19 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-06

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Post Idea #1: Financial transaction

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Financial Transaction?

Any change in the finances of at least two businesses or individuals can be a financial transaction.

In accounting, a transaction is considered a financial transaction only if it involves only money as opposed to a purchase in which money is exchanged for a good or service.

Examples of this type of financial transaction include borrowing money and depositing money in a checking or savings account.

The financial transaction is a broader category than the first two.

More often, financial transactions are a hybrid of a financial transaction and one of the other two types of transactions.

A loan is a perfect example of a purely financial transaction.

So the product transaction takes place between the gum chewer and the convenience store, but the financial transaction takes place between those two and a financial institution.

What Does Financial Transaction Mean?

A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, carried out between a buyer and a seller to exchange an asset for payment.

A form of transaction completed in a financial organization.

So many financial transaction take place daily around the world in each form of financial organization.

The numerical value of financial transaction in Chaldean Numerology is: 1.Pythagorean Numerology.

The numerical value of financial transaction in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5.Examples of financial transaction in a Sentence.

Elliot Ganz:.Every financial transaction has a transferee and the transferor, and everyone concedes the CLO is the transferee, since the manager is acting on behalf of the CLO, as its agent, it is acting as the transferee not transferor.

Images & Illustrations of financial transaction.

Financial Transactions Tax: What You Need To Know

A financial transactions tax is exactly what it sounds like – a tax levied on each transaction an investor makes in the financial markets.

The U.S. does not have a significant financial transaction tax, but it has become a favorite cause of many progressives and left-leaning politicians – including Senator Elizabeth Warren, who made a financial transactions tax a major part of her platform when she was running for the Democratic presidential nomination over the past few years.

Put simply, a financial transactions tax is a tax levied on investors when making transactions on the financial market.

Technically, the U.S. does have financial transactions tax already, but it is very small, coming out to just about $0.02 per $1,000 traded, a rate of 0.002%. The idea proposed by progressives is for a significantly steeper tax.

A financial transactions tax would have three major points of potential impact – on the individual investors who would be subject to the tax, on financial markets as a whole, and on the federal budget, which would see a big influx of revenue.

A financial transactions tax is a tax levied on those buying or selling securities – stocks, bonds, derivatives and other financial products.

The capital gains tax is the other major tax investors need to know about.

Overview, Types, Double-Entry Recording

The types of accounting transactions may be based on various points of view.

The first one that we will discuss is the types of accounting transactions according to institutional relationships, namely external and internal transactions.

Types of Accounting Transactions based on the Exchange of Cash.

Based on the exchange of cash, there are three types of accounting transactions, namely cash transactions, non-cash transactions, and credit transactions.

Types of Accounting Transactions based on Objective.

There are two types of accounting transactions based on objective, namely business or non-business.

When recording accounting transactions, the double-entry method is a system bookkeeping where every entry to an account requires an opposite entry to a different account producing balanced journal entries.

Special Districts’ Financial Transactions Report

All sources and uses of COVID-19 relief funds received by Special Districts should be reported separately on their respective Financial Transactions Report.

For more specific instructions on how to report revenues and expenditures, refer to the Special Districts’ FTR instructions.

All references are to the Government Code unless otherwise specified.

Sec. 609.821 MN Statutes

“Financial transaction card” means any instrument or device, whether known as a credit card, credit plate, charge plate, courtesy card, bank services card, banking card, check guarantee card, debit card, electronic benefit system card, electronic benefit transfer card, assistance transaction card, or by any other name, issued with or without fee by an issuer for the use of the cardholder in obtaining credit, money, goods, services, public assistance benefits, or anything else of value, and includes the account or identification number or symbol of a financial transaction card.

The buying, selling, stealing, or otherwise effecting an exchange of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program benefits issued and accessed via an electronic benefit transfer card, card number and personal identification number, or manual voucher and signature, for cash or consideration other than eligible food, either directly, indirectly, in complicity or collusion with others, or acting alone;.

Attempting to buy, sell, steal, or otherwise effect an exchange of SNAP benefits issued and accessed via an EBT card, card number and PIN number, or manual voucher and signature, for cash or consideration other than eligible food, either directly, indirectly, in complicity or collusion with others, or acting alone.

Sells or transfers a card knowing that the cardholder and issuer have not authorized the person to whom the card is sold or transferred to use the card, or that the card is forged, false, fictitious, or was obtained in violation of clause;.

Without a legitimate business purpose, and without the consent of the cardholders, receives or possesses, with intent to use, or with intent to sell or transfer in violation of clause, two or more cards issued in the name of another, or two or more cards knowing the cards to be forged, false, fictitious, or obtained in violation of clause;.

Furnishes money, goods, services, or anything else of value upon presentation of a financial transaction card knowing it to be forged, expired, or revoked, or knowing that it is presented by a person without authority to use the card; or.

If no property, other than a financial transaction card, has been obtained by the defendant by means of the false statement or false report, to imprisonment for not more than one year or to payment of a fine of not more than $3,000, or both; or.

Financial Transaction

A financial transaction is an agreement, or communication, between a buyer and seller to exchange goods, services, or assets for payment.

Any transaction involves a change in the status of the finances of two or more businesses or individuals.

A financial transaction always involves one or more financial asset, most commonly money or another valuable item such as gold or silver.

A cash transaction is any transaction where money is exchanged for a good, service, or other commodity.

Cash transactions can refer to items bought with physical money, such as coins or cash, or with a debit card.

These differ from credit transactions because the money is immediately taken from the buyer and given to the seller.

External transactions are any business transactions that involve more than one party.

Post Idea #2: 3A Composites

Related Articles – Summarized

3A Composites

Products and Services 3A Composites manufactures composite panels and materials, while offering a unique product and service range for its respective target market.

3A Composites has provided numerous high-quality materials used in the display and graphic arts industries since 1969.

3A Composites solves identity challenges by offering a complete range of products for your CID program, from exterior composite panels to interior rigid sheet material.

The Industry & Transport division is a market leader for the development and manufacture of lightweight composites for vehicles, marine, furniture and general construction.

Why Choose Us At 3A Composites we have a long tradition of excellence in advanced materials serving users of composites products.

Innovative We value innovation & development to bring the next generation of solutions today.

Our Portfolio Check out how creative designers, artists, and architects have transformed their ideas and visions into tangible results using our versatile composite materials.

Current Career Opportunities

Below is a list of current openings at 3A Composites USA. Please click on an opening in the list to view details and apply.

EEO is the Law3A is an E-Verify employerRight to Work..

The Original Aluminium Composite Panels

DIBOND® is the original aluminium composite sheet, comprising two 0.3 mm thick aluminium cover layers and a polyethylene or mineral core.

It is lightweight – extremely rigid and strong, making it ideal for both indoor and outdoor applications.

DIBOND® is used predominately in the areas of signage, product and furniture design, shopfitting, interior design, shop design as well as trade fair and exhibition design.

DIBOND® is the perfect material for producing creative ideas due to its wide range of high-quality surfaces, easy processing and durability.

All products provide the ideal ambience for successful customer communication and their unique, consistent design conveys a tangible brand image to the customer.

Nike Headquarters NYC Garage

Complete in December 2017, the Nike NYC Garage project was designed by SRG Portland and built by Hoffman Construction.

Providing 1900 parking spots to Nike employees at the Portland Campus, the building is highlighted by vivid Nike Orange aluminum composite panels at the stair towers, parking ramps and entrances.

These features contrast against the various grey tones of the main structure.

Metal Construction News

Curved metal panels accentuate shape of torch-inspired control tower.

San Francisco International Airport’s air traffic control tower was designed to resemble a torch.

Kim says the design team saw an opportunity with the control tower’s location.

“Unlike towers at most airports, the SFO tower is located immediately adjacent to drivers and pedestrians,” he says.

The 221-foot-tall, 5,652-square-foot control tower is a vertical, self-centering, post-tension concrete structure clad with curved metal panels and features a vertical, illuminated 147-foot-tall glass band on its west façade.

The control tower features skylights and an open-core design, which allows for views up through the tower and of cascading lighting.

Construction started in 2012, the FAA began installing electrical equipment in July 2015 and the control tower was operational in October 2016.

3A COMPOSITES Careers And Employment

Opinions matter and action is taken when resolving issues.

The management team works well together and the relationship between hourly associates and management is fundamentally strong due to trust and respect.

Team leaders and veteran employees have bad, negative attitudes towards new hires.

Extruder Operator in Glasgow, KY.on February 24, 2016.A typical day at work: Pre-Shift meeting to discuss Operations Schedule Pre-Shift Check-off.

Management: Sub-Par Co-Workers: Lazy and unprofessional Hardest part of the job: Dealing with unprofessional team members and management The most enjoyable part of the job: The pay/benefits.

Help fellow job seekers by sharing your unique experience.

Questions and answers People have asked 3 questions about working at 3A COMPOSITES. See the answers, explore popular topics and discover unique insights from 3A COMPOSITES employees.


Lightweight modular flooring system for rail and road vehicles.

Lightweight structural components for superior vehicle body shells.

Throughout the more than 60 years of our corporate history, we have built up a leading position in composite systems.

We truly understand, support and expand this idea at 3A Composites Mobility.

Together we are stronger – let’s make the world better.

Post Idea #3: Ferrosilicon

Related Articles – Summarized


Ferrosilicon is an alloy of iron and silicon with a typical silicon content by weight of 15-90%. It contains a high proportion of iron silicides.

Ferrosilicon is produced by reduction of silica or sand with coke in the presence of iron.

Ferrosilicon is used as a source of silicon to reduce metals from their oxides and to deoxidize steel and other ferrous alloys.

In the manufacture of cast iron, ferrosilicon is used for inoculation of the iron to accelerate graphitization.

Ferrosilicon is a basis for manufacture of prealloys like magnesium ferrosilicon, used for production of ductile iron.

Magnesium ferrosilicon is instrumental in the formation of nodules, which give ductile iron its flexible property.

Ferrosilicon is used by the military to quickly produce hydrogen for balloons by the ferrosilicon method.

ScienceDirect Topics

385 Some silicon gas is produced in the process and reaches the top of the furnace with other combustion gases, where it becomes oxidised to silica by the air and then condenses as submicroscopic particles and agglomerated particles of amorphous silica.

4.5 Silica fumeSilica fume collects in the de-dusting system of electric arc furnaces during the production of silicon, ferrosilicon.

Schematic representation of an electric arc furnace that produces silica fume without a recovery system.

X-ray diffractogram of a silica fume particle: as-produced, after reheating at 1100 °C.After reheating, the silica crystallizes as cristobalite.

The hump found in the as-produced silica fume corresponds to the main pick of cristobalite, which indicates than in a silica fume particle, silica tetrahedrons are organized as in cristobalite on a short-range distance.

The average diameter of amorphous silica particles is about to 0.1 μm. Silica fume particles are usually gray in color, darker or lighter according to their carbon and iron content.

Silica fume as seen under an electronic microscope: scanning electronic microscope – silica fume particles are naturally agglomerated in an as-produced silica fume.

CAMEO Chemicals

Reacts with water or moisture in the air to form flammable hydrogen gas.

The metal reacts exothermically with compounds having active hydrogen atoms to form flammable hydrogen gas and caustic products.

Fully encapsulating, vapor-protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks with no fire.

DO NOT GET WATER on spilled substance or inside containers.

Avoid allowing water runoff to contact spilled material.

SMALL SPILL: Cover with DRY earth, DRY sand or other non-combustible material followed with plastic sheet to minimize spreading or contact with rain.

POWDER SPILL: Cover powder spill with plastic sheet or tarp to minimize spreading and keep powder dry.

Applications And Specifications

Ferrosilicon is used in steelmaking and foundries as a source of silicon in production of carbon steels, stainless steels, and other ferrous alloys for its deoxidizing properties, to prevent loss of carbon from the molten steel; ferromanganese, spiegeleisen, silicides of calcium, and many other materials are used for the same purpose.

Ferrosilicon is also used for manufacture of silicon, corrosion-resistant and high-temperature resistant ferrous silicon alloys, and silicon steel for electromotors and transformer cores.

In manufacture of cast iron, ferrosilicon is used for inoculation of the iron to accelerate graphitization.

In arc welding, ferrosilicon can be found in some electrode coatings.

Ferrosilicon is a basis for manufacture of prealloys like magnesium ferrosilicon, used for modification of melted malleable iron; FeSiMg contains between 3-42% of magnesium and small amounts of rare earth metals.

Ferrosilicon is also important as an additive to cast irons for controlling the initial content of silicon.

Ferrosilicon, or ferrosilicium, is a ferroalloy an alloy of iron and silicon with between 15 and 90% silicon.

Ferrosilicon: Particle Size & Shape Analysis :: Microtrac

Ferrosilicon is an alloy of iron and silicon with a very variable silicon content between 10% and 90%. It is used as a so-called master alloy in steel production, which is added in small amounts in order to adjust the properties of the melt, the cooling process and the finished product.

