electrodes on top of the brain are safer and easier to place, and that they can capture enough signal for effective BCI control.
The pace of knowledge, progress, and technology innovation seems to promise continuing and steady progress to create better BCIs, but the pace can be substantially accelerated when the field integrates a clear definition of goals, regulatory and clinical demands, commercialization potential, and health care system impact, as well as the ELSI of brain interface technology.
Further miniaturization of BCI and neuroprosthetic devices will also increase the adoption of these technologies and facilitate the development of fully implantable BCI systems.
A detailed analysis of the cyber-vulnerabilities of BCIs suggested that security breaches could occur at various phases of the BCI cycle including signal acquisition, feature extraction and decoding.
Bousseta R., El Ouakouak I., Gharbi M., Regragui F. EEG based brain computer interface for controlling a robot arm movement through thought.
Djamal E.C., Abdullah M.Y., Renaldi F. Brain computer interface game controlling using fast fourier transform and learning vector quantization.
Fatourechi M., Bashashati A., Ward R.K., Birch G.E. EMG and EOG artifacts in brain computer interface systems: A survey.
Rezaei S., Tavakolian K., Nasrabadi A.M., Setarehdan S.K. Different classification techniques considering brain computer interface applications.
Chaudhary P., Agrawal R. A comparative study of linear and non-linear classifiers in sensory motor imagery based brain computer interface.
Mohamed E.A., Yusoff M.Z.B., Selman N.K., Malik A.S. Enhancing EEG signals in brain computer interface using wavelet transform.
Mudgal S.K., Sharma S.K., Chaturvedi J., Sharma A. Brain computer interface advancement in neurosciences: Applications and issues.
BCI is direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device.
The Brain-Computer Interfaces project in Microsoft Research aims to enable BCI for the general population.
We go towards interactive BCI, which means response times within seconds and using EEG signals.
Haptic: steady-state somatosensory evoked potential.
BCI as type of HMI. BCI can be treated as another input modality of the human-machine interface.
We target general population in interactive BCI scenarios.
The most promising applications include augmenting the UI of AR/VR glasses with BCI components.
Implementations of BCIs range from non-invasive and partially invasive to invasive, based on how close electrodes get to brain tissue.
This 1988 report written by Stevo Bozinovski, Mihail Sestakov, and Liljana Bozinovska was the first one about a robot control using EEG. In 1990, a report was given on a closed loop, bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation potential.
The CNV brain potential was part of the BCI challenge presented by Vidal in his 1973 paper.
Miguel Nicolelis, a professor at Duke University, in Durham, North Carolina, has been a prominent proponent of using multiple electrodes spread over a greater area of the brain to obtain neuronal signals to drive a BCI. After conducting initial studies in rats during the 1990s, Nicolelis and his colleagues developed BCIs that decoded brain activity in owl monkeys and used the devices to reproduce monkey movements in robotic arms.
Partially invasive BCI devices are implanted inside the skull but rest outside the brain rather than within the grey matter.
After the BCI challenge was stated by Vidal in 1973, the initial reports on non-invasive approach included control of a cursor in 2D using VEP, control of a buzzer using CNV, control of a physical object, a robot, using a brain rhythm, control of a text written on a screen using P300. In the early days of BCI research, another substantial barrier to using Electroencephalography as a brain-computer interface was the extensive training required before users can work the technology.
While the cellular based BCI technology was developed to initiate a phone call from SSVEPs, the researchers said that it can be translated for other applications, such as picking up sensorimotor mu/beta rhythms to function as a motor-imagery based BCI. In 2013, comparative tests were performed on android cell phone, tablet, and computer based BCIs, analyzing the power spectrum density of resultant EEG SSVEPs.
One study tested a BCI system on its ability to detect and classify brain activity with its paired mental actions.
BCI researchers have also used humanoid robots controlled by BCI devices to manipulate a remote environment.
BCI is being used to study how specific tissue systems respond to electrical stimulation and what that could mean at the cognitive level.
In the future, we may see BCI medical products used in surgery or other medical operations.
BCI enables subjects with motor disabilities to use their brain activity to control objects in their environment and communicate.
BCI software can “Translate” mental commands from EEG data into commands in a video game.
In BCI gaming, instead of using a traditional game controller, the subject uses mental commands to enable movement-based actions in the game – such as “Push,” “Pull” or “Jump.” The BCI processes mental commands from the EEG and triggers the corresponding action in the VR game.
In invasive BCI, electrodes are applied on the scalp of the human, i.e., EEG-based BCI. While in invasive BCI, the electrodes are directly attached to the brain carrying out surgeries.
BCI can be adaptive, assistive, and rehabilitative technology that reads or interprets older adults’ brain activity and transforms into signals that can be used to operate the devices.
In the last two decades, multiple BCI approaches have been developed based upon slow waves, EPs, SSEPs, and MI paradigms to help escalate the medical field through BCI. The first BCI application was used to move prosthetics, spell, and move the computer cursor.
