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Related Articles – Summarized
Identify the mechanism of action of various low molecular weight heparin agents.
Explain the importance of improving care coordination among the interprofessional team to enhance care delivery for patients when using low molecular weight heparins.
Heparin has a faster onset of anticoagulant action as it will inhibit Xa and thrombin, while LMWH acts only on Xa inhibition.
Treatment of bleeding associated with LMWH involves stopping the drug and administering protamine sulfate, a strong half-life protein forming a strong bond with the heparin producing an inactive complex.
Risk assessment for VTE prophylaxis considers the reason for hospital admission, potential benefits, and risks of prophylaxis using pharmacologically measured such as LMWH. NICE Guideline NG89 discusses the need for VTE assessment on admission to hospital that a National Tool for VTE risk assessment was implemented in 2010, and since then, over 90% of patients admitted to hospital have a VTE risk assessment completed.
There are dozens of randomized studies showing that several LMWHs can lower the risk of VTE and PE in patients with cancer, post-surgery, and after admission to the hospital with a medical illness.
11.Mismetti P, Laporte S, Darmon JY, Buchmüller A, Decousus H. Meta-analysis of low molecular weight heparin in the prevention of venous thromboembolism in general surgery.
LMWHs are defined as heparin salts having an average molecular weight of less than 8000 Da and for which at least 60% of all chains have a molecular weight less than 8000 Da. These are obtained by various methods of fractionation or depolymerisation of polymeric heparin.
The effects of natural, or unfractionated heparin are more unpredictable than LMWH. Because it can be given subcutaneously and does not require APTT monitoring, LMWH permits outpatient treatment of conditions such as deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism that previously mandated inpatient hospitalization for unfractionated heparin administration.
The use of heparin and LMWHs can sometimes be complicated by a decrease in platelet count, a complication known as Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia.
Protamine appears to only partially neutralize the anti-factor Xa activity of LMWH. Because the molecular weight of heparin impacts its interaction with protamine, it is likely that the lack of complete neutralization of anti-factor Xa is due to a reduced protamine binding to the LMWHs moieties in the preparation.
Table 1 Molecular weight data and anticoagulant activities of currently available LMWH products.
Average molecular weight: heparin is about 15 kDa and LMWH is about 4.5 kDa.
LMWH has less of an effect on thrombin compared to heparin, but about the same effect on Factor Xa. Due to its renal clearance, LMWH is contraindicated in patients with kidney disease in whom unfractionated heparin can be used safely.
Ventura County Medical Center/Santa Paula Hospital Low Molecular Weight Heparin Protocol Low molecular weight heparin is an anticoagulant that inhibits factor Xa and IIa activity in the coagulation pathway.
Unlike unfractionated heparin, it does not require frequent monitoring for efficacy and is 10 times less likely to cause heparin induced thrombocytopenia.
Rounding of the dose for ease of administration will be done at the time of ordering by physician and/or at the time of verification by the pharmacist under this protocol.
a. For doses less than 100 mg, round total dose to the nearest 5 mg using enoxaparin concentration 60 mg/0.6 mL, 80 mg/0.8 mL, 100 mg/1 mL prefilled syringe.
b. For doses greater than 100 mg, round total dose to the nearest 2.5 mg using enoxaparin concentration 120 mg/0.8 mL or 150 mg/1 mL prefilled syringe.
Aspirin dose should not exceed 162 mg per day when using therapeutic dose.
Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis a. If patient has epidural then use ONCE daily dosing.
Heparin is one of the oldest biological medicines, and has an established place in the prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis.
Low-molecular-weight heparins have been developed by several manufacturers and have advantages in terms of pharmacokinetics and convenience of administration.
They have been shown to be at least as effective and safe as unfractionated heparin and have replaced the latter in many indications.
In this article the chemistry, mechanisms of action, measurement of anticoagulant activities, and clinical status of heparin and LMWH are reviewed.
Low molecular weight heparins are smaller pieces of the heparin molecule that inhibit clotting factor Xa more than factor IIa.
LMW-heparins have proven to be at least as effective as intravenous unfractionated heparin in the treatment of unstable angina.
Enoxaparin or dalteparin can be given safely to any patient who is a candidate for unfractionated heparin.
Once-daily subcutaneous dalteparin, a low molecular weight heparin, for the initial treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis.
A multicentre comparison of once-daily subcutaneous dalteparin and continuous intravenous heparin in the treatment of deep vein thrombosis.
Tinzaparin has been studied in both DVT and PE. The drug is approved for treatment of DVT with or without PE. The effective treatment dose is 175 anti-Xa U/kg q24h.
A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin with unfractionalted heparin for acute pulmonary embolism.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE XARELTO is a factor Xa inhibitor indicated:(1) to reduce the risk of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.
For patients with creatinine clearance >50 mL/min, the recommended dose of XARELTO is 20 mg taken orally once daily with the evening meal.
One approach is to discontinue XARELTO and begin both a parenteral anticoagulant and warfarin at the time the next dose of XARELTO would have been taken.
For patients currently receiving an anticoagulant other than warfarin, start XARELTO 0 to 2 hours prior to the next scheduled evening administration of the drug and omit administration of the other anticoagulant.
For patients currently taking XARELTO and transitioning to an anticoagulant with rapid onset, discontinue XARELTO and give the first dose of the other anticoagulant at the time that the next XARELTO dose would have been taken.
Discontinue XARELTO in patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO. Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis.
Patients who develop acute renal failure while on XARELTO should discontinue the treatment.
Related Articles – Summarized
High availability clustersA high-availability cluster, also called a failover cluster, uses multiple systems that are already installed, configured, and plugged in, so that if a failure causes one of the systems to fail, another can be seamlessly leveraged to maintain the availability of the service or application being provided.
Red Hat Advanced Server Linux and CentOS servers in a high-availability cluster for network services such as Domain name system, File Transfer Protocol, and Hypertext Transfer Protocol.
High Availability ClustersSome applications and systems are so critical that they have more stringent uptime requirements than can be met by standby redundant systems, or spare hardware.
A high-availability cluster employs multiple systems that are already installed, configured, and plugged in, such that if a failure causes one of the systems to fail then the other can be seamlessly leveraged to maintain the availability of the service or application being provided.
The goal of a high-availability cluster is to decrease the recovery time of a system or network device so that the availability of the service is less impacted than it would be by having to rebuild, reconfigure, or otherwise stand up a replacement system.
Active-passive cluster involves devices or systems that are already in place, configured, powered on, and ready to begin processing network traffic should a failure occur on the primary system.
To expedite the recovery of the service, many failover cluster devices will automatically, with no required user interaction, have services begin being processed on the secondary system should a disruption impact the primary device.
HA cluster implementations attempt to build redundancy into a cluster to eliminate single points of failure, including multiple network connections and data storage which is redundantly connected via storage area networks.
HA clusters usually use a heartbeat private network connection which is used to monitor the health and status of each node in the cluster.
Failover clustering falls under planning, creating and configuring also troubleshooting…. The most common size for an HA cluster is a two-node cluster, since that is the minimum required to provide redundancy, but many clusters consist of many more, sometimes dozens of nodes.
N-to-1 – Allows the failover standby node to become the active one temporarily, until the original node can be restored or brought back online, at which point the services or instances must be failed-back to it in order to restore high availability.
The terms logical host or cluster logical host is used to describe the network address that is used to access services provided by the cluster.
If a cluster node with a running database goes down, the database will be restarted on another cluster node.
Chee-Wei Ang, Chen-Khong Tham: Analysis and optimization of service availability in a HA cluster with load-dependent machine availability, IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, Volume 18, Issue 9, Pages 1307-1319, ISSN 1045-9219..
A high availability cluster is a group of hosts that act like a single system and provide continuous uptime.
High availability clusters are often used for load balancing, backup and failover purposes.
To properly configure a high-availability cluster, the hosts in the cluster must all have access to the same shared storage.
This allows virtual machines on a given host to fail over to another host without any downtime in the event of a failure.
HA clusters can range from two nodes to dozens of nodes, but storage administrators must be wary of the number of VMs and hosts they add to an HA cluster because too many can complicate load balancing.