Ferrosilicon is used in electrode coatings and in the production of silicon, hydrogen and magnesium.

Ferrosilicon is produced either in a blast furnace or electric arc furnace by the reduction of quartz sand with coke in the presence of iron.

The resulting particle size distribution ranges from fine dust-like particles to cm-sized chunks.

The FeSi is sifted into different size grades for further use.

Microtrac’s CAMSIZER series is ideally suited for the particle size distribution analysis of ferrosilicon and other granular metals.

Microtrac analyzers are used both for quality control industrial applications as well as research purposes.


Ferroalloys are master alloys containing iron and one or more non-ferrous metals that are used as the most economical way to introduce an alloying element in the steel melt.

Their main benefits are an improvement in steel tensile strength, regular strength and resistance to wear and tear and corrosion.

It contributes an increase in hardness and deoxidising properties but also with an improvement in strength and quality of iron steel products.

Stainless steel: for superior corrosion resistance, hygiene, aesthetic and wear-resistance qualities.

Carbon steels: used extensively in suspension bridges and other structural support material and in automotive bodies.

High-purity products are used in the production of grain-oriented and non-oriented electrical sheet and specialty steels requiring low levels of aluminium, titanium, boron and other residual elements.

Whether used for deoxidizing, inoculating, alloying, or as a source of fuel, our quality ferrosilicon products have stood the test of time.


Ferrosilicon in steel mills and casting as the source of silicon is used.

Also in plain carbon steel, low alloy and high-alloy deoxygenation to use in the production of Ferro Alloys silico method of thermite is used.

Silicon role of alloying element in steel production in nuclear electrical transformers and electro is used.

Ferrosilicon as a supplier of silicon to gray and ductile iron casting rate of 3% is used.

The material forming the base Ferrosilicon analysis ferrosilico cast magnesium and modifiers.

As part of the wire coating composition in some welding electrodes used.

Post Idea #4: General Motors

Related Articles – Summarized

General Motors

Durant formed General Motors Company in 1908 as a holding company, with partner Charles Stewart Mott, borrowing a naming convention from General Electric.

Liabilities were left with the original GM, renamed Motors Liquidation Company, freeing the companies of many liabilities and resulting in a new GM. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program, the United States Department of the Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013, resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion.

General Motors Canada was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

In October 2011, GM introduced the Chevrolet Spark EV, an all-electric car version of the third generation Chevrolet Spark, the first all-electric passenger car marketed by General Motors in the U.S. since the General Motors EV1 was discontinued in 1999.

General Motors began operating in South Africa in 1913 through its wholly owned subsidiary, General Motors South Africa and was a market that briefly had its own local brand, Ranger.

In 1926, GM formed an Australian subsidiary, General Motors Limited, which imported, distributed and assembled General Motors products.

The 2007 General Motors strike was a strike from September 24 to 26, 2007, by the United Auto Workers against General Motors.

General Motors Vehicle Sites

Vehicle user interface is a product of Google, and its terms and privacy statements apply.

Vehicle user interface is a product of Google and its terms and privacy statements apply.

Roid Auto is a trademark of Google LLC. Read the vehicle Owner’s Manual for important feature limitations and information.

Roid, Android Auto, Google, Google Play and other marks are trademarks of Google LLC. Read the vehicle Owner’s Manual for important feature limitations and information.

Roid Auto is a trademark of Google LLC. Vehicle user interface is a product of Apple and its terms and privacy statements apply.

Roid Auto is a trademark of Google LLC. Read the vehicle Owner’s Manual for more important feature limitations and information.

Roid, Google Play and Android Auto are trademarks of Google LLC. Safety or driver assistance features are no substitute for the driver’s responsibility to operate the vehicle in a safe manner.

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC Raises Stake In General Motors

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC lifted its position in shares of General Motors by 19.6% in the fourth quarter, Holdings Channel reports.

Harbor Investment Advisory LLC’s holdings in General Motors were worth $402,000 at the end of the most recent quarter.

Symmetry Partners LLC boosted its stake in shares of General Motors by 12.2% during the 3rd quarter.

Heritage Trust Co boosted its stake in shares of General Motors by 168.9% during the 3rd quarter.

Finally, Hollencrest Capital Management boosted its stake in shares of General Motors by 6.4% during the 3rd quarter.

In other General Motors news, Director Patricia F. Russo acquired 6,000 shares of General Motors stock in a transaction that occurred on Thursday, February 10th. The stock was purchased at an average cost of $50.61 per share, with a total value of $303,660.

General Motors last released its quarterly earnings results on Monday, January 31st. The auto manufacturer reported $1.35 earnings per share for the quarter, beating the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $1.19 by $0.16.

For technical traders, both General Motors and Tesla have developed patterns on their charts that can be used to map the stocks’ potential pathways.

The General Motors Chart: General Motors gapped down slightly lower on Friday and continued to fall, losing over 3% of its value within the first half-hour of trading.

General Motors is trading in a steep downtrend between two descending parallel lines, which have developed into a falling channel pattern.

If General Motors falls to the bottom of the channel, bullish traders can watch for the stock to develop a reversal candlestick, which could indicate the stock will at least bounce up higher within the pattern.

Even new traders who started following this option trading strategy instantly began seeing returns they wouldn’t have had otherwise.

With even two trades per month with this strategy, you will start seeing the difference in your trading account.

For a limited time only, we are gifting away our Benzinga Options Starter newsletter for a massive 40% OFF. This includes two heavily researched trades per month from lead trader, Nic Chahine.

GM Loses Bid To Skip Recall For Lights That Are Too Bright

DETROIT – General Motors has lost a bid to avoid recalling about 727,000 small SUVs in the U.S. with headlight beams that can be too bright and cause glare for oncoming drivers.

In 2019 the Detroit automaker petitioned the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration to avoid a recall, saying the problem didn’t affect safety for surrounding vehicles.

The petition covered GMC Terrain SUVs from the 2010 through 2017 model years.

The agency denied the request in a document posted Thursday on the Federal Register website.

It’s likely the company will have to do a recall for not complying with federal safety regulations.

Explore Careers That Will Help Define The New Era Of Transportation.

Our vision is a world with Zero Crashes, Zero Emissions and Zero Congestion and we embrace the responsibility to lead the change that will make our world better, safer and more equitable for all.

We are proud of our achievements so far, but there is more work to be done.

We are determined to lead change for the world through technology, ingenuity and harnessing the creativity of our diverse team.

Learn more With both formal and informal mentorship, continous education support and professional development guidance, employees are encouraged to drive their personal growth and leverage our resources to achieve their career aspirations.

Learn more We provide a competitive benefits package that includes generous holiday, vacation and parental leave time, comprehensive medical and retirement plans, vehicle discounts, and much more.

Learn more Join our team We’re looking for adventure seekers and imaginative thought leaders to help us transform mobility and advance an all-electric future.

Let your voice be heard and help shape the future automotive industry.

GMC Lineup: Trucks, SUVs, Crossovers And Vans

“Class is half-ton pickups. Sierra’s 13,000-lb max rating requires a properly equipped Double Cab 4WD model with available 3.0L Duramax Turbo Diesel engine, Max Trailering Package and 20” wheels and tires.

Sierra’s 8,900-lb max rating requires a properly equipped Crew Cab 4WD model with available 6.2L V8 engine.

7,550-lb rating requires a properly equipped 4WD Canyon Denali model with available Duramax 2.8L I4 Diesel engine.

Only available at My GMC Rewards participating dealers for Members.

7,700-lb rating requires a properly equipped 2WD Canyon Elevation Crew Cab short bed model with available Duramax 2.8L I4 Diesel engine and Trailering Package.

7,550-lb rating requires a properly equipped Canyon AT4 Crew Cab short bed model with cloth seating, available Duramax 2.8L I4 Diesel engine and Trailering Package.

Savana Passenger’s 9,600-lb rating requires a 2500 or 3500 Regular wheelbase model with available 6.0L V8 engine and trailering equipment package.

Post Idea #5: GM Oshawa Assembly

Related Articles – Summarized

GM Oshawa Reborn With New Approach To Labour

To encourage more women to apply to the job, GM highlighted stories of women who had already worked there as part of its campaign, as well as made sure to do targeted social media advertising, They hardly had to worry though, with some 13,000 people in total applying from across Canada as well as internationally for about 1,800 positions including skilled workers.

“I am not thrilled that GM closed our plant,” said Rebecca Keetch, who is back working at the plant after choosing to stay on standby when production was suspended.

Workers at third-party suppliers were also hit without getting the same supports as GM workers.

Keetch is active in a group pushing for electric vehicle production in Oshawa, and was disappointed that the plant didn’t get new commitments from GM on that front.

With better-than-expected demand for pickup trucks, GM has spent $1.3 billion on Oshawa as part of its commitment to the plant, he said, that will help fund the company’s transition to electric.

Demand for pickups has increased during the pandemic, with plants working overtime to produce them, said Sam Fiorani, head of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions LLC. He said that with GM already twice announcing the closure of Oshawa, first in 2008 and then in 2018, it’s risky to bet on the plant’s future, but he also doesn’t see pickup truck demand waning, and Oshawa is the only GM plant that can produce both light and heavy-duty models.

She wasn’t entirely unfamiliar with the auto manufacturing though, asshe isa now third-generation GM worker at the plant.

GM Canada Sponsoring Skills Ontario’S Young Women’S Initiatives

GM Canada has announced it will sponsor an Ontario-based skilled trades educational program called Skills Ontario, supporting the non-profit’s long-standing Young Women’s Initiatives effort.

Skills Ontario is a non-profit organization aimed at “Empowering youth to explore skilled trades and technologies,” in the Candian province.

The organization has been running its Young Women’s Initiatives program for over 20 years, which aims to promote female participation in the skilled trades through experiential learning, mentorship, and networking opportunities.

Skills Ontario says it has “Reached thousands of young women,” through this program, inspiring them to “Explore career paths they may have never considered before or might have even been discouraged from considering.”

While the value of its sponsorship was not revealed this week, Skills Ontario says it “Relies on the support of businesses in the community,” to support such programs, including the Oshawa, Ontario-based automaker.

“We are very grateful to GM Canada for joining us as a sponsor,” Ian Howcroft, CEO of Skills Ontario, said in a prepared statement.

By sponsoring Skills Ontario’s Young Women’s Initiatives program, the automaker is working to ensure it will have a larger pool of female candidates to pick from for future endeavors.

GM Takes New Approach To Worker Diversity As Oshawa Production Returns

The hulking grey shell of GM’s Oshawa assembly plant looks just like it did when the company shut down production on a frigid December day in 2019, but much of what’s inside is strikingly new.

There’s a new product – as of the November restart, the plant makes huge Chevy Silverado pickup trucks – fancy new robots to swing them about the plant, and kilometres of new conveyor lines to usher them through to completion.

GM Canada president Scott Bell said diversity has been a priority for some time at the company, which is led by Mary Barra and has a gender-balanced board, but he said it was the restart of the plant that led to the push for gender balance.

“I am not thrilled that GM closed our plant,” said Rebecca Keetch, who is back working at the plant after choosing to stay on standby when production was suspended.

Keetch is active in a group pushing for electric vehicle production in Oshawa, and was disappointed that the plant didn’t get new commitments from GM on that front.

With better-than-expected demand for pickup trucks, GM has spent $1.3 billion on Oshawa as part of its commitment to the plant, he said, that will help fund the company’s transition to electric.

Demand for pickups has increased during the pandemic, with plants working overtime to produce them, said Sam Fiorani, head of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions LLC. He said that with GM already twice announcing the closure of Oshawa, first in 2008 and then in 2018, it’s risky to bet on the plant’s future, but he also doesn’t see pickup truck demand waning, and Oshawa is the only GM plant that can produce both light and heavy-duty models.

Oshawa Car Assembly

Oshawa Car Assembly is a manufacturing facility in the city of Oshawa, Ontario, Canada, that built various automobiles for General Motors Canada.

At one time, the factory was one of the largest auto manufacturing facilities in the world, with two car assembly plants, a truck assembly plant, as well as parts production including Harrison radiators, AC Delco batteries and American Axle.

The bodies are painted and then go through the general assembly process at the Oshawa plant.

Final assembly of these trucks, which would only be sold in Double Cab, Standard Bed form, would occur at Oshawa Car Assembly.

On November 26, 2018, General Motors announced the closure of the Oshawa car assembly plant complex ending 111 years of auto manufacturing in Oshawa.

“On November 4, 2020, GM announced”Subject to ratification of the 2020 agreement with Unifor, General Motors plans to bring pickup production back to the Oshawa Assembly Plant.

Harbour Consulting rated Oshawa #1 as the second most efficient in North America, the top-rated in the study was Oshawa #2. Some of the former models produced at the plant.

