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Post Idea #1: BSE SENSEX
Related Articles – Summarized
Sensex Slumps 1,700 Pts As Oil Surges, Nifty Below 15,800; Maruti Slips 6%
Investors lost over ₹6 lakh crore in early trade today amid mounting calls for harsher sanctions against Russia.
The NSE Nifty is trading lower by 460 points.
Crude oil prices soared to their highest since 2008 due to delays in the potential return of Iranian crude to global markets and as US and European allies consider banning imports of Russian oil.
Gold prices are trading up by 1.9% at ₹53,555 per 10 grams.
Holdings of the world’s largest gold-backed exchange-traded fund, SPDR Gold Trust, rose 0.4% to 1,054.3 tonnes on Friday – their highest since mid-March 2021.
The chart below shows the annual returns on gold over the last 15 years…. As you can see, barring just two years – 2013 and 2015, gold has delivered positive returns in 13 of the last 15 years.
In news from the mutual funds space, Indian fund managers haven’t sold off equity positions despite the war in Ukraine or the threat of a lift-off in global rates.
Sensex, Nifty Tumble Nearly 3% Amid Weak Global Markets, Elevated Oil Prices
Extending its downtrend for the fourth straight session on March 7, the 30-share BSE Sensex opened on a weak note and slumped 1,620.73 points or 2.98%t to 52,713.
The broader NSE Nifty tanked 447.05 points or 2.75% and slipped below the 16,000 level to 15,798.
30 in opening trade, while the Nifty plunged over 400 points to 15,831.
81, down by 768.87 points or 1.40%. The NSE Nifty slumped 252.70 points or 1.53% to end at 16,245.
International oil benchmark Brent crude surged 8.84% to $128.6 a barrel.
Foreign institutional investors continued their selling spree in Indian markets as they offloaded shares worth ₹7,631.
“This week’s focus will be on the Russia-Ukraine conflict and its impact on oil prices. On the home front, investors will be watching the outcome of the state elections in five states on March 10,” according to Mohit Nigam, Head – PMS, Hem Securities.
Sensex, Nifty Down Around 3% In Early Trade
The benchmark 30-share BSE Sensex plunged 1,687 points, or 3.1 percent, to 52,646 in early trade, while the broader NSE Nifty index was down 448 points, or 2.8 percent, at 15,797.
Automakers were among the worst hit, with Eicher Motor, Mahindra & Mahindra, Tata Motors and Maruti Suzuki India losing 5-6 percent ahead of an expected fuel price hike.
ONGC jumped 2.7 percent on expectations that it will benefit from the oil price surge.
Hindalco added 1.9 percent owing to higher commodity prices.
Vodafone Idea lost 3 percent after its promoters amended the shareholder’s pact to secure their governing rights.
SBI Funds Management through various schemes has acquired an additional 4.5 percent stake in the apparel retailer through open market transactions.
Tube Investments of India dropped 1.4 percent.
Sensex, Nifty Tumble Nearly 3 Per Cent Amid Weak Global Markets, Elevated Oil Prices- The New Indian Express
By PTI. MUMBAI: Equity benchmarks Sensex and Nifty tumbled nearly 3 per cent in opening trade on Monday tracking weak global markets and elevated oil prices amid the Russia-Ukraine conflict.
Extending its downtrend for the fourth straight session on Monday, the 30-share BSE Sensex opened on a weak note and slumped 1,620.73 points or 2.98 per cent to 52,713.
The broader NSE Nifty tanked 447.05 points or 2.75 per cent and slipped below the 16,000 level to 15,798.
From the 30-share pack, Maruti Suzuki, Mahindra & Mahindra, Larsen & Toubro and ICICI Bank were the biggest drag, tumbling up to 6.3 per cent.
81, down by 768.87 points or 1.40 per cent.
The NSE Nifty slumped 252.0 points or 1.53 per cent to end at 16,245.
International oil benchmark Brent crude surged 8.84 per cent to USD 128.6 a barrel.
BSE Sensex 30 Companies And List Of BSE 30 Stocks
Here is the list of Sensex companies and how they impacted the movement in the index.
To know more about how the BSE SENSEX is performing, please see the BSE Sensex Live Chart.
Since large caps interest you, here’s our guide to buying bluechip stocks.
Our calculator aims at arming investors with a tool that lets them determine how, or rather which stocks have actually contributed to the day’s happenings.
The output boxes give the contribution of the stock to the change in the index.
Contrary to common belief, these penny stocks are profitable and have been growing over the last few years.
These penny stocks can help investors get stable returns in a volatile market.
On 25 July 2001 BSE launched DOLLEX-30, a dollar-linked version of the SENSEX. The term Sensex was coined by Deepak Mohoni, a stock market analyst in 1989.
19 February 2013 – SENSEX becomes S&P SENSEX as BSE ties up with Standard and Poor’s to use the S&P brand for Sensex and other indices.
29,000, 23 January 2015 – BSE Sensex today set a new high of 29,408 points and all-time closing high of 29,278.
45 at around 09:47 AM. 45,000, 4 December 2020 – The SENSEX crossed 45,000 mark with an all-time high of 45,033 at around 10:30 AM. 46,000, 9 December 2020 – The SENSEX crossed 46,000 mark with an all-time high of 46,017 at around 1:30 PM. 50,000, 21 January 2021 – The SENSEX crossed 50,000 mark with an all-time high of 50,181 at around 1:31 PM. 60,000, 24 September 2021 – The SENSEX crossed 60,000 mark with an all-time high of 60,218 at around 9:30 AM. .
The SENSEX eventually recovered from the volatility, and on 16 October 2006, the SENSEX closed at an all-time high of 12,928.
Over the course of two days, the BSE SENSEX in India dropped from 19,013 on Monday morning to 16,730 by Tuesday evening or a two-day fall of 13.9%. Less than a month later, on 11 February 2008, the SENSEX lost 833.98 points, when Reliance Power fell below its IPO price in its debut trade after a high-profile public offer.
22 lakh crore was erased on 23 March 2020 as BSE SENSEX lost 3,934.72 points to end at 25,981.
Post Idea #2: Oil and Natural Gas Corporation
Related Articles – Summarized
Oil And Natural Gas Corporation
The Oil and Natural Gas Corporation is an Indian government-owned crude oil and natural gas corporation.
On 19 July 2017, the government of India approved the acquisition of Hindustan Petroleum Corporation by ONGC. ONGC’s operations include conventional exploration and production, refining and progressive development of alternate energy sources like coal-bed methane and shale gas.
The primary business of ONGC Videsh is to prospect for oil and gas acreages outside India, including exploration, development and production of oil and gas.
ONGC Petro additions Limited, a multi-billion joint venture company was incorporated in 2006, as a Public Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956, promoted by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation and co-promoted by GAIL and GSPC. OPaL is setting up a grass root mega Petrochemical project at Dahej, Gujarat in PCPIR/SEZ. The complex’s main Dual Feed Cracker Unit has the capacity to produce 1100 KTPA Ethylene, 400 KTPA Propylene and the Associated Units consists of Pyrolysis Gasoline Hydrogenation Unit, Butadiene Extraction Unit and Benzene Extraction Unit.
ONGC supplies crude oil, natural gas, and value-added products to major Indian oil and gas refining and marketing companies.
Despite being owned by the government of India, ONGC has repeatedly been found not claiming its rightful payments from private players, especially for the use of oil fields, oil rigs and concessions.