Continue Reading About high availability cluster Dig Deeper on Disaster recovery facilities and operations.
Improved availability must balance the cost of downtime against the cost of any proposed solution to find the most cost-effective method of availability.
Dell servers have been designed with a broad array of redundant features to maximize a server’s availability.
High Availability Clusters provide the next level of availability to further increase business critical applications availability.
Dell’s strategy is to provide clustered solutions that are built with industry standard commodity based components, which deliver entry level, mid-range and high-end availability solutions.
By removing failure points, higher levels of availability can be achieved.
Thus, customers can now use the same build to order model they have become accustomed to with Dell servers, to build the availability level that best meets their high availability requirements.
By transferring the users to a backup system, high availability clustering is designed to minimize the amount of downtime.
High availability clustering is a method used to minimize downtime and provide continuous service when certain system components fail.
High availability is essential for any organizations interested in protecting their business against the risk of a system outage, loss of transactional data, incomplete data, or message processing errors.
Companies have looked for ways to deliver HA results, including downloading high availability software solutions, custom development solutions and even load balancers.
Anypoint Platform’s high availability clustering is structured in an active-active model that ensures that no single server functions as the primary server, enabling all servers within the cluster are able to take over when another node fails.
High performance: With Anypoint Platform’s edge caching technology, businesses can take on the most high performance and mission critical applications.
Anypoint Platform and its active-active high availability clustering model enables businesses have 100% uptime for the most critical and high performance applications.
To learn how Anypoint Platform can benefit your organization with high availability and application integration, contact an expert today.
High Availability Clustering is the use of multiple web-servers or nodes to ensure that downtime is minimized to almost zero even in the event of disruption somewhere in the cluster.
“Whereas a single shared hosting account or VPS might be felled by the outage of a network switch or a break in the power supply, High Availability clusters have redundancies built in that remove the chance of any single break disrupting service.”
Software components of the cluster detect if an application or service within the cluster is experiencing an issue, and automatically restart the service or application elsewhere in the cluster.
HA Clusters are essentially infrastructure that does not depend on any single web-server, power supply, network switch, or in some cases, even a single data center to perform.
As the clusters grow, the complexity in managing and monitoring the clusters increases as well.
As a result, not all businesses or individual users can balance the expense of a cluster with the benefit of reduced downtime.
If your business is dependent on the website to generate leads or revenue, or dependent on web-based applications to drive growth, then the more robust hosting provided by a high available cluster is worth exploring further.
One way to understand high availability is to contrast it with fault tolerance.
These terms describe two different benchmarks measuring availability.
Fault tolerance is defined as 100% availability 100% of the time, regardless of the circumstances.
A fault tolerant system is designed to guarantee resource availability.
In contrast, a high-availability system is concerned with maximizing resource availability.
A highly available resource is available a very high percentage of the time and may even approach 100% availability, but a small percentage of down time is acceptable and expected.
For information on how you can create high availability resources, see Creating Resource Types.
Related Articles – Summarized
A basic approach to building a cluster is that of a Beowulf cluster which may be built with a few personal computers to produce a cost-effective alternative to traditional high performance computing.
Although a cluster may consist of just a few personal computers connected by a simple network, the cluster architecture may also be used to achieve very high levels of performance.
The TOP500 organization’s semiannual list of the 500 fastest supercomputers often includes many clusters, e.g. the world’s fastest machine in 2011 was the K computer which has a distributed memory, cluster architecture.
The history of early computer clusters is more or less directly tied into the history of early networks, as one of the primary motivations for the development of a network was to link computing resources, creating a de facto computer cluster.
Within the same time frame, while computer clusters used parallelism outside the computer on a commodity network, supercomputers began to use them within the same computer.
Thus, unlike PVM which provides a concrete implementation, MPI is a specification which has been implemented in systems such as MPICH and Open MPI. One of the challenges in the use of a computer cluster is the cost of administrating it which can at times be as high as the cost of administrating N independent machines, if the cluster has N nodes.
The Linux world supports various cluster software; for application clustering, there is distcc, and MPICH. Linux Virtual Server, Linux-HA – director-based clusters that allow incoming requests for services to be distributed across multiple cluster nodes.
Cluster computing defines several computers linked on a network and implemented like an individual entity.
Cluster computing provides solutions to solve difficult problems by providing faster computational speed, and enhanced data integrity.
The advantages of cluster computing are as follows .
Cost-Effectiveness Cluster computing is considered to be much more costeffective.
Processing Speed The processing speed of cluster computing is validated with that of the mainframe systems and other supercomputers demonstrate around the globe.
Increased Resource Availability Availability plays an important role in cluster computing systems.
The types of cluster computing are as follows .
The computational systems made available by Princeton Research Computing are, for the most part, clusters.
Each computer in the cluster is called a node, and we commonly talk about two types of nodes: head node and compute nodes.
Terminology Head Node – The head node is the computer where we land when we log in to the cluster.
Compute Node – The compute nodes are the computers where jobs should be run.
As mentioned previously, Princeton Research Computing uses a scheduler called SLURM, which is why this script is referred to as your SLURM script.
Each of Princeton’s Research Computing clusters typically has a small number of login nodes-usually one or two-and a large number of compute nodes.
All of Princeton’s Research Computing clusters have GPU nodes which are nodes with both CPU-chips and GPUs.
Introduction :Cluster computing is a collection of tightly or loosely connected computers that work together so that they act as a single entity.
The connected computers execute operations all together thus creating the idea of a single system.
Cluster computing gives a relatively inexpensive, unconventional to the large server or mainframe computer solutions.
High performance clusters :HP clusters use computer clusters and supercomputers to solve advance computational problems.
Cluster Computing is manageable and easy to implement.
Computer clusters can be expanded easily by adding additional computers to the network.
Cluster computing is capable of combining several additional resources or the networks to the existing computer system.
A computer cluster is a set of connected computers that work together as if they are a single machine.
Unlike grid computers, where each node performs a different task, computer clusters assign the same task to each node.
A computer cluster may range from a simple two-node system connecting two personal computers to a supercomputer with a cluster architecture.
Computer clusters are often used for cost-effective high performance computing and high availability by businesses of all sizes.
If a single component fails in a computer cluster, the other nodes continue to provide uninterrupted processing.
Compared to a single computer, a computer cluster can provide faster processing speed, larger storage capacity, better data integrity, greater reliability and wider availability of resources.
Computer clusters are usually dedicated to specific functions, such as load balancing, high availability, high performance or large-scale processing.
Computer cluster software can then be used to join the nodes together and form a cluster.
A user accessing the cluster should not need to know whether the system is a cluster or an individual machine.
A cluster hosting a web server is likely to be both a highly available and load balancing cluster.
Luckily, the very nature of a cluster makes it trivial to horizontally scale – the administrator simply needs to add or remove nodes as necessary, keeping in mind the minimum level of redundancy to ensure the cluster remains highly available.
What is a cluster in cloud computing? Simply put, it is a group of nodes hosted on virtual machines and connected within a virtual private cloud.
Simply put, clustering in the cloud can greatly reduce the time and effort needed to get up and running while also providing a long list of services to improve the availability, security, and maintainability of the cluster.
Managing containers in a cluster of ten nodes can be tedious, but what do you do when the cluster reaches a hundred, or even a thousand nodes? Thankfully, there are a number of container orchestration systems, such as Kubernetes, that can help your application scale.
In most cases, a supercomputer is actually a computing cluster that is comprised of hundreds or thousands of individual computers that are all linked together and controlled by software.
Each individual computer is running similar processes in parallel, but when you combine all of their computing power you end up with a system that is far more powerful than any single computer by itself.
Supercomputers often take up the size of a basketball court and cost hundreds of millions of dollars, but as Github user Wei Lin has demonstrated, it’s possible to make a homebrew computing cluster that doesn’t break the bank.
As detailed on Wei Lin’s Github repository, they managed to make a computing cluster using six ESP32 chips.
A single Raspberry Pi costs around $30, an ESP32 only costs about $7. So even though others have made computing clusters from Raspberry Pis-including a 750 node cluster made by Los Alamos National Lab-these can quickly become expensive projects for the casual maker.