The role of BCI is widespread in medicine, and it is used in automated wheelchair control through the BCI approach; another exclusive clinical application of BCI is the facilitation of motor function after spinal cord surgery or stroke.
BCIs can be helpful in the diagnosis of certain brain disorders.
Artistic BCI refers to the integration of arts into BCI. David Rosen boom was the first to try different experiments to link brain functions with the musical production, perception of proprioception, and musical forms.
There are some social and ethical concerns regarding the application of BCI. Many factors like user safety, privacy protection, ethics, community acceptance, data confidentiality, and socioeconomic aspects related to BCI ensure user satisfaction.
The fleet of mind-controlled drones is just one real-life example of BCI explored in an initial assessment of BCI by RAND Corporation researchers.
BCI technology allows a human brain and an external device to talk to one another-to exchange signals.
A senior research engineer at RAND and coauthor of the report, says that it makes sense to start by studying an emerging technology like BCI through a military lens.
Most BCI technologies are still in the early stages of development and are actively being researched and funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Army Research Lab, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and other organizations.
Based on their analysis of current BCI development and the types of tasks that future tactical military units might face, the RAND team created a toolbox that catalogs how BCI might be useful in the coming years.
RAND researchers developed a path for determining where BCI technology stands now and where it could potentially go.
As with any emerging technology, BCI carries many risks and unknowns.
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Amino acids are the small molecules that are put together to make proteins.
You can think of it as different flavors that get linked together like beads on a string to make long chains that we call polypeptides, and those are the building blocks of proteins.
The really neat thing about the amino acids is that when they’re linked together, they fold to make the final shape of the protein.
It’s the shape of the protein that really dictates what it can do in the cell.
The elements present in every amino acid are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; in addition sulfur is present in the side chains of cysteine and methionine, and selenium in the less common amino acid selenocysteine.
The last of the 20 common amino acids to be discovered was threonine in 1935 by William Cumming Rose, who also determined the essential amino acids and established the minimum daily requirements of all amino acids for optimal growth.
In 1902, Emil Fischer and Franz Hofmeister independently proposed that proteins are formed from many amino acids, whereby bonds are formed between the amino group of one amino acid with the carboxyl group of another, resulting in a linear structure that Fischer termed “Peptide”.
The L and D convention for amino acid configuration refers not to the optical activity of the amino acid itself but rather to the optical activity of the isomer of glyceraldehyde from which that amino acid can, in theory, be synthesized.
There are three amino acids with side-chains that are cations at neutral pH. They are commonly called basic amino acids, but this term is misleading: histidine can act both as a Brønsted acid and as a Brønsted base at neutral pH, lysine acts as a Brønsted acid, and arginine has a fixed positive charge and does not ionize in neutral conditions.
Non-proteinogenic amino acids often occur as intermediates in the metabolic pathways for standard amino acids – for example, ornithine and citrulline occur in the urea cycle, part of amino acid catabolism.
As both the amine and carboxylic acid groups of amino acids can react to form amide bonds, one amino acid molecule can react with another and become joined through an amide linkage.
Essential Amino Acids Of the 20 amino acids that we need, our bodies can make 11 of them.
Nonessential Amino Acids The 11 nonessential amino acids are produced by the body.
Branched Chain Amino Acids There are some amino acids called “Branched-chain amino acids” or BCAAs.
Conditional Amino Acids An amino acid or another nutrient can be “Conditionally essential.” This means that an amino acid has become essential because the body experiences difficulty making it due to a disorder, illness, or aging.
While the bulk of research into essential amino acids-specifically branched-chain amino acids-focuses on supplementation, many nutrition experts will tell you that the best way to consume amino acids is in your daily diet.
What are amino acid supplements good for? Since health experts recommend fulfilling your amino acid requirement from food sources, amino acid supplements may not be necessary for you unless your doctor recommends them.
Can amino acids be bad for you? Health experts warn that supplementing with amino acids for nutrition could be dangerous to your health.
Amino acids contain the basic amino groups and carboxyl groups.
Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids Out of 20 amino acids, our body can easily synthesize a few on their own and are called non-essential amino acids.
Sources of Amino Acids Amino acids play an important role in performing several biological and chemical functions in different parts of our body, including building and repairing of the tissues, in the formation and function of enzymes, food digestion, for the transportation of molecules, etc.
Our body can synthesize only certain amino acids and the rest of the amino acids which are called as essential amino acids should be supplied through protein-rich foods in our daily diet.
Functions of Amino Acids Functions of Essential Amino Acids Phenylalanine helps in maintaining a healthy nervous system and in boosting memory power.
Histidine is involved in many enzymatic processes and in the synthesizing of both red blood cells and white blood cells… Functions of Non-Essential Amino Acids Alanine functions by removing toxins from our body and in the production of glucose and other amino acids.
