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Related Articles – Summarized
To be a small business, vendors must adhere to industry size standards.
The SBA, for most industries, defines a “Small business” either in terms of the average number of employees over the past 12 months, or average annual receipts over time.
In determining what constitutes a small business, the definition will vary to reflect industry differences – especially size standards.
All federal agencies must use SBA size standards for small business contracting.
For federal government procurements, vendors must meet the small business size standard that corresponds to the NAICS code selected by the contracting officer for that contract.
The vendor qualifies as a small business as long as it meets the size standard for the procurement.
Small Business Size Regulations are in Title 13 of the Code of Federal Regulations, part 121(13 CFR §121). Small businesses may qualify for one or more Small Business Set-Asides.
Small business is defined as a privately owned corporation, partnership, or sole proprietorship that has fewer employees and less annual revenue than a corporation or regular-sized business.
The U.S. Small Business Administration defines a small business according to a set of standards based on specific industries.
The values perceived by small business personnel tend to become common factors in the personnel’s behavior and can become important factors that generate good long-term performance.
Quality From Scratch: A Model For Small Business Many small businesses may find limited resources and conflicting priorities make the quest for organizational excellence difficult.
Small business owners starting a quality program will find the Baldrige self-assessment tool an excellent compliment to traditional SWOT analysis.
Importance and Implementation of Baldrige Practices for Small Businesses An empirical survey was conducted to determine how small business perceive and implement the high-performance management practices outlined by the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence.
Development of a Social Network Website Using the New ISO/IEC 29110 Standard Developed Specifically for Very Small Entities The new ISO/IEC 29110 standard developed specifically for very small entities and startups was used to develop the software for a Web application to allow users to collaborate with all members of a network of friends.
As pandemic life recedes, many people are asking themselves if now is a good time to chase their dreams and start a business.
It’s a buyer’s market for commercial propertyWhile now may be a better time to start a business than April 2020, no one is saying it will be easy.
Chamberlain said now is “absolutely” a good time to start a business locally.
As COVID-19 cases go down, some problems lingerAccording to Business.org, 92 percent of small business owners reported that the cost of supplies or services needed to run their business has increased since the pandemic started.
More:These notable Springfield-area restaurants closed their doors in 2021.Matt Morrow, president of the Springfield Area Chamber of Commerce, said opening a business has always been difficult, even before the pandemic.
“If you have a good sense of the market, a good business plan and the right support, structural support around you, this could be a really good time to start a business.”
Mike Jalili, a veteran entrepreneur who is involved in several successful businesses like Flame Steakhouse and Wine Bar, said Springfieldians have done a good job of supporting local businesses the last two years and he believes that will continue into 2022.Jalili said that for anyone wanting to open a business now, the outcome depends largely on how hard you are willing to work.
BEIJING/SHANGHAI – China aims to boost lending to small businesses from large commercial banks by over 40% this year, Premier Li Keqiang told the annual meeting of parliament on Saturday.
The government will urge financial institutions to cut lending rates further, reduce fees and promote mid- and long-term lending to the manufacturing sector, Li said, reading his work report.
China’s five major banks – Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Agricultural Bank of China , Bank of China and Bank of Communications – each reported more than 30% lending growth to small businesses in 2021, state broadcaster CCTV said in January.
CCTV said the highest growth was 53.15% by a bank it did not name.
China has been making efforts to enhance financing support to micro- and small enterprises, which it sees as key contributors to stabilising employment and people’s livelihoods.
It will also set up a financial stability guarantee fund as to safeguard against systemic risks, he said.
Li also said China will fully implement a registration-based IPO system this year.
The U.S. Small Business Administration will host a summit for women entrepreneurs this month.
The virtual conference is set for March 28 through March 30.
The event will feature expert panels and networking opportunities for women who own small businesses.
Small Business Administration administrator Isabel Casillas Guzman and assistant administrator Natalie Madeira Cofield will headline the event, which is co-sponsored by the Nasdaq Entrepreneurial Center.
The event was announced to honor Women’s History Month, which takes place during March.
The Denver office of the U.S. Small Business Administration is in downtown Denver and offers resources to all small business owners in the region.