The main challenge, according to Lin, was figuring out how to coordinate computing tasks across each of the chips.
While you probably won’t solve the toughest problems in physics by scaling this computer cluster architecture, it is a pretty neat application for inexpensive hardware that is capable of quickly performing computations in parallel and is a nice way to learn how supercomputers actually work without breaking the bank.
Related Articles – Summarized
With an increased demand for reliable and performant infrastructures designed to serve critical systems, the terms scalability and high availability couldn’t be more popular.
High availability is a quality of a system or component that assures a high level of operational performance for a given period of time.
Availability is often expressed as a percentage indicating how much uptime is expected from a particular system or component in a given period of time, where a value of 100% would indicate that the system never fails.
High availability functions as a failure response mechanism for infrastructure.
One of the goals of high availability is to eliminate single points of failure in your infrastructure.
Creating a failure detection service for the load balancer in an external server would simply create a new single point of failure.
High availability is an important subset of reliability engineering, focused towards assuring that a system or component has a high level of operational performance in a given period of time.
The typical industry standard for high availability is generally considered to be “Four nines”, which is 99.99% or higher.
Let’s find out what you need to do to achieve high availability.
Another way to achieve high availability is by scaling your servers up or down depending on the load and availability of the application.
With a more complex design and higher redundancy, fault tolerance may be described as an upgraded version of high availability.
Fault tolerance involves higher costs as compared to high availability.
As mentioned earlier high availability is a level of service availability that comes with minimal probability of downtime.
Find out more about how Kaseya VSA can help you achieve high availability.
High availability is a characteristic of a system which aims to ensure an agreed level of operational performance, usually uptime, for a higher than normal period.
High availability is one of the primary requirements of the control systems in unmanned vehicles and autonomous maritime vessels.
Adding more components to an overall system design can undermine efforts to achieve high availability because complex systems inherently have more potential failure points and are more difficult to implement correctly.
High availability requires less human intervention to restore operation in complex systems; the reason for this being that the most common cause for outages is human error.
Redundancy is used to create systems with high levels of availability.
Active redundancy is used in complex systems to achieve high availability with no performance decline.
Fault instrumentation can be used in systems with limited redundancy to achieve high availability.
High Availability describes systems that are dependable enough to operate continuously without failing.
High availability refers to those systems that offer a high level of operational performance and quality over a relevant time period.
In terms of failover cluster vs high availability preference, a failover cluster, which is a redundant system triggered when the main system encounters performance issues, is really just a strategy to achieve high availability.
Another part of an HA system is a high availability firewall.
High availability and fault tolerance both refer to techniques for delivering high levels of uptime.
High availability systems recover speedily, but they also open up risk in the time it takes for the system to reboot.
High availability is focused on serious but more typical failures, such as a failing component or server.
One way to understand high availability is to contrast it with fault tolerance.
These terms describe two different benchmarks measuring availability.
Fault tolerance is defined as 100% availability 100% of the time, regardless of the circumstances.
A fault tolerant system is designed to guarantee resource availability.
In contrast, a high-availability system is concerned with maximizing resource availability.
A highly available resource is available a very high percentage of the time and may even approach 100% availability, but a small percentage of down time is acceptable and expected.
For information on how you can create high availability resources, see Creating Resource Types.
High availability environments include complex server clusters with system software for continuous monitoring of the system’s performance.
Businesses looking to implement high availability solutions need to understand multiple components and requirements necessary for a system to qualify as highly available.
The critical element of high availability systems is eliminating single points of failure by achieving redundancy on all levels.
A high availability system must have sound data protection and disaster recovery plans.
Each system component needs to be in line with the ultimate goal of achieving 99.999 percent availability and improve failover times.
Merely having a load balancer does not mean that you have a high system availability.
Your chances of being offline are higher without a high availability system.
Database servers can work together to allow a second server to take over quickly if the primary server fails, or to allow several computers to serve the same data.
Web servers serving static web pages can be combined quite easily by merely load-balancing web requests to multiple machines.
Most database servers have a read/write mix of requests, and read/write servers are much harder to combine.
A standby server that cannot be connected to until it is promoted to a primary server is called a warm standby server, and one that can accept connections and serves read-only queries is called a hot standby server.
Some solutions are synchronous, meaning that a data-modifying transaction is not considered committed until all servers have committed the transaction.
In contrast, asynchronous solutions allow some delay between the time of a commit and its propagation to the other servers, opening the possibility that some transactions might be lost in the switch to a backup server, and that load balanced servers might return slightly stale results.
Some solutions can deal only with an entire database server, while others allow control at the per-table or per-database level.
Related Articles – Summarized
JEGS offers a wide selection of the best aftermarket fuel injection kits for Ford, GM, Mopar, and custom applications from top manufacturers such as FAST, FITech Fuel Injection, Holley, Edelbrock, JEGS, and more.
JEGS offers a wide single point and multi point fuel injection system selection online and with over 60 years in the business, JEGS is the Ford, Mopar, and Chevy fuel injection kit superstore.
Aftermarket fuel injection kits also incorporate self-learning technology, allowing the computer to optimize the air and fuel ratio.
There are many different factors to consider when shopping for a fuel injection kit including different brands, prices, warranties, power capabilities, performance fuel injection systems reviews, and much more.
An aftermarket fuel injection system works through the computerized management of the fuel and air mixture entering the engine.
What Do Aftermarket Fuel Injectors Do? Aftermarket fuel injectors are similar in physical design to factory-style injectors.
The first is with an aftermarket fuel injection cleaner that is poured into the gas tank and run through the fuel lines, cleaning internal parts from the fuel pump to the exhaust valves.
Full sequential port EFI systems delivers fuel into the intake air flow right at the port with an injector for each cylinder, allowing for better fuel atomization & distribution.
These Universal SumpFuel Kits are designed to provide the necessary high fuel pressure required for EFI applications in vehicles equipped with an existing low pressure carbureted fuel system.
Delivers constant fuel pressure with no fuel return line, external fuel pressure regulator or fuel tank modifications necessary.
It’s the most universal type of Electronic Fuel Injection system, but it’s not ideal for high performance engines.
The OEM’s only utilized throttle body style injection for 9 years before transitioning to sequential port fuel injection for improved drivability and efficiency.
Pro-Flo 4 EFI systems feature a high performance Edelbrock intake manifold with a 1,000 cfm throttle body, fuel rails and individual injectors for each cylinder.
The fuel injector is also timed with the intake valve opening, giving the ultimate control and is the most efficient way to deliver fuel into your engine.
MFI pioneer Stuart Hilborn of Hilborn Fuel Injection became the first driver to ever eclipse the 150 mile-per-hour mark at El Mirage Dry Lake in April of 1948 using a self-designed constant-flow mechanical fuel injector.
Mechanical fuel injection works well for naturally-aspirated or forced-induction engines and handles most any type of fuel – gas, ethanol blends, methanol, and even nitro blends.
Mechanical fuel injection works with a simple throttle-controlled air valve and a fuel pump, usually running at one-half engine speed.
After pulling fuel from a vented fuel tank, the fuel is delivered through a barrel valve that controls the amount of fuel with the position of the air valve.
Understanding the basic layout of a fuel system, additional components make the mechanical fuel injection system useful.
Understanding fuel injection isn’t complete without understanding how other parts of the setup work with the fuel injection.
Mechanical fuel injection is a low-cost, powerful fuel system that wins!
The FiTech 30021 EFI System and the FiTech 30005 Easy Street EFI are some of its best EFI systems with innovative designs.
Aftermarket EFI Systems Pricing Under $1,000: The EFI systems within this price range are able to control injection timing according to the speed, load, and the type of driving the vehicle is experiencing.
These systems have become increasingly smarter in recent years, and they’re nothing like the old EFI systems that required laptops and specialized computer knowledge to get your car at peak efficiency.
To find the best and most up-to-date options, look for EFI systems that include self-tuning capability.
Some EFI systems come with a complete fuel system consisting of a fuel pump and filters that may not work with both gas and diesel.
Usually, EFI systems do not include a fuel reservoir as compared to a carburetor that has bowls for fuel storage.
