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11.3: The Integral Test Wednesday, February 25 Recap: Sequences Order the following sequences by their growth rate as n ∞: p n, ln(n), n, 1.01n , n3 + 2, n!, 50, n2 , n100 , 2n , 50n , ln(n)30 , n1.001 Find the limits of the following sequences: en + 7n + 2 9.
Lim n→∞ ln(n) + n! 1.01n n→∞ n n5 1.
Lim n→∞ n7 + 5 n10 n→∞ n! 8.
Lim n→∞ 3n n 1 + ln(n) n4 + ln(n) n→∞ 3n3 + 4n2 + n + 1 ln(n) n→∞ en 2.
If s = an and sn is the nth partial sum, then n n+1 R∞ Example: Since an = 1/n is decreasing and 1 x1 dx diverges, the harmonic series diverges.
N=1 X 1 1 + n2 n=1 X n 1 + n2 n=1 X 1 2 + 3n + 2 n n=1 Decide whether the followng integrals are convergent or divergent by using the integral test.
Why does the integral test not directly apply to the series X 1 + sin(n) ? Do you think that this n2 n=1 integral converges or diverges? P10,000 2.
A recap sequence is a narrative device used by many television series to bring the viewer up to date with the current events of the stories’ plot.
These devices are predominantly seen on episodic series where every installment furthers the plot, but otherwise are used for plot arcs, that is, when an episode is going to pick up on a storyline initiated several episodes ago.
A recap will almost always be present in an episode that picks up from a cliffhanger.
Recap sequences are most prevalent in dramatic television series and reality programs, whereas situation comedies and other scripted genres typically use recap sequences only for two-part or in rare cases, multi-part episodes.
These montages are inserted as the first thing into an episode so that viewers who had not seen the previous episodes or who do not remember what happened can understand from where the current episode will begin, also so that the viewers may decide to catch up on missed episodes, usually buying the DVDs. They usually begin with a voiceover or subtitle proclaiming, “Previously on…” or “Last time on…”.
The numerical value of recap sequence in Chaldean Numerology is: 7.Pythagorean Numerology.
The numerical value of recap sequence in Pythagorean Numerology is: 6.
Jennifer Lambe joins us for a look ahead to the next installment of The Walking Dead, Season 11, Picard, Season 2 and more!
In this episode, we ring in the New Year in familiar lockdown fashion with Brent O’Hara! No problem, the last few episodes of Hawkeye left us with plenty to talk about.
It wouldn’t be a proper Recap Sequence holiday sendoff without the dead! Jennifer Lambe joins us for our last show of 2021 and a recap of The Walking Dead, Fear the Walking Dead and Walking Dead: World Beyond!
The first three episodes of Hawkeye are available on Disney+ and we assemble once more, for another Merry Marvel recap with Brent O’Hara!
In this episode, Brent O’Hara joins us for a recap of Marvel’s Shang-Chi and the Legend of the Ten Rings!
The Arc Recap is back! In our Phase 3 premiere, we take a look at the MCU’s version of Uatu, also know as the Watcher.
In this episode, Brent joins us for a recap of the final act of Season 1 of Marvel’s What If? And, as always, more Marvel news!
A recap sequence is a narrative device used by many television series to bring the viewer up to date with the current events of the stories’ plot.
Recap sequences are most prevalent in dramatic television series and reality programs, whereas situation comedies and other scripted genres typically use recap sequences only for two-part or in rare cases, multi-part episodes.
The Australian prison soap opera Prisoner used a recap sequence throughout its eight-season run.
In later years it began to show several select cuts from the previous episode during the recap sequence, often, a new scene would directly follow the recap before the opening credits.
In the early years of Australian soaps Home and Away, Neighbours and Sons and Daughters a recap showed directly after the opening credits, which may have been confusing for viewers who would have started watching them, not realizing they were viewing a recap sequence and not a new opening scene.
British soap operas, apart from Hollyoaks, do not use a recap sequence they may be relevant.
These such episodes usually happen after a plot twist, for the recap to explore what lead up to that point that the viewer does not know.
Running from 1955 to 1961, The Life and Legend of Wyatt Earp was among the very first series that presented a continuing storyline-and that used the recap sequence.
Storytelling-and in turn, recap sequences-didn’t much evolve until the late 1970s and early 1980s with the rise of “Quality” primetime soaps and police dramas like Dynasty and Knot’s Landing, which embraced storylines that arced over whole seasons.
Increasingly, the recap evolved from summarizing what happened “Previously on” and became a new kind of narrative form unto itself, essential to the mechanics of the show it represented.
Jonathan Pledger, a television editor who’s worked on The Office, Devious Maids, and Red Band Society, compares the work of creating recaps to fitting together a puzzle: “But a way more intricate puzzle, because there’s not just one way to put things together,” he says.
On HBOGo, complex shows like The Wire, The Sopranos, Boardwalk Empire, and others that lived long, happy lives on television before they surfaced online, no longer include the recaps they were born with.
So perhaps the gradual vanishing of the recap is out of necessity-for those watching multiple episodes in a row, a 45-second recap may feel like a waste of time.
Perhaps the Netflixes and HBOGos of the world will realize this-or at least think of the committed viewer who might appreciate an occasional memory-jog-and give us a recap button.
That particular recap is actually one of the better-regarded episode from the highly divisive final arc of SEED Destiny, both because getting the story from the Big Bad’s perspective is a more interesting way to handle a recap and because many Gundam fans would be willing to listen to an episode of Shuichi Ikeda reading the phone book… Gundam 00 did this as well, with one episode of its first season being partly dedicated to a recap of events up to that point.
This went from the last quarter of Episode 12 all the way to the first half of Episode 16, with all of the other episodes being the 11-minute Sangoku Soketsuden episodes recut to fit the 22-minute format of Heroes, culminating into a Recap Story Arc that lasted for roughly 4 episodes… Wolf’s Rain probably deserves the booby-prize for including no fewer than FOUR recap episodes halfway through its original 26-episode run.
The “Actual” Recap episode is #16. The episode 16 recap is unusual in that it brings the series’s episode total to 27.
Due to early production issues, the sixth installment, Yu-Gi-Oh! VRAINS, contains five recap episodes in its first 59 episodes… Interestingly, the dub of Dragon Ball Z created a recap episode that was broadcast just before the androids saga.
Armored Trooper VOTOMS has three recap episodes: episode 20, episode 28, and episode 40.
The final episode of CLANNAD: ~After Story~ was a Recap Episode with a small twist: the debate on whether the universe/reality where Nagisa and Ushio died really existed/happened was addressed.
Gintama: Subverted in Episode 25 when the gang introduces the episode as a recap episode… only to cut to them sitting around a hot-pot at home.
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Software Test automation makes use of specialized tools to control the execution of tests and compares the actual results against the expected result.
Usually, regression tests, which are repetitive actions, are automated.
Testing Tools not only helps us to perform regression tests but also helps us to automate data set up generation, product installation, GUI interaction, defect logging, etc.
Automation tools are used for both Functional and Non-Functional testing.
Popular Tools that are used for Functional automation: ProductVendorURLQuick Test ProfessionalHPwww.
Test automation is the practice of automatically reviewing and validating a software product, such as a web application, to make sure it meets predefined quality standards for code style, functionality, and user experience.
Today, nearly all unit tests are fully automated and unit testing automation is considered a best practice.
The current wave of test automation efforts is largely focused on automating the end-to-end layer of the testing pyramid, which reduces the need for integration tests.