Participants must register for the free event at bit.
NEW YORK, NY / ACCESSWIRE / March 1, 2022 / General Liability Insurance, an online platform that helps business owners purchase commercial business insurance, is pleased to announce that it has posted a new article to the website that names the three best small business insurance companies.
As the article notes, regardless of what type or size business a person owns, it is crucial that they purchase small business insurance.
Finding the best type of insurance can often be a time consuming and stressful process that leaves hard-working business owners feeling overwhelmed.
To make finding insurance as easy as possible, General Liability Insurance was inspired to research and write the new article, which also includes a number of in-depth and helpful small business insurance reviews.
ADVERTISEMENT.After looking at a variety of small business companies, General Liability Insurance has chosen three as the cream of the crop; these results are based on cost, customer service quality, insurance claim processing and coverage that meets the needs of most small businesses.
Rounding out the Top 3 is Travelers, which the article notes has a great deal of experience in the commercial insurance property realm.
Forward thinking, and not satisfied with the “Traditional” commercial insurance buying experience, the founders of General Liability Insurance decided to build a better platform for business owners to purchase the commercial insurance they need – as quick and painless as possible.
These home business ideas give you a few more business options that are either based at home or online.
Is your head buzzing with small business ideas yet? After all that brainstorming, you’ll need a practical plan to get started with your new small business.
How to Start a Small Business at Home Identify your small business idea.
Particularly if your small business idea requires investors, you’ll need to draft up a business plan to provide an overview of your market positioning, your financial projections, and your unique competitive advantages.
Business model – Outline what your business does, who your business serves, and how your business is structured.
Once you have a legally formed business and have been issued an Employer Identification Number, open a bank account specifically for your business.
Having a business bank account is essential for keeping your personal and business finances separate which can help you gain an accurate picture of your business’s cash flow and financial health.
Related Articles – Summarized
Gluconic acid is an organic compound with molecular formula C6H12O7 and condensed structural formula HOCH2(CHOH)4COOH. It is one of the 16 stereoisomers of 2,3,4,5,6-pentahydroxyhexanoic acid.
In aqueous solution at neutral pH, gluconic acid forms the gluconate ion.
The salts of gluconic acid are known as “Gluconates”.
The chemical structure of gluconic acid consists of a six-carbon chain, with five hydroxyl groups positioned in the same way as in the open-chained form of glucose, terminating in a carboxylic acid group.
Contemporary methods for the gluconic acid production utilize variations of glucose oxidation using fermentation or noble metal catalysis.
Quinine gluconate is a salt of gluconic acid and quinine, which is used for intramuscular injection in the treatment of malaria.
Gluconic acid aqueous solution finds application as a medium for organic synthesis.
Due to its low toxicity, low corrosiveness, and high capability of forming water-soluble complexes with divalent and trivalent metal ions, sodium gluconate has been designated as GRAS by the US FDA. This acid is also recognized as a generally permitted food additive in the European Parliament and the Council Directive No. 95/2/EC. Like other organic acids, gluconic acid has diverse uses that range widely depending on their particular structure.
The maximal citric and gluconic acid concentration, CA yield, and gluconic acid yield were obtained at a moisture level of 75%, initial pH 7.0, temperature 30°C, after 15 days.
Already in the 1940s it was possible to obtain good yields of gluconic acid using A. niger by fermentation, neutralizing the accumulating acid with calcium carbonate.
The formation of gluconic acid is different from most other organic acids, since it is formed outside the cytoplasmic membrane, by the enzyme glucose oxidase.
Further research at the U.S. Department of Agriculture in cooperation with the Iowa State College led to the semicontinuous production of sodium gluconate from glucose using A. niger NRRL 67.Several filamentous fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus, the yeastlike fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and bacteria produce gluconic acid from glucose-based media, but industrial processes have been developed only for the production gluconic acid from glucose syrups with A. niger and Gluconobacter oxydans.
Gluconic acid production by fermentation of glucose using A. niger is a mature bioprocess with literature reporting highly efficient processes dating back to 1940.Gluconic acid has applications in the food industry, as in meat and dairy products, baked goods, flavoring agent, and reducing fat absorption in doughnuts.