GM Takes New Approach To Worker Diversity As Oshawa Production Returns

The hulking grey shell of GM’s Oshawa assembly plant looks just like it did when the company shut down production on a frigid December day in 2019, but much of what’s inside is strikingly new.

There’s a new product – as of the November restart, the plant makes huge Chevy Silverado pickup trucks – fancy new robots to swing them about the plant, and kilometres of new conveyor lines to usher them through to completion.

GM Canada president Scott Bell said diversity has been a priority for some time at the company, which is led by Mary Barra and has a gender-balanced board, but he said it was the restart of the plant that led to the push for gender balance.

“I am not thrilled that GM closed our plant,” said Rebecca Keetch, who is back working at the plant after choosing to stay on standby when production was suspended.

Keetch is active in a group pushing for electric vehicle production in Oshawa, and was disappointed that the plant didn’t get new commitments from GM on that front.

With better-than-expected demand for pickup trucks, GM has spent $1.3 billion on Oshawa as part of its commitment to the plant, he said, that will help fund the company’s transition to electric.

“It’s a substantial investment. Trucks are going to be around for a long time, so we feel good about that. From an EV perspective, you know, we’ve got to fund that business.”. Demand for pickups has increased during the pandemic, with plants working overtime to produce them, said Sam Fiorani, head of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions LLC. He said that with GM already twice announcing the closure of Oshawa, first in 2008 and then in 2018, it’s risky to bet on the plant’s future, but he also doesn’t see pickup truck demand waning, and Oshawa is the only GM plant that can produce both light and heavy-duty models.

GM Takes New Approach To Workforce Diversity As Oshawa, Ont. Production Resume

The hulking gray shell of GM’s Oshawa assembly plant looks just like it did when the company shut down production on a frigid December day in 2019, but much of what’s inside is strikingly new.

There’s a new product – as of the November restart, the plant makes huge Chevy Silverado pickup trucks – fancy new robots to swing them about the plant, and kilometers of new conveyor lines to usher them through to completion.

Maybe the biggest change is a workforce that is not only largely new to the plant, but to the manufacturing sector at large after the automaker made a concerted effort to hire women for about half of the 1,200 line positions.

GM Canada president Scott Bell said diversity has been a priority for some time at the company, which is led by Mary Barra and has a gender-balanced board, but he said it was the restart of the plant that led to the push for gender balance.

Keetch is active in a group pushing for electric vehicle production in Oshawa, and was disappointed that the plant didn’t get new commitments from GM on that front.

With better-than-expected demand for pickup trucks, GM has spent $1.3 billion on Oshawa as part of its commitment to the plant, he said, that will help fund the company’s transition to electric.

Demand for pickups has increased during the pandemic, with plants working overtime to produce them, said Sam Fiorani, head of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions LLC. He said that with GM already twice announcing the closure of Oshawa, first in 2008 and then in 2018, it’s risky to bet on the plant’s future, but he also doesn’t see pickup truck demand waning, and Oshawa is the only GM plant that can produce both light and heavy-duty models.

GM Takes New Approach To Worker Diversity As Oshawa Production Returns

The hulking grey shell of GM’s Oshawa assembly plant looks just like it did when the company shut down production on a frigid December day in 2019, but much of what’s inside is strikingly new.

There’s a new product – as of the November restart, the plant makes huge Chevy Silverado pickup trucks – fancy new robots to swing them about the plant, and kilometres of new conveyor lines to usher them through to completion.

GM Canada president Scott Bell said diversity has been a priority for some time at the company, which is led by Mary Barra and has a gender-balanced board, but he said it was the restart of the plant that led to the push for gender balance.

“I am not thrilled that GM closed our plant,” said Rebecca Keetch, who is back working at the plant after choosing to stay on standby when production was suspended.

Keetch is active in a group pushing for electric vehicle production in Oshawa, and was disappointed that the plant didn’t get new commitments from GM on that front.

With better-than-expected demand for pickup trucks, GM has spent $1.3 billion on Oshawa as part of its commitment to the plant, he said, that will help fund the company’s transition to electric.

Demand for pickups has increased during the pandemic, with plants working overtime to produce them, said Sam Fiorani, head of global vehicle forecasting at AutoForecast Solutions LLC.He said that with GM already twice announcing the closure of Oshawa, first in 2008 and then in 2018, it’s risky to bet on the plant’s future, but he also doesn’t see pickup truck demand waning, and Oshawa is the only GM plant that can produce both light and heavy-duty models.

Post Idea #6: The Great Depression

Related Articles – Summarized

Great Depression: What Happened, Causes, How It Ended

The Great Depression was a worldwide economic depression that lasted 10 years.

The Great Depression affected all aspects of society.

Still, others contend that if FDR had spent as much on the New Deal as he did during the War, it would have ended the Depression.

The U.S. didn’t fully recover from the Depression until World War II. How many people died during the Great Depression?

It’s difficult to analyze how many people died as a result of the Great Depression.

How did the Great Depression change the role of government in America?

The Great Depression and the subsequent New Deal had a significant impact on Americans’ views of the role of the government, particularly at the federal level.

Federal Reserve History

Why did the Federal Reserve fail in this fundamental task? The Federal Reserve’s leaders disagreed about the best response to banking crises.

Among leaders of the Federal Reserve, differences of opinion also existed about whether to help and how much assistance to extend to financial institutions that did not belong to the Federal Reserve.

Some leaders thought aid should only be extended to commercial banks that were members of the Federal Reserve System.

Only a handful of leaders thought the Federal Reserve should directly aid commercial banks that did not belong to the Federal Reserve.

The Federal Reserve could have prevented deflation by preventing the collapse of the banking system or by counteracting the collapse with an expansion of the monetary base, but it failed to do so for several reasons.

In the spring of 1932, after Congress provided the Federal Reserve with the necessary authority, the Federal Reserve expanded the monetary base aggressively.

This legislation shifted some of the Federal Reserve’s responsibilities to the Treasury Department and to new federal agencies such as the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

Definition, History, Dates, Causes, Effects, & Facts

Its social and cultural effects were no less staggering, especially in the United States, where the Great Depression represented the harshest adversity faced by Americans since the Civil War.Economic history The timing and severity of the Great Depression varied substantially across countries.

Perhaps not surprisingly, the worst depression ever experienced by the world economy stemmed from a multitude of causes.

The severity of the Great Depression in the United States becomes especially clear when it is compared with America’s next worst recession, the Great Recession of 2007-09, during which the country’s real GDP declined just 4.3 percent and the unemployment rate peaked at less than 10 percent.

The Depression affected virtually every country of the world.

The country did not slip into severe depression until early 1930, and its peak-to-trough decline in industrial production was roughly one-third that of the United States.

A number of countries in Latin America fell into depression in late 1928 and early 1929, slightly before the U.S. decline in output.

While some less-developed countries experienced severe depressions, others, such as Argentina and Brazil, experienced comparatively mild downturns.

Great Depression: Black Thursday, Facts & Effects

New DealThe New Deal was a series of programs and projects instituted during the Great Depression by President Franklin D. Roosevelt that aimed to restore prosperity to Americans.

How Photography Defined the Great DepressionDuring the 1930s, America went through one of its greatest challenges: the Great Depression.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt attempted to relieve the dire economic situation with his New Deal programs.

Dust BowlThe Dust Bowl was the name given to the drought-stricken Southern Plains region of the United States, which suffered severe dust storms during a dry period in the 1930s.

Artists of the New DealThe New Deal was one of President Roosevelt’s efforts to end the Great Depression.

Art projects were a major part of this series of federal relief programs, like the Public Works of Art Project, the Treasury Section of Painting and Sculpture and the Treasury Relief Art Project.

Life for the Average Family During the Great DepressionThe Great Depression was the worst economic downturn in modern history.

FDR Presidential Library & Museum

In his speech accepting the Democratic Party nomination in 1932, Franklin Delano Roosevelt pledged “a New Deal for the American people” if elected.

Following his inauguration as President of the United States on March 4, 1933, FDR put his New Deal into action: an active, diverse, and innovative program of economic recovery.

In the First Hundred Days of his new administration, FDR pushed through Congress a package of legislation designed to lift the nation out of the Depression.

FDR declared a “Banking holiday” to end the runs on the banks and created new federal programs administered by so-called “Alphabet agencies” For example, the AAA stabilized farm prices and thus saved farms.

Did the New Deal end the Great Depression? Roosevelt’s New Deal recovery programs were based on various, not always consistent, theories on the causes of the Depression.

“Okies,” victims of the drought and dust storms in the Great Plains, left their farms and headed for California, the new land of “Milk and honey.” America’s unemployed were on the move, but there was really nowhere to go.

The New Deal marked a new relationship between the people and the federal government, which had never existed to such a degree before.

The Great Depression

On Black Tuesday, October 29, 1929, the stock market crashed, triggering the Great Depression, the worst economic collapse in the history of the modern industrial world.

Blamed by many for the Great Depression, Hoover was widely ridiculed: an empty pocket turned inside out was called a “Hoover flag;” the decrepit shantytowns springing up around the country were called “Hoovervilles.” Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the rich governor from New York, offered Americans a New Deal, and was elected in a landslide victory in 1932.

The hardship brought on by the Depression affected Americans deeply.

The unemployment brought on by the Depression caused self-blame and self-doubt.

Although some argued that women should not be given jobs when many men were unemployed, the percentage of women working increased slightly during the Depression.

Discrimination continued in the South as a result a large number of black voters switched from the Republican to the Democrat party during the Depression.

The Great Depression and the New Deal changed forever the relationship between Americans and their government.

Great Depression

In many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II. The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor countries.

Economists and economic historians are almost evenly split as to whether the traditional monetary explanation that monetary forces were the primary cause of the Great Depression is right, or the traditional Keynesian explanation that a fall in autonomous spending, particularly investment, is the primary explanation for the onset of the Great Depression.

Two prominent theorists in the Austrian School on the Great Depression include Austrian economist Friedrich Hayek and American economist Murray Rothbard, who wrote America’s Great Depression.

When the United States entered the war in 1941, it finally eliminated the last effects from the Great Depression and brought the U.S. unemployment rate down below 10%. In the U.S., massive war spending doubled economic growth rates, either masking the effects of the Depression or essentially ending the Depression.

The Great Depression in the Netherlands led to some political instability and riots, and can be linked to the rise of the Dutch fascist political party NSB. The depression in the Netherlands eased off somewhat at the end of 1936, when the government finally dropped the Gold Standard, but real economic stability did not return until after World War II. New Zealand was especially vulnerable to worldwide depression, as it relied almost entirely on agricultural exports to the United Kingdom for its economy.

The term “The Great Depression” is most frequently attributed to British economist Lionel Robbins, whose 1934 book The Great Depression is credited with formalizing the phrase, though Hoover is widely credited with popularizing the term, informally referring to the downturn as a depression, with such uses as “Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement”, and “I need not recount to you that the world is passing through a great depression”.

At the time of the Great Depression, the term “The Great Depression” was already used to refer to the period 1873-96, or more narrowly 1873-79, which has retroactively been renamed the Long Depression.

Post Idea #7: United States Treasury security

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Treasury securities-including Treasury bills, notes, and bonds-are debt obligations issued by the U.S. Department of the Treasury.

Treasury securities are considered one of the safest investments because they are backed by the full faith and credit of the U.S. government.

The income from Treasury securities may be exempt from state and local taxes, but not from federal taxes.

U.S. Treasury Securities

U.S. Treasury securities are issued by the federal government and are considered to be among the safest investments you can make, because all Treasury securities are backed by the “Full faith and credit” of the U.S. government.

Treasuries come in three varities: Treasury BillsShort-term securities that are non-interest bearing with maturities of only a few days, four weeks, 13 weeks, 26 weeks or 52 weeks.

Treasury NotesFixed-principal securities issued with maturities of two, three, five, seven and 10 years.

Treasury BondsLong-term, fixed-principal securities issued with a 30-year maturity.

Treasuries Snapshot Issuer U.S. Treasury Minimum Investment $100 Interest Payment Treasury bills are non-interest bearing: Sold at discount from face value and pay interest upon maturity.

Inflation risk: Treasury security yields may not keep up with inflation.

TThe longer the term of your U.S. Treasury security, the greater the chance you will not be able to act upon a more attractive investment opportunity should one become available.

Treasury Securities & Programs

U.S. Treasury securities are a great way to invest and save for the future.

Here, you’ll find overviews regarding U.S. Treasury bonds, notes, bills, TIPS, and Floating Rate Notes, as well as U.S. Savings Bonds.

Treasury bills are short-term government securities with maturities ranging from a few days to 52 weeks.

Treasury notes are government securities that are issued with maturities of 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years and pay interest every six months.

Treasury bonds pay interest every six months and mature in 20 years or 30 years.

Interest payments on an FRN rise and fall based on discount rates for 13-week Treasury bills.

EE savings bonds are a secure savings product that earn interest, based on current market rates, until they reach 30 years or until you cash them, whichever comes first.