Proline is mainly involved in the repairing of the tissues in the formation of collagen, preventing the thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries and in the regeneration of new skin… Deficiency of Amino Acids As mentioned above, amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and proteins plays a fundamental role in almost all life processes.
Amino acids are organic molecules that, when linked together with other amino acids, form a protein.
Although there are hundreds of amino acids found in nature, proteins are constructed from a set of 20 amino acids.
All amino acids have the alpha carbon bonded to a hydrogen atom, carboxyl group, and amino group.
The genetic code is the sequence of nucleotide bases in nucleic acids that code for amino acids.
These gene codes not only determine the order of amino acids in a protein, but they also determine a protein’s structure and function.
Amino acids can be classified into four general groups based on the properties of the “R” group in each amino acid.
Organelles called ribosomes and another RNA molecule called transfer RNA help to translate mRNA. The resulting amino acids are joined together through dehydration synthesis, a process in which a peptide bond is formed between the amino acids.
Amino acids have special common names a three letter abbreviation for the name is used most of the time.
Consult the table on the left for structure, names, and abbreviations of 20 amino acids.
There are basically four different classes of amino acids determined by different side chains: non-polar and neutral, polar and neutral, acidic and polar, basic and polar.
QUES. List all amino acids with non-polar side chains.
Side chains which have various functional groups such as acids, amides, alcohols, and amines will impart a more polar character to the amino acid.
QUES. List all amino acids by abbreviation which are consideredsomewhat polar.
Rank the following amino acids by increasing polarity.
In this article you’ll find all the basics about essential amino acids, including how they function, food sources rich in essential amino acids, and the potential benefits of taking a supplement.
Although your body can make nonessential amino acids, it cannot make essential amino acids, so you have to get them from your diet.
The best sources of essential amino acids are animal proteins such as meat, eggs, and poultry.
Certain amino acids, including glycine and arginine, are considered conditionally essential during pregnancy because a pregnant person needs more of these amino acids to support their own health and the health of the fetus.
Conditionally essential amino acids are nonessential amino acids that become essential in certain circumstances, such as illness or pregnancy.
While essential amino acids can be found in a wide array of foods, taking concentrated doses in supplemental form has been linked to several health benefits.
Other plant-based sources of protein, such as beans, nuts, and certain grains, are considered incomplete proteins because they lack one or more of the essential amino acids.
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The National Development and Reform Commission is in charge of China’s macroeconomic planning.
It is responsible for formulating and implementing strategies for national economic and social development and coordinating major economic operations.
The NDRC submits a plan for national economic and social development to the National People’s Congress each year on behalf of the State Council.
The NDRC also plays a leading role in crafting China’s industrial policy, aiming to balance and coordinate industrial development, including China’s development of high-tech industries.
In addition to economic development, the NDRC also drafts social development plans, touching on topics such as employment, income distribution, social security, healthcare, education, and urbanization.
The new Ministry of Natural Resources has assumed responsibility for creating development zones.
The new National Health Commission has assumed responsibility for pricing of medical and health services, and oversight of “Key national projects” has been transferred to the National Audit Office.
National Development And Reform Commission: Maintaining The Continuity, Stability And Sustainability Of Macroeconomic Policies
Chinanews, July 19th, how do you view the economic data in the first half of the year? How to judge the annual trend? How to do economic work in the second half of the year? In response to the above topics, the spokesperson of the National Development and Reform Commission Yuan Da responded on the 19th. Data map: wharf.
In response to the above topics, the spokesperson of the National Development and Reform Commission Yuan Da responded on the 19th. Data map: wharf.
On the 19th, the National Development and Reform Commission held a press conference.
Yuan Da pointed out that since the beginning of this year, in the face of the severe and complex external environment and the contradictions in the domestic economic recovery, all regions and departments have coordinated epidemic prevention and control and economic and social development in accordance with the decisions and deployments of the Party Central Committee and the State Council.
In the first half of the year, GDP grew by 12.7% year-on-year, of which the second quarter grew by 7.9% year-on-year, and the two-year average growth rate was 5.5%, which was 0.5% higher than the first quarter; the quarter-on-quarter growth was 1.3%, 0.9% faster than the first quarter.
The newly established market entities maintained rapid growth in the first half of the year, and the import and export of goods denominated in RMB increased by 27.1%. The third is the continuous improvement of development quality and efficiency.
In the first half of the year, the national per capita disposable income of residents increased by 12% year-on-year in real terms, and the two-year average growth rate was 5.2%, an increase of 0.7% from the first quarter.
According to the national development and Reform Commission, China’s infrastructure REITs made a breakthrough in 2021.
On June 21, the first batch of infrastructure REITs pilot projects were listed, and China’s public offering REITs market was officially established.
By the end of 2021, a total of 11 projects had been issued and listed, covering key areas such as industrial parks, highways, sewage treatment, warehousing and logistics, waste incineration and power generation.