Even though automation tools have existed for over a decade, many require coding skills and often result in flaky, brittle tests that are extremely costly to troubleshoot and maintain at scale.
Many teams end up creating their own custom test automation frameworks, which makes it difficult and time-consuming to onboard new team members due to the steep learning curve.
As organizations mature their DevOps practices, the need for test automation across the lifecycle is important to unlock the key benefits of DevOps – the ability to build, test, and ship faster and more reliably, streamline incident responses, and improve collaboration and communication across teams.
QA teams need to align their efforts in the DevOps cycle by ensuring test cases are automated and achieve near 100% code coverage.
Automated testing is also called test automation or automated QA testing.
Test automation is when you configure a script/program to do the same steps as you would do to manually test the software.
What sets leading companies apart in the world of test automation? In this session, Johnny Lam, Solutions Engineer, draws on his experience working shoulder to shoulder with trailblazing global companies – from Fortune 500 to startups – to strategize, implement, and execute their test automation initiatives.
Test automation is designed for running time-consuming test scripts that need to be repeated over and over again.
Test automation works best when tests are both repeatable and have determinant outcomes.
Some test automation tools out there can even build test scripts before code is written – simply by defining the desired functionality first.
When selecting your test automation solution, be clear about the essential features required for optimal test automation.
It’s these kinds of repetitive tests that lend themselves to test automation.
Test automation is the practice of running tests automatically, managing test data, and utilizing results to improve software quality.
There are all kinds of tests, but not all should be automated; therefore, let’s start with general criteria for test automation.
A smoke test isn’t meant to be an all-out functional test.
The test driver is responsible for “Driving” the tests, but the test management system takes on the responsibility of coordinating everything, including reporting results.
A test automation system coordinates testing concerns, including managing test data, running tests, and tracking results.
Test automation is the next step for teams that are becoming overwhelmed by the burden of repeating the same manual tests that should be automated.
Automation Testing is a software testing technique that performs using special automated testing software tools to execute a test case suite.
Test Automation Maintenance Approach is an automation testing phase carried out to test whether the new functionalities added to the software are working fine or not.
Maintenance in automation testing is executed when new automation scripts are added and need to be reviewed and maintained in order to improve the effectiveness of automation scripts with each successive release cycle.
Benefits of Automation Testing Following are the Test Automation benefits: 70% faster than the manual testing.
Subject7 is a cloud-based, “Truly codeless” test automation solution that unifies all testing in a single platform and empowers anyone to become an automation expert.
Test Automation is a software testing technique that performs using special automated testing software tools to execute a test case suite.
The right selection of automation tool, testing process, and team, are important players for automation to be successful.
A recent survey showed that almost 80% of organizations use automation testing for functional and regression testing.
Testing can be done manually, but manual testing is repetitive and time-consuming.
Automated testing dramatically increases speed and accuracy compared with manual testing.
Automation testing allows for increased test coverage and earlier detection of bugs and vulnerabilities.
Automation testing tools help development teams generate testing scripts that can be repeated automatically.
Since automated testing is an essential part of software development, numerous careers include testing automation.
What are the types of tests to test automation frameworks?10.
Enterprises should choose effective types of automation framework to ensure effective testing of their applications.
Helps reduce time-to-market as it delivers continuous execution of automated test scripts- Ensures enhanced scalability- Reduces operational costs- Delivers faster and quality products for launch- These frameworks ensure higher test performance over manual testing- Though initial costs are high but lowers overall maintenance costs- These automation frameworks become reusable and brings in cost-effectiveness as they can be used for similar testing needs in the future with the same test scripts- Delivers comprehensive defect management reports.
Identifies defects early with effective detection of bugs and issues- Ensures maximum test coverage as end-to-end automation testing frameworks are used- Reduces manual efforts as tests are fully automated and need less manual intervention- Most significant usage is with respect to code reusability- Delivers greater efficiency as testing time consumed is reduced- Automated scripts save lot of QA time and ensures quality is maintained and delivered- Automated tests can run anytime,anywhere as the system runs them automatically- Bug tracking reports deliver comprehensive reporting that is useful to DevOps teams- With agile and DevOps, and continuous deployment, test automation and continuous integration is the key and pre-requisite to ensures continuous testing is achieved.
What are the types of tests to test automation frameworks?
Tool agnostic solution which can integrate with all leading tools of automation testing like Selenium, Appium- Generates rich UI based output reports with details for different stakeholders- Supports complete integration into the development pipeline with CI tools- Supports integration with third-party tools like test, defect & version management- Interfaces with Cloud-based providers for on-cloud test execution- Integrated to deliver performance testing and can be used for functional testing.
There are various types of automation testing frameworks.
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If you’re going to get a printer, why settle for one that can only print? A multifunction or all-in-one printer will let you get a lot of utility out of a single device.
A multifunction printer needs to be able to do a lot, and the more work it can take off your hands, the better.
For simple printing needs, you don’t need to buy the fastest laser printer or the sharpest inkjet printer.
You can get 25 pages per minute from this work horse, and you can even have it do duplex prints automatically from its 50-sheet ADF. Your monochrome document print speeds aren’t the only thing that’ll benefit from using this printer as it can also churn out color prints at 12 ppm.
Though a lot of multifunction printers can spit out photos, they aren’t always going to offer as impressive results as a printer that has a little more specialization.
Picking the right type of multifunction printer comes down to considering how often and what you’ll be printing.
If you stumbled down here looking for something to just print documents, quickly, always go for a laser printer.
If you need a printer for the dual role of home and home-office MFP, you’ll want an inkjet for its photo quality, but one equipped with office-centric features like an ADF and a fax modem.
A fax feature almost always includes standalone faxing, which you control through the MFP’s keypad. But it doesn’t necessarily include a PC faxing function-faxing documents directly from your PC without having to print them first.
If the MFP includes a print duplexer, you can copy both single- and double-sided originals to your choice of single- or double-sided copies.
Keep in mind that many color laser MFPs can print at high enough quality to let you print your own marketing materials, which could be less expensive than printing small quantities at your local print shop.
MFPs tend to be bigger than single-function printers, and even some home MFPs can be tall enough to make you feel like they’re towering over you if you put them on your desk.
If you prefer Wi-Fi, keep in mind that if you have a wireless access point on your network, you can print wirelessly to any printer or MFP on that network, whether the printer or MFP offers Wi-Fi or not.
A few offer support for Near-Field Communication, which allows you to initiate printing from a compatible mobile device simply by tapping the printer with the phone or tablet.
Buying a printer is not as easy as buying any other computer accessory as it is not something bought oftenly.
So we have created a buying guide for you to help in picking the best one.
A rightly picked monitor makes life easier at the home, office, and shop wherever printing is required.
Before buying a printer, you should consider features like print speed, print resolution, dual-side print support, device compatibility, Wi-Fi support, and paper tray size.
Multi function Printers often referred to as “MFPs” are machines that encompass the features of a printer, a copier, a scanner, and even sometimes also a fax machine if specified.
A Multi function Printer is a device that ultimately consolidates the functionalities of a printer, copier, scanner and or fax into one machine.
Various manufactures like Kyocera, and Xerox sell a variety of multi function printers, also sometimes called all-in-one machines.
Multi function machines come in two basic types: Inkjet and Toner based printers.
Regardless of whether you need a fast printer for business use, or a machine to print photos.
You will find a multi function machine that produces inkjet or toner quality print outs.
You might also find yourself spending less money buying a single multi function printer, rather than buying several machines for the same job.
MFP manufacturers traditionally divided MFPs into various segments.