Average interest rates are calculated based on the total unmatured interest-bearing debt.

The average interest rates for total marketable, total non-marketable, and total interest-bearing debt do not include Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities or Treasury Floating Rate Notes.

Refer to About This Dataset above for a data dictionary with field names and descriptions, as well as notes and known limitations.

Refer to the chart above for the intended data type of each field.

Refer to About This Dataset above for a data dictionary with field names and descriptions as well as notes and known limitations.

EXAMPLE REQUEST. EXPECTED RESPONSE. This dataset contains monthly tables that list the redemption value, interest earned, and yield of accrual savings bonds issued as far back as 1941.

Bond owners can use this dataset to find the redemption value of the bonds they hold.

United States Treasury Security

United States Treasury securities are government debt instruments issued by the United States Department of the Treasury to finance government spending as an alternative to taxation.

There are four types of marketable treasury securities: Treasury bills, Treasury notes, Treasury bonds, and Treasury Inflation Protected Securities.

Although the United States is a sovereign power and may default without recourse, its strong record of repayment has given Treasury securities a reputation as one of the world’s lowest-risk investments.

Again the Treasury issued debt through fixed-price subscription, where both the coupon and the price of the debt were dictated by the Treasury.

As the U.S. government used budget surpluses to pay down federal debt in the late 1990s, the 10-year Treasury note began to replace the 30-year Treasury bond as the general, most-followed metric of the U.S. bond market.

In 2019, Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin said that the Trump administration was considering issuance of 50-year and even 100-year Treasury bonds.

Treasury Inflation-Protected Securities are inflation-indexed bonds issued by the U.S. Treasury.

Post Idea #8: Prosthesis

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Definition Of Prosthesis By Medical Dictionary

Prosthesis an artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.

Advances in the field of surgical amputation and the art of designing artificial limbs have made it possible for persons who have lost a limb to be equipped with a prosthesis that functions so efficiently, and so closely resembles the original in appearance, that they can resume normal activities with the disability passing almost unnoticed.

Most artificial limbs are powered by the muscles, either those remaining in the residual limb or other available muscles.

The most commonly fitted artificial limb is the knee-jointed leg, used by persons whose lower limbs have been amputated above the knee.

The key points in such a limb are the socket, where it fits onto the residual limb, the knee, and the ankle.

A sock is worn to cover the residual limb, and this should be washed daily; the residual limb itself should also be washed regularly and carefully, particularly between skin folds.

Prosthesis plural, prostheses Medtalk An artificial body part-eg, pseudobreast, artificial limb, etc.


A transfemoral prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a leg missing above the knee.

A prosthesis is a functional replacement for an amputated or congenitally malformed or missing limb.

Optimal socket fit between the residual limb and socket is critical to the function and usage of the entire prosthesis.

In 1997, the Colombian Prof. Alvaro Rios Poveda, a researcher in bionics in Latin America, developed an upper limb and hand prosthesis with sensory feedback.

In the prosthetic industry, a trans-tibial prosthetic leg is often referred to as a “BK” or below the knee prosthesis while the trans-femoral prosthetic leg is often referred to as an “AK” or above the knee prosthesis.

Advantages to using a myoelectric upper extremity prosthesis include the potential for improvement in cosmetic appeal, may be better for light everyday activities, and may be beneficial for people experiencing phantom limb pain.

In early 2008, Oscar Pistorius, the “Blade Runner” of South Africa, was briefly ruled ineligible to compete in the 2008 Summer Olympics because his transtibial prosthesis limbs were said to give him an unfair advantage over runners who had ankles.

Welcome To Custom Prosthetic Designs, Inc.

Custom Prosthetic Designs, Inc. provides prosthetic alternatives to reconstructive surgery for both adults and children for a variety of physical deformities.

Robert Barron, a former Senior CIA Master of Disguise, is committed to restoring identities and confidence through these prosthetic devices.

Prosthetic devices created for patients by Custom Prosthetic Designs, Inc. address issues such as ear reconstruction, microtia, orbital with artificial eye, partial finger tips, and more.

We also offer child prosthetics for those who have been afflicted with various deformities at a younger age.

Surgery can be taxing on individuals, especially young children and we strive to offer our prosthetic services to those where surgery may not be the best option due to age or other restrictions.

Learn more about the prosthetic services we offer as well as some of the advantages of a prosthesis vs. reconstructive surgery.

Whether you’re in need of adult or child prosthetics, Custom Prosthetic Designs, Inc. will work with you to create a virtually undetectable prosthetic seam.

Definition, Types, & Facts

New lightweight materials and better mechanical joints were introduced after World Wars I and II.One type of below-knee prosthesis is made from plastic and fits the below-knee stump with total contact.

There are two main types of above-knee prostheses: the prosthesis held on by means of a belt around the pelvis or suspended from the shoulder by straps and the prosthesis kept in contact with the leg stump by suction, the belt and shoulder straps being eliminated.

The more complicated prosthesis used in cases of amputation through the hip joint or half of the pelvis usually consists of a plastic socket, in which the person virtually sits; a mechanical hip joint of metal; and a leather, plastic, or wooden thigh piece with the mechanical knee, shin portion, and foot as described above.

The below-elbow prosthesis consists of a single plastic shell and a metal wrist joint to which is attached a terminal device, either a hook or a hand.

The above-elbow prosthesis has, in addition to the forearm shell, an upper-arm plastic shell and a mechanical, locking elbow joint.

The most complicated upper-extremity prosthesis, that used in cases of amputation through the shoulder, includes a plastic shoulder cap extending over the chest and back.

External prostheses may be worn, but surgical reconstruction of the breast, involving implantation of a prosthesis, became increasingly common from the 1970s.

What Are Prosthetics?

In some cases, the replacement may be purely aesthetic, while in other instances, it may help restore functionality, as in the case of a prosthetic limb which is equipped with biosensors, allowing the wearer to manipulate the limb.

In the 20th century, major developments began to emerge in the world of prosthetics.

Injured veterans wanted replacements for lost legs and arms, and the military began to meet the need, developing prosthetics which could allow people to perform complex tasks which would not have been possible with the crude prosthetics used prior to the 20th century.

Modern prosthetics are so advanced that they have been used by Olympic-level athletes in competition.

The need for prosthetics in military veterans led to a push for prosthetic limbs with biosensors, sensors which actually tap into the user’s body.

Many modern prosthetics also include mechanical sensors which respond to environmental changes, as for instance the change in pressure when someone climbs stairs on a prosthetic leg.

Prosthetic replacements for feet, legs, arms, and hands are all available, along with prosthetic eyes, breasts, and noses for cosmetic purposes.

Prosthetic Vs. Prosthesis: The Correct Usage

Prostheses are worn both by those who lost limbs due to disease or trauma, and also those who were born with congenital limb difference.

Learn more about the history of prosthetics in History of Prosthetic Legs Throughout The Ages.

The type of prosthesis worn depends on the level of limb loss, and there are many different styles and technologies available.

This professional will help develop a custom prosthetic socket-the piece that connects the prosthesis to the body.

Be sure to also read our Beginner’s Guide to Common Types of Prosthetic Limbs.

At Amputee Coalition, our mission is to reach out to and empower people affected by limb loss to achieve their full potential through education, support, and advocacy, and to promote limb loss prevention.

We provide free resources and access to our support network for those undergoing limb loss and their families so no one goes through limb loss alone.

What You Should Know Before Getting A Prosthetic Leg

If you have a lower limb amputation, or you will soon, a prosthetic leg is probably an option you’re thinking about.

While many people with limb loss do well with their prosthetic legs, not everyone is a good candidate for a leg prosthesis.

It’s generally easier to use a below-the-knee prosthetic leg than an above-the-knee prosthesis.

“If the knee joint is intact, the prosthetic leg takes much less effort to move and allows for more mobility,” explains Keszler.

Once you’ve selected your prosthetic leg components, you will need rehabilitation to strengthen your legs, arms and cardiovascular system, as you learn to walk with your new limb.

Physical therapy can help adjust to the new components or your new prosthetic leg.

In some cases, your everyday prosthetic leg can be modified by your prosthetist to serve different purposes.

Post Idea #9: Laser communication in space

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Laser Communication In Space

Laser communication in space is the use of free-space optical communication in outer space.

In November 2001, the world’s first laser intersatellite link was achieved in space by the European Space Agency satellite Artemis, providing an optical data transmission link with the CNES Earth observation satellite SPOT 4.

Initial data returned from the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration equipment on LADEE set a space communication bandwidth record in October 2013 when early tests using a pulsed laser beam to transmit data over the 385,000 km between the Moon and Earth passed data at a “Record-breaking download rate of 622 megabits per second”, and also demonstrated an error-free data upload rate of 20 Mbit/s from an Earth ground station to LADEE in lunar orbit.

The LLCD is NASA’s first attempt at two-way space communication using an optical laser instead of radio waves, and is expected to lead to operational laser systems on NASA satellites in future years.

The OPALS experiment was launched on 18 April 2014 to the International Space Station to further test the potential for using a laser to transmit data to Earth from space.

In April 2020, the Small Optical Link for International Space Station created by JAXA and Sony Computer Science Laboratories, established bidirectional communication between the ISS and a telescope of the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology of Japan.

Multiple companies want to use laser communication in space for satellite constellations in low Earth orbit to provide global high-speed Internet access.

Space Optical Communications Using Laser Beams

NASA has developed a new laser beam pointing technology for use in space optical communications.

Current architectures use dynamical systems,, and/or gimbals,) to turn the laser to point to the ground terminal and possibly use vibration isolation platforms.

This invention provides a new method for optical data transmissions from satellites using laser arrays for laser beam pointing.

It combines a lens system and a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser VCSEL)/Photodetector Array, both mature technologies, in a novel way for PAT. It can improve the PAT system’s size, weight, and power in comparison to current systems.

The pointing used a diffraction limited lens system and a VCSEL array.

Current architectures use dynamical systems,, and/or gimbals) to turn the laser to point to the ground terminal, and some use vibration isolation platforms as well.

For these electro-optical systems, reaction times to pointing changes and vibrations are on the nanosecond time scale, much faster than those for mechanical systems.

The Use Of Lasers For Space Communications

NASA has launched a mission to test optical space communication with Laser Communications Relay Demonstration.

With mounting activities in space flight, there is a need to enhance the communication methods between Earth-based stations and space crafts.

NASA launched the Laser Communications Relay Demonstration into space in December 2021.

The objective of LCRD is to test optical communications in space.

Figure 1: Illustration of NASA launch mission to test optical space communication with Laser Communications Relay Demonstration communicating between the International Space Station and an Earth-based mission control using lasers.

Once the capabilities of the LCRD are further proven, laser communications can be implemented on more space missions and ultimately become the standard mode for data transmission.

Howell, E. How NASA’s new laser communications mission will work in space.

Communicating By Laser Is Next Big Step For Space Tech

Space-based laser communications systems will be key to moving enormous amounts of data and communicating with satellites far out in space.

Why use lasers for communications? The essential answer is that they provide much higher data transmission rates: 10 to 100 times the rate available from RF communications depending on the type of laser.

Laser communications terminals also require less onboard power than do RF transmitters to send communications over a given distance.

The agency’s Laser Communications Relay Demonstration seeks to develop laser communications with satellites in various orbits and future manned missions in space and to the Moon.

Starlink has begun to deploy purpose-built laser communications terminals on its satellites, starting with those in polar orbit, in order to reduce the requirements for ground stations.

General Atomics is working with the SDA on the Laser Interconnect and Networking Communications System, which will demonstrate secure optical communications in space.

The post Communicating by laser is next big step for space tech appeared first on WND..

NASA Launches Laser Demo That Could Revolutionize Space Communication

The use of invisible lasers in space may sound like something from science fiction, but it’s real.

NASA’s Laser Communications Relay Demonstration could revolutionize the way the agency communicates with future missions across the solar system.

These lasers could lead to more high-definition videos and photos from space than ever before, according to the agency.

Since 1958, NASA has used radio waves to communicate with its astronauts and space missions.

While radio waves have a proven track record, space missions are becoming more complex and collecting more data than before.

Think of infrared lasers as the optical communication version of high-speed internet, as opposed to frustratingly slow dial-up internet.

Laser communications will send data to Earth from an orbit synchronous with the Earth’s rotation, 22,000 miles above Earth’s surface at 1.2 gigabits-per-second, which is like downloading an entire movie in under a minute.

How NASA’S New Laser Communications Mission Will Work In Space

A “Data hunger” in space is driving the launch of a new laser communications mission, a NASA official told Space.com.

“This will be our first foray into understanding, what does it mean to use lasers to communicate and really connect directly to Earth and space users?” Jason Mitchell, Director of SCaN Advanced Communications & Navigation Technology Division at NASA, told Space.com in a recent video interview.