Our pick for the best overall aftermarket EFI system is the New Holley Sniper 550511 EFI Kit because it provides a great deal of functionality.
A lot has changed in the last decade or so, and installing an aftermarket EFI system on your classic car has become a mainstream modification.
Enter The Smart EFI. When the first self-learning EFI systems came on the scene several years ago, most do-it-yourself mechanics were understandably skeptical.
In an attempt to curb any reservations you might have about installing an aftermarket EFI kit on your car, we contacted a few of the major players that have developed kits, and asked them some of the questions that you have asked us.
Eric Blakely of Edelbrock says, “Edelbrock does not offer a returnless fuel system because our core EFI customer-conversions to EFI are for pre-1974 vehicles with old school, non-baffled fuel tanks. Any EFI system – and particularly self-learning types, require a constant and steady fuel supply. When the fuel level in these older vehicles is less than 1/4 tank, they experience fuel slosh, which uncovers the fuel pickup and causes an unstable, severely-aerated fuel supply to the fuel pump.”
Ken Farrell of FiTech let us know, “Make sure your surrounding systems are in good working order. If your car is running terrible and you have tried five carburetors that work perfectly on your friend’s cars, you should probably find out why it doesn’t work on yours before you order an EFI system. EFI can’t fix a camshaft with a bad lobe, or an intake gasket leak.”
Today’s self-learning kits have made the installation of EFI on a classic car a lot easier than it has ever been, but carburetors are – and will always be, plentiful and relatively cheap.
“Hopefully we have cleared up some myths and misconceptions about installing a self-learning EFI kit on your classic car, and with this new knowledge, you can comfortably change the carburetor on your ride to a more efficient EFI set up. Healey affirmed,”Don’t get overwhelmed! Although EFI is different than a carburetor, installation is not as daunting a task as most people would lead you to believe.
Related Articles – Summarized
In the simplest terms, business development can be summarized as the ideas, initiatives, and activities that help make a business better.
“Business Development Executive,” “Manager of Business Development,” and “VP, Business Development” are all impressive job titles often heard in business organizations.
Sales, strategic initiatives, business partnerships, market development, business expansion, and marketing-all of these fields are involved in business development but are often mixed up and mistakenly viewed as the sole function of business development.
The business development scenario discussed above is specific to a business expansion plan, whose impact can be felt by almost every unit of the business.
There can be similar business development objectives, such as the development of a new business line, new sales channel development, new product development, new partnerships in existing or new markets, and even merger and acquisition decisions.
A business developer can be the business owner(s) or the designated employee(s) working in business development.
Anyone who can make or suggest a strategic business change for a value-add to the business can contribute towards business development.
The division between business development and marketing can often be hard to identify, and can be made more difficult by the fact that business development can look drastically different from company to company.
So let’s dive more into the relationship between sales and business development.
So let’s look at 3 ways Sales Development and Business Development differ – and how each contributes to ongoing sales.
Coordinating business development activities with marketing and sales.
In spite of their differences, the tight link between business development and sales means the relationship between the two is critical.
You increase accountability, especially if you have sales and business development teams working from home.
Business development is a powerful tool for business growth – but not everyone understands it.
Business development can be taken to mean any activity by either a small or large organization, non-profit or for-profit enterprise which serves the purpose of ‘developing’ the business in some way.
Business development activities can be done internally or externally by a business development consultant.
In practice, the term business development and its actor, the business developer, have evolved into many usages and applications.
Today, the applications of business development and the business developer or marketer tasks across industries and countries, cover everything from IT-programmers, specialized engineers, advanced marketing or key account management activities, and sales and relations development for current and prospective customers.
The business developers’ tools to address the business development tasks are the business model answering “How do we make money” and its analytical backup and roadmap for implementation, the business plan.
Business development focuses on the implementation of the strategic business plan through equity financing, acquisition/divestiture of technologies, products, and companies, plus the establishment of strategic partnerships where appropriate.
There is a section of Business that is dedicated to facilitating ethical business development in developing countries.
What is business development? Business development is the identification of long-term methods to increase value through the development of relationships, markets and customers.
Business development vs. sales When trying to define business development, people may not know how to differentiate between their roles and the roles of salespeople.
Business development terms If you search for business development opportunities, you may find a few common terms across the listings.
Business development skills If you are looking to pursue a role in business development, there are several common skills you may find in job descriptions.
The responsibilities of a business development executive include calling prospects, maintaining long-term relationships and sharing valuable information with those involved in the business.
In business development, building these skills involves researching the needs of the business and its competitors to gain a broader view of the target market.
Business development exists to develop a business in a more strategic way than it experienced initial growth.
Ask ten “VPs of Business Development” or similarly business card-ed folks what is business development, and you’re like to get just as many answers.
Lacking any concise explanation of what business development is all about, I sought to unite the varied forces of business development into one comprehensive framework.
Business development is the creation of long-term value for an organization from customers, markets, and relationships.
Business development is not about get-rich-quick schemes and I-win-you-lose tactics that create value that’s gone tomorrow as easily as it came today.
Thinking about business development as a means to creating long-term value is the only true way to succeed in consistently growing an organization.
Then there were “Relationships.” Just as the planets and stars rely on gravity to keep them in orbit, any successful business development effort relies on an underlying foundation of strong relationships.
Are all critical to the success of any business development effort and as such they demand a bold-faced spot in any comprehensive definition of the term.
Your business development strategy can be key to the success or failure of your firm.
Business development is the process that is used to identify, nurture and acquire new clients and business opportunities to drive growth and profitability.
A business development strategy is a document that describes the strategy you will use to accomplish that goal.
Strategic business development is the alignment of business development processes and procedures with your firm’s strategic business goals.
You can think of networking as an overall business development strategy or as a tactic to enhance the impact of a thought leadership strategy.
If networking is your business development strategy all your focus should be on making the networking more effective and efficient.
A Business Development Plan is a document that outlines how you implement your business development strategy.
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Apple protects new product concepts by separating the product design team from all other parts of the business.
The team then follows an articulated Apple New Product Process where the team answers in detail the what, who, why, how and when questions related to the product.
Characteristics of a successful NPD organization Successful NPD starts with new product concepts in response to customers’ needs.
The best new product concepts are aligned with a corporate product development strategy.
Agile cross functional teams perform the work in keeping with an articulated new product development process.
Most essential to an effective new product process is to have the right governance to select novel product concepts; enough funding to allow these ideas to grow; and a process for vetting and prioritizing them.
Sure, it’s basic, but how many companies nurture early stage NPD to get the best return from their product portfolio? Seed funding for new ideas, tied into budgets and strategy at the corporate level, is essential to grow new product concepts into fully fledged offerings in the marketplace.
That’s where the new product development process comes into play.
The new product development process allows you to keep base with your consumers and ensure your product is still relevant.
One of the key benefits of the new product development process is being able to sift through all your ideas and pick one with the greatest chance of success.
Which means it’s time for your product to kick-start your product development cycle, the outcome being a finished, marketable product.
The new product development process doesn’t define how to actually develop the product.
Stage 4 Marketing Strategy & Business Analysis: Thanks to your concept dev and testing, you know how to market your new product, create a business objective, and conclude the new product will be financially attractive.
During each stage of the new product development model, your focus should always be on producing greater customer value and innovation, as that’s how you’ll ensure your product is a success.
New product development is the overall process of conceptualizing, designing, planning, and commercializing a new product in an effort to bring it to market.
There are several different approaches to this process.
Some approaches are customer centered, team based, or systematic as examples.
The marketing department should actively participate with other departments in each stage of the new product development process rather than leave it to the Research and Development department.
Additions to Existing Product Lines: New products that supplement a company’s established product lines are called additions to existing product lines.
New product development can be successful if a company establishes an effective organization to take care of the new-product development process.
Several advantages are there of using product managers for new product development.
New product ideas’ responsibility may be entrusted with the new product managers who report to the group- product managers.
To avoid some of the problems associated with product managers and new product departments, companies may organize new product committees.
Steps Involved in the New Product Development Process and Their Planning and Evaluation MethodsStages in the new product development processIllustrative evaluation and planning methodsIdea GenerationConsumer research, focus group interviews.