A total of 36.4 billion yuan of funds had been sold, including about 16 billion yuan of net recovered funds for new investment, which could drive the total investment of new projects to exceed 190 billion yuan, which would be beneficial to the revitalization of stock assets A virtuous circle of investment has been formed and a good demonstration effect has been produced.
Since last year, according to the division of responsibilities, the development and Reform Commission has solidly promoted relevant work, strengthened coordination and cooperation with the CSRC, and effectively ensured the steady progress of the pilot work.
China has approved plans to build four national integrated computing hubs as part of its ongoing efforts to increase the nation’s computing capacity and speed up the construction of new infrastructure, the country’s top economic regulator said on Wednesday.
Under the plan, each hub will give full play to its advantages in market, technology, talent and capital, develop data center clusters with high energy efficiency and low carbon emissions, improve the quality of data supply, and realize the coordinated and sustainable development of large-scale computing power deployment with land, energy, water, electricity and other resources, the NDRC said.
“The establishment of national integrated computing hubs will improve efficiency in the use of computing resources, boost the free flow of data and promote the high-quality development of the digital economy,” said Xiang, adding most of these computing network hubs are located in the eastern coastal regions, which have greater demand for advanced computing power along with huge data usage.
The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology unveiled a plan for the big data sector’s development during the 14th Five-Year Plan period, envisaging a scale topping 3 trillion yuan by the end of 2025, with a compound annual growth rate of around 25 percent.
Zhou Minliang, a senior researcher at the Institute of Industrial Economics of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said the construction of national integrated computing hubs will provide strong support for the growth of advanced manufacturing, boost technological innovation and enhance the country’s core competitiveness.
The nation seeks to tap the value of massive data resources more efficiently, Zhou said, adding these hubs are capital and technology-intensive, and need a large number of technical professionals.
Data centers should increase computing efficiency, save computing energy consumption and truly meet the needs of future smart computing, said Wang Endong, an academician with the Chinese Academy of Engineering and the principal scientist at Inspur Group, a Chinese provider of big data services.
The National Development and Reform Commission of the People’s Republic of China, formerly State Planning Commission and State Development Planning Commission, is a macroeconomic management agency under the State Council, which has broad administrative and planning control over the economy of Mainland China.
The candidate for the chairperson of the NDRC is nominated by the Premier of the People’s Republic of China and approved by the National People’s Congress.
The NDRC’s functions are to study and formulate policies for economic and social development, maintain the balance of economic development, and to guide restructuring of the economic system of Mainland China.
On 19 December 2020, the NDRC published rules for reviewing foreign investment on national security grounds.
The rules allow government agencies “To preview, deny and punish foreign investment activities in areas that are deemed as important to national security.” In October 2021, the NDRC published rules restricting private capital in “News-gathering, editing, broadcasting, and distribution.”
Minister in charge of the National Development and Reform CommissionHe Lifeng – also a vice-chairman of the CPPCC National Committee.
NEA was established in August 2008, replacing the National Energy Bureau which attempted to reform China’s highly dispersed energy management.
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Traditional networks were not designed for data growth, connected devices, and edge computing.
The organization demands speed, but securing remote workers and monitoring so many IoT devices is time consuming.
Multiple, siloed network management tools increase complexity and risk.
Unify remote, branch, campus, and data center connectivity by converging the management of wired, wireless, and WAN networks onto a single cloud-native platform.
Resources and budgets are shrinking, especially in these challenging times, but business expectations are growing.
Streamline operations, automate grunt work, and deliver experiences that delight end users.
Aruba Wi-Fi 6E solutions extend the same Wi-Fi 6 capabilities into the 6 GHz band to allow more capacity, wider channels, and less interference.
Aruba Networks, formerly known as Aruba Wireless Networks, is a Santa Clara, California-based wireless networking subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise company.
The company was founded in Sunnyvale, California in 2002 by Keerti Melkote and Pankaj Manglik.
On March 2, 2015, Hewlett-Packard announced it would acquire Aruba Networks for approximately US$3 billion in an all-cash deal.
As of November 1, 2015, the company operates as a subsidiary of Hewlett Packard Enterprise company.
Please find all of your Security & Product notifications, Software downloads, and Documentation on the Aruba Support Portal.
To continue to receive emails for your Security & Product notifications, please login to ASP and configure your Notification Subscription Settings.
Aruba provides small businesses with affordable wired and wireless solutions that are secure and reliable.
Aruba Central is a powerful cloud networking solution with AI-powered insights, workflow automation, and robust security that enables IT to manage and optimize campus, branch, remote, data center, and IoT networks from a single dashboard.
It is a next-gen software that enables you to manage WLAN, switching, WAN, and VPN services using cloud, on-premises, or as-a-service options for all Aruba OS versions.
Aruba Instant On Access Points are easy to deploy and manage – with a quality look and feel at an attractive price point.
With wireless networks hitting gigabit speed, your switches must keep up with the performance needs of new devices and applications.