“UPSTREAM INDIA Fifty Golden Years of ONGC” by ONGC group publications year 2006 is official narrative of the history of ONGC. Story of ONGC by I.A.Farooqi gives a historical account of Oil and Natural Gas Corporation from its foundation to the year 2000.
Research Guides At Library Of Congress
This section covers researching past and present oil and gas companies, resources for starting a company in the oil and gas industries, and references to top companies.
Energy companies, nationally owned and privately owned, are some of the biggest companies that have every existed in the world.
Many of them are well known, Exxon, Chevron, Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, China National Petroleum Corporation, Equinor, TOTAL, and ENI. Additionally, companies that use oil and natural gas, like autos, electric providers, and airlines are also among the most well-known and largest companies.
The oil and gas industry is frequently divided into three segments: upstream, midstream and downstream.
While each of these areas has a number of independent companies, major companies in oil and gas are often considered integrated, meaning their businesses consist of a mix of upstream, midstream and downstream activities.
Companies can be private, public, or state-owned, which impacts the amount of information available.
Delta Oil & Gas
Since 1971 Delta Oil & Gas has been as active player in the Fort Worth Basin, Permian Basin and the Eastern Shelf.
Currently Delta operates 382 wells in multiple counties and basins within Texas.
A Brief History of Oil and Gas Exploration in British Columbia T he history of oil and gas development in British Columbia extends back nearly 125 years.
The following brief timeline shows oil and gas exploration up to 1947.
1890s Port Haney No. 1 well was drilled adjacent to the railway well, above, and encounters “Marsh gas” at a depth of 193 feet.
1936 to ’47 Two farm gas wells are used for heating and cooking at Steveston on Lulu Island in the Fraser delta, producing gas from 17 feet.
Christmas eve, 1947 Spudding of the first successful gas well in British Columbia – the Peace River Natural Gas No. 1.
A more detailed description of the history of oil and gas exploration in British Columbia can be found in: Janicki, E.,; Petroleum Exploration History of Northeastern British Columbia; in Geoscience Reports 2008, BC Ministry of Energy, Mines and Petroleum Resources, pages 41-57.
April 1, 1953: Administration of oil and gas tenure and activities transferred to the Department of Mines.
Post Idea #3: Gold exchange-traded product
Related Articles – Summarized
Gold Exchange-Traded Product
Gold exchange-traded products are exchange-traded funds, closed-end funds and exchange-traded notes that are used to own gold as an investment.
Gold exchange-traded products are traded on the major stock exchanges including the SIX Swiss Exchange, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange, the Paris Bourse, and the New York Stock Exchange.
Gold ETNs generally track the price of gold using derivatives.
In some countries, gold ETFs represent a way to avoid the sales tax or the Value-added tax which would apply to physical gold gold coins and gold bars.
The idea of a gold ETF was first conceptualized by Benchmark Asset Management Company Private Ltd in India, which filed a proposal with the Securities and Exchange Board of India in May 2002.
The first gold ETF launched was Gold Bullion Securities, which listed 28 March 2003 on the Australian Securities Exchange, by ETF Securities and its major shareholder, Graham Tuckwell.
In March 2020, the Royal Mint entered the Gold ETF market and listed its first financial product “The Royal Mint Physical Gold – RMAU”, making it the first Gold ETF issued by a European Sovereign entity.
Gold Backed Exchange Traded Funds
Gold ETF Summary Gold backed Exchange Traded Funds are securities designed to track the gold price.
A fundamental constraint was keeping new gold bullion investment buyers out, and this was the form of the professionally traded commodity – the gold bullion Good Delivery Bar.
Digital Gold Currency was an early attempt, but now, by far the two most successful approaches are Gold ETFs and BullionVault.
BullionVault : You are buying physical gold in Good Delivery Bar form already stored in a specific accredited gold bullion vault in the location you chose.
Gold ETFs : You are buying a quoted, gold denominated, debt security which is the obligation of a trust created for the specific purpose of enabling gold investment through it.
The trust deed requires the gold denominated debt of the trust to be backed by gold assets which the trust must own – although possibly in various forms.
Gold ETF : Under an ETF a trust owns the gold, and you are a beneficiary of a debt owed by the trust and backed by its gold.
Gold Exchange-Traded Product
Gold exchange-traded products are exchange-traded funds, closed-end funds and exchange-traded notes that aim to track the price of gold.
They are traded on the major stock exchanges including Zurich, Mumbai, London, Paris and New York.
The first gold exchange-traded product was Central Fund of Canada, a closed-end fund founded in 1961.
The first gold ETF actually launched was Gold Bullion Securities, which listed 28 March 2003 on the Australian Securities Exchange.
Gold Exchange Traded Funds: Current Developments And Future Prospects In China
The gold exchange traded fund is a burgeoning product to invest in gold.
It has very positive significance as foreign exchange, financial safety and avoiding inflation to a country.
At the same time, it is convenient to invest in gold exchange traded funds for small and medium-sized investors and extremely welcomed by market.
Most of the investors don’t understand gold exchange traded funds.
This study was designed to clarify this understanding with the help of literature and analyze.
Best Gold ETFs For Q2 2022
Aside from buying gold bullion directly, another way to gain exposure to gold is by investing in exchange-traded funds that hold gold as their underlying asset or invest in gold futures contracts.
Some investors view ETFs as a relatively liquid and low-cost option for investing in gold compared to alternatives such as gold futures or shares of gold-mining companies.
Still, the price of gold can see big swings, meaning ETFs that track it can also be volatile.
These funds either invest directly in gold bullion or in gold futures contracts as opposed to companies that mine for the metal.
The best-performing gold ETF based on performance over the past year is the GraniteShares Gold Trust fund.
It is a relatively inexpensive way to profit from potential increases in the price of gold compared to many other gold ETFs.
Like the funds above, GLDM has a lower expense ratio than many other alternative gold commodity ETFs.
Royal Canadian Mint Launches Gold ETR
The Royal Canadian Mint is introducing a new gold investment product – Gold Exchange Traded Receipts.
As stated by Royal Canadian Mint, “Each ETR provides evidence of ownership in physical gold bullion held in the custody of the Mint at its facilities in Ottawa, Ontario.”
In contrast to Gold ETF a buyer of Gold ETR directly owns gold rather than a share in a vehicle that owns gold.
Thereby the Gold ETRs will provide a more direct ownership of gold than Gold ETFs.
Holders of ETRs will have the option to redeem their ETRs for physical gold, subject to certain restrictions.
There will be an annual fee of 0.35%, which effectively reduces the gold amount owned by the investor.
The Royal Canadian Mint is targeting an issue size of approximately CAD$ 250 million for its Gold ETR. The Gold ETRs may not bet offered or sold in the US since they will not be registered under the US Securities Act.
Gold Trading: How To Trade Gold
Interestingly enough, pieces of natural gold were found in Spanish caves dating back to 40,000 BC, while the oldest processed gold was found in Bulgaria dating back to 4,600-4,100 BC. That being said, the earliest conquests for gold started in Ancient Egypt around 3,600 BC. The ancient Greeks also invested a lot of resources in mining gold, and in 560 BC the first gold coins were introduced in the state of Lydia, today’s Turkey.
Trading gold bullion is a popular form of investment and direct gold ownership.
If you believe that the streets of trading are paved with gold, then consider trading gold ETFs.