Generally a SOHO MFP will have basic Print, Copy, Scan and Fax functionality only, but towards the larger end of the scale, may include simple document storage and retrieval, basic authentication functions and so on, making the higher end of the “SOHO” scale difficult to differentiate from the lower end of the “Office” MFP scale.
There are a variety of different print engines for Production Printing MFPs, however in the “Light” end of the Production Printing market, most are based on the large Office MFPs, which themselves are based on photocopier technology as described above.
Output Ability to print directly to the MFP’s internal storage function.
As mentioned in the Types of MFP section, the physical print engine may be based on several technologies, however most larger MFPs are an evolution of a digital photocopier.
The only limit from the MFP itself is the capability of the MFP to display a user interface to the workings of the application.
MFP internal software, by comparison, has the advantage of not requiring anything outside of the MFP. The software runs within the MFP itself and so even a complete network outage will not disrupt the software from working.
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Indian Rupee drops to new all-time low of Rs20.93/Dh in pre-market trade.
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Economists reckon that the RBI would choose greater market intervention to support the rupee than tweak interest rates.
March 07, 2022 / 09:46 AM IST. Russia’s war with Ukraine and the resultant turmoil in the commodity markets where the two countries dominate has become a central point of pain for emerging market currencies.
The Indian rupee is no exception and has lost more than 2 percent of its value because of the Indian economy’s dependence on crude oil imports.
The noise surrounding the rupee’s depreciation involves crude’s incessant surge over the past six months.
A flare-up of oil means a stiff import bill for…..
Rupee To Depreciate On Uptick In Dollar, Surging Crude Oil Prices, USDINR Pair To Trade In This Range
The Indian rupee slumped past the 76 per dollar mark on Friday to touch its lowest level since mid-December, as the deepening crisis in Ukraine pushed Asian shares toward 16-month lows.
The domestic currency is expected to depreciate on Monday due to risk aversion in global markets and uptick in dollar.
Rising crude oil prices will continue to put pressure on the rupee.
“Rupee came under pressure and extended its weakness as global crude oil prices continued their upward trajectory and as geopolitical uncertainty keeps most participants on the edge. This week, on the domestic front, industrial production number will be important to watch and inflation number will be released next week which is likely to trigger volatility for the currency. But at this point, uncertainty between Russia and Ukraine is influencing most of the currencies. We expect the USDINR(Spot) to trade sideways with a positive bias and quote in the range of 76.05 and 76.80.”.
“The Indian Rupee is likely to face Tough day as crude oil prices soared more than 10% in hectic trading on Monday as the risk of a U.S. and European ban on Russian product and delays in Iranian talks triggered what was shaping up as a major stagflationary shock for world markets. On domestic front, foreign institutional investors pulled pricey again Rs 7,631.02 Crore from Indian markets as participants remain on edge over Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.”
“For now, Dollar is facing resistance of upward trend line to be found near 76.75-76.80 levels sustain above which may head higher towards 77.00 marks while on lower side support is placed around 76.00 levels. Pricey crude oil, stronger dollar, FII outflows and threats of higher inflation and Possibly trade Deficit likely make rupee weaker. Overall trading setup is indicating Positive bias on current scenario and also volatility likely to persist in coming trading session hence we recommend follow to buy on dip strategy while keeping stop loss below 76.00 levels and we are expecting dollar rupee to trade in range of 76.00 to 77.00 levels.”
“India’s traditionally non-interventionist central bank may allow further depreciation of Asia’s worst-performing currency since the start of the Ukraine conflict in the hope that a weaker rupee will increase export competitiveness and assist close gaps presumably widening due to rising oil costs. The rupee has lost 2.17% against the dollar since February 21, closing at 76.17 on Friday. Unprecedented turmoil over the last few decades has shown that the odds are stacked against the local currency. This week, as investors examine the global economic impact of the Russia-Ukraine situation, it has remained the most important topic for investors.”
The rupee had closed the session on Thursday at 75.11 but later settled at 75.06.Investors turn long on Indian rupee after 4 months.
Rupee gains 12 paise to close at 74.30 against US dollar.
Historically, the rupee has either drifted down every year against the dollar or when it remains range-bound for a few years, the move can be very quick and precipitous.
The partially convertible rupee opened at 73.78 against the US dollar on Wednesday as against 73.9050 at previous close.
Rupee gains 31 paise to close at 74.03 against US dollar.
The partially convertible rupee settled at 75.9050 per US dollar as against 76.0850 at previous close.
It is clearly evident that the inherent nature of the Indian Rupee has been to depreciate against the dollar with intermittent corrections and will continue to be so.
Banks and traditional providers often have extra costs, which they pass to you by marking up the exchange rate.
Our smart tech means we’re more efficient – which means you get a great rate.
INR is the International Organization for Standardization currency code for the Indian rupee, for which the currency symbol is ₹. The Indian rupee derives its name from the rupiya, a silver coin first issued by Sultan Sher Shah Suri in the 16th century.
Coins Coins in India are issued in denominations of 50 paise, one rupee, two rupees, five rupees, and ten rupees.
Coins worth 50 paise are called small coins, while coins equal or above one rupee are known as rupee coins.
The Reserve Bank of India has had to change and update rupee notes with new security features over the years.
The rupee has been subject to various capital controls and convertibility restrictions over the years.
From 1927 to 1946, the rupee was pegged to the British pound.
Below are the images of the current coins and banknotes, along with their denominations, that are currently in circulation for the Indian rupee as listed on the website for the Reserve Bank of India.
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Might be a team of people: Dan Kaminsky, a security researcher who read the bitcoin code, said that Nakamoto.
The reference to London’s Times newspaper in the first bitcoin block mined by Nakamoto.
In a high-profile 6 March 2014 article in the magazine Newsweek, journalist Leah McGrath Goodman identified Dorian Prentice Satoshi Nakamoto.
A Japanese American man living in California, whose birth name is Satoshi Nakamoto.
‘s P2P Foundation account posted its first message in five years, stating: “I am not Dorian Nakamoto.” During the subsequent full-length interview, Dorian Nakamoto.
The same day, Gizmodo published a story with evidence supposedly obtained by a hacker who broke into Wright’s email accounts, claiming that Satoshi Nakamoto.
In 2020, the YouTube channel Barely Sociable claimed that Adam Back, inventor of bitcoin predecessor Hashcash, is Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto began coding the first implementation of Bitcoin in C++ in May of 2007.
A couple months later, Satoshi published the Bitcoin white paper to a public cryptography mailing list.
In January 2009, Satoshi finally officially open-sourced the codebase and launched the Bitcoin network.
Satoshi stuck around for a couple more years to work on the code, contribute patches, and lead the burgeoning community around Bitcoin.
Having slowly distanced himself from the day-to-day of Bitcoin, Satoshi eventually faded away from the project permanently.
Let’s look at what Satoshi had to say about Bitcoin early on.
Satoshi acknowledged Bitcoin as a descendant of the P2P file sharing networks.
On January 3rd, 2009 – at around 18:15:05 UTC – Satoshi Nakamoto mined the very first bitcoin.
“When Satoshi announced Bitcoin on the cryptography mailing list, he got a skeptical reception at best,” recalled legendary cryptographer Hal Finney, the first person to ever receive bitcoin from Satoshi.
Satoshi also made liberal use of Britishisms like “Favour,” “Maths,” “Flat”, and the phrase “Bloody hard.” All of which would point to the inventor as hailing from or being a resident of the United Kingdom – unless Satoshi had been devising red herrings since his earliest days of conceiving Bitcoin.