Aruba switches provide scalability, robust security, reliability, stacking capabilities and ease of use for the edge, branch office, and SMB deployments.
The Aruba Instant wireless access points, when implemented with Aruba switches, provides your business with a powerful end-to-end secure network infrastructure that grows with your business.
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RUCKUS. RUCKUS® networks simplify life for IT, while enabling them to deliver exceptional user experiences.
With RUCKUS products and solutions, any organization-regardless of size or sophistication-can easily deploy, manage and expand a converged IT/OT network, while addressing unique business outcomes.
Nutanix Nutanix solutions are built on the industry’s most popular hyperconverged infrastructure technology-a complete, 100% software-defined stack that integrates compute, virtualization, storage, networking, and security to power any application, at any scale.
ESG Sr. Analyst and Practice Director Bob Laliberte discusses network access as an underestimated point of vulnerability within enterprise IT environments.
The presentation includes details about how the RUCKUS Cloudpath Enrollment System addresses the IT security flaws inherent to the default methods of network onboarding and authentication.
Demands on enterprise Wi-Fi networks continue to grow as enterprises make Wi-Fi the default and often only network access method, users adopt new devices and applications, and IoT deployments take off.
Explore the RUCKUS enterprise networking portfolio, from access points and switches to controllers, cloud services and software.
As a company, Ruckus invented and has patented wireless voice, video, and data technology, such as adaptive antenna arrays that extend signal range, increase data rates, and avoid interference, providing distribution of delay-sensitive content over standard 802.11 Wi-Fi. Ruckus began trading on the New York Stock Exchange in 2012, and was delisted in 2016, after it was acquired by Brocade Communications Systems for approximately $1.5 billion on May 27, 2016.
In addition to Mr. Ko, the Ruckus board of directors includes Dominic Orr, chairman and former CEO of Alteon WebSystems and later Aruba Networks, Selina Lo, president and CEO, Gaurav Garg, former founder of Redback Networks and partner at Sequoia Capital, and Bill Kish, CTO and co-founder of Ruckus Wireless.
Ruckus went public on the New York Stock Exchange on November 16, 2012, under the symbol RKUS. On 12 June 2012, In an awards gala in London, Global Telecoms Business recognized Ruckus and Tikona Digital Networks for building world’s largest outdoor wireless mesh network in India, naming the companies the winner of its 2012 Broadband Wireless Access Innovation award.
In 2018 February 18, Ruckus Networks signed a strategic global OEM agreement with Dell EMC to deliver Ruckus’ portfolio of wireless, including access points, controllers, virtualized and data analytics assets, and Cloudpath secure network access software-along with Ruckus IoT and OpenG LTE products-as Dell-branded solutions.
In Mobile World Congress 2018, Barcelona, Ruckus announced the Ruckus IoT Suite, which enables organizations to readily construct a secure IoT access network that consolidates multiple physical-layer IoT networks into a single network.
Ruckus Wireless has mobile applications called Ruckus SpeedFlex(zapd), Ruckus ZD Remote Control, Ruckus Cloud, Ruckus Unleashed, Ruckus SPoT mobile calibration tool and Ruckus SWIPE. Ruckus XclaimWireless division provided Harmony, a mobile app to manage XclaimWireless Access points when no cloud connectivity.
Ruckus ended sale of Xclaimwireless portfolio favouring its Unleashed Controller-less and Ruckus Cloud platforms on July 25, 2018.
COMMSCOPE IS REDEFINING CONNECTIVITY AROUND THE GLOBE. CommScope innovates across wireless and wired technologies to meet industry-specific network requirements, even in the most demanding use cases.
Every CommScope AP, from the humblest to the boldest, is packed with an impressive array of patented technologies and delivers a level of performance that CommScope Ruckus competitors cannot touch.
CommScope Ruckus ICX switches are packed with innovative technologies like long distance stacking and campus fabric that make them easy to deploy and manage while delivering impressive performance.
CommScope reduces infrastructure spend by connecting Wi-Fi and non-Wi-Fi IoT endpoints with a single multi-standards wireless access network.
Robust reporting, informative dashboards and machine-learning-powered analytics for RUCKUS enterprise networks.
CommScope Ruckus network controller can manage 10K APs, 150K client.
With the help of CommScope Ruckus OpenG™ LTE portfolio, you can deploy and manage a private LTE network easily.
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The dinar is the monetary currency of Algeria and it is subdivided into 100 centimes.
The dinar was introduced on 1 April 1964, replacing the Algerian new franc at par.
In 1964, coins in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimes, and 1 dinar were introduced, with the 1, 2 and 5 centimes struck in aluminium, the 10, 20 and 50 centimes in aluminium bronze and the 1 dinar in cupro-nickel.
The 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 dinar coins are bimetallic.