Gold ETFs allow traders to trade gold and other commodities without purchasing the actual asset.
While the advantages of trading gold are clear, one has to learn how to trade successfully, either part.
From buying actual gold jewellery and bars to trading futures and gold mining stocks, traders have different options to choose from.
If you liked our article Gold Trading: How to Trade Gold, please give us a like and share it with anyone who might find it interesting.
Post Idea #4: Diversification
Related Articles – Summarized
Diversification is a risk management strategy that mixes a wide variety of investments within a portfolio.
A diversified portfolio contains a mix of distinct asset types and investment vehicles in an attempt at limiting exposure to any single asset or risk.
Portfolio holdings can be diversified not just across asset classes, but also within classes by investing in foreign markets as well as domestic markets.
Diversification strives to smooth out unsystematic risk events in a portfolio, so the positive performance of some investments neutralizes the negative performance of others.
The benefits of diversification hold only if the securities in the portfolio are not perfectly correlated-that is, they respond differently, often in opposing ways, to market influences.
The more holdings a portfolio has, the more time-consuming it can be to manage-and the more expensive, since buying and selling many different holdings incurs more transaction fees and brokerage commissions.
A similar investment in the S&P 500 Index grew by 66.33%. Say an aggressive investor who can assume a higher level of risk, wishes to construct a portfolio composed of Japanese equities, Australian bonds, and cotton futures.
What Is Diversification? – Forbes Advisor
Even at the rare moments when stock prices and bond yields move in the same direction, stocks typically have much greater volatility-which is to say they gain or lose much more than bonds.
Stocks can be further subdivided into asset classes of large-cap stocks and small-cap stocks, while bonds may be divided into asset classes like investment-grade bonds and junk bonds.
Stocks can be classified by industry or sector, and buying stocks or bonds of companies in different industries provides solid diversification.
The location of a company can also be an element of diversification.
Some diversification benefits remain, as companies headquartered in other countries, particularly emerging markets, can perform differently than U.S. based enterprises.
Diversification can also be found by buying the stocks or bond of companies at different stages of the corporate lifecycle.
U.S. Treasury bonds are considered to have the least risk of default, while bonds issued by emerging market governments or companies with below investment grade credit have a much higher risk of default.
Overview, Definition And Strategy
Diversification is primarily used to eliminate or smooth unsystematic risk.
Systemic Risk.Systemic risk can be defined as the risk associated with the collapse or failure of a company, industry, financial institution or an entire economy.
Diversification does not usually affect the inherent or systematic risk that applies to the financial markets as a whole.
One way to think about the two basic types of risk is that one refers to the specific risks of an industry or individual firm, while the other refers to risk factors in the overall economy.
Unsystematic risks can usually be controlled or mitigated, but systematic risk involves fundamental economic factors that are largely outside of any one individual company’s power to control.
Risk levels: Investments with dissimilar levels of risk allow the smoothing of gains and losses.
Corporate Strategy focuses on how to manage resources, risk and return across a firm, as opposed to looking at competitive advantages in business strategy.
One of the most important ways to lessen the risks of investing is to diversify your investments.
It’s common sense: don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
If you buy a mix of different types of stocks, bonds, or mutual funds, your overall holdings will not be wiped out if one investment fails.
If you had just one investment and it went down in value, then you would lose money.
If you had ten different investments and one went down in value, you could still come out ahead. Suggested student activity Ask students: what would you have in a diversified portfolio? Does it make sense to buy stock in big companies and small companies, and companies in different industries? Students can pick stocks, bonds, and mutual funds that would make their holdings diversified.
Advantages, Disadvantages, Types
Diversification is an act of an existing entity branching out into a new business opportunity.
Diversifying into a new market segment will demand new skill sets.
Lack of expertise in the new field can prove to be a setback for the entity.
A mismanaged diversification or excessive ambition can lead to a company over expanding into too many new directions at the same time.
In such a case, all old and new sectors of the entity will suffer due to insufficient resources and lack of attention.
In a concentric diversification strategy, the entity introduces new products with an aim to fully utilize the potential of the prevailing technologies and marketing system.
A diversification must be a well thought out step for an entity.
Formula, Calculator And Example
Diversification is defined as a technique of allocating portfolio resources or capital to a mix of a wide variety of investments.
Unsystematic risk is a firm-specific risk that affects only one company or a small group of companies.
Growth assets include investments such as shares or property and generally provide longer term capital gains, but typically have a higher level of risk than defensive assets.
Defensive assets include investments such as cash or fixed interest and generally provide a lower return over the long term, but also generally a lower level of volatility and risk than growth assets.
Generally, particular investments will perform better than others over a specific period depending on a range of factors such as interest rates, currency markets, current market conditions, etc.
Investments with dissimilar levels of risk allows the smoothing or gains and losses.
While many investments professionals agree that, although it does not guarantee against loss, it is a key component in achieving long-term financial goals with a minimum risk.
What Is Diversification?
Neither is a portfolio holding only large-, mid- and small-cap mutual funds.
Real estate funds, which are mutual funds that specialize in public real estate companies, and real estate investment trusts, which trade like a stock, are the easiest way to get exposure to the sector.
You can most easily diversify holdings within an asset class with mutual funds and exchange-traded funds.
You can also achieve total diversification with target-date funds.
Since mutual funds pool people’s money to invest in many different companies, buying into them automatically gives you diversification.
Unlike mutual funds, you can buy and sell them throughout the day as their prices change.
With mutual funds, share prices are calculated at the close of market each day.
Post Idea #5: Heart rate
Related Articles – Summarized
Heart Rate: What’S Normal?
A normal resting heart rate for adults ranges from 60 to 100 beats per minute.
Generally, a lower heart rate at rest implies more efficient heart function and better cardiovascular fitness.
A well-trained athlete might have a normal resting heart rate closer to 40 beats per minute.
To measure your heart rate, simply check your pulse.
Although there’s a wide range of normal, an unusually high or low heart rate may indicate an underlying problem.
Consult your doctor if your resting heart rate is consistently above 100 beats a minute or if you’re not a trained athlete and your resting heart rate is below 60 beats a minute – especially if you have other signs or symptoms, such as fainting, dizziness or shortness of breath.
Influence diagram of physiological and environmental factors affecting heart rate variability: An extended literature overview.
American Heart Association
Your heart rate, or pulse, is the number of times your heart beats per minute.
As you age, changes in the rate and regularity of your pulse can change and may signify a heart condition or other condition that needs to be addressed.
Your resting heart rate is the heart pumping the lowest amount of blood you need because you’re not exercising.
Active people often have a lower resting heart rate because their heart muscle is in better condition and doesn’t need to work as hard to maintain a steady beat.
How Other Factors Affect Heart Rate Air temperature: When temperatures soar, the heart pumps a little more blood, so your pulse rate may increase, but usually no more than five to 10 beats a minute.
If you’re on a beta blocker to decrease your heart rate or to control an abnormal rhythm, your doctor may ask you to monitor and log your heart rate.
Written by American Heart Association editorial staff and reviewed by science and medicine advisers.
What Your Heart Rate Is Telling You
An unusually high resting heart rate or low maximum heart rate may signify an increased risk of heart attack and death.
A 2010 report from the Women’s Health Initiative indicated that a resting heart rate at the low end of that spectrum may offer some protection against heart attacks.