Although with a market smaller than that of citric acid, gluconic acid finds its place, as well as its derivatives, such as sodium, calcium, and iron gluconate, which is used for dietary supplements, in the pharmaceutical and textile industries.
CyclopenthiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclopenthiazide is combined with Gluconic Acid.CyclothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Cyclothiazide is combined with Gluconic Acid.DapagliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Dapagliflozin is combined with Gluconic Acid.DextropropoxypheneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Dextropropoxyphene.
EplerenoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Eplerenone is combined with Gluconic Acid.ErtugliflozinThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Ertugliflozin is combined with Gluconic Acid.Etacrynic acidThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Etacrynic acid is combined with Gluconic Acid.EthosuximideThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Ethosuximide.
FurosemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Furosemide is combined with Gluconic Acid.HydrochlorothiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Hydrochlorothiazide is combined with Gluconic Acid.HydrocodoneThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Hydrocodone.
MeticraneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Meticrane is combined with Gluconic Acid.MetolazoneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Metolazone is combined with Gluconic Acid.MorphineThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Morphine.
PolythiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Polythiazide is combined with Gluconic Acid.PotassiumThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Potassium is combined with Gluconic Acid.Potassium cationThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Potassium cation is combined with Gluconic Acid.Potassium citrateThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Potassium citrate is combined with Gluconic Acid.PrenylamineThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Prenylamine.
TolvaptanThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Tolvaptan is combined with Gluconic Acid.TorasemideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Torasemide is combined with Gluconic Acid.TramadolThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Tramadol.
TriamtereneThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Triamterene is combined with Gluconic Acid.TrichlormethiazideThe risk or severity of adverse effects can be increased when Trichlormethiazide is combined with Gluconic Acid.TrimebutineThe therapeutic efficacy of Gluconic Acid can be decreased when used in combination with Trimebutine.
Gluconic acid is a mild organic acid derived from glucose by a simple oxidation reac.
Affecting gluconic acid and 5-keto gluconic acid formation.
T. Roukas, Citric acid and gluconic acid production from.
… Different salts of gluconic acid find various applications based on their properties.
In the present work, the activity for the conversion of d-glucose into C6 aldaric acid, lactic acid and levulinic acid of some perovskite type oxides characterized by noticeable catalytic properties and stability under hydrothermal conditions, have been investigated.
The proportions of gluconic acid and acetic acid were significantly correlated with the taste score of Kombucha, which was confirmed by the analysis of the sensory properties of organic acid monomers.
Starmerella davenportii with the highest yield of ethanol and Gluconacetobacter intermedius with the highest yield of acetic acid were screened and used for microbial community reconstruction to obtain Kombucha with the highest proportion of gluconic acid.
Several techniques are used for the retention and separation of polar and polar ionizable compounds.
HILIC mixed-mode proves to be a powerful approach to independently control the elution of ionizable compounds by changing buffer concentration and buffer pH. Glucose is a six member monosaccharide which is polar and neutral in nature.
Gluconic acid is polar and an acidic sugar-based compound which is a product of glucose oxidation in nature.
Gluconic acid naturally occurs in fruits, honey and wine.
Gluconic acid is one of the fermentation products in Kombucha tea.
We have developed a HILIC/anion-exchange mixed-mode approach for the separation of glucose and gluconic acid on the Amaze TH mixed-mode HPLC column.
Glucose is retained by the HILIC mechanism and gluconic acid is retained by HILIC and anion-exchange mechanisms.
Gluconic Acid 50% is composed of an equilibrium between the free acid and the two lactones.
Under normal conditions, PMP Gluconic Acid 50% exhibits a stable equilibrium contributing to its clear to light yellow color with low level corrosiveness and toxicity.
Gluconic acid has versatile properties through being a polyhydroxycarboxylic acid, with both hydroxyl and carboxyl groups which can react.
Concentrated solutions of gluconic acid contain some lactone, the neutral cyclic ester, which is less soluble in the cold and possesses no actual acid properties.
About 5 % of GdL are present in the 50 % gluconic acid solution at room temperature.