Following the massive inflation which accompanied the slow transition to a more capitalist economy during the late 1990s, the centime and fractional dinar coins have dropped out of general circulation, whilst the 1 and 2 dinar coins are rarely used, as prices are rounded to the nearest 5 dinars.
The “First series” of dinar banknotes issued in 1964 consisted of banknotes in denominations of 5-, 10-, 50- and 100 dinars.
In 1970, 500 dinar banknotes were added, followed by 1000 dinars in 1992.
The page provides information about the currency Algerian Dinar in the form of a table with currency codes and the table with the current exchange rate to other currencies of the world.
Currencies column you can sort from largest to smallest, clicking on the header of the table.
Information about the currency ISO 4217 code DZD Country Algeria HTML code of the currency no data.
Currency symbol DZD Actual exchange rate of Dinar to other world currencies.
The USDDZD increased 0.4849 or 0.34% to 142.3155 on Friday March 4 from 141.8306 in the previous trading session.
Historically, the Algerian Dinar reached an all time high of 142.51 in March of 2022.
Algerian Dinar – data, forecasts, historical chart – was last updated on March of 2022.
The Algerian Dinar is expected to trade at 140.49 by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations.
Looking forward, we estimate it to trade at 141.59 in 12 months time.
The Algerian dinar is a currency that has become very popular to purchase over the last decade.
As a matter of fact, the Algerian dinar recently reached historically low prices in July, 2016, the conversion rate of USD to DZD reached a record of 110.86! Nearly 20 years ago, that conversion rate would have only been in the range of 47.70.
In 1964, Algeria adopted its very own dinar, and the denominations of currency were redistributed and changed to the modern Algerian dinar.
Since its creation, a single dinar is actually only available as a coin currency.
Paper currency existed in 5, 10, 50, and 100 dinar denominations.
Eventually, denominations of 500 and 1000 dinar were also made.
In modern day Algeria, the dinar is not the only form of currency that is used.
Simply type in the box how much you want to convert.
Click on the dropdown to select DZD in the first dropdown as the currency that you want to convert and USD in the second drop down as the currency you want to convert to.
Our currency converter will show you the current DZD to USD rate and how it’s changed over the past day, week or month.
Banks and traditional providers often have extra costs, which they pass to you by marking up the exchange rate.
Our smart tech means we’re more efficient – which means you get a great rate.
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Parenteral nutrition is intravenous administration of nutrition, which may include protein, carbohydrate, fat, minerals and electrolytes, vitamins and other trace elements for patients who cannot eat or absorb enough food through tube feeding formula or by mouth to maintain good nutrition status.
Parenteral nutrition is sometimes called Total Parenteral Nutrition.
People can live well on parenteral nutrition for as long as it is needed.
Many times, parenteral nutrition is used for a short time; then it is lessened or discontinued when the person begins to switch to tube feeding or eat enough by mouth.
Parenteral nutrition bypasses the normal digestion in the gastrointestinal tract.
How Many Patients in the U.S. Receive PN? Many hospitalized patients in the U.S. receive parenteral nutrition.
Prevalence of home parenteral and enteral nutrition in the United States.
Parenteral nutrition, often called total parenteral nutrition, is the medical term for infusing a specialized form of food through a vein.
When used outside the hospital, intravenous feeding is called home parenteral nutrition.
Using home parenteral nutrition may be necessary for weeks or months, or in some cases for life.
Catheter infection is a common and serious complication of parenteral nutrition.
An implanted catheter is inserted completely beneath the skin and needs to be accessed with a needle in order to infuse the parenteral nutrition.
Specially trained health care providers show you and your caregivers how to prepare, administer and monitor parenteral nutrition at home.
Fatigue is common in people receiving home parenteral nutrition.
Total parenteral nutrition is a medication used in the management and treatment of malnourishment.
Parenteral nutrition is the intravenous administration of nutrition outside of the gastrointestinal tract.
Total parenteral nutrition is when the IV administered nutrition is the only source of nutrition the patient is receiving.
Total parenteral nutrition is indicated when there is an inadequate gastrointestinal function and contraindications to enteral nutrition.
Total parenteral nutrition administration is through a central venous catheter.
Total parenteral nutrition is not administered through a peripheral intravenous catheter because it has high osmolarity.
Parenteral nutrition supplementation rather than total parenteral nutrition is harmful to pediatric patients in the pediatric intensive care unit.
Your doctor will select the right amount of calories and TPN solution.
You will also have regular blood tests to make sure the TPN is giving you the right nutrition.
Before you start TPN, make sure the tables and surfaces where you will put your supplies have been washed and dried.
Wash your hands thoroughly with an antibacterial soap before TPN infusion.
Keep your TPN solution in the refrigerator and check the expiration date before use.
Wipe the TPN bag port with another antibacterial pad. Insert the needle and slowly push the plunger.
Attach the TPN bag to the pump according to the supplier’s instructions.