In 2014, Newsweek announced with great fanfare that the magazine had located Bitcoin’s creator in Southern California – in the form of a 64-year-old retired physicist named Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto.
Late into his ALS, he laboriously responded to a Forbes reporter’s questions via eye-tracking software: “You have records of how I reacted to the announcement of Bitcoin, and I struggled to understand it. I suppose you could retort that I was able to fake it, but I don’t know what I can say to that. I’ve done some changes to the Bitcoin code, and my style is completely different from Satoshi’s. I program in C, which is compatible with C++, but I don’t understand the tricks that Satoshi used.”
Why Satoshi might want to remain anonymous If the real Satoshi lives and breathes, there are some compelling reasons to stay hidden.
So who is Satoshi? One of the prime suspects? One of the many other people that have been identified as Bitcoin’s creator over the years? Someone nobody has ever suspected? Is Satoshi alive or dead? A single inventor or a team? As the years have passed it seems increasingly likely that we’ll never know the answers.
With how massively influential Bitcoin’s whitepaper and reference documentation have been to other blockchains, cryptocurrencies and the world’s financial system at large, some even theorize that Satoshi Nakamoto might have been a collective of people or that they might have intended their pivotal work to be a final contribution to the world, especially since there’s been total radio silence from Satoshi since 2010.
With Satoshi holding 1 million Bitcoin, interested parties also identify a rational element to seeking out their identity, as any movement of Satoshi’s holdings could drastically affect the market’s perception of Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies as a whole.
In March 2014, Newsweek claimed that Japanese engineer Dorian Satoshi Nakamoto was actually Satoshi Nakamoto, essentially using the shared names and nationality as the sole kernel of substantive proof.
As a well-known “Cypherpunk,” he was an early adopter of Bitcoin, actually being the recipient of the first Bitcoin transaction from Satoshi.
While Szabo, an empirical user of pseudonyms in the 1990s, has politely denied being Satoshi numerous times, he concedes to being a direct influence to many of the ideas underlying Bitcoin.
Australian computer scientist Craig Wright has publicly claimed to be Satoshi numerous times, claiming to have created Bitcoin with the late Hal Finney and the late Dave Kleiman.
With the quality and intricacy of Bitcoin’s initial codebase and the Satoshi emails between Hal Finney, Adam Back, and others, it’s certainly possible that Satoshi is a group of people.
In 2021, crypto went more mainstream than ever before, and there’s now a growing library of books exploring Bitcoin and blockchain tech for the legions of crypto-curious.
Nathaniel Popper’s book, last updated with a new epilogue in 2016, starts with the early interactions between Nakamoto and his far-flung collaborators and then tracks Bitcoin through iconic points of interest like the Mt. Gox exchange hack and illicit Silk Road marketplace takedown.
The first book dedicated to the history of the Ethereum blockchain.
It’s an ideal first step in your personal crypto education, starting with the creation of Bitcoin and the fundamentals and use cases of blockchain technology, while also providing a basic understanding of altcoins, crypto-economics, and growing business adoption.
Along the way, Mezrich charts the growth of the cryptocurrency space, from the rag-tag cypherpunks and libertarians drawn to Bitcoin in its early days, to the suited-and-booted bankers and investors seeking to lay down a veneer of respectability atop crypto’s anarchic subculture.
If Digital Gold is the definitive origin story of the first cryptocurrency, and Infinite Machine is the birth story of the blockchain that launched DeFi, Kings of Crypto is the equivalent for the first mainstream U.S. crypto company, Coinbase.
Despite the legitimate complaints crypto purists take with what Coinbase has become today, it remains the closest thing to a household name in the industry, the service that “Normies” are most likely to try when they decide they’re ready to buy some Bitcoin, and thus the best company through which to explain the rise of crypto.
To recognize his contribution to the birth of the Bitcoin ecosystem, BitBTC.money is creating a series of Satoshi Nakamoto avatar NFTs that will live in the metaverse.
After brainstorming with BitBTC team members, she decided to create the Satoshi NFT project.
SNJ told me he wanted to create a Satoshi Nakamoto avatar for the bitcoin community.
What is the overall concept of the Satoshi NFT? We believe Satoshi Nakamoto is all around us and each of us who believes in bitcoin is Satoshi Nakamoto.
All these representatives will receive a Satoshi NFT airdrop from us.
What utilities do the holders of the Satoshi NFT get?
Firstly, the owner of a Satoshi NFT will automatically become an OG of SeeseaDAO, which is a DAO of the NFT marketplace on Optimism and EVM-based Chain.
“There is something about the war in Ukraine that feels different,” a former U.S. intelligence official told me as Russia began invading the country last week.
“We’ve seen wars documented on Twitter and images shared on the internet before, but this time it isn’t just bombs and bullets; this war is digital from the top to the bottom.” At the center are cryptocurrencies, which for perhaps the first time are playing a role in war-being used to help both refugees in the midst of a humanitarian crisis and Russian oligarchs trying to find a way to get around the suffocating sanctions that the West is trying to strangle them with.
No one wants to start World War III, and especially a nuclear war, with Putin, so NATO countries are largely hemmed into creating sanctions to try and inflict as much monetary pain as possible.
Now it’s clear that the Russians are turning to the latest technology trend to find a way around these sanctions: crypto.
Other tech companies in and around Silicon Valley have been surprisingly swift in their efforts to help Ukraine and hurt Russia.
Netflix pushed back against a Russian law that requires services with more than 100,000 subscribers to carry Russian propaganda channels on their platforms.
On top of that, the people on the ground in Ukraine are sharing a panopticon of images as the Russians bomb and attack their cities.
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Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani is an Indian billionaire businessman, chairman, managing director, and the largest shareholder of Reliance Industries Ltd., a Fortune Global 500 company and India’s most valuable company by market value.
Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani was born on 19 April 1957 in the British Crown colony of Aden to Dhirubhai Ambani and Kokilaben Ambani.
As of October 2020, Mukesh Ambani was ranked by Forbes as the 6th-wealthiest person in the world.
Mukesh Ambani set up Reliance Infocomm Limited, which was focused on information and communications technology initiatives.
In February 2014, a First Information Report alleging criminal offenses was filed against Mukesh Ambani for alleged irregularities in the pricing of natural gas from the KG basin.
In an interview with Rajdeep Sardesai in March 2017, he said that his favourite food continued to be idli sambar and his favourite restaurant remains Mysore Café, a restaurant in King’s Circle where he used to eat as a student at UDCT. Mukesh Ambani is a strict vegetarian and teetotaler.
Mukesh Ambani holds a 50.4% stake in the company.
Mumbai: India’s richest man Mukesh Ambani currently has a net worth of USD 89.9 billion, which is nearly equal to the total wealth of Russia’s four richest billionaires put together, according to Bloomberg Billionaires Index.
On the other hand, Russia’s richest man Vladimir Potanin has a net worth of USD 25.2 billion.
Other richest Russians are Severstal’s ex-CEO Alexey Mordashov and natural gas firm Novatek founder Leonid Mikhelson, with net worth of USD 22 billion each.
The fourth on the list of richest Russians is NLMK Group chairman Vladimir Lisin, with a fortune of USD 21.2 billion.
Ambani recently regained the richest Asian tag surpassing fellow countryman Gautam Adani, the group chairman of the Adani Group.
As per the global ranking of billionaires given by Bloomberg, with a total net worth of USD 89.9 billion, Ambani is placed at the 10th spot globally and Adani dropped one place to the 11th position.
In the last few months, Adani and Ambani have been swapping positions for the top spot on the billionaires rankings.