The outstanding property of gluconic acid is its excellent chelating power, especially in alkaline and concentrated alkaline solutions.
PMP Gluconic Acid 50%, Technical is packaged in 55 gallon, 555 lb.
Related Articles – Summarized
Tobias “Tobi” Lütke MSC is the billionaire founder and CEO of Shopify, an ecommerce company based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Lütke dropped out of school and entered an apprenticeship program at the Koblenzer Carl-Benz-School to become a computer programmer after tenth grade.
In 2004, Lütke, along with his partners, Daniel Weinand and Scott Lake, launched Snowdevil, an online snowboard shop.
Lütke built a new e-commerce platform for the site, using Ruby on Rails.
In 2019, Lütke donated 1,000,001 seedlings to Team Trees, the biggest donation as of December 20, 2021, with the message, “For the Lorax”.
In 2021, Lütke donated $1,200,001 to Team Seas, the biggest donation as of December 20, 2021, with the message “For the Lorax… but wet.”
On September 8, 2021, it was announced that Lütke, along with former and current Shopify top executives and Celtic House Venture Partners, invested $3 million in Creative Layer, “a global personalized print-on-demand platform for managing Shopify orders, proofs, fulfillment, and team members”.
Lutke’s first employment after graduation was with a Siemens subsidiary.
Jurgen Starr, his supervisor, was someone Lutke admired much.
Lutke, who is a software developer, chose Ruby on Rails to create his web-based business platform, which he named Shopify.
Lutke made The Fabulous 30 list in 2012 as a result of his success.
While on a snowboarding trip in Canada, Lutke met his wife, Fiona McKean.
In 2019, Lutke gave a total of $US1,000,001 to teamtrees.org.
Lutke’s donation makes him the website’s highest donor as of October 31, 2019.
Tobias Lütke is one of the most impressive CEOs out there today.
If you’re looking for some inspiration, Tobias Lütke is a great place to start.
Tobias was recently honored as one of Canada’s Top 40 Under 40, an award that recognizes outstanding achievements by Canadians under the age of 40.How Tobias Became a Leader in His Role.
In 2004, Tobias founded Shopify with his friend Daniel Weinand.
As CEO, Tobias is responsible for leading the company and ensuring its success.
Since becoming CEO at Shopify in 2008, Tobias Lütke has helped grow the company to over 500,000 users in 175 countries.
Along with his work at Shopify, Tobias Lütke published a book in 2015 titled “The Year Without Pants: WordPress.com & the Future of Work.”.
A foundation established by Shopify CEO Tobias Lütke and wife Fiona McKean is donating $26 million to Canada’s 13 acute-care children’s hospitals, including CHEO. “This historic gift recognizes the immense impact of the pandemic on Canadian children, youth, and their families,” according to an announcement of the Thistledown Foundation gift issued Thursday by Canada’s Children’s Hospital Foundations and Children’s Healthcare Canada.
“Through this gift, our hope is that children across Canada will have the best possible care to enable them to feel better soon and get back to the important job of being kids,” McKean, the chair of the foundation, said in the release.
“As an Ottawa resident, I am so proud that our fellow Ottawa citizens have made this truly unprecedented gift – not only helping kids and families from eastern and northern Ontario, western Quebec and Nunavut, where CHEO serves, but in every community across Canada.”
During the COVID-19 pandemic, children and youth have faced school closures, delays in getting essential social, community and health services and separation from friends and family, the organizations said.
Slowing access to development services, mental health care, and surgical and diagnostic services can mean devastating and long-term impacts on children’s health outcomes, according to the release.
Children’s hospitals across the country are reporting significant increases in visits and admissions related to anxiety, depression and eating disorders among children and youth.
The Thistledown Foundation was established in 2019 by Lutke and McKean to advance technological solutions for decarbonization and has expanded to contribute to Canada’s response to COVID-19 by helping with both research and improving the supply chain for PPE. The pandemic has had a big impact on kids’ health.
Tobias Lütke is a German Canada-based founder and CEO of Shopify, an e-commerce company headquartered in Ottawa, Ontario.