Administration of complete parenteral nutrition therapy in patients with GI tract dysfunction has become a standard of care in most hospitals and intensive care units throughout the world, although use in individual institutions varies widely.
Parenteral nutrition is lifesaving in patients with intestinal failure; unfortunately, in patient subgroups with lesser degrees of intestinal failure, few objective data from properly designed, large, randomized, controlled studies are available to determine the true efficacy of and optimal indications for parenteral nutrition.
A5 Enteral nutrition is at least as good as parenteral nutrition or a combination of the two approaches in patients who can tolerate the former.
A6,A7,A7b In patients who cannot tolerate enteral nutrition, early parenteral nutrition is no better than delaying for 3 to 4 days.
A8. As a result, the basic principle in considering parenteral nutrition therapy is that the patient must be unable to achieve adequate nutrient intake via the enteral route.
Nutritional Management Parenteral Nutrition FormulationTo create a PN formula, one must first determine the caloric and protein needs of the patient, which are based on a prior nutritional assessment.
The interpretation of the available evidence differs, with one guideline recommending the routine use of supplemental glutamine in all patients receiving parenteral nutrition and another guideline recommending the use only for patients who are exclusively fed with parenteral nutrition.
Parenteral nutrition is intravenous nutrition given through a catheter.
Parenteral nutrition is given as a liquid solution directly into the blood stream.
Parenteral nutrition may be used for partial or complete nutrition support.
Complete nutrition support is known as total parenteral nutrition.
Different types of IV catheters can be used for parenteral nutrition.
Central venous catheters are preferred for long-term parenteral nutrition.
Parenteral nutrition is usually started in the hospital.
It is called total parenteral nutrition or total nutrient admixture when no significant nutrition is obtained by other routes, and partial parenteral nutrition when nutrition is also partially enteric.
It is called peripheral parenteral nutrition when administered through vein access in a limb rather than through a central vein as central venous nutrition.
Patients who require nutrition therapy but have contraindications for or cannot tolerate enteral nutrition are appropriate candidates for parenteral nutrition.
In the geriatric population, it is indicated if oral or enteral nutrition is impossible for 3 days or when oral or enteral nutrition is likely insufficient for more than 7 to 10 days.
Patients should be assessed early on in their cancer treatment for any nutritional risk, such as by taking routine weights and BMI. Parenteral nutrition is indicated in cancer patients when it is not possible to access the digestive tract or if the tract is ineffective.
It is recommended that parenteral nutrition administration begin after a period of natural nutrition so doctors can properly calculate the nutritional needs of the fetus.
Solutions for total parenteral nutrition may be customized to individual patient requirements, or standardized solutions may be used.
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Chapter 142, RSMo: Missouri receives fuel tax of 17 cents a gallon on motor fuel from licensed suppliers on a monthly basis.
The tax is passed on to the ultimate consumer purchasing fuel at retail.
The tax is distributed to the Missouri Department of Transportation, Missouri cities and Missouri counties for road construction and maintenance.
There are about 700 licensees, including suppliers, distributors, transporters and terminal operators.
Consumers may apply for a refund of the fuel tax when fuel is used in an exempt manner, such as off-road use like farming or construction.
Welcome to the Motor Fuels Website designed to support your business by providing valuable business tools and information, 24 hours a day/7 days per week.
As a Motor Fuels customer, meeting and exceeding your expectations is our primary focus!
If you have any questions about your information or need assistance accessing your account, please call the Motor Fuels Dealer Administrator at 932-3666.
Motor Fuel Group is the UK’s largest independent forecourt operator.
With over 900 sites offering customers a growing dual-fuel strategy, a versatile valeting offer and a convenient retail and ‘food to go’ portfolio.
MFG works with a number of carefully selected partners and brands to provide customers with a unique fuel, expanding ultra-rapid electric vehicle charging and convenient forecourt shop and ‘food to go’ experience.
We Power The Future MFG forecourts will be the place for high speed, ultra-rapid top-up charging alongside a convenient retail and ‘food to go’ offering.
Serving Your Community Our key objective is to make all visits to our UK network of forecourts as pleasurable as possible by offering high levels of customer service, competitively priced fuels and a convenient shopping experience in the heart of our local communities.
Run Your Own Retail Business MFG offers entrepreneurs the opportunity to run their own business and be involved in one of the fastest growing retail sectors around.
Become A Murco Dealer Our Murco brand and dealer offer provides a great choice of fuel supply with a range of options that are extremely competitive, flexible and designed to help you grow your business.
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Switchgears are designed to defend equipment connected to a power supply from the threat of electrical overload. Switchgear Definition What is a switchgear? Switchgear is a broad term that describes a wide variety of switching devices that all fulfill a common need: controlling, protecting, and isolating power systems.
In the event of an electrical surge, an effective switchgear will trigger, automatically interrupting the flow of power and protecting the electrical systems from damage.
High-Voltage Switchgears High-voltage switchgears are those that control 75KV of power or more.