If your resting heart rate is consistently above 80 beats per minute, you might want to talk to your doctor about how your heart rate and other personal factors influence your risk for cardiovascular disease.
The rate at which your heart is beating when it is working its hardest to meet your body’s oxygen needs is your maximum heart rate.
Vigorous exercise is the best way to both lower your resting heart rate and increase your maximum heart rate and aerobic capacity.
Because it’s impossible to maintain a maximum heart rate for more than a few minutes, physiologists have advised setting a percentage of your maximum heart rate as a target during exercise.
If you’re starting an exercise program, you may want to set your target rate at 50% of maximum and gradually increase the intensity of your workout until you reach 70% to 80%. However, if you don’t exercise regularly, you should check with your doctor before you set a target heart rate.
Target Heart Rate And Estimated Maximum Heart Rate
For moderate-intensity physical activity, your target heart rate should be between 64% and 76%1,2 of your maximum heart rate.
You can estimate your maximum heart rate based on your age.
To estimate your maximum age-related heart rate, subtract your age from 220.
For a 50-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 – 50 years = 170 beats per minute.
This shows that moderate-intensity physical activity for a 50-year-old person will require that the heart rate remains between 109 and 129 bpm during physical activity.
For vigorous-intensity physical activity, your target heart rate should be between 77% and 93%1,2 of your maximum heart rate.
To figure out this range, follow the same formula used above, except change “64 and 76%” to “77 and 93%”. For example, for a 35-year-old person, the estimated maximum age-related heart rate would be calculated as 220 – 35 years = 185 beats per minute.
Normal Heart Rate: Range, When It’S Dangerous, And More
While heart rates can vary from person to person, certain heart rates can be considered dangerous.
According to the American Heart Association, a normal resting heart rate is between 60 and 100 bpm.
Too much thyroid hormone can increase heart rate while too little thyroid hormone can decrease heart rate.
Your maximum heart rate is a calculation that helps you figure out what your ideal target heart rate is during exercise.
According to the AHA, your target heart rate during moderate-intensity activities is about 50 to 70 percent of your maximum heart rate.
The table below shows the target heart rate range and average maximum heart rate for different ages, based on information from the AHA. There may be times when you experience a heart rate that’s faster or slower than what’s normal for you.
If you’re already living with heart disease, heart failure, or a history of heart disease and notice a fluctuation in your heart rate, you should go to the doctor as soon as you can, as it could be a sign of a serious complication.
Heart Rate: Normal Pulse, Measurement, Max And Target Heart Rate
Your heart rate, or pulse, is the number of times your heart beats in 1 minute.
A normal resting heart rate is usually between 60 and 100 beats per minute.
Your maximum heart rate is, on average, the highest your pulse can get.
If you’re taking medicines or have a medical condition such as heart disease, high blood pressure, or diabetes, ask your doctor whether you should adjust your exercise plan to keep your heart rate under a specific number.
In some cases, your doctor may decrease your target heart rate zone to around 50%. Check with your doctor before starting an exercise program.
They can help you find a routine and target heart rate zone that match your needs, goals, and overall health.
When you start an exercise program, you may need to slowly build up to your target heart rate zone, especially if you haven’t exercised regularly before.
Heart Rate: What Is A Normal Heart Rate?
The resting heart rate refers to the heart rate when a person is relaxed.
The heart rate measures how many times the heart beats in 60 seconds.
The heart rate is the number of times the heart beats in the space of a minute.
While the heart rate increases as a result of physical activity, an overall decrease in target heart rate is possible over time.
As the body of each individual will react to exercise differently, the target heart rate is presented as a range known as the target heart rate zone.
Maintaining a normal heart rate is one of the easiest ways to protect the heart.
Various products to manage heart rate, such as wearable heart rate monitors, are available to purchase online.
Post Idea #6: Monitoring
Related Articles – Summarized
Definition Of Monitoring By The Free Dictionary
Blood pressure de la presión arterial.
Monitoring n monitorización f, monitoreo, seguimiento; ambulatory ECG – monitorización electrocardiográfica ambulatoria, monitoreo electrocardio-gráfico ambulatorio.
Definition Of Monitoring By Medical Dictionary
Electrolyte monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
Fluid monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
Health policy monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
Invasive hemodynamic monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
Quality monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
Respiratory monitoring in the nursing interventions classification.
See Ambulatory monitoring, Bedside glucose monitoring, Biological monitoring, Blood glucose monitoring, Electronic fetal monitoring, External fetal monitoring, Fetal monitoring, Glucose monitoring, Hemodynamic monitoring, Home uterine activity monitoring, Internal fetal monitoring, Masked monitoring, Ovarian monitoring, Self blood glucose monitoring, Therapeutic monitoring, Uterine monitoring.
Monitoring Financial Definition Of Monitoring
Was defined as making contact with the monitored person, with no gaps of >48 hours in reporting of persons being actively monitored or in contact with persons receiving direct active monitoring.
Of websites and applications is available as an add-on for IPHost Network Monitor and priced at $199 for 5-monitor packs; the option with an unlimited number of WTM monitors is priced at $499.Extensive internal resource support On-Premise Monitor facilitates monitoring.
Of intranet portals, ERP systems, payroll applications, ping network devices, application servers, database servers and a host of other custom applications.
Abraham of Ohio State University in Columbus and his colleagues conducted the Fluid Accumulation Status Trial, comparing the results of intrathoracic impedance monitoring.
Guarulhos International Airport in Silo Paulo, has 71 cameras monitoring.
Factory Intelligence Network developed new reporting software that issues reports from user-selected plant-floor monitoring.
IPLocks, San Jose, Calif., an innovative provider of database vulnerability assessment, continuous risk monitoring.
What Does Monitoring Stand For? The Free Dictionary
During a given week, a median of three persons for whom monitoring.
Of the 65 heart failure events that occurred in 31 patients, intrathoracic impedance monitoring.
Accurately predicted 48 of the events, compared with just 13 of the events predicted by daily weight monitoring.
Winthrop University relies on Mirapoint’s Email Server and Email Security Gateway for multiple purposes, including monitoring.
Exhibitor Listings Includes temperature, pressure, and position sensors and controls; process and production monitoring.
The earliest examples of volunteers participating in natural resource monitoring.
Most of the technologies displayed at the CAST mini-expo fall into the general category of systems that allow distant monitoring.
Article About Monitoring By The Free Dictionary
Monitors were so called from the first of the class, the Monitor, built for the Union navy in the U.S. Civil War by John EricssonEricsson, John, 1803-89, Swedish-American inventor and marine engineer, b. Värmlands co.
Monitors were used extensively in the Civil War, but the type had limitations-it was too heavy to navigate the oceans-and was eventually abandoned.
Monitor leather is used for various products, including footwear; the meat is used as food in many countries.
The term “Monitor” was derived from the name of the American armored ship Monitor.
Monitors were used until World War II, especially in rivers.
The monitor’s variable may only be accessed via its access procedures and only one process may be actively accessing the monitor at any one time.
The two predominant screen technologies are LCD and OLED. See display standards, LCD, OLED, analog monitor, digital monitor and flat panel display.
Meaning In The Cambridge English Dictionary
The constant represents the expected project yield in capital, net of monitoring costs.
Trimedlure emitters from the barrier and the monitoring traps were replaced every two months and tri-pack attractants and dichlorvos strips were replaced every 45 days.