In June 2004, after attempting to open Snowdevil, the founders Lütke, Weinand, and Lake co-founded Shopify, an e-commerce platform for online retail and stores point-of-sale systems.
The API lets developers create applications for Shopify online stores and then sell them on the Shopify App Store.
In September 2015, Amazon declared to shut down its Amazon Webstore service for retailers, and had chosen Shopify as the favored migration provider; Shopify’s shares bounced over 20% upon the news.
In January 2017, Shopify announced an alliance with Amazon that would permit retailers to sell on Amazon from the Shopify stores.
In September 2018, Shopify announced proposals to determine thousands of employees in Toronto’s King West neighborhood in 2022 as the role of the “The Well” complex, mutually owned by RioCan REIT and Allied Properties REIT. Ontario’s online cannabis sales used Shopify’s software when the drug was legitimized in October 2018.
In April 2019, Shopify revealed integration with Snapchat to allow Shopify merchants to buy and manage Snapchat Story ads directly on the Shopify platform.
Tobias “Tobi” Lütke is not your average CEO. Not met yet? He’s the guy who co-founded the Canadian start-up Shopify, then built it into an e-commerce giant that helps companies set up and run online stores in over 175 countries.
When Amazon founder Jeff Bezos – North America, and the world’s, second-richest person – was still CEO, he even considered Shopify a competitor.
“Congrats! Shopify is great btw. Nice work,” Musk said in a tweet to Lütke.
According to the American cryptocurrency company, the Shopify CEO was an early adopter of cryptocurrency.
“With guidance, we hope to unlock crypto’s potential to increase economic freedom in the same way Shopify democratised online commerce,” Coinbase CEO and co-founder Brian Armstrong said in a statement.
In 2020, Jeff Bezos and Amazon execs discussed launching a rival to Shopify and in 2021, they acquired Selz, an Australian Shopify competitor.
“Amazon is trying to build an empire. Shopify is trying to arm the rebels,” he replied in a 2019 Q&A session on Twitter when asked if Shopify was the next Amazon, referring to how they are providing developers and merchants tools to become better entrepreneurs.
Shopify CEO Sends Email To Staff Saying Company Is ‘Not A Family’: ‘We Cannot Solve Every Societal Problem’
The founder and CEO of Shopify, Tobias Lütke, reminded staff that the e-commerce company is a business and “Not a family” in an email last week.
“The very idea is preposterous. You are born into a family. You never choose it, and they can’t un-family you. It should be massively obvious that Shopify is not a family but I see people, even leaders, causally use terms like ‘Shopifam’ which will cause the members of our teams to get the wrong impression.”
Lütke also told staff that not only is the Ottawa-based company not a family, Shopify also cannot “Solve every societal problem.”
“Shopify is also not the government. We cannot solve every societal problem here,” he wrote.
The company-wide email comes after six former Shopify employees made allegations of internal tensions to Business Insider.
A company spokesperson told Insider that Shopify is not trying to silence its employees and welcomes discussion of current events, hinting at recent company policy changes made at software company Basecamp.
Last month, Basecamp banned employees from engaging in societal and political discussion on the company account, arguing that such conversations were unproductive.
Related Articles – Summarized
Styrene acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic consisting of styrene and acrylonitrile.
The chains of between 70 and 80% by weight styrene and 20 to 30% acrylonitrile.
Larger acrylonitrile content improves mechanical properties and chemical resistance, but also adds a yellow tint to the normally transparent plastic.
The copolymer has a glass transition temperature greater than 100 °C owing to the acrylonitrile units in the chain, thus making the material resistant to boiling water.
The acrylonitrile from SAN containers has been found to migrate to content in variable amounts.
Acrylonitrile is classified as a Class 2B carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Acrylonitrile has been shown to increase rates of cancer appearance in high dosage tests in male and female rats and mice.
What Is Styrene Acrylonitrile?: Styrene Acrylonitrile resin is a copolymer plastic containing styrene and acrylonitrile.
The chemical formula of styrene acrylonitrile isn-(C3H3N)m.
Styrene Acrylonitrile is structurally related to ABS plastic, where polybutadiene is copolymerised with SAN to give a much stronger material.
The copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile produces styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer, a rigid, transparent plastic.
In place of Polystyrene, Styrene Acrylonitrile resin, a copolymer is used due to its greater thermal resistance.
Styrene Acrylonitrile is used in food containers, water bottles, kitchenware, computer products, packaging material, battery cases and plastic optical fibers.
Styrene Acrylonitrile resin has an excellent chemical resistance.
Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) is a transparent and heat resistant thermoplastic copolymer produced by free radical polymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile.
The relative composition is typically between 60 and 80% by weight styrene and between 20 an 40% acrylonitrile.
Compared to styrene polymers, SANs have much improved chemical and solvent resistance, better heat stability, improved mechanical properties and a somewhat higher heat-deflection temperature.
The copolymers also have much improved creep resistance and weatherability compared to polystyrene.
Parts and films produced from SAN offer exceptional brilliance and transparency and are very durable at relative low cost.
Becasue of these properties, San resins are often used for high quality packaging as well as for transparent kitchenware and houseware articles like trays, toothbrush handles, knobs, mixing bowls, jars, beakers, and storage containers.
Other applications include housings, casings and covers for instruments and appliances.
This the index trend of the price, in US$ and usually per kg but for liquids it is per litre.
The chart shows the price trend, often taken as a statistical average across multiple sources.
Some of those sources include published import and export statistics, and as those statistics are often available only 1-2 months after the commercial transaction, prices may be adjusted in the last few months.
Contract prices are commercially sensitive and vary greatly depending on the source, the volume, the country and the supplier/customer relationship.
With the exception of pure commodities, every commercial transaction is at a different price.
The focus at BusinessAnalytiq is to provide an accurate trend of a reasonable average price, from multiple sources.
What if i want further information, or other price indexes.
Copolymers with acrylonitrile content between 2.3% and 27.3% were retained longer the less acrylonitrile they contained.
The solubility boundary has a maximum at 20-25% acrylonitrile content, where samples require only about 45 vol% THF in MeOH for dissolution, whereas copolymers with more or less acrylonitrile need up to 12% more THF.Figure 2.
2.1.2 Acrylonitrile-Styrene-AcrylateASA is the acronym for acrylate rubber modified styrene acrylonitrile copolymer.
4.1.2 Acrylonitrile Styrene AcrylateASA is the acronym for acrylate rubber-modified styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer.
Styrene and acrylonitrile monomers can be copolymerized to form a random, amorphous copolymer that has good weatherability, stress crack resistance, and barrier properties.
The copolymer is called styrene-acrylonitrile or SAN copolymer.
The SAN copolymer generally contains 70-80% styrene and 20-30% acrylonitrile.
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Delta T Systems temperature control equipment and process chillers are commonly used to control heat transfer during industrial adhesive and resin production and finishing processes.
Our equipment is designed and tested for a broad cross-section of applications that can require temperatures ranging from 20°F to 650°F. Consistent, high precision temperature control is critical because it enables manufacturers to produce higher quality materials.
Our fully programmable temperature control units and chillers can control temperatures to within 0.5°F of required process set points.
We offer a variety of highly efficient, variable speed chillers to maintain exact temperature control and flow in conjunction with chill rolls.
Delta T Systems has been manufacturing temperature control units and process chillers for 30 years.
Our team of knowledgeable engineers can help with temperature control solutions for any adhesive or resin process.
Our systems can easily be customized and used to control the temperature of any jacketed vessel, chill roll, heat roll or any other application.
Related Articles – Summarized
Various green chemistry routes to acrylonitrile are being explored from renewable feedstocks, such as lignocellulosic biomass, glycerol, or glutamic acid.
The lignocellulosic route involves fermentation of the biomass to propionic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, which are then converted to acrylonitrile by dehydration and ammoxidation.
The glycerol route begins with its dehydration to acrolein, which undergoes ammoxidation to give acrylonitrile.
The glutamic acid route employs oxidative decarboxylation to 3-cyanopropanoic acid, followed by a decarbonylation-elimination to acrylonitrile.