India’s richest person and Reliance Industries Chairman Mukesh Ambani currently has a net worth of $89.9 billion, which is nearly equal to that of Russia’s four richest billionaires combined.
Russia’s richest man Vladimir Potanin has a net worth of $25.2 billion, as per Bloomberg, while Severstal’s ex-CEO Alexey Mordashov and Novatek Founder Leonid Mikhelson’s fortunes stand at $22 billion each.
Mukesh Ambani, in full Mukesh Dhirubhai Ambani,, Yemeni-born Indian business mogul who is the chairman and managing director of the Indian conglomerate Reliance Industries Limited, the foremost company of the Indian energy and materials conglomerate Reliance Group.
In the same year, Dhirubhai and a cousin founded the Reliance Commercial Corporation, which grew from a commodities-trading business that they initially operated out of a one-room rental space into RIL.Ambani earned a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering from the University of Bombay and subsequently pursued a master’s degree in business administration from Stanford University.
Following Dhirubhai’s death in 2002, Ambani and his brother, Anil, assumed joint leadership of the Reliance companies.
Feuds between the brothers over control prompted their mother, Kokilaben Ambani, to split Reliance’s assets via a noncompetition agreement under which Mukesh assumed control of the gas, oil, and petrochemicals units as RIL under the umbrella of the Reliance Group.
Ambani has been credited with creating the globe’s largest start-up petroleum refinery as well as spearheading the creation of several state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities that vastly increased RIL’s production capabilities.
In 2007 The Economic Times newspaper and the news agency Press Trust of India simultaneously named Ambani the world’s richest man.
The following year he created the Mumbai Indians, an Indian Premier League cricket team.
He initiated Reliance’s backward integration journey – from textiles to polyester fibres and further onto petrochemicals and petroleum refining, and going upstream into oil and gas exploration and production.
He created multiple new world-class manufacturing facilities involving diverse technologies that have raised Reliance’s petrochemicals manufacturing capacities from less than a million tonnes to about 21 million tonnes per year.
In the late nineties, Mr. Mukesh Ambani spearheaded the creation of the world’s largest grassroots petroleum refinery at Jamnagar in Gujarat, India, with a capacity of 660,000 barrels per day, and integrated it with petrochemicals, power generation, port and related infrastructure.
With an aggregate refining capacity of 1.24 million barrels of oil per day at a single location, Jamnagar has become the refining hub of the world.
Today, Reliance Retail is the largest organised retail player in India.
He has created global records in customer acquisition for Jio, Reliance’ digital services initiative.
Mr. Mukesh Ambani is a member of The Foundation Board of the World Economic Forum.
People wearing masks as a precaution against the coronavirus stand in a queue to board trains at Lokmanya Tilak Terminus in Mumbai, India, on April 12, 2021.
With its explosive surge in recent days, India’s confirmed infections have surpassed Brazil’s total to make it the world’s second-worst hit country.
On April 10, The Times of India reported the country had more active cases of coronavirus than at any other time during the pandemic.
India Today reported that Mukesh saved Anil from jail time after he helped repay his brother’s debt.
According to Bloomberg, India saw a rise in inequality in 2020 with the wealthy adding to their billions while millions of Indians lost their jobs.
Quartz India reported in December that during a video conversation with Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, Mukesh said, “I firmly believe a crisis is too precious to be wasted”.
According to Business Today, while addressing the Pandit Deendayal Petroleum University in November, Mukesh said, “India has entered a crucial phase in the fight against Covid-19 pandemic. We cannot afford to let our guard down at this juncture.”
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Written Reply to Parliamentary Question on proposed guidelines for insurers to adopt fair and responsible practices towards persons with disabilities and mental health conditions.
Reply at Committee of Supply 2022 on a digital Sing dollar.
Reply at Committee of Supply 2022 on bank Accounts for ex-offenders.
This consultation paper seeks views on MAS’ proposals to issue a new AML/CFT Notice for financial institutions in the conduct of their operations and business activities in precious stones, precious metals and precious products, as well as, to update MAS’ existing AML/CFT Notices.
This semi-annual brief on the Singapore economy also discusses external developments pertinent to our assessment of near-term economic prospects.
The Global CBDC Challenge organised by MAS, in partnership with IMF, World Bank, ADB, UNCDF, UNHCR, UNDP and OECD, seeks innovative retail CBDC solutions to enhance payment efficiencies and promote financial inclusion.
This report provides a summary of the challenge through its various phases and includes highlights of…..
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The Monetary Authority of Singapore has long been the gold standard for responsible, sustainable finance.
Let’s take a closer look at MAS, SG. What is the Monetary Authority of Singapore?
SG MAS was designed as a central authority that would consolidate all monetary policy across the city-state.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore has sole control over the printing of all banknotes within the country.
The rise of Fintech has heaped another role onto the broad shoulders of MAS Singapore.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore must now implement, enforce, and support organizations in upgrading legacy systems to meet an advancing global world’s new requirements.
Startups offering nascent Fintech products have the opportunity to establish themselves in Singapore and claim financial help through MAS. Companies offering Fintech products must carefully examine the policies of MAS if they want to operate within this hub of innovation.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore is the central bank managing money supply and regulating interest rates, inflation rate, and value for Singaporean currency.
What Is the Monetary Authority of Singapore?The Monetary Authority of Singapore is the central bank of Singapore and its role includes being the banker to the government and managing public debt, overseeing the monetary policy, dealing with exchange rates, and regulating banks and other financial institutions.
Monetary Authority of Singapore uses monetary policy to control the inflation rates in Singapore by setting a target inflation rate or adjusting it to be higher or lower than what would normally occur without intervention.
Although its main responsibilities still fall into two major categories: managing foreign reserves while tracking actual inflation rates closely enough and ensuring market stability, the Monetary Authority of Singapore also strives to promote sustained economic growth.
Domains of Ministry of Finance and Monetary Authority of SingaporeThe Singaporean Ministry of Finance and Monetary Authority are two separate entities that control different aspects of its economy, but they both play important roles.
The former handles fiscal policy while the latter deals with monetary policy.
Supporting Fintech and Blockchain-Based StartupsThe Monetary Authority of Singapore performs unique roles in the sense that it not only regulates the financial sector but also deals with the fintech policy.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore is the central bank and financial regulatory authority of Singapore.
As Singapore progressed, an increasingly complex banking and monetary environment required more dynamic and coherent monetary administration.
In 1970, the Parliament of Singapore passed the Monetary Authority of Singapore Act leading to the formation of MAS on 1 January 1971.
The act gives MAS the authority to regulate all elements of monetary policy, banking, and finance in Singapore.
MAS regulate Singapore’s monetary system via the foreign exchange mechanism, managing the Singapore dollar versus an undisclosed number of currencies, creating a Singapore dollar nominal effective exchange rate since 1981 instead of via interest rates like other central banks such as Federal Reserve System or Bank of England.
AIDF is a collaboration between the Monetary Authority of Singapore, the National Research Foundation and the National University of Singapore and was established in 2021.
MAS organises Singapore FinTech Festival annually in partnership with The Association of Banks in Singapore and in collaboration with SingEx Holdings, to connect the various FinTech communities around the world to interact with each other.
In July 2016, the MAS, the sole bank regulator in Singapore and its central bank, issued its Guidelines on Outsourcing Risk Management.
Shortly after the release of the MAS Guidelines on Outsourcing Risk Management, the ABS, a non-profit organization representing the interests of local and foreign banks operating in Singapore, introduced a non-binding practical guide, Cloud Computing Implementation Guide.