Along with fundoscopy, individual color spaces may serve for monitoring early functional changes and thereby to support a treatment strategy.
Simple perceptual tasks might be better for revealing uncertainty monitoring in very young children.
We developed a control and monitoring program for the motion of robot and peripheral systems.
Their responsibilities include reviewing patient medication profiles, identifying and monitoring adverse drug reactions, dosage recommendations, and patient education.
Patient components of the intervention included symptom/treatment monitoring and nurse encouragement to participate in active treatment.
Types Of Monitoring, Process Monitoring, Validation, Tracking, Performance
Definition of Monitoring: The Periodic tracking of any activity’s progress by systematically gathering and analyzing data and information is called Monitoring.
Process Monitoring: Process monitoring is a key component of any M&E system.
Process monitoring informs management and a donor about the actual implementation of project activities in the field.
At the same time process monitoring let the project staff on ground know how well they implements the project and what improvement they can bring to the work they are doing in field.
Following the same checklists/guidelines by both the monitoring staff and the field staff help the M&E staff to identify and share gaps that are identified during the process monitoring.
Progress Validation: Progress validation is another important type of monitoring.
Output is validated in field using the same tool and guidelines used for process monitoring.
Post Idea #7: EIN Presswire
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Press Release Distribution & World Media Directory By EIN Presswire
Latest Press Releases ‘Make this Book a Movie:’ A Fervent Plea for ‘Giants and Smalls’ Reverberates Around the World ‘The Giants and the Smalls,’ by Nicholas Townsend Smith, has accumulated a massive following of people whose lives have changed after reading the story.
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EIN Presswire is easy to use and upload with same-day distribution and many press release tracking options, while Cision has better social media distribution, affordable pricing for small businesses, and unlimited press release word count.
Post Idea #8: Digital wallet
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What Is A Digital Wallet?
A digital wallet is a software-based system that securely stores users’ payment information and passwords for numerous payment methods and websites.
Digital wallets can be used in conjunction with mobile payment systems, which allow customers to pay for purchases with their smartphones.
A digital wallet can also be used to store loyalty card information and digital coupons.
Digital wallets largely eliminate the need to carry a physical wallet by storing all of a consumer’s payment information securely and compactly.
Digital wallets allow participants to accept payments for services rendered, as well as receive funds or remittances from friends and family in other nations.
Cryptocurrencies rely solely on digital wallets to maintain balances and make transactions, for instance with Bitcoin or other digital currencies.
While a handful of top digital wallet companies in 2020 included Due, ApplePay, Google Wallet, Samsung Pay, PayPal, Venmo, AliPay, Walmart Pay, Dwolla, Vodafone-M-Pesa, – among others – the top 3 leading E-Wallets are those of Google, Amazon and Apple.
10 Best Digital Wallets In 2022
Google Pay lets you deposit funds to your digital wallet or make purchases by adding a debit card, credit card, PayPal account or bank account number.
If you want to transfer money out of your Google Pay account, you may pay a 31 cent or 1.5% fee, whichever is higher.
Apple Pay is another excellent digital payment method since it also uses a DPAN to protect your account information.
Apple Pay is available on many Apple devices, including the iPhone, Apple Watch and iPad. You can use this digital wallet to purchase items in stores, pay for many public transit sources, send money to family and friends and more.
Zelle is a digital payment solution that can be used to pay friends and family.
For people looking for a digital payment option they can use at Walmart, Walmart Pay may be the solution.
Facebook Pay is a digital wallet that gives users the ability to pay people via Facebook, Messenger, Whatsapp and Instagram.
What Is A Digital Wallet And How Does It Work?
Credit and debit cards aren’t the only things you can keep in a digital wallet.
While the digital wallet examples above can be used at any merchant that accepts them, there are also “Closed” digital wallets, like the Starbucks app, that are designed to be used only at a specific store.
So by sticking to a specific brand of phone, you’ve also chosen a potential digital wallet.
PayPal is an exception because the app is available through the Apple App Store and Google Play.Your use of a digital wallet may also be limited by where you shop.
Not all merchants accept digital wallets yet, so you’ll still need to carry a credit or debit card as a backup payment method.
Essentially, when you pay for something, instead of sending your actual credit or debit card number to the merchant, the digital wallet generates a one-time-use token made up of random numbers.
Plus, even accessing your digital wallet in the first place involves other layers of security, like requiring a PIN or biometric information.
Digital wallets are a great way to virtually load a physical card into a mobile app – and store its value for fast, easy access at the point of purchase.
Digital wallet users can download an app, provision a virtual card, make point-of-sale transactions through contactless and scan to pay or push payments.
They can also send or receive money into their wallet and withdraw funds to eligible card or accounts via Visa Direct.
What Is A Digital Wallet And How Do I Pay With One?
Digital wallets offer a convenient way to pay by allowing you to simply use your phone to pay instead of cash or your plastic credit card.
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What Is A Digital Wallet, And How Does It Work?
Things like virtual card numbers and contactless credit and debit cards can help, too.
Virtual card numbers allow you to shop online without giving vendors your actual card number.
The virtual numbers are still linked to your credit card account, but they allow you to use a different number to fill out payment information when you shop online.
Eno creates virtual card numbers right from any checkout page, so you can experience the same great credit card benefits without reaching for your wallet.
Contactless credit and debit cards work a lot like mobile wallets.
The transaction is completed by simply holding or tapping the card on a contactless-enabled card reader.
Many of Capital One’s U.S.-issued credit cards and debit cards now feature contactless technology.
What Is A Digital Wallet?
While you certainly can still pay for most transactions with a traditional plastic card, digital wallets are becoming the go-to payment method for more and more shoppers.
A digital wallet stores your payment methods in one secure place, with the goal of streamlining payments.
Convenience: Using a digital wallet can also just make life easier.
Plus, if you travel or go to events, you may be able to store those tickets in your digital wallet without printing them.
Versatility: If you have a mobile wallet set up on your smartphone or your smartwatch, but you forget your wallet, you can use your device to make a payment.
If you have a Fitbit or Garmin smartwatch, these devices also have their own digital wallet applications for contactless payments.
Digital wallet technology can be intimidating at first.
Post Idea #9: Proton-exchange membrane
Related Articles – Summarized
Proton Exchange Membrane
This chapter includes the first in-depth fundamental study of membrane shorting of PEMs in subsequent thermal decay of the PEM. Results and analysis suggest that the PEM type is not the limiting factor in preventing membrane shorting, and that mitigation is best achieved by a combination of design and operating strategies.
5O2.The rise of the PEM water electrolyzer dates back to the 1960s following the development of proton-conducting acid polymers, mainly perfluoro sulfonic acid polymer, among which is the well-commercially established NAFION. The structural formula of the NAFION membrane is shown in Fig.
As noted, in the hydrogen PEM fuel system, PEM must have good proton conductivity, mechanical strength, and durability.
To increase the efficiency of methanol fuel cells in power generation and battery life, the current research and development trend in methanol fuel cells is to reduce the methanol poisoning of the platinum catalyst or the methanol permeability of the PEM. To reduce the methanol permeability of the PEM, the PEM must be improved.
The inorganic porous material can be impregnated with Nafion to reduce the swelling of Nafion, or the Nafion PEM is added with a good methanol barrier membrane on both sides.