Acrylonitrile is used principally as a monomer to prepare polyacrylonitrile, a homopolymer, or several important copolymers, such as styrene-acrylonitrile, acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, acrylonitrile styrene acrylate, and other synthetic rubbers such as acrylonitrile butadiene.
2 CH2=CHCN + 2 e− + 2 H+ NCCH2CH2CH2CH2CN. Acrylonitrile is also a precursor in the industrial manufacture of acrylamide and acrylic acid.
The reaction of acrylonitrile with protic nucleophiles is a common route to a variety of specialty chemicals.
101 KB]. This Public Health Statement is the summary chapter from the Toxicological Profile for acrylonitrile.
The information is important for you to know because acrylonitrile may cause harmful health effects and because these sites are potential or actual sources of human exposure to acrylonitrile.
If you are exposed to a hazardous substance such as acrylonitrile, several factors will determine whether harmful health effects will occur and what the type and severity of those health effects will be.
The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that acrylonitrile may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
There is not enough information at present to use the results of such tests to predict the nature or severity of any health effects that may result from exposure to acrylonitrile.
The EPA recommends that levels in lakes and streams should be limited to 0.058 parts of acrylonitrile per billion parts of water to prevent possible health effects from drinking water or eating fish contaminated with acrylonitrile.
The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health recommends that average workplace air should not exceed 1 ppm acrylonitrile averaged over a 10-hour period.
Pyrolysis of oxidized Courtelle fibres up to 1000 °C by heating at the rate of 40 °C min−1 resulted in shrinkage under low loads but in extension under high loads over the temperature range 300-500 °C. When the pyrolysis was carried out at a lower rate of heating for 30 min, at a given temperature, only shrinkage was observed, even under higher loads.
Table 1 clearly shows that the current density of peak I decreases when the monomer concentration is increased whatever the solvent may be.12 This behavior, which is quite unusual for a faradic reaction, has been accounted for by the faster chain propagation at higher monomer concentration, which results in the more rapid passivation of the electrode.
In DMF, the film thickness increases from 25 to 150 nm when the monomer concentration is increased from 0.1 to 2 M.12 Because the chains are solvated in DMF, they can grow for a longer time and reach higher molecular weight at higher monomer concentration.
14 The current density of peak I at [AN] = 0.1 M is typically much lower in hexamethylphosphoramide than in ACN, which is of a comparable polarity but of a much higher donor number than HMPA. Obviously, passivation and thus electrografting are much more effective in the solvent of a higher DN in agreement with the deposition of a thicker film in this solvent.
Solvents of high DN have a low propensity of adsorbing onto metals, which means that all the potential initiating sites on the surface are occupied by the monomer, which is then electrografted under ‘ideal’ conditions.
Whenever solvents are poor competitors because of a high DN, a difference in polarity has no significant impact on IpI and the electrografting.
As a rule, a solvent of high DN is recommended for the AN to be selectively adsorbed onto the working electrode and for the electrografted film to be thicker and more passivating.
Acrylonitrile 107-13-1 Hazard Summary Exposure to acrylonitrile is primarily occupational: it is used in the manufacture of acrylic acid and modacrylic fibers.
Acute exposure of workers to acrylonitrile has been observed to cause mucous membrane irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea.
Assessing Personal Exposure Acrylonitrile can be detected in the blood to determine whether or not exposure has occurred.
Health Hazard Information Acute Effects: Workers exposed via inhalation to high levels of acrylonitrile for less than an hour experienced mucous membrane irritation, headaches, nausea, feelings of apprehension and nervous irritability; low grade anemia, leukocytosis, kidney irritation, and mild jaundice were also observed in the workers, with these effects subsiding with the ending of exposure.
Several adults exposed to the same concentration of acrylonitrile exhibited eye irritation, but no toxic effects.
Acute animal tests in rats, mice, rabbits, and guinea pigs have demonstrated acrylonitrile to have high acute toxicity from inhalation and high to extreme acute toxicity from oral or dermal exposure.
The provisional RfD is a value that has had some form of Agency review, but it does not appear on IRIS. Reproductive/Developmental Effects: No information is available on the reproductive or developmental effects of acrylonitrile in humans.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound that has the chemical formula CH2. CHCN. It’s classified as an organic compound simply because it’s mostly composed of carbon and hydrogen atoms.