In turn, he said, the “Learning experience at the moon [will show] how we would look to operate this at Mars – as well as in any other location, really, in space where you have a central spot that you really want to collect a lot of data from.”

The demonstration is meant to demonstrate the sustainability of longer space missions after several brief, successful attempts to try laser comms in space.

Making sure the mission outlasted the stresses of launch and space radiation for years, instead of a few weeks of months, was top of mind during the design process, Mitchell said.

The first year of the Psyche mission will include a test of the Deep Space Optical Communications payload, which will help investigators learn how to precisely direct laser communications from deep space.

Besides the need for speed, NASA says the switch to laser will solve another growing space problem: frequency overcrowding.

Post Idea #10: Airbus Defence and Space

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Airbus Defence And Space

Division of Airbus SE. Airbus Defence and Space is a division of Airbus responsible for defence and aerospace products and services.

Airbus Defence and Space was formed in 2013 as a result of the merger of Astrium, Cassidian, and the Airbus Military divisions of European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company which was itself reorganized as Airbus.

On 1 January 2014, the parent company EADS was restructured as Airbus, comprising three subsidiary companies that include Airbus Defence and Space, Airbus, and Airbus Helicopters.

The subsidiaries Airbus, Airbus Helicopters and Airbus Defence and Space became operating divisions of the same company.

Space Systems is responsible for Space exploration, missile defence, satellites, other networking services and also the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle and Space Station programmes.

Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer is a planned European Space Agency spacecraft designed by Airbus Defence and Space to visit the Jovian system, focused on studying three of Jupiter’s Galilean moons: Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa.

Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane is a suborbital spaceplane concept for carrying space tourists, proposed by Airbus Defence and Space.


In today’s increasingly complex threat environment, Airbus brings interoperable and collaborative solutions to ensure superiority for combat systems across the five operational domains: land, air, sea, space and cyber.

Airbus combines more than 50 years of field-proven technology with next-generation systems-of-systems architecture in providing a more digitalised, more collaborative and agile operating environment.

Airbus know-how is underscored by its prime contractor role for Europe’s Future Combat Air System – a network of manned and unmanned platforms from fighter and drones to satellites; its development of the Multi-Domain Combat Cloud – a decentralised, cyber-resilient, collaborative information network using cloud-based technologies; and implementation of the Network for the Sky – a resilient global-mesh military communications solution that allows aircraft to be fully part of a high-speed connected battlespace.

The company’s world-class portfolio of products includes the Eurofighter Typhoon swing-role combat aircraft; the A400M, C295 and CN235 airlifters; the A330 Multi-Role Tanker Transport; along with robust, dependable unmanned aerial systems.

For networks and systems, Airbus’ secure and resilient communications capabilities provide comprehensive bandwidth and best-in-class capabilities.

Modern and future combat systems need to adapt to this new form of danger.

Capabilities to overpower adversaries as diverse as local asymmetric forces, global stateless organizations or new hostile technologically-advanced countries, rely on network-enhanced collaboration combat systems.

Airbus Defense And Space Jobs

Airbus is committed to providing reasonable accommodation as an Equal Opportunity Employer to applicants with disabilities.

We will make a determination on your request for reasonable accommodation on a case-by-case basis.

Airbus Defense and Space will consider for employment all qualified applicants without regard to race, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, national origin, disability, veteran status, or any other legally protected status.

Below is a list of the current openings with our company.

Click on the job title to learn more about the opening.

Pioneering Sustainable Aerospace

Removing special livery and returning a Eurofighter to active duty in the regular grey paint-scheme can be quite a challenge – especially if you do it for the first time.

A feature on how the Airbus Defence and Space team at Eurofighter Kooperation Zelle in Manching made it happen anyways.

Asia-Pacific region will need over 17,600 new aircraft by 2040.

In the next 20 year passenger traffic growth of 5.3% per annum and accelerated retirement of older less fuel efficient aircraft will see the Asia-Pacific region require 17,620 new passenger and freighter aircraft.

Nearly 30% of these will replace older less fuel efficient models.

Airbus, Air Liquide, Korean Air and Incheon International Airport Corporation partner to pioneer the use of hydrogen in the decarbonization of the aviation sector in Korea.

Airbus, Air Liquide Korea, Korean Air and Incheon International Airport Corporation signed a Memorandum of Understanding to explore the use of hydrogen at Seoul’s Incheon Airport.

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Post Idea #11: General Dynamics Mission Systems

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General Dynamics

We are a leading manufacturer and integrator of tactical, secure communications systems, including fixed and mobile radio and satellite communications systems and antenna technologies and broadband networking.

Mission Systems has a 50-year legacy of providing advanced fire-control systems for U.S. Navy submarine programs and we are developing and integrating commercial off-the-shelf software and hardware upgrades to improve the tactical control capabilities for several submarine classes.

We developed the combat and seaframe control systems and we are the lead systems integrator for the Navy’s Independence-variant Littoral Combat Ship and the electronic systems for the Navy’s Joint High Speed Vessel.

We defend networks against dynamic threats by developing, deploying and sustaining encryption products, systems and services.

Mission Systems builds, integrates and optimizes networks, providing resilient end-to-end solutions.

We design, build, deploy and support ISR solutions including signals and information collection, processing and distribution systems and imagery sensors.

We deliver multi-intelligence ground systems and large-scale, high-performance data and signal processing.

General Dynamics Mission Systems Hourly Pay Rate

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Contract Professionals, Inc. – Scottsdale , AZ. At General Dynamics Mission Systems, you’ll be part of the team that helps heroes make a true impact.

How Much Do General Dynamics Mission Systems Software Development Jobs Pay In Boston?

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General Dynamics Mission Systems Jobs In Lynn, MA

Lynn, MA. Basic Qualifications Bachelors degree in Software Engineering, plus a minimum of 5 years of relevant experience; or Master’s degree plus a minimum of 3 years…. 1 day ago.

Lynn, MA. Basic Qualifications Bachelor’s degree in Software Engineering, plus a minimum of 5 years of relevant experience; or Master’s degree plus a minimum of 3…. 2 days ago.

Lynn, MA. Basic Qualifications Requires a Bachelors degree in Systems Engineering, or a related Science, Engineering or Mathematics field.

Boston, MA. Job Description Basic Qualifications Requires a Bachelors degree in Engineering, or a related Science or Mathematics field.

Boston, MA. Basic Qualifications Bachelor’s degree in Software Engineering, plus a minimum of 5 years of relevant experience; or Master’s degree plus a minimum of 3…. 4 days ago.

Cambridge, MA. Basic Qualifications Requires a Bachelors degree in Software Engineering, or a related Science, Engineering or Mathematics field.

Quincy, MA. Basic Qualifications Bachelors degree in Software Engineering, plus a minimum of 5 years of relevant experience; or Master’s degree plus a minimum of 3 years…. 12 days ago.

General Dynamics Mission Systems

General Dynamics Mission Systems is a business unit of American defense and aerospace company General Dynamics.

General Dynamics Mission Systems integrates secure communication and information systems and technology.

General Dynamics Mission Systems has core manufacturing in secure communications networks; radios and satellite technology for the defense, cyber, public safety, and intelligence communities.

General Dynamics C4 Systems was originally owned by GTE and operated as GTE Government Systems.

General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems provided mission-related systems development, integration and operations support.

General Dynamics C4 Systems was a leading integrator of secure communications, information systems and technology.

General Dynamics is the Army’s prime contractor for WIN-T, which is part of General Dynamics Mission Systems’ tactical voice and data communications systems, The Soldier’s Network.

General Dynamics Mission Systems

We are at the Air Force Association’s Air Warfare Symposium this week with our Multi-Level Security Solutions demo, Strategic Deterrence modernization group, and more.

Stop by booth 800 to check out technologies that help our servicemen and women achieve extraordinary levels of mission effectiveness.

Post Idea #12: Cloud storage

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Cloud Storage?

With cloud storage, there is no hardware to purchase, storage to provision, or capital being used for “Someday” scenarios.

You can add or remove capacity on demand, quickly change performance and retention characteristics, and only pay for storage that you actually use.

When development teams are ready to execute, infrastructure should never slow them down.

Cloud storage allows IT to quickly deliver the exact amount of storage needed, right when it’s needed.

This allows IT to focus on solving complex application problems instead of having to manage storage systems.

Centralizing storage in the cloud creates a tremendous leverage point for new use cases.

By using cloud storage lifecycle management policies, you can perform powerful information management tasks including automated tiering or locking down data in support of compliance requirements.

50+ Services Tested, One Winner

We have tested and reviewed more cloud storage services than anyone else online.

More than 50 services, from personal cloud storage to enterprise-grade secure cloud storage, have been analysed in our quest to find the cloud storage service that’s nearest to perfection, looking at capacity, price, file size, security, ease of use and more.

If you can’t find what you’re after, check out some of our other guides, including the best cloud backup, best free cloud storage, best photo storage, and best business cloud storage.

Best cloud storage services: a closer look Cloud storage servicesBest planOnline StorageIDrive$3.

It’s a relatively simple but effective service which gives you a cloud storage locker, or alternatively can be used to create a local file vault on your device for secure storage, protecting your data with encryption in both cases.

Think of it as the self-storage services – cherished by home movers and renters – but instead of filling them up with boxes, you fill cloud storage accounts with your own files.

There are dozens of services that fall under that umbrella term and many users interchangeably call them cloud backup, online storage, online drives, online backup, file hosting, file storage and so on.

The Best Cloud Storage And File-Sharing Services For 2022

We’ve rounded up the best cloud storage and file-sharing and file-syncing services to help you decide which are right for you.

The very best cloud storage solutions play nicely with other apps and services, making the experience of viewing and editing your files feel natural.

Some cloud storage services, such as Apple iCloud, Google Drive and Microsoft OneDrive, are generalists, offering not only folder and file syncing, but also media-playing and device syncing.

Just to clear up any confusion, the cloud part of cloud-based storage services refers to storing your files somewhere other than your computer’s hard drive, usually on the provider’s servers.

Many cloud storage services have a free account that usually comes with some limitations, such as the amount of storage or a size limit on files you can upload. We prefer providers that offer some level of free service, even if you get only 2GB of storage space, rather than a time-based trial because a free account lets you fully integrate a service into your life for several weeks.

Here, we highlight only the best cloud storage services among those we’ve tested.

Click the review links below for more detailed information on each of our favorite cloud storage and file-syncing services.

17 Best Free Cloud Storage Services For Backup In 2022

Cloud storage services are great for sharing files with friends and families, keeping documents in sync between all of your devices, and so much more.

Dropbox users start off with 2 GB of free space with several simple ways of earning more, up to around 18 GB. You can view and upload all your Dropbox files from a desktop or mobile app and share whole folders with anyone, even if they don’t have a Dropbox account.

If you have Microsoft Office files stored in your Dropbox account, you can edit them from inside your browser for free using Microsoft Office Online.

Blomp is a free file storage site that provides a whopping 20 GB of storage to anyone who signs up.

It’s advertised as more secure than most other cloud storage services because it offers zero-knowledge encryption, which means that only you ever see your files.

Hundreds of file types can be uploaded to Jumpshare, with a total of 2 GB of free storage for every user.

Amazon.com has an online storage service called Amazon Photos, which offers Prime members unlimited, full-res photo storage plus 5 GB of space for videos and files.

Cloud Storage

Cloud storage is a model of computer data storage in which the digital data is stored in logical pools, said to be on “The cloud”.

Cloud storage services may be accessed through a colocated cloud computing service, a web service application programming interface or by applications that use the API, such as cloud desktop storage, a cloud storage gateway or Web-based content management systems.

The storage was one of the first to be all web-based, and referenced in their commercials as, “You can think of our electronic meeting place as the cloud.” Amazon Web Services introduced their cloud storage service AWS S3 in 2006, and has gained widespread recognition and adoption as the storage supplier to popular services such as SmugMug, Dropbox, and Pinterest.

There are three types of cloud storage: a hosted object storage service, file storage, and block storage.

Examples of object storage services that can be hosted and deployed with cloud storage characteristics include Amazon S3, Oracle Cloud Storage and Microsoft Azure Storage, object storage software like Openstack Swift, object storage systems like EMC Atmos, EMC ECS and Hitachi Content Platform, and distributed storage research projects like OceanStore and VISION Cloud.

Cloud storage can be used for copying virtual machine images from the cloud to on-premises locations or to import a virtual machine image from an on-premises location to the cloud image library.

Such gateways have options not only to encrypt and compress the data prior of transfer but as well mirror the storage across multiple cloud storage providers and remove the risk of a single providers shutdown.

Post Idea #13: Endpoint security

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Endpoint Security? How It Works & Its Importance

The endpoint security business began in the late 1980s with antivirus software that could recognize malicious software by their signatures.

The first endpoint antivirus tools searched for changes in file systems or applications that matched known patterns, and flagged or blocked those programs from running.

The rapid growth of security products with overlapping functionality and separate management consoles can make it difficult for many organizations to get a clear picture of potential attacks.