Many researchers are trying to use the nonfluorine polymer sulfonic acid treatment to obtain a sulfonation polymer that can be used in PEM. The generated sulfonic acid enables the sulfonic acid polymer to have proton conductivity, which is related to sulfonation.
In the preparation of a PEM using sulfonic acid polymer, the requirement for proton conductivity to achieve the level of Nafion will lead to an increase of sulfonation.
A proton-exchange membrane, or polymer-electrolyte membrane, is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct protons while acting as an electronic insulator and reactant barrier, e.g. to oxygen and hydrogen gas.
This is their essential function when incorporated into a membrane electrode assembly of a proton-exchange membrane fuel cell or of a proton-exchange membrane electrolyser: separation of reactants and transport of protons while blocking a direct electronic pathway through the membrane.
PEM fuel cells use a solid polymer membrane which is permeable to protons when it is saturated with water, but it does not conduct electrons.
A number of technical problems led NASA to forego the use of proton-exchange membrane fuel cells in favor of batteries as a lower capacity but more reliable alternative for Gemini missions 1-4.
The automotive industry as well as personal and public power generation are the largest markets for proton-exchange membrane fuel cells today.
Polymer electrolyte membrane electrolysis is a technique by which proton-exchange membranes are used to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen gas.
The proton-exchange membrane allows for the separation of produced hydrogen from oxygen, allowing either product to be exploited as needed.
Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells: Advances And Challenges
Park C.H., Lee C.H., Guiver M.D., Lee Y.M. Sulfonated hydrocarbon membranes for medium-temperature and low-humidity proton exchange membrane fuel cells Prog.
Wang Y., Leung D.Y.C., Xuan J., Wang H. A review on unitized regenerative fuel cell technologies, part-A: Unitized regenerative proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Wang L., Ni J., Liu D., Gong C., Wang L. Effects of branching structures on the properties of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole as a membrane material for high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Ahmadian-Alam L., Mahdavi H. A novel polysulfone-based ternary nanocomposite membrane consisting of metal-organic framework and silica nanoparticles: As proton exchange membrane for polymer electrolyte fuel cells.
Elwan H.A., Mamlouk M., Scott K. A review of proton exchange membranes based on protic ionic liquid/polymer blends for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.
Yu D.M., Yoon S., Kim T.H., Lee J.Y., Lee J., Hong Y.T. Properties of sulfonated poly/electrospun nonwoven polyacrylonitrile composite membrane for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Hou J., Yang M., Zhang J. Active and passive fuel recirculation for solid oxide and proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Cost model results show that direct material costs dominate stack costs at high production volume.
Stack cost for 1MW system can be reduced from $237/kW at annual production rate of 10 MW/yr to about $101 at annual production rate of 1,000 MW. We expect smaller cost reductions in the “Balance of plant” cost because most parts are outsourced from suppliers that are manufacturing the components for multiple markets and thus are at high volume already.
Depending on the production volume, we found that CCM shares about 26%-47% for 200-kW PEM stack and about 36%-47% for the 1-MW stack, with PTL contributing around 17%-25% of the stack cost, bipolar plates about 12%- 21%, and end plates and assembly near 3%-13%. Parametric sensitivity analysis shows that the final stack cost is sensitive to manufacturing process yields, power density of the cell, gold layer thickness on porous transport layer and bipolar plates and Pt loading in the catalyst coated membrane.
Balance-ofplant cost for a 1-MW electrolyzer contribute to about two-thirds of the system cost, with power electronics contributing half the BOP cost, while the water circulation and hydrogen processing subsystems each share about one-fifth of the BOP cost.
Some scenarios we ran here include adoption of the high-throughput, automated manufacturing processes that have high process yields, such as roll-to-roll manufacturing of catalyst-coated membrane and advanced coating processes for metal plates which could reduce the cost for the PEM electrolyzer stack from $237/kW at a production volume of 10 MW to $69/kW at 1,000 MW. System cost of 1-MW electrolyzer, including stack and balance of plant, could also be reduced through manufacturing economies of scale – from $561/kW at 10 units/year to $265/kW at 1,000 units/year.
In terms of the effect of the electrolysis system capital cost on hydrogen production cost, we found that electricity price in addition to the electrolyzer capital cost play key role in determining the cost of iii This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory at www.
Waterfall charts showing areas where R&D can play a role in reducing the cost of the 1-MW electrolysis system Assumptions: improvement in power density; Pt loading from 11 g/m2 to 1 g/m2, membrane cost, and power electronics.
Proton Exchange Membranes: The View Forward and Back by Drew Dunwoody and Johna Leddy T he development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells is largely tracked by the history of the membranes.
Because fuel cells of various types were known prior to PEM technologies, the catalysts, fuels, and oxidants used in PEM fuel cells were reasonably well-established materials.
The separator used in a PEM fuel cell must satisfy many design constraints, as outlined in Table I. The most important challenges for PEM technologies have been ionic conductivity, separation of fuel and oxidant, hydration, and stability.
Table I. Requirements for a Good Membrane Separator in PEM Fuel Cells1 High ionic conductivity but low electronic conductivity Low fuel and oxidant permeability Limited crossover and solvent transport Stability, thermal and oxidative Low cost Good mechanical properties and easy fabrication of fuel cells The Electrochemical Society Interface Fall 2005 The Promise of Naﬁon A Brief, Early History to the 1980s In the mid 1980s, DuPont, Dow, and Asahi perfluorosulfonic acid polymers were viewed as unique and nearly optimal materials to serve as separators in PEM fuel cells.
In parallel with better membranes for hydrogen powered systems, there has been interest in separators for direct reformation fuel cells that use organic fuels.
The appeals of a liquid fuel are that the fuel can be easily dispensed within the existing infrastructure for octanebased fuels; consumers are familiar with handling liquid fuels; and liquid fuels can be derived from natural gas and biomass.
The Current Challenges of Commercially Viable Fuel Cells – The Present The large injection of funding by the PNGV made fuel cells of more than academic interest and, imporThe Electrochemical Society Interface Fall 2005 tantly, provided resources that led to testing for extended periods.
Designing The Next Generation Of Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Ozden, A., Shahgaldi, S., Li, X. & Hamdullahpur, F. A review of gas diffusion layers for proton exchange membrane fuel cells – with a focus on characteristics, characterization techniques, materials and designs.
Ionomer distribution control in porous carbon-supported catalyst layers for high-power and low Pt-loaded proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Murata, S., Imanishi, M., Hasegawa, S. & Namba, R. Vertically aligned carbon nanotube electrodes for high current density operating proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Kraytsberg, A. & Ein-Eli, Y. Review of advanced materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Taherian, R. A review of composite and metallic bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cell: materials, fabrication, and material selection.
A comprehensive study of the effect of bipolar plate geometry design on the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells.
Zhang, G. & Kandlikar, S. G. A critical review of cooling techniques in proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks.
MEAs And Membranes For The Fuel Cell Industry
Of these, the Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell has emerged as the best technology for fuel cell vehicles.
Today Gore is the leading supplier of MEAs and membranes for the PEM fuel cell industry.
Gore Fuel Cell Components are being used by nearly all of the major fuel cell system developers worldwide, powering a wide variety of fuel-cell systems in stationary, portable and transportation applications.
More than 80 percent of the public stationary PEM fuel cell demonstration and commercial systems placed in the field over the past three years have used Gore Fuel Cell Components.