It’s designed to help banks implement outsourcing arrangements following MAS Guidelines.
Microsoft MAS and ABS. With the endorsement of cloud computing – including the use of public clouds – by the Monetary Authority of Singapore and support from the Association of Banks in Singapore, Microsoft published the Microsoft response to MAS outsourcing guidelines and ABS guidance and a Compliance Checklist for financial institutions in Singapore.
The Microsoft response to MAS guidelines and ABS guidance gives financial firms an overview of the key issues raised by the MAS Guidelines and the ABS Guide as they apply to cloud services, Microsoft interpretations of and responses to each of the key issues, and details on how Microsoft can help facilitate compliance with MAS guidelines.
By relying on our comprehensive approach to risk assurance in the cloud, we’re confident that financial institutions in Singapore can move to the Microsoft Cloud in a manner that is consistent with MAS Guidelines and the ABS Guide, while also providing a more advanced security risk management profile than many on-premises solutions.
‘ These include an obligation to perform annual reviews, mandatory contractual clauses addressing audit rights, and ensuring that outsourcing outside of Singapore doesn’t affect MAS supervisory efforts.
The Monetary Authority of Singapore was established in 1970 by act of government, beginning operations as the country’s central bank, and financial regulatory authority, on 1 January 1971.
Following the Monetary Authority of Singapore Bill MAS was brought into being.
As Singapore’s central bank and financial regulator, it’s vital that financial institutions understand what the Monetary Authority of Singapore is, and how it functions.
In its regulatory capacity, MAS oversees every aspect of monetary policy, banking and finance in Singapore, including matters relating to the insurance industry.
The role MAS plays in the economic and professional profile of Singapore is significant.
Supporting the Smart Nation initiative, MAS works to position Singapore as a regional FinTech leader by developing a strong talent pool, building an open architecture economy, reinforcing cyber-security measures, and creating a regulatory environment conducive to innovation.
Since its exchange rate policy is built on the value of Singapore’s currency, MAS works carefully to adjust that value by increasing or decreasing the amount of printed Singapore dollars in circulation.
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Learn more…. The London Metal Exchange is the world’s central marketplace for industrial metals trading.
In this guide, you’ll learn how the LME operates, what you can trade, and how to get started trading.
The London Metal Exchange is a futures and options trading exchange that operates the world’s largest marketplace for trading base metals.
The Ring is the open-outcry physical trading floor that plays a key role in price discovery on the LME. Each metal is traded in a highly liquid five-minute open-outcry trading session.
LME futures contracts trade daily out to three months, weekly out to six months and monthly up to 123 months in the future depending on the metal.
Traders can consult the LME website for more details about how LME Clear calculates margin.
If you’d like a primer on how to trade commodities in general, please see our introduction to commodity trading.
The future of the London Metal Exchange’s iconic trading Ring is uncertain after a proposal was made to permanently close it, with a consultation launched alongside it.
The Ring is a key pricing point in the metals industry, with traders buying and selling at close quarters, shouting and employing hand signals – methods that are difficult in a post-pandemic world as offices around the UK wait for the government’s anticipated social distancing review.
Unlike in the equity markets, where electronic systems have largely replaced floor trading, the Ring remains a core feature of the LME. What plans have been put forward?
The LME announced on 19 January a proposal to make permanent the closing of the iconic venue’s trading Ring and to move to an electronic pricing structure.
READ London Metals Exchange weighs permanently closing 144-year-old trading pit.
READ LME to shut down Ring trading after member tests positive for Covid-19.
The London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange was forced to make the shift to electronic trading in 2000.
The clearing house of the London Metal Exchange generated a “Very large number” and wrong margin call on Wednesday, according to media reports on Friday.
The London Metal Exchange responded to the media on Friday that the problem had been properly resolved.
The exchange explained that these additional guarantee orders were not issued to users because of the margin audit process built into the company’s system.
All brokerage members are notified immediately and the manual backup process of the exchange is in place in time.
To explain briefly, the clearing firm will require brokers to adjust the margin on a daily basis to cover the potential losses of their clients, and the margin ratio will also be adjusted in the event of sharp market fluctuations.
Engineers at the London Metal Exchange have failed to deal with such changes in advance.
Since the most actively traded contracts on the London Metal Exchange happen to be products delivered within three months, the holiday problems in early June also coincided with this week.
The London Metal Exchange is among the biggest and most established markets around the world that deals chiefly in non-ferrous metals from its UK location.
The London Metal Exchange offers futures contracts and options on different metals and commodities.
Since its establishment in the late 1800s, The London Metal Exchange has become an authority on the values of some metals and commodities.
Although the London Metal Exchange still has an active trading floor, a telephone exchange is also part of the regular system for making trades of this market.
In terms of its actual ownership, the London Metal Exchange has become a part of a company called LME Holding Limited.
A set of “Members” represents those on the outside of the exchange who want access to the trades happening within.
As a part of the European region’s financial landscape, the London Metal Exchange has its own place in the parts of the global monetary system that are housed in the U.K. Across the channel in Europe, various national financial exchanges with long histories have become part of a greater “Euronext” network of exchanges.
There are many famous floor-based trading exchanges in the financial world; the most famous of which is the floor of the New York Stock Exchange.
One might say that rather than being a trading environment where a cordial exchange of inquiry and price information were exchanged and transactions made, the recent mood of the market has turned the floor into an arena that resembles a bear pit such is the heat of aggression and rush of adrenalin.
As our elected officials and medical experts recommend, we practice “Social distancing” I questioned if the face-to-face open outcry method of trading commodities, stocks and options is appropriate? This consideration can go further as one needs to ask if once, we have triumphed over Covid-19 floor-based trading can continue?
Over The Counter or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without the supervision of an exchange.
Geoffrey Sambrook writes about the metal trading industry under the name “Lord Copper”.
He has suggested that it will be far from easy to move the essence of “Ring trading” to a digital platform.
If LME is successful and they do make a success in the digital domain as well as saving lives, it will be a catalyst for the NYSE and CME to reconsider how they will shape up in the rest of this century as floor trading becomes a memory viewed through rainbow lenses.
If you are trading in certain metal commodities, such as copper, cobalt or aluminium, learning a bit about the London Metal Exchange is a good idea since the market prices of several important metals are highly impacted by trades taking place on this exchange.
Most exchanges in Europe has retired their open-outcry trading, but ring trading in this fashion is still going on at the LME – although only a fraction of all trading takes place like this.
Most LME trades have migrated to the electronic trading platform.
There are two trading sessions: 11:40-13:10 GMT and 14:55-16:15 GMT. Each session includes a 10 minute trading break.
The morning trading session is followed by 85 minutes of kerb trading.
Still, the ring trading remains important since it is still central to establishing the official prices of the LME. These prices are taken from the most liquid periods of trading in the ring.
INTL FCStone Europe Ltd. Marex Financial Ltd. Metdist Trading Ltd. Société Générale Newedge Uk Ltd. Sucden Financial Ltd. Triland Metals Ltd. Many other companies are involved in the ring trading, but they have to go through one of these nine ring dealing members.
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SHANGHAI, Nov. 18, 2021 /PRNewswire/ – Shanghai Futures Exchange, a leading Chinese commodity futures exchange regulated by the China Securities Regulatory Commission and its subsidiary Shanghai International Energy Exchange, the first Chinese futures exchange open to overseas investors, today released October 2021 trading volume statistics.
Trading volume over a total of 16 trading days for the SHFE and INE reached 186,837,623 lots and 5,326,030 lots, up 38% and 12% year on year, respectively.