Flexible product development: A new product development strategy designed so that changes can be made late in the process without excessive disruption.
The more innovative a new product is, the more likely it is that the development team will have to make changes during development.
The screeners should ask several questions: Will the customer in the target market benefit from the product? What is the size and growth forecast of the target market? What is the current or expected competitive pressure for the product idea? Is it technically feasible to manufacture the product? Will the product be profitable when manufactured and delivered to the customer at the target price? By answering these questions, the company can get a better idea of the likelihood of a product becoming a commercial success.
Development involves setting product specifications as well as testing the product with intended customer groups to gauge their reaction.
Describe the steps involved in the technical and marketing development stages of new product development.
The product concept is a synthesis or a description of a product idea that reflects the core element of the proposed product.
The actual launch of a new product is the final stage of new product development, and the one where the most money will have to be spent for advertising, sales promotion, and other marketing efforts.
The product development process can seem almost mysterious, and when you hear the origin stories of other great ecommerce businesses, the journey to a finished product rarely resembles a straight line.
Product development refers to the complete process of taking a product to market.
New product development is the process of bringing an original product idea to market.
Will the product be an everyday item or for special occasions? Will it use premium materials or be environmentally friendly? These are all questions to consider in the planning phase since they will help guide you through not only your product development process but also your brand positioning and marketing strategy.
The last step in this methodology is to introduce your product to the market! At this point, a product development team will hand the reins over to marketing for a product launch.
Product development FAQ What is the product development process?
The product development process refers to the step a business takes to bring a product to market.
Product development is the first stage in the product life cycle, and when you want to develop a product for selling online, you need to think like Bezos and systematically analyze product, market, and distribution characteristics in order to build your business plan.
The product development process is composed of the steps that transform a product concept into marketable merchandise.
What to consider before starting the product development process.
In the product development phase, expenses are tied to time spent researching, acquisition of reports and external expertise, and prototype development.
You may even be able to generate purchase orders for the future finished product and thus generate cash before the product development cycle is even finished.
It’s a peripheral step in product development, but a product launch cannot happen without a go-to-market strategy.
We’ve looked at the most common steps required to develop a product, but the more important product development steps can vary depending on the nature of your product idea and its origin.
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The Procter & Gamble Company is an American multinational consumer goods corporation headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, founded in 1837 by William Procter and James Gamble.
One of the most revolutionary products to come out on the market was the company’s disposable Pampers diaper, first test-marketed in 1961, the same year Procter & Gamble came out with Head & Shoulders.
Procter & Gamble acquired a number of other companies that diversified its product line and significantly increased profits.
In May 2013, Robert A. McDonald announced his retirement and was replaced by A.G. Lafley, who returned as chairman, president, and CEO. Procter & Gamble is a member of the U.S. Global Leadership Coalition, a Washington, DC-based coalition of over 400 major companies and NGOs that advocates for a larger international affairs budget, which funds American diplomatic and development efforts abroad. Senior Executives.
Fortune magazine awarded P&G a top spot on its list of “Global Top Companies for Leaders”, and ranked the company at 15th place of the “World’s Most Admired Companies” list.
Procter & Gamble also was the first company to produce and sponsor a prime-time serial, a 1965 spin-off of As the World Turns called Our Private World.
Later in the year, its Gillette shaving business took a $8 billion dollar write-down in value, although the company and analysts pointed to accumulated currency fluctuations, the entrance of strong rivals and decline in the demand for shaving products since the division’s previous valuation in 2005, rather than fallout from the ad. In January 2019, CEO David Taylor said in Switzerland: “The world would be a better place if my board of directors on down is represented by 50% of the women. We sell our products to more than 50% of the women.” Also in January 2019, The Wall Street Journal noted the company’s board of directors had more than twice as many men as it does women.
Equities research analysts predict that The Procter & Gamble Company will post sales of $18.69 billion for the current fiscal quarter, Zacks Investment Research reports.
Five analysts have made estimates for Procter & Gamble’s earnings, with the lowest sales estimate coming in at $18.42 billion and the highest estimate coming in at $19.17 billion.
Procter & Gamble reported sales of $18.11 billion in the same quarter last year, which indicates a positive year over year growth rate of 3.2%. The business is expected to announce its next earnings report on Tuesday, April 19th. On average, analysts expect that Procter & Gamble will report full year sales of $79.53 billion for the current year, with estimates ranging from $79.00 billion to $80.50 billion.
Zacks Investment Research’s sales calculations are an average based on a survey of research firms that follow Procter & Gamble.
Procter & Gamble last posted its quarterly earnings results on Wednesday, January 19th. The company reported $1.66 EPS for the quarter, topping analysts’ consensus estimates of $1.65 by $0.01.
Procter & Gamble had a net margin of 18.52% and a return on equity of 31.99%. The business’s quarterly revenue was up 6.1% on a year-over-year basis.
The ex-dividend date was Thursday, January 20th. This represents a $3.48 annualized dividend and a yield of 2.28%. Procter & Gamble’s dividend payout ratio is currently 61.48%. About Procter & Gamble.
Walton Arts Center announced the 2022-23 Procter & Gamble Broadway Series, featuring six must-see shows, during a live sneak peek event this evening.
Subscriptions are available now for a limited time and can be renewed or purchased online at waltonartscenter.org, by calling the subscriber concierge at 479.571.2785 or in person at the Walton Arts Center Box Office weekdays 10 am until 2 pm.
Support for Walton Arts Center is provided, in part, by the Arkansas Arts Council, an agency of the Arkansas Department of Parks, Heritage, and Tourism, and the National Endowment for the Arts.
Walton Arts Center is Arkansas’ largest and busiest performing arts presenter.
Approximately 35,000 students and teachers participate annually in arts learning programs at Walton Arts Center, and almost 250 volunteers donate 28,000 hours of time each year to its operations.
Walton Arts Center presents entertainers and artists from around the world including Broadway musicals, renowned dance companies, International Artists, up-and-coming jazz musicians and more.
As a non-profit organization, Walton Arts Center enjoys the generous support of public sector funding, corporate sponsorship and private donors, allowing audience members to enjoy world-class performances at a great price.
The Latest research study released by HTF MI “Baby and Child Care Products Market” with 100+ pages of analysis on business Strategy taken up by key and emerging industry players and delivers know how of the current market development, landscape, technologies, drivers, opportunities, market viewpoint and status.
Browse market information, tables and figures extent in-depth TOC on “Baby and Child Care Products Market by Application, by Product Type, Business scope, Manufacturing and Outlook – Estimate to 2025”.
At last, all parts of the Baby and Child Care Products Market are quantitatively also subjectively valued to think about the Global just as regional market equally.
On the basis of report- titled segments and sub-segment of the market are highlighted below:Baby and Child Care Products Market By Application/End-User : Supermarkets, Specialist Retailers, Convenience Stores, Online Retail Stores & Other.
Informational Takeaways from the Market Study: The report Baby and Child Care Products matches the completely examined and evaluated data of the noticeable companies and their situation in the market considering impact of Coronavirus.
Key Development’s in the Market: This segment of the Baby and Child Care Products report fuses the major developments of the market that contains confirmations, composed endeavors, R&D, new thing dispatch, joint endeavours, and relationship of driving members working in the market.
What are probably the most encouraging, high-development scenarios for Baby and Child Care Products movement showcase by applications, types and regions?Q 4.What segments grab most noteworthy attention in Baby and Child Care Products Market in 2020 and beyond?Q 5.
Procter & Gamble Co. engages in the provision of branded consumer packaged goods.
The Beauty segment offers hair, skin, and personal care.
The Grooming segment consists of shave care like female and male blades and razors, pre and post shave products, and appliances.
The Health Care segment includes oral care products like toothbrushes, toothpaste, and personal health care such as gastrointestinal, rapid diagnostics, respiratory, and vitamins, minerals, and supplements.
The Fabric and Home Care segment consists of fabric enhancers, laundry additives and detergents, and air, dish, and surface care.
The Baby, Feminine and Family Care segment sells baby wipes, diapers, and pants, adult incontinence, feminine care, paper towels, tissues, and toilet paper.