Gore, a worldwide leader in membrane development and manufacturing, continues to set global industry standards for fuel cell components across a broad spectrum of operating conditions.
Suited for either hydrogen or reformate fuel streams, MEAs made with Gore’s proprietary membranes and novel catalyst and electrode technologies can maximize the power density and durability of any system’s design while allowing for more versatile packaging configurations to meet the most demanding application requirements.
W. L. Gore & Associates has announced that GORE-SELECT® Membrane has been selected to be incorporated into the new Toyota MIRAI. The new MIRAI, Toyota’s second-generation fuel cell vehicle, is powered by a fuel cell stack with new GORE-SELECT Membrane featuring superior performance and durability.
Post Idea #10: Carestream
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The treatment of cardiovascular and degenerative musculoskeletal conditions calls for high-performance intraoperative imaging technologies.
The Ziehm Vision RFD incorporates the latest CMOS technology to deliver excellent image quality.
Study the benefits and roles of our imaging solutions in hospitals, clinics and industrial settings.
Explore our image processing software and see our imaging hardware in action.
Carestream Health, formerly Eastman Kodak Company’s Health Group, is an independent subsidiary of Onex Corporation which is one of Canada’s largest corporations.
In 2007, the Kodak Health Group was sold to Onex Corporation for $2.35 billion in cash.
Around 8,100 employees transferred to Onex, and Kodak Health Group was renamed Carestream Health.
In April 2017, Carestream Health announced an agreement to sell its Dental Digital business to private equity firms Clayton, Dubilier & Rice and the Hillhouse Capital Management group, part of CareCapital Advisors Limited.
Carestream Dental provides imaging systems and practice management software for general and specialist dental practices.
The dental X-ray film and anesthetics business were not included in the agreement and remain with Carestream Health.
Carestream Health owns more than 800 patents for medical and dental imaging technology.
Post Idea #11: Molecular imaging
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Molecular Imaging Program At Stanford
Molecular Imaging: As a field, Molecular Imaging dates back to the mid-1990’s for the start of its broad development.
MIPS: MIPS was established as an inter-disciplinary program in 2003 by the Dean of the School of Medicine to bring together scientists and physicians who share a common interest in developing and using state-of-the-art imaging technology and developing MI assays for studying intact biological systems.
The program, since its inception, has been steadily directed by Dr. Sanjiv Sam Gambhir, Virginia & D.K. Ludwig Professor of Cancer Research and Chair of Radiology, and co-directed by Dr. Christopher Contag, Professor of Pediatrics, and of Microbiology and Immunology and by courtesy, of Radiology.
MIPS has fostered a multimodality approach that uses imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography, single photon emission computed tomography, digital autoradiography, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, optical bioluminescence, optical fluorescence, ultrasound, and other emerging ones, where all technologies are under active development and investigation.
The founding and continuing goals of the MIPS program remain: i) to fundamentally change how biological research is performed with cells in their intact environment in living subjects, and ii) to develop new ways to diagnose diseases and monitor therapies in patients.
Since joining Stanford in 2003 to guide MIPS, Dr. Gambhir, together with Dr. Contag, has overseen the building of a leading program in MI that has developed unique collaborations and interactions across both Stanford and the nation.
Dr. Gambhir also designed and opened in late 2010 the new Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging Clinic that brings state-of-the-art clinical care to adult and pediatric patients.
Has been broadly defined as the use of imaging methods that “Directly or indirectly monitor and record the spatiotemporal distribution of molecular or cellular processes for biochemical, biologic, diagnostic, or therapeutic applications.”47 Radiotracer imaging using nuclear medicine techniques is the modality that has been most frequently applied, although MR spectroscopy and imaging, ultrasound, and optical imaging also have served as molecular imaging modalities.
In molecular imaging research, fluorescence, bioluminescence, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultrasound waves, and radiation are used to generate signals, which are detected and then converted into images [12-18]. Nuclear medicine using radiation as a signal is a molecular imaging technique that involves administration of a radioactive probe to a living subject, followed by noninvasive detection of the distribution of the radioactive probe; thus information related to biological and/or pathological functions that involve accumulation of the radioactive probe can be obtained.
There is some overlap between the two terms and, often, the combination of functional and molecular imaging is used to define a range of imaging techniques, which are more specific than anatomical or morphological imaging and probe processes from a tissue to a molecular level.
Molecular Imaging of the Brain with Positron Emission Tomography Future Directions for Biologic Imaging and Molecular MedicineIntegrative biologic approaches to clinical medicine are represented by scientists applying their research specialties to the quest of defining molecular mechanisms of diseases and designing therapies to restore normal function.
These technologies include magnetic resonance imaging, radionucleotide-based imaging techniques such as position emission tomography, and optical imaging techniques such as fluorescence and bioluminescence.
In vivo testing of 1-11C-methyl-4-piperidinyl n-butyrate, a BChE-specific ester substrate, demonstrated rapid clearance and overall decreased uptake in AD brain, contrary to the known histochemical and enzymatic distribution studies of BChE.A recent in vitro study comparing radioligand uptake in AD brain tissue from a cognitively normal brain with Aβ plaques using autoradiography revealed that an Aβ imaging agent, 123I-IMPY, did not distinguish between the two tissue types, while a cholinesterase imaging agent, 4-123I-Iodophenylcarbamate, selectively labeled plaques in the cortex of the AD brain.
Imaging of BChE in the cortex represents a promising diagnostic marker for AD that has the potential for early disease detection in the living brain, not yet realized by current Aβ or NFT imaging efforts.
Molecular imaging is a field of medical imaging that focuses on imaging molecules of medical interest within living patients.
The most common example of molecular imaging used clinically today is to inject a contrast agent into a patient’s bloodstream and to use an imaging modality to track its movement in the body.
Molecular imaging originated from the field of radiology from a need to better understand fundamental molecular processes inside organisms in a noninvasive manner.
Current research in molecular imaging involves cellular/molecular biology, chemistry, and medical physics, and is focused on: 1) developing imaging methods to detect previously undetectable types of molecules, 2) expanding the number and types of contrast agents available, and 3) developing functional contrast agents that provide information about the various activities that cells and tissues perform in both health and disease.
Molecular imaging emerged in the mid twentieth century as a discipline at the intersection of molecular biology and in vivo imaging.
Molecular imaging differs from traditional imaging in that probes known as biomarkers are used to help image particular targets or pathways.
Recently the term molecular imaging has been applied to a variety of microscopy and nanoscopy techniques including live-cell microscopy, Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence-microscopy, STimulated Emission Depletion-nanoscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy as here images of molecules are the readout.
About Nuclear Medicine & Molecular Imaging
Molecular imaging is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of what is happening inside the body at the molecular and cellular level.
Where other diagnostic imaging procedures-such as x-rays, computed tomography and ultrasound-offer pictures of physical structure, molecular imaging allows physicians to see how the body is functioning and to measure its chemical and biological processes.
Molecular imaging includes the field of nuclear medicine, which uses very small amounts of radioactive materials to diagnose and treat disease.
In nuclear medicine imaging, the radiopharmaceuticals are detected by special types of cameras that work with computers to provide very precise pictures of the area of the body being imaged.
Molecular imaging offers unique insights into the human body that enable physicians to personalize patient care.