Crude Oil Futures monthly trading volume reached 2,355,915 lots.
About SHFE.Shanghai Futures Exchange is a leading Chinese commodity futures exchange regulated by the China Securities Regulatory Commission.
Since its establishment in 1999, SHFE has formed a product mix of commodity futures, options, and the standard warrant trading platform.
By December 31, 2020, 20 futures and 5 options based on metals, energy and chemical products have been listed on SHFE and its subsidiary – Shanghai International Energy Exchange, which serves as the international platform of SHFE.About INE.Founded in 2013, INE is the first Chinese futures exchange open to overseas investors and has listed the largest number of international products among all Chinese futures exchanges.
To date, INE has listed five international products – crude oil futures, TSR20 futures, low sulfur fuel oil futures(LSFO), bonded copper futures and crude oil options.
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The type of spectroscopy which deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum is Infrared Spectroscopy.
Infrared spectroscopy is based on absorption spectroscopy.
Raman Spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique which is used to analyze vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.
Raman’s spectroscopy is commonly used in the branch of chemistry to provide a fingerprint by which molecules can be identified.
As the name suggests, this phenomenon is named after Sir C. V. Raman.
This phenomenon relies on inelastic scattering of monochromatic light which is also known as Raman scattering.
Other advanced types of Raman spectroscopy are surface-enhanced Raman, resonance Raman, tip-enhanced Raman, polarized Raman, stimulated Raman, transmission Raman, spatially offset Raman, and hyper Raman.
CPWR combines the high sensitivity, spectral resolution and ability to measure anisotropics in refractive index and optical absorption coefficient in a sensing layer of waveguide spectroscopy with the simple and convenient optical coupling arrangement and isolation of the optical probe provided by SPR spectroscopy.
Raman spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are used mainly for identification or characterization of substances.
Visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and atomic emission spectroscopy are used mainly for measurement of substances or elements.
126.96.36.199.1 Synergy between spectroscopy and quantum calculationsFrequency-resolved spectroscopy.
Historically, spectroscopy has played an essential role in the development of atomic theory, and it is still extensively used for fundamental studies.
2.Vibrational spectroscopy, including infrared absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational circular dichroism spectroscopy.
Concentrations of the samples used for electronic spectroscopies can be very low, which is important to avoid nucleic acid aggregations.
This article explains the principle of spectroscopy, uses of spectrometers, types and applications of spectroscopy in detail.
Here, a few important types of spectroscopy with their properties and applications are explained below.
Ultraviolet spectroscopy is also known as absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy.
Fluorescence Spectroscopy is one of the important types of electromagnetic spectroscopy.
FTIR Spectroscopy is also known as Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Spectroscopy is mainly used for studying the structure of molecules and atoms.
This article explains the principle of spectroscopy, a few important types of spectroscopy and their applications and a list of the important applications of spectroscopy in various fields are given in detail.
Vibrational spectroscopy is the branch of spectroscopy that studies the spectra.
For instance in chemical analysis, the most common types of spectroscopy include atomic spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Modern implementations of atomic spectroscopy for studying visible and ultraviolet transitions include flame emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, glow discharge spectroscopy, microwave induced plasma spectroscopy, and spark or arc emission spectroscopy.
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy is a recent technique that has high sensitivity and powerful applications for in vivo spectroscopy and imaging.
Correlation spectroscopy encompasses several types of two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy.
Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy is a common implementation of infrared spectroscopy.
Baryon spectroscopy and meson spectroscopy are types of hadron spectroscopy.
A diffraction grating has thousands of narrow lines ruled onto a glass surface, similarly to a CD. While prisms refract light, diffraction gratings reflect light, so no photons are missed during analysis.
Light entering a spectrograph through a small opening in the spectrograph hits a collimating mirror that lines up the entering rays of light parallel to each other.
Spectrophotometry measures how much light is absorbed by, reflected off, or transmitted through a chemical substance by measuring the intensity of light as the beam passes through a sample.
Near-infrared spectroscopy uses a halogen light source to produce near-infrared wavelengths that are composed of overtone and combination bands.
While both technologies measure changes in molecular vibrations and rotations, infrared spectroscopy measures the amount of IR light absorbed and raman measures the amount of light scattered.
Most of the scattered light will be the same wavelength as the light source, and therefore irrelevant.
Raman spectroscopy delivers excitation light and collects emitted light through flexible optical fibers.
Certain types of microwave, optical, and gamma-ray spectroscopy are capable of measuring infinitesimal frequency shifts in narrow spectroscopic lines.
Because the energy E of a photon is related to its frequency by the relation E = hν, where h is Planck’s constant, spectroscopy is actually the measure of the interaction of photons with matter as a function of the photon energy.
In instances where the probe particle is not a photon, spectroscopy refers to the measurement of how the particle interacts with the test particle or material as a function of the energy of the probe particle.
The following sections focus on the methods of electromagnetic spectroscopy, particularly optical spectroscopy.
Although most of the other forms of spectroscopy are not covered in detail, they have the same common heritage as optical spectroscopy.
Survey of optical spectroscopy General principles Electromagnetic radiation is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that have the ability to transfer energy through space.
The decomposition of electromagnetic radiation into its component wavelengths is fundamental to spectroscopy.
About this unitSpectroscopy is the study of how light interacts with matter.
We can use spectroscopy to determine the structure and functional groups in organic compounds.
We will be learning about how to use IR, UV/Vis, and NMR spectroscopy.
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In Brief: Human activities have fundamentally increased the concentration of greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere, warming the planet.
Scientists attribute the global warming trend observed since the mid-20th century to the human expansion of the “Greenhouse effect”1 – warming that results when the atmosphere traps heat radiating from Earth toward space.
Depending on the crop and ecosystem, weeds, pests, and fungi can also thrive under warmer temperatures, wetter climates, and increased CO2 levels, and climate change will likely increase weeds and pests.
Climate change can cause new patterns of pests and diseases to emerge, affecting plants, animals and humans, and posing new risks for food security, food safety and human health.
In its Fifth Assessment Report, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a group of 1,300 independent scientific experts from countries all over the world under the auspices of the United Nations, concluded there’s a more than 95 percent probability that human activities over the past 50 years have warmed our planet.
It’s reasonable to assume that changes in the Sun’s energy output would cause the climate to change, since the Sun is the fundamental source of energy that drives our climate system.
If the warming were caused by a more active Sun, then scientists would expect to see warmer temperatures in all layers of the atmosphere.
The current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events.
The paleoclimate record also reveals that the current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events.
To further explore the causes and effects of global warming and to predict future warming, scientists build climate models-computer simulations of the climate system.
See Earth’s Big Heat Bucket, Correcting Ocean Cooling, and Climate Q&A: If we immediately stopped emitting greenhouse gases, would global warming stop? to learn more about the ocean heat and global warming.
For most places, global warming will result in more frequent hot days and fewer cool days, with the greatest warming occurring over land.
It is impossible to pin any single unusual weather event on global warming, but emerging evidence suggests that global warming is already influencing the weather.
Greenhouse gases are long-lived, so the planet will continue to warm and changes will continue to happen far into the future, but the degree to which global warming changes life on Earth depends on our decisions now.
I am writing in response to the article “Feds halt new drilling in climate change battle” and feel strongly that we must not overlook the cost of carbon on public land projects.
The Willow project is a massive proposal that would have unprecedented effects on the state of U.S. federal lands.
BUDGET SURPLUSIt could be argued that teachers are the front-line workers for our future.
The $1 billion that the Legislature intends to give as bonuses to “Front-line workers” ought to be dedicated to the public education system in this state.