With this low boiling point acrylonitrile is sometimes referred to as a volatile compound, which means that the liquid acrylonitrile molecules readily escape into the gas phase and evaporate.
Polyacrylonitrile is a very versatile polymer, and its fibers find use in things ranging from fishing poles, tennis rackets, bicycle frames, and even missiles! Another application of acrylonitrile is in the use of another polymer called ‘acrylonitrile butadiene styrene’, which as its name implies is a polymer that’s made up of acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene molecules.
Acrylonitrile is an organic compound that has the chemical formula CH2. CHCN. We learned that acrylonitrile has two important functional groups, an alkene and a nitrile.
The boiling point of acrylonitrile has been experimentally measured to be 77 degrees Celsius, which is considered low for an organic liquid.
With this low boiling point, acrylonitrile is sometimes referred to as a volatile compound, which means that the liquid acrylonitrile molecules readily escape into the gas phase and evaporate.
When acrylonitrile is combined with butadiene and styrene it forms another polymer called acrylonitrile butadiene styrene.
The solubilities of Acrylonitrile in water and water in Acrylonitrile as a function of temperature are summarized in Figure 2.5.
The references listed below provide the original descriptions of experimental methods for determining the physical and thermodynamic properties of Acrylonitrile and include summary articles describing the properties, manufacture, use and chemistry of Acrylonitrile.
Uninhibited Acrylonitrile should never be stored or transported, and Acrylonitrile should be inhibited with the proper levels of water and MEHQ. Exposure to the chemicals and conditions known to be incompatible with Acrylonitrile should be scrupulously avoided.
If the pH of a 5 percent aqueous solution of Acrylonitrile is above 7.5, the Acrylonitrile should be acidified.
CD = Chemical drain LI = Level indicator TI = Temperature indicator LAH = Level alarm high S/D = Shut down O2 = Oxygen FO = Fail open Figure A-2a: Acrylonitrile barge loading Figure A-2b: Acrylonitrile barge unloading 3.9 Figure A-2c: Acrylonitrile railcar loading Figure A-2d: Acrylonitrile railcar unloading 3.10 Figure A-2e: Acrylonitrile Iso-truck loading Figure A-2f: Acrylonitrile Iso-truck unloading 3.11 Figure A-2g: Acrylonitrile truck loading Figure A-2h: Acrylonitrile truck unloading 3.12 Section 4: Transfer and Transport Equipment and procedures for transfer and transport of Acrylonitrile will vary widely depending on prevailing national and local operating regulations.
Prevention The most effective way of preventing an Acrylonitrile fire is to keep Acrylonitrile vapors contained or keep them from a source of ignition.
Extinguishment Acrylonitrile fires may be extinguished with: Foam AFFF – that is alcohol resistant is recommended for extinguishing polar solvents such as Acrylonitrile.
Pipe is resistant to certain chemicals; however, specific analysis must be performed before pipe is considered for any special waste system.
Contact the pipe manufacturer for a detailed list of chemicals that can be satisfactorily discharged through ABS pipe.
As an alternate to ABS cellular core pipe, co-extruded composite pipe has been introduced.
ASTM F1488 requires that co-extruded composite pipe be marked with ASTM F1488, size and description indicating the construction of the pipe such as ABS/PVC/ABS cellular core where the cellular core is made from PVC material.
The coefficient of linear expansion for ABS plastic is 0.0000560 in/in/°F. The rate translates into an expansion of 1.34 inches for every 20 feet with a temperature change of 100°F. For composite pipes made to the ASTM F1488 standard, the manufacturer of the pipe should be contacted for the linear expansion rate.
3 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Plastic Pipe and Fittings for Drainage, Waste and Vent Systems Precautions: Joining of ABS pipe and fittings should be performed in well-ventilated locations.
Cost: ABS plastic pipe is less expensive than metallic piping materials used in sanitary and storm drainage systems 7.WARRANTY ABS pipe and fittings manufacturers generally warrant that pipe and fittings are free from defects and conform to the designated standard.