Security teams, after years of bolting endpoint security point products together, often end up managing multiple agents and consoles-with little to no integration or automation.

Recent research shows that isolated endpoint solutions can’t keep up with sophisticated, emerging threats.

Tactical security firefighting can be replaced with integrated, multistage defenses that adapt to outsmart attackers.

The latest endpoint protection requires finding and correcting hidden attacks in seconds, not months.

What Is Endpoint Security?

What is driving the need for endpoint security solutions?

Endpoint security is an integral component of the modern security stack.

Digital transformation initiatives, the move to the cloud, and a rapidly expanding attack surface are driving the need for a new class of endpoint security, capable of defending organizations against a more diverse and sophisticated threat landscape.

Endpoint security combines preventative protection with a new breed of continuous detection and response capabilities.

An endpoint security solution includes continuous monitoring, rapid time to detection, and architectural integrations.

With threats continually increasing in sophistication and frequency, it is more important than ever to deploy an effective endpoint solution.

Endpoint security solutions take a cloud-based approach to endpoint security to instantly access the latest threat intelligence without requiring manual updates from security admins.

Check Point Software

Endpoint Security refers to protecting various end-user devices like laptops, smartphones, or tablets.

Those endpoints serve as points of access to the corporate network and sensitive data.

Today more than ever, endpoint security plays a critical role in enabling your remote workforce.

Malicious actors are taking advantage of this situation, exploiting an unprecedented opportunity to breach organizations worldwide using endpoints as the top attack vector.

As a result, the endpoint security solution should be based upon best practices for protecting organizations from preventing the most imminent threats to the endpoint.

Microsoft Defender For Endpoint

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Defend against never-before-seen, polymorphic and metamorphic malware and fileless and file-based threats with next-generation protection.

Microsoft empowers your organization’s defenders by putting the right tools and intelligence in the hands of the right people.

Aggregate security data and correlate alerts from virtually any source with Microsoft’s cloud-native SIEM. Microsoft Defender for Cloud.

Secure your mobile devices Quickly evaluate capabilities Streamline and integrate with APIs Simplify endpoint security management Become a Microsoft Defender for Endpoint expert Learn more about our features Stay up to date.

What Is Endpoint Security?

According to Gartner, an endpoint protection platform is a solution used to “Prevent file-based malware attacks, detect malicious activity, and provide the investigation and remediation capabilities needed to respond to dynamic security incidents and alerts.”

An endpoint security strategy is essential because every remote endpoint can be the entry point for an attack, and the number of endpoints is only increasing with the rapid pandemic-related shift to remote work.

The terms endpoint protection, endpoint protection platforms, and endpoint security are all used interchangeably to describe the centrally managed security solutions that organizations leverage to protect endpoints like servers, workstations, mobile devices, and workloads from cybersecurity threats.

Endpoint security software protects endpoints from being breached – no matter if they are physical or virtual, on- or off-premise, in data centers or in the Cloud.

Antivirus is often part of an endpoint security solution and is generally regarded as one of the more basic forms of endpoint protection.

Unlike traditional security or network security solutions, CrowdStrike’s endpoint security solution unifies the technologies required to successfully stop breaches, including true next-gen antivirus and endpoint detection and response, managed threat hunting, and threat intelligence automation, delivered via a single lightweight agent.

CrowdStrike’s Falcon X platform makes predicative security a reality by integrating threat intelligence and endpoint protection.

Endpoint Security

Endpoint security or endpoint protection is an approach to the protection of computer networks that are remotely bridged to client devices.

The connection of endpoint devices such as laptops, tablets, mobile phones, Internet-of-things devices, and other wireless devices to corporate networks creates attack paths for security threats.

Endpoint security attempts to ensure that such devices follow a definite level of compliance to standards.

The components involved in aligning the endpoint security management systems include a virtual private network client, an operating system and an updated endpoint agent.

Endpoint security systems operate on a client-server model, with the security program controlled by a centrally managed host server pinned with a client program that is installed on all the network drives.

In addition to protecting an organization’s endpoints from potential threats, endpoint security allows IT admins to monitor operation functions and data backup strategies.

An endpoint protection platform is a solution deployed on endpoint devices to prevent file-based malware attacks, detect malicious activity, and provide the investigation and remediation capabilities needed to respond to dynamic security incidents and alerts.

Endpoint Security: What Is It? Why Is It Important?

The objectives of endpoint security or endpoint protection include protecting the user, the software, and the data from attacks, compromise, human error, and data leakage.

While the primary objective is to protect the endpoint itself, introducing an infected endpoint into a larger environment, such as a corporate network, can exponentially increase the effects of the blast radius that may have initially been confined to just one endpoint.

Clearly, the end goal of achieving an effective endpoint security strategy is not just to protect the endpoint, but to protect the broader environment in which the endpoint operates.

If you attend security conferences, you’ve probably seen an explosion in security solutions and offerings over the past few years with endpoint security being an area that has experienced rapid growth.

Over time, the internet and endpoint computing solutions have transitioned from a mindset of “Share everything”, to “Only share when, what and to whom you want to.” Operating systems have shifted from a philosophy of “Turn off what you don’t want” to “Only turn on what you need.” All of these efforts have helped to create a more secure endpoint computing solution for the majority of end-users.

The practice of modifying configurations within an endpoint to make it more secure is referred to as endpoint hardening.

Ensuring that endpoint security and protection are included in your security strategy is critical to the achievement of your overall security and data protection goals and objectives.

Post Idea #14: Visualization

Related Articles – Summarized

Goal Setting Tools From MindTools.Com

You don’t have to be a life coach or personal development expert to use visualization to achieve your goals.

Don’t be vague or unclear – the more specific you are, and the more details you imagine, the better the visualization will work for you.

Start picturing each step as part of your visualization exercise.

If your presentation is two weeks away, aim to do a complete visualization at least once a day until the actual day arrives.

It’s important to be consistent, because regular visualization can convince your brain that what you imagine is actually the truth.

Visualization is a useful technique that helps you reach your goals and live your dreams.

Aim to practice your visualization exercises daily in a quiet place, and make sure your visualizations are as detailed as possible.

The Visualization Definition And How It Transforms Your Life

The visualization definition given by the Merriam-Webster Dictionary is, “The formation of mental visual images or the act or process of interpreting visual terms or of putting them into visible form.” If you’re like most people, this definition probably does not clear much of anything up anything for you.

A simplified version of the visualization definition is this: picture in your mind the things that you want in your life.

If you want to start adding the practice of visualization into your life, here are the steps that you can follow.

Now that you have a better understanding of the visualization definition, it’s time to see how it can apply to your life.

Here are ways that adding visualization to your life can help you.

Visualization allows you to take control of what you are thinking about and how your body is reacting.

“Rhonda is great. She helped me cut through my mental clutter, and use breathing, visualization and sensory mindfulness to mitigate and address some of life’s issues.”

What Is Visualization And How It Works

What the Russians revealed was that in their controlled studies of weight lifters, those who visualized the most did the best.

Test results showed that the more they visualized their performance in detail, the better they did.

Basically, the more that the athletes visualized, the better they performed.

Within a very short time, many sportsmen were trying to visualize their event to perform better.

One of the main things the sportsman did was to actually go to the Olympic site way before the Olympics so that they would use it as a reference in order to visualize their event more clearly.

The trick to visualizing and to invoking the power of the Universe to help you to attract what you want is to not doubt that it is coming.

Do your best to visualize without doubting and just watch how fast what you want will manifest!

The Power Of Visualization And How To Use It

Where do you see yourself in five years? How do you imagine your future partner like? How much money will you make? Can you confidently reply to all these questions? How would you react if someone asked you these questions? In other words, have you figured everything out yet? Congratulations! Then there’s no need for you to read further.

If you’re still unsure about how to answer all the questions, rest assured, you’re not alone, and the good news is that there’s a tool out there that can help you with it: visualization.

Muhammad Ali’s famous quote “If my mind can conceive it and my heart can believe it – then I can achieve it” already shows that he truly believed in the power of visualization.

You clearly see that visualization works for all groups of people and in all kinds of situations: it helps you to achieve your goals, to imagine your future, to deal with stress and much more.

Finally, how do you do it in real life? How can you tap into the power of visualization and enjoy all its benefits? Generally speaking, you need to imagine the specific situation in as many details as possible using all your senses – you can see it, smell it, hear it, feel it and taste it.

As there’s no visualization button on our head, there are different techniques and ways of getting easier into the “Visualization mood”.

Your mind is truly powerful, so keep exploring and create the life you want with the help of visualization.

Visualizations ⋆ Mind Power

We live in an immense quantum sea of vibrating energy that is responsive to how and what we think.

Our thoughts are creative forces and are constantly expressing themselves in our lives.

Once we realize this, we can begin designing our lives with clarity and purpose.

The Mind Power system consists of easily learned techniques that help you focus and direct your thoughts, and the first technique you’ll learn is visualization.

You create images in your mind of having or doing whatever it is that you want.

On one level you know this is just a mental trick, but the subconscious mind cannot distinguish between what is real and what is imagined.

You can achieve anything you put your mind to, once you understand Mind Power.

What Is Data Visualization?

Data visualization is the representation of data through use of common graphics, such as charts, plots, infographics, and even animations.

Data visualization can be utilized for a variety of purposes, and it’s important to note that is not only reserved for use by data teams.

While visual discovery helps data analysts, data scientists, and other data professionals identify patterns and trends within a dataset, every day data viz supports the subsequent storytelling after a new insight has been found.

Data visualization is a critical step in the data science process, helping teams and individuals convey data more effectively to colleagues and decision makers.

Perhaps most notably, Edward Tufte published The Visual Display of Quantitative Information, which illustrated that individuals could utilize data visualization to present data in a more effective manner.

Dashboards are effective data visualization tools for tracking and visualizing data from multiple data sources, providing visibility into the effects of specific behaviors by a team or an adjacent one on performance.

Data visualization and IBM While there are various data visualization tools on the market, Cognos Analytics is IBM’s business intelligence and data visualization tool.

13 Visualization Techniques To Help You Reach Your Goals

Broadly speaking, visualization techniques are all about generating a mental picture that helps you achieve your goals.

Visualization can remind you what you’re trying to accomplish and inspire you to keep working hard to achieve your goals.

This kind of visualization can help counter procrastination, which often plagues our goals.

Our first two visualization techniques involve the classic form of visualization: internally visualizing a scenario.

In many fields, it’s beneficial to use visualization techniques as a way to rehearse potential situations you may face-especially if those situations are stressful or unpredictable.

Visualization can help you imagine your boss’s response to everything you might say and plot out different branches that the dialogue could follow.

Most visualization techniques are all about the future, setting you up for success or helping you play out hypothetical scenarios.

Post Idea #15: Zinc–air battery

Related Articles – Summarized

Zinc-Air Battery

Zinc-air batteries have some properties of fuel cells as well as batteries: the zinc is the fuel, the reaction rate can be controlled by varying the air flow, and oxidized zinc/electrolyte paste can be replaced with fresh paste.

Zinc-air batteries have higher energy density than many other types of battery because atmospheric air is one of the battery reactants, in contrast to battery types that require a material such as manganese dioxide in combination with zinc.

Stacking prismatic cells requires air channels in the battery and may require a fan to force air through the stack.

AZA Battery has announced development of pilot production of prismatic zinc air cells with characteristics suitable for both stationary storage and mobility applications.

Some approaches use a large zinc-air battery to maintain charge on a high discharge-rate battery used for peak loads during acceleration.

The term zinc-air fuel cell usually refers to a zinc-air battery in which zinc metal is added and zinc oxide is removed continuously.

One advantage of utilizing zinc-air batteries for vehicle propulsion is that earth’s supply of zinc metal is 100 times greater than that of lithium, per unit of battery energy.

Zinc Air Battery: Tips & Tricks

If you use hearing aids, you might know the zinc air battery.

What makes the zinc air battery such a special battery?

The way the zinc air battery works is very different from other standard batteries.

The zinc air battery is completely filled with zinc, which reacts with oxygen from the air when the seal is removed.

By respecting this ‘breathing time’, you will extend the lifetime of your zinc air battery up to between 30 and 80%. If you remove the tab and immediately put the battery in your hearing aid, this will have a negative effect on the lifespan of your battery.

In the zinc air battery, zinc and oxygen from the air work together to generate a steady level of power, which makes it the ideal battery for new generation digital hearing aids.

Always keep the tips and tricks above in mind when using this type of battery and you won’t be deceived by the capabilities of this battery!

What Is A Zinc-Air Battery & Why Should You Take Notice?

We all know about batteries, they power our daily lives, whether it be your new electric Tesla, your TV remote, or your smartphone.

There’s many different types of batteries, like alkaline batteries you’d find in your home or lithium-ion batteries found in cars, but you might not have heard of a zinc-air battery.

The problem with batteries, and this has always been the problem, is size, capacity, and most importantly, cost.