Medium-Voltage Switchgear Medium-voltage switchgear are used in systems from 1KV up to 75KV. This switchgear is often found in systems involving motors, feeder circuits, generators, and transmission and distribution lines.
Where a switchgear exists to connect and isolate load equipment to and from power sources, switchboards are used to direct the flow of electricity in a power distribution system.
Switchgear Solutions from ASCO The right switchgear can mean the difference between full operation and complete electrical system failure.
ASCO offers a wide range of parallelling switchgear solutions that connect multiple power sources to backup power systems to provide the highest levels of reliability and availability to mission-critical facilities.
In an electric power system, switchgear is composed of electrical disconnect switches, fuses or circuit breakers used to control, protect and isolate electrical equipment.
The switchgear on the low-voltage side of the transformers may be located in a building, with medium-voltage circuit breakers for distribution circuits, along with metering, control, and protection equipment.
One of the basic functions of switchgear is protection, which is interruption of short-circuit and overload fault currents while maintaining service to unaffected circuits.
Switchgear is further used to enhance system availability by allowing more than one source to feed a load. Switchgear is as old as electricity generation.
An effective although more costly form of switchgear is the gas-insulated switchgear, where the conductors and contacts are insulated by pressurized sulfur hexafluoride gas.
Hybrid switchgear is a type which combines the components of traditional air-insulated switchgear and SF6 gas-insulated switchgear technologies.
Vacuum circuit breakers are frequently used in modern medium-voltage switchgear to 40,500 volts.
In general usage within the power industry, only the switchgear part that controls the flow of current through an entire circuit is referred to as switchgear.
What exactly is switchgear? A centralized collection of circuit breakers, fuses, and switches that act to safeguard, regulate, and isolate electrical equipment is referred to as electrical switchgear.
Electrical switchgear can be divided into three main categories: armored switchgear, non-armored switchgear, and hybrid switchgear.
Non-armored switchgear includes all other types of switchgear except armored.
How does switchgear function? A group of circuit protection devices installed in a common metal box is referred to as electrical switchgear.
Switchgear is also called load center equipment because it provides safety for people by preventing overcurrent conditions from occurring in any part of the house wiring system.
Switchgear has two main functions: to protect people from electrical shock by opening in an open circuit condition or when excessive current flows; and to prevent injury to people working on live circuits by shutting off power in a closed circuit condition.
The term ‘switchgear’ is a generic term that includes a wide range of switching devices like circuit breakers, switches, switch fuse units, off-load isolators, HRC fuses, contactors, miniature circuit breakers, ELCBs, GFCIs etc.
For circuits of a higher rating, a high-rupturing capacity fuse in conjunction with a switch may serve the purpose of controlling and protecting the circuit.
A circuit breaker is one switchgear which can open or close an electrical circuit under both normal and abnormal conditions.
Switchgear for low voltage applications is generally rated up to 1000 V AC and 1500V DC. The commonly used low voltage devices include oil circuit breakers(OCBs), air circuit breakers, switch fuse units, off-load isolators, HRC fuses, earth leakage circuit breakers, Residual Current Protective Devices, miniature circuit breakers and moulded case circuit breakers etc i.e. all the accessories required to protect the LV system.
Hence high voltage circuit breaker should have special features for safe and reliable operation.
The main components of switchgear are circuit breakers, switches, bus-bars, instruments and instrument transformers.
Air-break switch – It is an air switch and is designed to open a circuit under load. In order to quench the arc that occurs on opening such a switch, special arcing horns are provided.
The short circuit current rating of switchgear is the maximum amount of current that the switchgear can safely withstand without it causing damage to the switchgear.
This is a measure of the bracing and support of the busbars which allows them to remain intact and free from damage while passing high currents due to faults that occur downstream of the switchgear.
For faults in downstream equipment, the upstream switchgear must have a short circuit current rating that exceeds the worst-case currents that will be passing through the switchgear.
This ensures that downstream faults do not damage the upstream equipment that is in the fault current path.
Per ANSI standards, typical short circuit current ratings range from 25 kA to 63 kA symmetrical for the 2-second rating, and 40 kA to 101 kA asymmetrical for the 10-cycle rating.
For electrical switchgear, this rating is also sometimes referred to as short-circuit rating, short-circuit withstand rating or withstand rating.
Definition: The apparatus used for controlling, regulating and switching on or off the electrical circuit in the electrical power system is known as switchgear.
The switches, fuses, circuit breaker, isolator, relays, current and potential transformer, indicating instrument, lightning arresters and control panels are examples of the switchgear devices.
The switchgear system is directly linked to the supply system.
So to protect the lines, generators, transformers and other electrical equipment from damage automatic protective devices or switchgear devices are required.
The automatic protective switchgear mainly consists of the relay and circuit breaker.
The switchgear is mainly classified into two types, the outdoors type and the indoor type.
The indoor type switchgear is of metal clad type and is compact.
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