The company was founded by William Procter and James Gamble in 1837 and is headquartered in Cincinnati, OH..
The numerical value of Procter in Chaldean Numerology is: 4.Pythagorean Numerology.
The numerical value of Procter in Pythagorean Numerology is: 5.Examples of Procter in a Sentence.
If you say high quality stocks, people think of names like Procter and Gamble and Pfizer, but we think the new quality stocks are the technology stocks that have very low capital requirements and operate winner-take-all business models.
Procter Gamble’s not enough to make an ad, procter Gamble’s got to be the total picture.
Procter Gamble came to us in 1995 with their idea of an improved mop.
I looked at it and said this isn’t a mop at all.
1350-1400; Middle English; contracted variant of procuratorOTHER WORDS FROM proctor proc·to·ri·al.
Accenture employees can pay $5 an hour-the company covers 75% of the cost-for their children to follow remote learning curriculums in a small group supervised by a proctor.
“Blackness is another issue entirely apart from class in America,” Proctor.
His ex-wife and high school sweetheart, Evelyn, told the Associated Press that Proctor.
On The Simpsons January 13, 2013.Harper guest-stars on The Simpsons as a standardized testing proctor.
Harrison was advancing with a land force to take these towns and General Proctor.
A runner has just come in from the General warning me Proctor.
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From stores to distribution centers to corporate headquarters, we’re looking for new team members like you.
Our vision is to co-create an equitable and regenerative future together with our guests, partners and communities.
In article written in August 2015, Target was quoted as saying “Big or small, our stores have one thing in common: they’re all Target.” Since then, newer stores have opened under the Target name.
In August 2015, Target announced that it would rename its nine CityTarget and five TargetExpress stores as Target beginning that October, deciding that “Big or small, our stores have one thing in common: they’re all Target.” The first small-format stores under the unified naming scheme opened later that month in Chicago, Rosslyn, San Diego, and San Francisco.
Financial and Retail Services, formerly Target Financial Services, issues Target’s credit cards, known as the Target REDcard, issued through Target National Bank for consumers and through Target Bank for businesses.
Target launched its PIN-x debit card, the Target Check Card, which was later rebranded the Target Debit Card.
It could have been possible that the copying of the branding was legal, or Target US hired Target AU to have stores open in the AU. In 2015, Target followed Walmart in raising its minimum wage to $9 per hour.
Target representatives argued that doing so impacted how well those records would sell at Target stores, and stocking them could cause the corporation to lose money.
Target Corporation is a major sponsor of the annual Minneapolis Aquatennial, where it hosts the Target Fireworks Show, the largest annual fireworks show west of the Mississippi River and the fourth-largest annual fireworks show in the United States.
Target Corporation, formerly Dayton Company and Dayton-Hudson Corporation, American mass-market retail company operating large-scale food and general-merchandise discount stores.
The following year the name was changed to Dayton Dry Goods Company and shortened to Dayton Company in 1911.
On May 1, 1962, Dayton Company opened its first Target store, designed as a discount version of Dayton’s department stores.
Dayton-Hudson later acquired two more retailers: the California-based Mervyn’s in 1978 and Marshall Field and Company in 1990.By 1975 Target had become Dayton-Hudson’s leading revenue producer, and by 1979 Target’s annual sales had reached $1 billion.
The first Target Greatland store, which offered a wider selection of merchandise than a standard Target store, opened in 1990.
To reflect a new focus on its Target stores, Dayton-Hudson changed its name in 2000 to Target Corporation and sold Mervyn’s and Marshall Field and Company in 2004.
In 2012 Target opened its first CityTarget, which catered to urban customers in a stores two-thirds smaller than its typical locations.
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European medical cannabis sales growth of 280% sequentially, representing over 25% of total medical cannabis revenues.
OURBUSINESS UNITS. GLOBALEXPANSION. Khiron is well-positioned to take advantage of the emerging global cannabis opportunity.
OURPRODUCTION FACILITY. Cultivation: Upwards 0f 9 tonnes of dry flower.
Fully licensed for commercial THC and CBD cultivation, extraction & sales in Colombia.
Total area of 20 Ha. Current cultivation area of 80,000 sq.
GMP-compliant post-harvest facility in Doima, Colombia.
KHIRON LIFE SCIENCES is led by a multidisciplinary and multicultural team with a unique understanding of various industries across Latin America and Europe.
About Khiron Life Sciences Corp. Khiron is a leading vertically integrated international medical cannabis company with core operations in Latin America.
Leveraging wholly-owned medical health clinics and proprietary telemedicine platforms, Khiron combines a patient-oriented approach, physician education programs, scientific expertise, product innovation, and agricultural infrastructure to drive prescriptions and brand loyalty with patients worldwide.
All information contained herein that is not historical in nature may constitute forward-looking information.
Khiron undertakes no obligation to comment on analyses, expectations or statements made by third-parties in respect of Khiron, its securities, or financial or operating results.
Although Khiron believes that the expectations reflected in forward-looking statements in this press release are reasonable, such forward-looking statement has been based on expectations, factors and assumptions concerning future events which may prove to be inaccurate and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties, certain of which are beyond Khiron’s control, including the risk factors discussed in Khiron’s Annual Information Form which is available on Khiron’s SEDAR profile at www.
The forward-looking information contained in this press release is expressly qualified by this cautionary statement and is made as of the date hereof.
Khiron disclaims any intention and has no obligation or responsibility, except as required by law, to update or revise any forward-looking information, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
Mr. Torres is the founder, CEO and Director of Khiron.
Mr. Torres has overseen the development of projects totaling over $1 billion in capital expenditure, including the development and construction of Colombia’s tallest skyscraper.
About Khiron Life Sciences Corp. Khiron is a leading global medical cannabis company with core operations in Latin America and Europe.
The Company has a sales presence in Colombia, Peru, Germany, UK, and Brazil and is positioned to commence sales in Mexico.
The Company is led by Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer, Alvaro Torres, together with an experienced and diverse executive team and Board of Directors.
The Investor Summit is an exclusive, independent conference dedicated to connecting smallcap and microcap companies with qualified investors.
The Q1 Investor Summit will take place virtually, featuring 90+ companies and over 500 investors comprising institutional investors, family offices, and high net worth investors.
Khiron Life Sciences Corp. operates as an integrated medical and cannabis company in Latin America, North America, and Europe.
The company focuses on the cultivation, production, distribution, and export of tetrahydrocannabinol and CBD medical cannabis.
It also operates a network of health centers and satellite clinics under the ILANS and Zerenia brands; develops CBD-based cosmeceutical products under the Kuida brand name; and operates Zerenia clinic in Medellin.
Michael Boivin, Pharmacist Consultant for Commpharm Consulting Inc. Michael Boivin has developed over 500 different continuing education activities for physician specialists, family physicians, pharmacists, and nurses.
The topics he has written or presented is extensive and include medical cannabis, pain management, musculoskeletal disorders, psychiatry, oncology, among others.
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Khiron Life Sciences Corp. is a vertically integrated medical and consumer packaged goods cannabis company with core operations in Latin America and operational activities in Europe and North America.
It provides medical cannabis in Colombia and focuses on the cultivation, production, international export, domestic distribution and sale of THC medical cannabis products.
The firm operates through the following segments: Medical Cannabis Products, Health Services, and Wellbeing Products.
The Medical Cannabis Products segment involves in growth, production and sale of branded products and services to patients with medical conditions where cannabis can be an acceptable, proven option.
The Health Services segment operates its medium complexity health centers offering a suite of health, medical and surgical services in alignment with insurance company partners.
The Wellbeing Products segment focuses on delivering the benefits of CBD and hemp across an array of various branded consumer packaged goods, such as Kuida cosmetics line.
The company was founded by Álvaro F. Torres on May 16, 2012 and is headquartered in Vancouver, Canada.
Khiron Life Sciences Corp. Leveraging Opportunities In Medical Cannabis Sector In Colombia Following New Insurance Coverage Regulations – Facts About CBD
Cordova plans to increase its dispensaries in Canada.
This move aligns with Cordova’s plans to increase its Star Buds Cannabis Co. dispensaries in Canada in 2022.