While there is a market in the auto industry for lithium-ion batteries, and it is a fair sized market, the real big player is in the electrical grid.

Lithium-ion batteries increase in cost as you require more storage because you’re essentially stacking the batteries together.

Zinc-air batteries can hold energy much longer than lithium-ions, and to increase the storage capacity, all that is needed is an increase in the storage container that holds the Zinc.

So who’s leading the zinc-air battery movement?

What Is A Zinc-Air Battery?

A zinc-air battery is a type of metal-air electrical storage and discharge device that works through the oxidization of zinc.

In the case of a zinc-air battery, the cathode is atmospheric oxygen and the negative is the supply of zinc.

Like all metal-air designs, a zinc-air battery begins to work as soon as the cathode is introduced to the anode.

In many cases, such as with hearing aid batteries, the zinc is sealed by means of a pull-tab.

A zinc-air battery with a pull-tab can sit for upwards of three years and still retain nearly 100% of its overall capacity.

A zinc-air battery providing a high current would need to be much larger than a similar alkaline battery, so they are unsuitable for items such as consumer electronics.

In most cases, a small to medium-size zinc-air battery can be disposed of normally with other trash.

Zinc Air Batteries & Cells » Electronics Notes

Battery Technology Includes:Battery technology overview Battery definitions & terms Battery capacity & life Batteries / cells in series & parallel Zinc carbon Alkaline cells Zinc air cells NiCad NiMH Li-ion Lead acid.

The first effects of air on batteries and cells was noted soon after the original wet Lechalnche cells were used.

The primary or non-rechargeable zinc air cells and batteries are the most widely used form of the zinc air technology at the moment.

It is found that zinc air cells have many of the properties of fuel cells, and are a half way house between batteries and fuel cells.

Although not all zinc air cells and batteries are the same, there are some general hints and tips that can be applied to most, and certainly to the types that are widely available today that are used for hearing aids and other electronic circuits where small but effective batteries are needed.

Let batteries breathe: When in use, the cells and batteries must have access to air as their operation is dependent upon air as it is one of the primary constituents for the process.

Use oldest batteries first: Zinc air cells have a long shelf life when the tab sealing the air holes is covered, they still lose some of their capacity over time.

ZINC-AIR – ICellTech

Zinc Air is the most popular battery power system for hearing aids.

Through a unique construction that utilizes air from outside the battery, these batteries produce much more energy than any other battery system due to much higher energy density.

With zinc air batteries, you can expect much longer battery life than any other batteries of the same size.

A zinc air battery uses air outside the battery as a source of power.

The factory applies a tab which seals the air holes in the battery to ensure freshness and prevent self-discharging until you are ready to use the battery.

Avoid storing your batteries in hot places or in sunlight, as heat will shorten the life of batteries.

1.45 volts is a zinc air battery’s nominal voltage when measured after fully activated without any load. However, the battery’s actual operating voltage is less than that when measured with load. The hearing aid device works very well as long as the battery maintains its operating voltage above 1.1 volts.

Zinc-Air Batteries Are Light, Cheap, Green-Are They Ready For Cars?

Jan 19, 2021It won’t come as a surprise to you that the lithium used in most batteries largely comes from “Inconvenient” places: Australia, Chile, China, Argentina, and Zimbabwe are among the leading producers.

The U.S. ranks fifth in the world for zinc production which makes the concept of a zinc-air battery exceptionally attractive to companies based here.

Taiwan-based startup Thunderzee Industries reckons it may have solved enough of these problems to bring the zinc-air battery to larger appliances-and even cars, news which made something of a splash at CES 2021.

Energy density and specific energy tend to be great because atmospheric air is one of the reactants, and it’s, well, “Light.” They also have a long shelf life if you simply seal away the air.

Some zinc-air setups have functioned like fuel cells, with fresh zinc powder replacing spent zinc oxide being removed-not terribly handy for electric vehicles.

Has Thunderzee Cracked the Zinc-Air Battery Code?”We have made a major breakthrough in electrochemistry of metal air batteries. We developed high-power metal/air fuel-cell components: air cathode, ion membrane, and metal fuel formulation,” Thunderzee founder and CEO Andy Lin says, suggesting that such fuel cells can be widely used in military and commercial applications.

The zinc-air battery is undeniably attractive on so many levels, and the world is desperate to commercialize a breakthrough in some type of metal-air battery, which explains the attention lavished on the scant information provided by Thunderzee.

Post Idea #16: Polyethylene terephthalate

Related Articles – Summarized

Polyethylene Terephthalate

Polyethylene terephthalate, PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P), is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, and thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.

The National Association for PET Container Resources defines PET as: “Polyethylene terephthalate items referenced are derived from terephthalic acid and mono ethylene glycol, wherein the sum of terephthalic acid and mono ethylene glycol reacted constitutes at least 90 percent of the mass of monomer reacted to form the polymer, and must exhibit a melting peak temperature between 225°C and 255°C, as identified during the second thermal scan in procedure 10.1 in ASTM D3418, when heating the sample at a rate of 10°C/minute.”

As PET has a higher density than water, a significant amount of PET microparticles§ may be precipitated in sewage treatment plants.

The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health investigated the amount of antimony migration, comparing waters bottled in PET and glass: The antimony concentrations of the water in PET bottles were higher, but still well below the allowed maximum concentration.

Fruit juice concentrates that were produced and bottled in PET in the UK were found to contain up to 44.7 μg/L of antimony, well above the EU limits for tap water of 5 μg/L. There are two basic molding methods for PET bottles, one-step and two-step.

While most thermoplastics can, in principle, be recycled, PET bottle recycling is more practical than many other plastic applications because of the high value of the resin and the almost exclusive use of PET for widely used water and carbonated soft drink bottling.

Because of the recyclability of PET and the relative abundance of post-consumer waste in the form of bottles, PET is rapidly gaining market share as a carpet fiber.

Definition, Structure, Properties & Uses

R-O-O-R 2 R-O. These free radicals involve initiation steps and form new free radicals with monomer units which begin the polymer chain.

Polyethylene terephthalate which is also abbreviated as PET / PETE is mainly used to manufacture the packaging material for food products such as fruit and drinks containers.

Crystal clear polymer – It is a crystal clear polymer with good purity and healthy.

Purity – The products of PET taste good and comply with international food contact regulations.

Good barrier – PET products have low permeability to oxygen, carbon dioxide and water it maintains the integrity of products with good shelf life.

Lightweight – The lightweight of PET products reduce the shipping costs compared to glass products.

Good resistance power – PET products have good resistance against different chemicals such as acids, bases, etc.

Polyethylene Terephthalate

PET is a polyester and is made by the transesterification reaction between ethylene glycol and dimethyl terephthalate.

Polyethylene terephthalateIn 1957, PET was first industrially produced worldwide by DuPont.

10.8 Renewable PET, PBT, PEF, PTT Alternatives to Fossil Thermoplastic Polyesters PET and PBTToday some solutions are only partially renewable polymers.

To further push plant-based PET in end-use markets, Coca-Cola put together a partnership with Ford Motor, HJ Heinz, Nike and Procter & Gamble, the target being to spur the development and use of plant-based PET material in packaging and fibers.

FDCA is a 100% bio-based monomer and the essential chemical building block for the production of the polymer PEF.PEF oxygen barrier could be 10 times better than PET.PEF carbon dioxide barrier is 6-10 times better than PET.PEF water barrier is twice as good as PET.The glass transition temperature of PEF is 86°C compared to the Tg of PET of 74°C.The melting temperature of PEF is 235°C compared to the Tm of PET of 265°C.10.

8.4 Recycled Polyethylene TerephthalatePepsico drives a policy of PET recycling adapted to local conditions, technical possibilities and food contact regulations.

Polyesters are attacked by organic and mineral acids, oxidizing agents, concentrated bases, phenolsFood contactPossible for special gradesGF, Glass fiber; HDT, heat deflection temperature; PBT, poly(butylene terephthalate); PET, polyethylene terephthalate.

PET Plastic: Uses, Properties & Structure

PET Chemical Properties Excellent resistance to alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons, oils, grease and diluted acids.

Blending thermosets with PET significantly improves thermal, mechanical, impact resistance and flame retardant properties.

Toxicity and Recycling of PET. Polyethylene Terephthalate or PET products are 100% recyclable and is the most recycled plastic worldwide.

PET can be easily identified by its recycling code #1. Low diffusion coefficient makes PET much more suitable than other plastic materials for use as a recovered, recycled material.

Post-consumer PET bottles are collected and processed through a series of special washing processes or by a chemical treatment to break down the PET into its raw materials or intermediates which are further used to produce recycled PET flakes.

“Negative results from Ames tests and studies into unscheduled DNA synthesis indicate that PET is not genotoxic. Similar studies conducted with monomers and typical PET intermediates also indicate that these materials are essentially non-toxic and pose no threats to human health.”

Watch Today!An Interesting Video on Life Cycle of PET Bottle Also, PET bottles and containers that find their way to the landfill pose no risk of harm or leaching.

Structure, Properties, & Uses

PET is spun into fibres for permanent-press fabrics and blow-molded into disposable beverage bottles.

PET is produced by the polymerization of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid.

Under the influence of heat and catalysts, the hydroxyl and carboxyl groups react to form ester groups, which serve as the chemical links joining multiple PET units together into long-chain polymers.

The stiffness of PET fibres makes them highly resistant to deformation, so they impart excellent resistance to wrinkling in fabrics.

PET is the most important of the synthetic fibres in weight produced and in value.

PET soon became the most widely produced synthetic fibre in the world.

In the 1970s, improved stretch-molding procedures were devised that allowed PET to be made into durable crystal-clear beverage bottles-an application that soon became second in importance only to fibre production.

PETRA: Information On The Use, Benefits & Safety Of PET Plastic.

PET is a clear, strong, and lightweight plastic that is widely used for packaging foods and beverages, especially convenience-sized soft drinks, juices and water.

In the late 1950s, researchers found a way to stretch a thin extruded sheet of PET in two directions to create PET film, which is now used extensively for video, photo and packaging films.

PET is completely recyclable, and is the most recycled plastic in the U.S and worldwide.

PET can be commercially recycled by thorough washing and re-melting, or by chemically breaking it down to its component materials to make new PET resin.

Products commonly made from recycled PET include new PET bottles and jars, carpet, clothing, industrial strapping, rope, automotive parts, fiberfill for winter jackets and sleeping bags, construction materials, and protective packaging.

The current U.S. recycling rate for PET is 31%. This figure continues to grow, but notably lags behind Europe, which has a PET recycling rate of 52%. Although recycling is the most environmentally responsible and efficient re-use of resources, PET bottles and containers that find their way to the landfill pose no risk of harm or leaching.

Life cycle studies of PET have consistently confirmed the environmental benefits of PET as a packaging material.

Polyester & Polyethylene Terephthalate

PET has been approved as safe by the FDA and the International Life Sciences Institute.

I also researched to see if there was any release of chemical gasses from PET into the air.

They found that PET needed zero curing time to be used in a spaceship.

So if you are designing a spaceship or some other small area, PET would be a good choice.

All that said, in recent years there have been some concerns about specific uses of polyether and PET. Problems with leaching from water bottles are the most widely publicized problem.

Most commonly discussed is leaching of antimony, a metalloid element that is used as a catalyst in the making of PET. After manufacturing, a detectable amount of antimony can be found on the surface of the PET. While this can be removed with washing, antimony within the PET can migrate into the water in the bottle, or any other liquid contained in a PET bottle.

Whether or not this poses a health risk is undetermined.

Post Idea #17: Smart card

Related Articles – Summarized

Smart Card

Typically, online payments are made secure thanks to the Card Security Code, also known as card verification code, or card verification value.

In the typical use case, fingerprint sensors are integrated into a payment card to bring a higher level of user authentication than a PIN. In order to implement user authentication using a fingerprint enabled smart card, the user has to authenticate himself/herself to the card by means of the fingerprint before starting a payment transaction.

Complex Card manufacturing methods are inherited from the smart card industry and from the electronics mounting industry.

The Ellipse patented technologies enable smart card manufacturers to use their existing dual interface payment card manufacturing process and supply chain to build battery-free, second generation Complex Cards with display capabilities.

Due to Oberthur’s acquisition of NagraID Security in 2014, Idemia’s Complex Card offerings include the F.CODE biometric payment card that includes a fingerprint sensor, and its battery-powered Motion Code card that displays a Dynamic CSC. [edit].

These smart tickets are made of paper or PET which is thinner than a PVC smart card e.g. Confidex smart media.

Once an attacker develops a non-invasive attack for a particular smart card model, he or she is typically able to perform the attack on other cards of that model in seconds, often using equipment that can be disguised as a normal smart card reader.

What Is Smart Card?

The sale of intelligent cards has been propelled in recent years by a push by the payment card industry to embrace EMV compliant smart cards.