Molecular imaging procedures-which are noninvasive, safe and painless-are used to diagnose and manage the treatment of cancer, heart disease, brain disorders such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease, gastrointestinal disorders, lung disorders, bone disorders, kidney and thyroid disorders, and more.
SNMMI offers fact sheets that explain how nuclear medicine and molecular imaging can help diagnose and/or treat a wide range of diseases.
Post Idea #12: Chicago Flameproof
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The Flameproof Companies prides itself on our forward-thinking, market shaping, customer-centric approach that provides one of a kind, superior value to all types of users of value-added wood products.
We offer prompt shipping to most areas of the Continental U.S. and have experience in loading and shipping international orders.
Our employees are knowledgeable and highly motivated to assist with the successes of your company and projects, no matter the size.
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Post Idea #13: Wood preservation
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Wood Preservatives Wood preservatives must meet two broad criteria: They must provide the desired wood protection in the intended end use, and they must do so without presenting unreasonable risks to people or the environment.
Chapter 15 Wood Preservation Before a wood preservative can be approved for pressure treatment of structural members, it must be evaluated to ensure that it provides the necessary durability and that it does not greatly reduce the strength properties of the wood.
The appearance of KDStreated wood is similar to that of wood treated with other Chapter 15 Wood Preservation alkaline copper formulations.
Treatments for Wood Composites Many structural composite wood products, such as gluedlaminated beams, plywood, and parallel strand and laminated veneer lumber, can be pressure-treated with wood preservatives in a manner similar to lumber.
The extent of deterioration in wood treated with the test preservative is compared to that of untreated wood and wood treated with an established preservative.
Typical steps in pressure treating process: A, untreated wood is placed in cylinder; B, a vacuum is applied to pull air out of the wood; C, the wood is immersed in solution while still under vacuum; D, pressure is applied to force the preservative into the wood; E, preservative is pumped out, and a final vacuum is pulled to remove excess preservative; F, excess preservative is pumped away, and the wood is removed from the cylinder.
Quality Assurance for Treated Wood Treating Conditions and Specifications Specifications on the treatment of various wood products by pressure processes have been developed by AWPA. These specifications limit pressures, temperatures, and time of conditioning and treatment to avoid conditions that will cause serious injury to the wood.
The term “Wood preservation” means the process of treating wood with chemicals or any other biochemical substances that can help to prevent or slow down the deterioration of wood caused by either environmental factors or by organisms such as fungi, insects, and wood borers.
Wood modification aims on enhancing the durability and dimensional stability of wood through chemical changes of the wood cell walls without the use of biocidal substances.
Chemical modification of wood is based on the impregnation of wood with a modification agent, which reacts in a second step with or inside the wood cell walls.
Zinc borate at levels as low as 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0% have shown very low decay by fungi in standard testing, with weight loss values lower than 1.1%.In addition to the antifungal effect, and protection against insect attack, borates can provide fire retardancy to timber, and zinc borate treatments are commonly used in the preparation of wood plastic composite, and insulation materials from wood and natural fibres.
Against biodeterioration, susceptibility of wood for biodeterioration, flammability and fire behavior of wood and wood products, water resistance of wood, and protection against swelling, protection of wood and wood products against bacteria, fungi and mildew, improving flame retardancy of wood and wood products, including modern intumescent coatings, preservation of antique wood, testing of wood and wood products against biodeterioration and flammability, modification and functionalization of wood including UV protection, risk of wood protection, healthy aspects, environmental protection problem, and future trends.
So-called ‘glass fortified wood’ or ‘glass wood’ is obtained through a process that intermixes a sodium silicate-based formula throughout the wood fibres.
Leaching tests realised in continuous and discontinuous modes on treated wood impregnated with montan wax emulsion clearly showed reduction of boron leaching by 20-50%. In another study extractives from different plants were tested for their efficiency for wood preservation and for avoiding the preservatives leaching from different species of treated wood.
Kentucky Pesticide Safety Education
Pressure is applied until the required amount of preservative is retained by the wood.
The effectiveness of a wood preservative depends largely on penetration.
Even with the proper preservative penetration, good protection cannot be achieved unless enough preservative stays in the wood.
Penetration of preservative into wood is superficial.
Liquid should cover the wood surface thoroughly to fill checks and depressions in the wood.
In the cold bath, air in the wood contracts, creating a partial vacuum, and atmospheric pressure forces more preservative into the wood.
The soil around the pole is removed and the preservative is applied to the surface, injected or placed into drilled holes in the wood.
What Is Wood Preservation? Here’S An Easy Breakdown
What is wood preservation?For wood and wood products to last, they must be well preserved.
Wood preservation involves the use of chemicals to prevent or slow down decay or damage in wood.
Wood preservation reduces the demand for replacing wood in these areas thus conserving the forests.
METHODS OF APPLYING WOOD PRESERVATIVES. There are various methods of applying preservatives to wood.
Make sure to allow the liquid to cover the entire wood surface, including depressions in the wood before allowing it dry.
Although dipping allows better of wood preservatives, it is not full proof against wood decay.
Another approach is injecting the wood with the preservative or placing it in drilled holes in the wood.
Apart from structural wood preservation measures, there are a number of different chemical preservatives and processes that can extend the life of wood, timber, and their associated products, including engineered wood.
There are records of wood preservation reaching back to ancient Greece during Alexander the Great’s rule, where bridge wood was soaked in olive oil.
Treated wood may present certain hazards in some circumstances, such as during combustion or where loose wood dust particles or other fine toxic residues are generated, or where treated wood comes into direct contact with food and agriculture.
The American Wood Protection Association recommends that all treated wood be accompanied by a Consumer Information Sheet, to communicate safe handling and disposal instructions, as well as potential health and environmental hazards of treated wood.
Recent interest in low toxicity timber for residential use, along with new regulations restricting some wood preservation agents, has resulted in a resurgence of the use of borate treated wood for floor beams and internal structural members.
Recent concerns about the health and environmental effects of metallic wood preservatives have created a market interest in non-metallic wood preservatives such as propiconazole-tebuconazole-imidacloprid better known as PTI. The American Wood Protection Association standards for PTI require a retention of 0.018 lb/cu ft for above ground use and 0.013 lb/cu ft when applied in combination with a wax stabilizer.
These processes increase the durability, dimensional stability and hardness of the treated wood by at least one class; however, the treated wood is darkened in colour, and there are changes in certain mechanical characteristics: Specifically, the modulus of elasticity is increased to 10%, and the modulus of rupture is diminished by 5% to 20%; thus, the treated wood requires drilling for nailing to avoid splitting the wood.
Overview Of Wood Preservative Chemicals
Wood preservative products are those that control wood degradation problems due to fungal rot or decay, sapstain, molds, or wood-destroying insects.
Since the 1940s, wood has been pressure treated with chromated arsenicals to protect wood from rotting due to insect and microbial agent attack and wood-boring marine invertebrates.
From the 1970s to the early 2000s, the majority of the wood used in outdoor residential settings was chromated arsenical-treated wood.
Creosote has been used since 1948 as a heavy duty wood preservative.
Pesticide products containing creosote as the active ingredient are used to protect wood against termites, fungi, mites and other pests that can degrade or threaten the integrity of wood products.
These wood preservatives have lower toxicity profiles when compared to older wood preservatives.
ACQ is registered for use on: lumber, timbers, landscape ties, fence posts, building and utility poles, land, freshwater and marine pilings, sea walls, decking, wood shingles, and other wood structures.