Cordova plans to acquire other dispensaries in Canada.
According to the CEO and Chairman of Cordova, Taz Turner, the company is excited to open another dispensary in the region while adding Amherstview to its locations.
Cordova recently opened another dispensary in British Columbia.
The company believes that opening stores all over Canada will give it more opportunities to become a leader in the Cannabis market.
CordovaCann Corp is a cannabis company that hopes to build its portfolio and expand in the U.S and Canada.
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Several mutual funds managed by Vanguard are ranked at the top of the list of US mutual funds by assets under management.
Along with BlackRock and State Street, Vanguard is considered one of the Big Three index fund managers that dominate corporate America.
Wellington executives initially resisted the name, but narrowly approved it after Bogle mentioned that Vanguard funds would be listed alphabetically next to Wellington Funds.
Within a year, the fund had only grown to $17 million in assets, but one of the Wellington Funds that Vanguard was administering had to be merged in with another fund, and Bogle convinced Wellington to merge it in with the Index fund.
In December 1986, Vanguard launched its second mutual fund, a bond index fund called the Total Bond Fund, which was the first bond index fund ever offered to individual investors.
In December 1987, Vanguard launched its third fund, the Vanguard Extended Market Index Fund, an index fund of the entire stock market, excluding the S&P 500.
During the 1990s, more funds were offered, and several Vanguard funds, including the S&P 500 index fund and the total stock market fund, became among the largest funds in the world, and Vanguard became the largest mutual fund company in the world.
Vanguard Group Inc is an investment fund managing more than $4.02 trillion ran by Christine Buchanan.
Relative to the number of outstanding shares of Apple Inc, Vanguard Group Inc owns less than approximately 0.1% of the company.
According to the last 13-F report filed with the SEC, Christine Buchanan serves as the Principal at Vanguard Group Inc. Recent trades.
In the most recent 13F filing, Vanguard Group Inc revealed that it had opened a new position in and bought 82,275,565 shares worth $8.48 billion.
On the other hand, there are companies that Vanguard Group Inc is getting rid of from its portfolio.
Vanguard Group Inc closed its position in on 12th November 2021.
The complete list of Vanguard Group Inc trades based on 13F SEC filings.
Vanguard’s structure allows the company to charge very low expenses for its funds.
The average expense ratio for Vanguard funds was 0.89% in 1975.
Vanguard is the largest issuer of mutual funds in the world and the second-largest issuer of exchange-traded funds.
It has one of the largest bond funds in the world as of 2021, the Vanguard Total Bond Market Index.
Although the growth of the fund was initially slow, the fund eventually took off.
Vanguard has some of the largest index funds in the business.
Investors should note that Vanguard still does have actively managed mutual funds.
Together, we are 30 million Vanguard investors strong.
In the second installment of our #GettingSocial series, Vanguard Global Chief Economist Joe Davis discusses how investors should respond to inflation.
It’s time to “Get social” with Vanguard.
Chief Human Resources Officer Lauren Valente kicks things off by reflecting on her unique career path at Vanguard.
Vanguard research assesses the stock/bond correlation principles that underpin the traditional diversification properties of a multi-asset portfolio and looks at what the portfolio implications could be under various inflation scenarios.
Vg/3fHvQiqDream of retiring early? Vanguard research discusses how investors in the F.I.R.E. movement – Financial Independence, Retire Early – can improve their chances of financing an early retirement by employing Vanguard’s investing principles.
Vg/3Isx8KBWhat will the next phase of the recovery look like, and will its nature prompt earlier-than-expected policy rate action from the Fed? Vanguard research assesses the U.S. economy’s reopening through the lens of key questions currently facing markets.
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Weis Markets provides many career opportunities at all levels.
See why a career at Weis Markets can offer you endless opportunities.
“Working for Weis Markets has been an overall amazing experience for me.”
“Being a manager for Weis Markets has allowed me to grow as a leader, and an individual.”
“Weis Markets opened the door for me and provided me with opportunities.”
Keir F. Deli Manager, Columbia, MD. Ethan S. Bakery Associate, Lewisburg, PA. Shaukat T. Grocery Sales Associate, Columbia, MD. Weis Markets is committed to a policy of Equal Employment Opportunity and will not discriminate against an applicant or employee on the basis of actual or perceived age, sex, sexual orientation, race, color, creed, religion, familial status, ethnicity, national origin, citizenship, disability, marital status, military or veteran status, or any other legally recognized protected basis under federal, state or local laws, regulations or ordinances.
A reasonable accommodation is a change in the ways things are normally done which will ensure an equal employment opportunity without imposing undue hardship on Weis Markets.
The Weis Markets App is loaded with features that make grocery shopping much more convenient and enjoyable.
My Weis Account: To stay up-to-date with everything your Weis has to offer, update your account information directly from your mobile app.
Store Information: Select your local store to view store hours, phones numbers and directions.
Savings: Viewing what’s on sale each week is now even easier with our mobile app version of the weekly circular, featuring full circular view and easy item navigation.
Recipes: Need meal inspiration? No problem! This app features thousands of recipe ideas, which make meal planning a breeze.
The developer, Weis Markets, Inc., indicated that the app’s privacy practices may include handling of data as described below.
Family Sharing Up to six family members can use this app with Family Sharing enabled.
The fund owned 6,326 shares of the company’s stock after purchasing an additional 298 shares during the quarter.
Squarepoint Ops LLC boosted its stake in shares of Weis Markets by 1.9% in the 2nd quarter.
Squarepoint Ops LLC now owns 23,931 shares of the company’s stock valued at $1,236,000 after purchasing an additional 450 shares during the last quarter.
Invesco Ltd. raised its position in shares of Weis Markets by 1.8% in the 2nd quarter.
Martin & Co. Inc. TN raised its position in shares of Weis Markets by 1.9% in the 3rd quarter.
Finally, Royal Bank of Canada raised its position in shares of Weis Markets by 27.1% in the 2nd quarter.
The ex-dividend date was Friday, February 11th. This represents a $1.28 dividend on an annualized basis and a dividend yield of 2.03%. Weis Markets’s dividend payout ratio is 32.57%. In other news, CFO Michael T. Lockard purchased 3,000 shares of the business’s stock in a transaction that occurred on Thursday, December 9th. The shares were acquired at an average cost of $61.00 per share, for a total transaction of $183,000.
“Frozen foods often get a bad rap however, freezing is a long-used technique for maintaining shelf life, increasing nutritional value and getting you a quick and affordable option for your meals,” said Lyndi.
Typically frozen foods are pre-portioned, consistently priced and always in season.
“Look for things your family is going to enjoy and you can build meals around. Make sure you look for options that are going to be lower in added sodium and added sugars.”
Frozen foods offer convenient and cost-effective meals and snack solutions for the busiest of families, which is why your local Weis Markets is celebrating all month long! With Weis Markets Frozen Food Month celebration, customers can save on a wide variety of frozen goodies, from your savory meals and even something to crave that sweet tooth.
There has been more innovation and improvement to quality in the frozen foods aisle than any other.
From international cuisines to main dishes, sides, desserts, and produce, you can find everything you need.
Flash frozen fruits and veggies not only stay ripe whenever you need them, they also retain their nutrients.
Don’t forget the ice cream! Weis Markets has more than 60 flavors to please everyone in the family.
Are you tired of working 60+hours a week to earn a living? Our Class A CDL drivers’ work-life balance is much more desirable! Come Drive for Weis Markets Transportation and be at home every night.
With great benefits that start after 30 days and the potential to earn $75,000+ in the first year.
Weis Markets was founded as Weis Pure Foods in 1912 in Sunbury, Pennsylvania, by two brothers, Harry and Sigmund Weis.
In newspaper ads of the 1940s, Weis referred to its stores first as Weis Super Markets, then Weis Self-Service Markets, and finally Weis Markets.
On July 19, 2018 Weis Markets opened a second store in Morris County NJ in the town of Randolph.
In May 2016, Weis Markets announced the purchase of five stores from Mars in Baltimore County, Maryland, after that chain announced it was closing all its stores.