Uses of Smart Card In general, smart cards are used to make fast and safe transactions and protect personal information including credit cards and other forms of cards, company, and government identification cards, and transit fare cards.

How does Smart Card works? Intelligent microprocessors or memory chips share data over a serial interface with card readers and other devices.

A external source, usually the smart card reader, drives the intelligent card itself.

Intelligent cards may be classified by factors including how the card reads and writes data, by the type and capabilities of the chip embedded in the card.

Smart card memory can contain memory chips and can only store, read and type chip data, data can be overwritten or changed on memory card smart cards, but the card itself cannot be programmed such that it cannot process or alter the data programmatically.

Contactless intelligent cards only allow readability in close proximity to a card reader, for the card to function, no direct contact is needed.

Smart Cards For Windows Service

This topic for the IT professional and smart card developers describes how the Smart Cards for Windows service manages readers and application interactions.

The Smart Cards for Windows service provides the basic infrastructure for all other smart card components as it manages smart card readers and application interactions on the computer.

The Smart Cards for Windows service runs in the context of a local service, and it is implemented as a shared service of the services host process.

Creators of smart card reader drivers must configure their INFs so that they start the service automatically and winscard.

Using this method ensures that the service is enabled when it is needed, but it is also disabled for users who do not use smart cards.

Note For smart card implementations, consider sending all communications in Windows operating systems with smart card readers through the Smart Cards for Windows service.

The Smart Cards for Windows service categorizes each smart card reader slot as a unique reader, and each slot is also managed separately, regardless of the device’s physical characteristics.

What Is A Smart Card?

A smart card resembles a credit card in size and shape, but inside it is completely different.

The inside of a smart card usually contains an embedded microprocessor.

Think of the microprocessor as replacing the usual magnetic stripe on a credit card or debit card.

Every German citizen has a smart card for health insurance.

The microprocessor on the smart card is there for security.

The smart card uses a serial interface and receives its power from external sources like a card reader.

Visa’s Smart Card FAQ shows how online purchases work using a smart card and a PC equipped with a smart-card reader.

Smart Card Technology: What They Do And How They Work

Smart card technology involves making a tiny rectangular piece of card smart.

Like mentioned earlier, smart cards are like the regular cards you can find around you but they have a memory chip contained in a contact pad. The contact pad bearing the embedded memory chip is the basis for which a transaction can be made using a smart card.

Smart cards are like the regular cards you can find around you but they have a memory chip contained in a contact pad. Smart cards don’t work alone – they need a smart card reader to function.

Smart contact cards work by inserting it into a card reader and with the contact pad bearing a memory chip where information is being stored, the card reader can read whatever is written on the card and allow the user perform any transaction he intends doing.

The medium, in this case, is any digital interface like the smart card reader that allows for the transmission of information from the card to the reader.

These cards can function as a contact smart card and also as a contactless smart card as the occasion demands.

The major highlight of the smart card technology is the security it affords users.

Frequently Asked Questions – Secure Technology Alliance

Contactless smart card technology is used in applications that need to protect personal information and/or deliver fast, secure transactions, such as transit fare payment cards, government and corporate identification cards, documents such as electronic passports and visas, and financial payment cards.

Smart card technology can provide a robust set of encryption capabilities including key generation, secure key storage, hashing, and digital signing.

Smart card technology can provide a means of secure communications between the card/device and readers.

Contactless smart cards, on the other hand, use RF technology by design, operate at a short range and can support the equivalent security capabilities of a contact smart card chip.

Devices using contactless smart card technology use RF technology by design, operate at a short range and can support the equivalent security capabilities of a contact smart card chip.

For applications requiring secure card access, the contactless smart card-based device can verify that the reader is authentic and can prove its own authenticity to the reader before starting a secure transaction.

For human identification systems that require the highest degree of security and privacy, smart card technology can be implemented in combination with biometric technology.

Post Idea #18: Giesecke & Devrient

Related Articles – Summarized

Giesecke Name Meaning & Giesecke Family History At Ancestry.Com®

You can see how Giesecke families moved over time by selecting different census years.

The Giesecke family name was found in the USA, the UK, and Scotland between 1840 and 1920.

The most Giesecke families were found in the USA in 1920.

In 1840 there were 3 Giesecke families living in Louisiana.

This was 100% of all the recorded Giesecke’s in the USA. Louisiana had the highest population of Giesecke families in 1840.

Use census records and voter lists to see where families with the Giesecke surname lived.

Within census records, you can often find information like name of household members, ages, birthplaces, residences, and occupations.

What Johan Giesecke Missed

All parts of Sweden had the same strategy, but the Covid-19 cumulative mortality in Stockholm is almost three times higher than in my own northern home region of Västerbotten.

While there are regional differences unrelated to strategy, Giesecke was essentially right a year ago when he thought that differences between countries would even out over time, even though the final number will obviously differ.

On March 16, 2020, Neil Ferguson and his colleagues at Imperial College predicted that around 500,000 in Great Britain would die from Covid-19 under a do nothing let-it-rip strategy.

With these later numbers, the Imperial College model would instead have predicted somewhere between 165,000 and 250,000 deaths under a let-it-rip strategy.

While not part of their research report, in an email from Ferguson dated March 29, 2020, he reported on a scenario that his group ran using the Imperial College model for an “Age-based cocooning” strategy, with focused protection of older high-risk people, as advocated by the Great Barrington Declaration.

Lockdowns are a dragged-out let-it-rip strategy with each age group infected in the same proportion as a let-it-rip strategy.

As a contrast, a focused protection strategy ensures that a lower proportion of the infected is older high-risk people, leading to lower mortality.

Why 170-Year Old Bank Note Printer Giesecke+Devrient Has No Fear Of Digital Currencies

Why 170-year old bank note printer Giesecke+Devrient has no fear of digital currencies.

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Founded in 1852 by Hermann Giesecke and Alphonse Devrient, the firm initially specialized in high-quality printing, notably currency and securities printing.

After World War II, Leipzig ended up becoming part of the communist East Germany, and the company’s printing facility was nationalized by the government as VEB Wertpapierdruckerei, and began printing banknotes of East German mark.

In 1958, the company received a commission from Deutsche Bundesbank to print Deutsche Mark banknotes.

In 1989, the Komori technology for printing banknotes was introduced in Europe when G+D ordered a small printing machine.

In addition to Germany, Giesecke+Devrient has printed banknotes for other various countries through the years, including Cambodia, Croatia, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Jamaica, Lithuania, Peru, Zaire, and Zimbabwe.

In April 2018, the previous Giesecke & Devrient GmbH was renamed to Giesecke+Devrient GmbH as the mother company.

Banknote related business into G+D Currency Technology GmbH which owns the paper mill Papierfabrik Louisenthal GmbH with its banknote substrates and security elements, and the banknote printing works in Malaysia.

Post Idea #19: Contactless payment

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Contactless Payment?

Contactless payments – much like EMV payments – are also a lot more secure than payments via magnetic-stripe cards.

A contactless payment, as the name suggests, doesn’t require any physical contact between the buyer’s smartphone or credit card and the POS. You might also have heard the term NFC, which stands for “Near field communication.” It’s the technology that powers contactless payments through a type of radio frequency identification.

These types of cards are called contactless payments cards.

Well, you shouldn’t be, and here’s why: Contactless payments are actually a lot more secure than magnetic-stripe cards, whose incredibly outdated technology makes them relatively easy to clone.

Contactless payments are authenticated payments, meaning they’re really hard to hack.

Perhaps the most talked-about example of contactless payment is Apple Pay.

As opposed to Google Pay and Apple Pay, to trigger an NFC contactless payment with Samsung Pay, you swipe up from the home screen.

Contactless Payments: How They Work, How Your Business Can Accept Them

Contactless payments – which are tap-and-go transactions made with mobile wallets and contactless cards – have recently shot up in popularity.

In early 2020, when scientists were still learning about how the virus was spreading, the World Health Organization recommended using contactless payments to reduce the chance of transmission through handling currency and credit or debit cards.

Contactless payments work the same way chip cards do at the point-of-sale.

Samsung Pay used magnetic secure transmission, or MST, to allow contactless payments, even on old card readers that couldn’t receive other forms of contactless payments.

As more POS systems shift their hardware and software toward contactless capabilities, along with most U.S. banks issuing tap-and-go cards, contactless payments are becoming standard.

Shifting to accept contactless payments helps ensure that your business stays relevant and convenient for your customers.

While contactless payments generally refer to tap-and-go transactions, there are many more ways to make in-person payments touch-free.

Contactless Payment

Contactless payment systems are credit cards and debit cards, key fobs, smart cards, or other devices, including smartphones and other mobile devices, that use radio-frequency identification or near-field communication for making secure payments.

Major financial institutions and multinational corporations now offer contactless payment systems to customers as contactless credit cards have become widespread in the U.S., U.K., Japan, Germany, Canada, Australia, France, the Netherlands, etc.

After a test conducted from October 2005 to November 2006 with 27 users, on 21 May 2010, the transport authority of Nice Régie Lignes d’Azur was the first public transport provider in Europe to add definitely to its own offer a contactless payment on its tramways and bus network either with a NFC bank card or smartphone application notably on Samsung Player One, as well as the validation aboard with them of the transport titles and the loading of these titles onto the smartphone, in addition to the season tickets contactless card.

The number of completed contactless journeys has now exceeded 300m. On Friday 18 December, the busiest single day in 2015, a record 1.24m journeys were completed by over 500k unique contactless cards.

Visa payWave, American Express Expresspay, and Mastercard Contactless are examples of contactless credit cards which have become widespread in the U.S. and U.K. There are two main standard usages for contactless payments adopted throughout payment terminals with the EMV standard.

In 2006 security researchers found that the cardholder’s name, credit card number, and expiration date may be transmitted by contactless payment cards without encryption.

Depending on the economic space, there may be a payment limit on single transactions without the need to input the PIN, and some contactless cards can only be used a certain number of times before customers are asked for their PIN. Contactless debit and credit transactions use the same chip and PIN network as older cards and are protected by the same fraud guarantees.

Contactless Payments: Advantages And Disadvantages

More organizations will adopt work-from-home practices, and contactless payment, which is already increasing in usage, will become the new way we make payments in physical retail environments.

Contactless payments take place when a customer waves their smartphone or credit card across the top of a credit card terminal in a store, and the system instantly records the payment.

While the U.S. is only now catching on to contactless payments, the rest of the world has already adapted to this new way of making payments.

In comparison, contactless payments are one of the most secure forms of payment.

As a touchless system, contactless payments rely on radio waves sent from a card or device to a NFC-enabled terminal.

With contactless payments, it’s possible to leave your credit card at home and use your mobile phone to make payments with NFC terminals.

Implementing contactless payment is simple; all you need is an NFC-enabled payment terminal, and your business can begin processing tap-to-pay payments immediately.

What You Need To Know About Contactless Payments – Forbes Advisor

While the term contactless payment sounds vague enough to encompass a wide range of payment methods like online credit card use, in the physical world of plastic and silicon it refers to fairly specific parameters.

Contactless payments operate either through cards or through mobile apps and digital wallets.

So long as the retailer has a contactless-enabled card reader, then your mobile phone app or contactless enabled card will automatically complete the transaction once held in close proximity to the reader.

It’s also good to know that beyond the payment itself, all the security systems and data protections employed with regular cards are still relevant here, so contactless payment is a remarkably secure system overall.

The most popular and commonly used types of contactless payment are contactless debit and credit cards.

Since 2019, all Chase Visa cards have been equipped for contactless payments.

To use them, you simply enable your smartphone’s contactless pay capability, download the desired applications or link credit cards and credit card accounts to those already installed, and use the phone in the same way you would a Tap to Pay card.

How Contactless Payments Became The ‘New Normal’ During Covid-19

Alongside the new pandemic-induced guidelines, including social distancing, compulsory usage of face masks, work from home, and sanitisation, contactless payments are becoming the new normal.

Cash-based payments, used to bear the major portion of transactions, reduced sharply with the increasing usage of online modes of payments and contactless payment systems.

The global transaction data and consumer research done by Mastercard across 19 countries indicated that the contactless card payments increased by 25 per cent on-year as a proportion of total face-to-face card payments.

The restrictive operating instructions during the pandemic era and the hardships of lockdown, controlled travel, limited opening hours of shopping windows and moderated number of leisure activities have collectively catalysed the adoption of contactless payments across the world.

Consumers embrace contactless methods of payments to stay safe during Pandemic.

Notably, less consumption of time and safety drove up the volumes of cashless payments done through cards, while the settlements done via mobile payment facilities with the help of NFC ranks after contactless card payments in terms of time consumed and safety.

The contactless mode of payments offers a bouquet of benefits as with reduced payment times, the merchants can effectively decrease the likelihood of long queues at the checkout counters and can obviously help in minimising the risk of Covid spread as the individuals will not be required to gather in large numbers while clearing their respective bills.

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