As a taxpaying Minnesotan, I celebrate our front-line workers: teachers and aides, cooks and cashiers, nurses and long-term care providers, bus drivers and transit workers who braved unheard-of conditions to keep our state safely running during the pandemic.
Last year, Catholic Charities Hope Street Shelter for Youth supported 360 Hennepin County young people seeking shelter.
The Homeless Youth Act is one of them, and by supporting the most vulnerable in our community, we can all help architect a future of stability and opportunity for thousands of homeless young people.
Covering 70% of the Earth’s surface, the ocean already acts as a giant carbon sink, removing about a quarter of the carbon dioxide produced each year by human activity, scientists estimate.
“The ocean plays a major role in the carbon cycle, and that’s where most of the carbon is stored anyway. I think it just makes natural sense to look there. Of course, we don’t want to mess up the ocean.”
Tinkering with the ocean could face hurdles in gaining acceptance from the public and people who depend on the sea for their livelihoods, says Holly Jean Buck, an assistant professor of environment and sustainability at the State University of New York at Buffalo and author of “After Geoengineering: Climate Tragedy, Repair and Restoration.” Still, it’s an important option to consider, she says.
Experts convened in 2021 by the National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine identified six ocean carbon removal technologies that might make a dent in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
“We do change the ocean chemistry, but we do it in a very gradual way,” Project Vesta CEO Tom Green says.
Early results show the ocean chemistry must be carefully monitored to make sure the carbon is properly absorbed.
Recovery of ocean and coastal ecosystems: Replant and restore ocean ecosystems to kick-start carbon absorption by marine animal and plant life.
That’s what drew the Donum Estate, a high-end winery whose main vineyard is 40 miles southeast in Carneros, to buy this daunting property.
The planting of the Bodega Vineyard is the latest chapter in a longer, ongoing story: Slowly but surely, climate change is compelling a migration of California grapevines from inland valleys toward the ocean.
“For us, climate change isn’t a problem as much for heat as it is for extremes,” said Donum winemaker Dan Fishman.
Once upon a time, areas of the Sonoma Coast like Freestone, Occidental and Fort Ross were considered too cold and extreme for winegrowing; now, vineyards there such as Peay, Hirsch and Ceritas are among the most highly acclaimed in California.
Within the larger Sonoma Coast area, this particular stretch of Bodega has seen a handful of vineyards planted in the last 20 years.
The Bodega Vineyard itself was carved out of a larger parcel that used to be known as Platt Ranch, which Sonoma County wine geeks may recall as the onetime source of top wines from Radio-Coteau, Littorai and others.
Not every fledgling Bay Area winery can afford to buy 100 acres near the coast, and well-funded companies like Donum may find themselves in an exceedingly privileged position as climate change’s effects intensify.
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Climate change is the result of the buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, primarily from the burning of fossil fuels for energy and other human activities.
The NIEHS Climate Change and Human Health Program leads and coordinates the institute’s efforts to better understand climate change, in order to protect people’s health2.
Placing added stress on hospital and public health systems, and limiting people’s ability to obtain adequate health care during extreme climate events.
Further Reading Stories from the Environmental Factor Additional Resources Climate and Health Program – The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention presents the collaborative work of states, cities, territories, and tribes related to climate change and health.
Climate Change and Human Health – The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services considers climate change to be one of the top public health challenges of our time.
Climate Change Research – The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides scientific information and tools that can be used by communities to tackle the climate crisis effectively, equitably, and sustainably.
Environmental health research such as this informs policies related to climate change and communities’ preparations for those changes.
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The Global Emissions Offset provides delivery of physical offset credits and validated instruments in the voluntary emissions markets that have been through strict verification.
It allows global airlines efficient access to purchase carbon offsets.
It’s a key component on the Aviation Carbon Exchange, in partnership with CBL Markets.
The GEO bundles up multiple, certified, carbon credits into a single contract.
Credits can be bundled as long as they are CORSIA compliant.
A carbon price usually takes the form of a carbon tax or carbon emission trading, a requirement to purchase allowances to emit.
21.7% of global GHG emissions are covered by carbon pricing in 2021, a major increase due to the introduction of the Chinese national carbon trading scheme.
With a carbon tax, the government and not the market sets the price of carbon.
If the fossil price surge persists, the necessity for an additional carbon price to gain competitiveness for renewable energies comes into question.
Many economic properties of carbon pricing hold regardless of whether carbon is priced with a cap or a tax.
In sum, while a carbon price has the potential to reduce future emissions, a carbon subsidy has the potential to reduce past emissions.
In late 2013, William Nordhaus, president of the American Economic Association, published The Climate Casino, which culminates in a description of an international “Carbon price regime.” Such a regime would require national commitments to a carbon price, but not to a specific policy.
Carbon pricing is a policy tool to lower emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
These emissions are the main cause of climate change, resulting in flooding, sea-level rise, drought, heatwaves, and other costs to society.
The goal of carbon pricing is to shift the responsibility for these costs to those who produce the emissions.
In theory, a carbon price should be equal to the “Social cost of carbon.” For example, if one ton of CO2 emissions costs the public $100, it should cost $100 to emit that ton of CO2.
A carbon tax directly sets a price per ton of emissions.
That’s because carbon pricing can touch every part of the economy, from electricity to manufacturing to transportation, and because it rewards any behavior that reduces greenhouse gas emissions.
Rather than regulating exactly where and how emissions should be reduced, carbon pricing gives markets the flexibility to find the cheapest ways to lower emissions.
Central to these efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emission is a market mechanism known as carbon pricing.
In a cap-and-trade system of carbon pricing, the government sets a cap on the total amount of emissions allowed, and C02 emitters are either given permits or allowances or must buy the right to emit C02; companies whose total emissions fall under the cap may choose to sell their unused emissions credits to those who surpass its carbon allotment.
According to a 2019 World Bank report on trends in carbon pricing, a carbon price range of US$40-80 is necessary by 2020 to reach the goals set by the 2015 Paris Agreement.
In the transition to the a low-carbon economy, carbon pricing could lead to significant costs for companies, amounting to as much as $1.3 trillion from 2030 carbon prices across companies in the S&P 500, according to research from S&P Dow Jones Indices.
To account for the additional costs and risks of future carbon pricing, S&P Dow Jones Indices launched the S&P Carbon Price Risk Adjusted Index Series to allow investors to consider 2030 carbon price risk exposures in addition to company earnings in investment decisions.
High carbon prices also improve gas-fired profits relative to coal-fired margins, and encourage investment in new technologies like carbon capture.
PJM Interconnection, the largest power market in the U.S., began exploring the feasibility of pricing carbon into its power markets and developing a common set of rules to implement carbon pricing and manage cross-border emissions leakage.
Tracking the European Union and United Kingdom Emissions Trading System carbon market price day-by-day.
One EUA or UKA gives the holder the right to emit one tonne of carbon dioxide, or the equivalent amount of two more powerful greenhouse gases, nitrous oxide and perfluorocarbons.
EU Carbon Permits decreased 15.55 EUR or 19.28% since the beginning of 2022, according to trading on a contract for difference that tracks the benchmark market for this commodity.
Historically, EU Carbon Permits reached an all time high of 98.49 in February of 2022.
This page includes a chart with historical data for EU Carbon Permits.
EU Carbon Permits – data, forecasts, historical chart – was last updated on March of 2022.
EU Carbon Permits is expected to trade at 69.05 EUR by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations.
Looking forward, we estimate it to trade at 83.74 in 12 months time.