On March 9, 2017, Weis Markets opened a 65,000-square-foot store in Hampden Township, Pennsylvania, that features a pub, ice cream parlor, expanded takeout food selection, a drive-thru pharmacy, and a beer cafe selling 900 varieties of beer and 500 varieties of wine.
In late September 2019, Weis acquired two Thomas’ Food Market stores, one in Dallas, Pennsylvania and another in Shavertown, Pennsylvania, reopening the Dallas location under the Weis banner and closing the Shavertown location.
At the time of the picketing, the Weis store was located in Logan Valley Mall, the Park Hills Plaza was not built until the mid-1970s, at which time Weis moved across U.S. Route 220 to its current location.
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A green bond is a type of fixed-income instrument that is specifically earmarked to raise money for climate and environmental projects.
Green bonds may come with tax incentives such as tax exemption and tax credits, making them a more attractive investment compared to a comparable taxable bond.
To qualify for green bond status, they are often verified by a third party such as the Climate Bond Standard Board, which certifies that the bond will fund projects that include benefits to the environment.
In 2017, green bond issuance soared to a record high, accounting for $161 billion worth of investment worldwide, according to the latest report from the rating agency Moody’s.
The World Bank is a major issuer of green bonds and has issued $14.4 billion of green bonds since 2008.
Green bonds work just like any other corporate or government bond.
All blue bonds are green bonds, but not all green bonds are blue bonds.
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Green bonds work like regular bonds with one key difference: the money raised from investors is used exclusively to finance projects that have a positive environmental impact, such as renewable energy and green buildings.
With countries around the world stepping up their efforts to reduce carbon emissions, the market for green bonds is booming.
Strong demand for green bonds is also driving growth, with major investors from asset managers to insurers and pension funds keen to scoop them up.
Such is the demand that it can cost less to issue green bonds than the conventional variety.
Individual EU countries such as France, Germany and the Netherlands have issued their own green bonds.
Greenwashing – making false or misleading claims about the green credentials of a company or financial product – is a major challenge for the market in green bonds and other sustainable investments.
Many borrowers adhere to guidelines called the Green Bond Principles, which have been endorsed by the International Capital Market Association to help bring transparency to the market.
Climate Bonds Initiative is a valuable resource for tracking global green bond issuances and finding a directory of third-party green bond verifiers.
Green bonds are fundamentally the same as conventional bonds: a loan made by an investor to an organization to finance a project, with the investor receiving the principal amount at the end of the loan’s life, in addition to Interest Expense.
The key differentiator between a green bond and a conventional bond is the underlying project that is financed with the proceeds.
Today, more than 50 countries have issued green bonds, with the United States being the largest source of green bond issuances.
The organization Climate Bonds Initiative is a valuable resource for those who want to follow the green bonds market’s growth.
Climate Bonds Initiative provides a directory of third-party verifiers for green bonds, which can be found here.
The bonds were externally reviewed and approved as green bonds by ISS ESG and posted on the Climate Bonds Initiative’s website.
The milestone of USD100bn in annual issuance came to pass in November 2017 during COP23 in Bonn, providing a boost in market perception that green bonds were becoming a mainstream product and vital contributor to climate finance and reaching Paris Accord objectives.
Green bonds were created to fund projects that have positive environmental and/or climate benefits.
The majority of the green bonds issued are green “Use of proceeds” or asset-linked bonds.
There have also been green “Use of proceeds” revenue bonds, green project bonds and green securitised bonds.
See the full list of green bonds issued here Green Bonds are standard bonds with a bonus “Green” feature.
The green “Use of proceeds” bond market has developed around the idea of flat pricing – where the bond price is the same as ordinary bonds.
Prices are flat because the credit profile of green bonds is the same as other vanilla bonds from the same issuer.
From 2015 to 2016, the Climate Bonds Initiative reports that there was a 92% increase in green bonds issuance to $92 billion, with different types of issuers starting to issue green bonds.
Apple, for example, became the first tech company to issue a green bond in 2016, and Poland became the first sovereign country to issue a green bond at the end of 2016.
In their UNEP paper on investors and climate change, Mackenzie and Ascui differentiate a climate bond from a green bond: “(A climate bond is) an extension of the green bond concept.
Climate bonds are theme bonds, similar in principle to a railway bond of the 19th century, the war bonds of the early 20th century or the highway bond of the 1960s.
Of total global bond issuance this is still around just 1%. According to a report by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network and PricewaterhouseCoopers, a green bond market has three key benefits to a country and its environmental goals and commitments.
In the light of the global commitment to shift to a green and low-carbon economy, the green bond market has the potential to grow substantially, while attracting more diverse issuers and investors.
The green bond market has attracted international criticism with some questioning the green credentials of certain bonds.
In 2019, there was $254 billion in green bonds issued; 2020 saw over $312 billion issued; from January to March 2021, the world raised $107 billion using green bonds.
Many bond funds invest a portion of their money to these causes, but green bond funds are made up of bonds issued only for green projects.
Since 2015, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Clean Water Trust has raised hundreds of millions to fund wastewater and drinking water infrastructure projects through the state’s green bonds.
How a green investment becomes green is somewhat open to interpretation.
iShares Global Green Bond ETF.VanEck Vectors Green Bond ETF. In 2015, two of Europe’s largest insurers, Allianz SE and Axa SA, issued green bond funds, as did State Street Corporation.
An ironic result of this entry into the green market is that in 2016 fund managers began having trouble finding green debt to buy.
In 2019, HSBC Global Asset Management launched a green bond fund for emerging markets, sending more signals that green investments and investor concern for the environment should not be taken lightly.
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• the weight of waste that the truck can actually carry•; cost of purchase and operation, including fuel and maintenance•; delays in obtaining spare parts•; suitability of the vehicle for the local roads considering width, congestion, and surface conditions•; ease of loading and unloading.
If material is required to be moved over 500 meters, it will be preferable to minimize the unproductive travelling time and maximize load. A labourer can push 150 kg of waste in a well-designed and maintained cart.
The waste takes more time to collect so it may not be possible to collect the full 150 kg during the day.
There may be community storage containers at frequent intervals so that it is not necessary to carry the waste over a long distance.
Too often one sees labourers tipping the contents of their carts onto the ground and then scooping the waste up into another container for transfer.
There are two simple ways of avoiding this problem:- use a split-level site so that waste can be tipped directly from the cart into the bulk container.
The size of the bins should be large enough that big items of waste cannot bridge across the rim and prevent the efficient utilization of the bin’s capacity.
What To Place Garbage In. Garbage must be placed in a City-issued or “City-approved” cart.
The sticker identifies the cart to DPS crew as a cart eligible for residential collection.
No larger than 3′ x 2′ x 2′ can be placed next to the garbage carts for collection by the crews.
Garbage carts, yard waste containers, scheduled bulk items and recycling carts should be placed at the curb no later than 6 a.m. on collection day but no earlier than 5 p.m. the previous day.
Residents with cart exemptions are required to set out their garbage the day of collection by 6 a.m. Residents are responsible for potential mess caused by wildlife and vandalism when garbage is set out improperly, or when setting out garbage under the cart exemption clause.
Garbage carts must be removed from the curb by midnight on the day of collection.
Residents with cart exemptions are asked to set out their garbage the day of collection by 6 a.m. An exemption allows residents to use up to 8 plastic bags.
Austin Resource Recovery provides weekly, curbside trash collection to single-family homes, duplexes and triplexes in Austin.
Help protect the health and safety of Austin Resource Recovery staff; please remember to bag and tie all trash to keep it contained.
Residents are encouraged to review the recycling program guidelines.
The City of Cleveland enforces waste collection rules and regulations, according to City ordinances which address waste collection and disposal and littering.
Dumpster services are now available for Cleveland residents from the City of Cleveland.
Many residents require dumpster services during home renovation or need ongoing services for multi-unit rental properties.
Dumpster pick up and drop off is tailored to the customer’s needs.
The fee for additional dumps is $46.61 per ton for solid waste and $49.29/ton for bulk waste.
Prohibited vehicles are: large trailers, cargo vans, stake body vehicles, dump trucks, commercial vehicles or those with truck plates, those which are enclosed or have ladder racks, pick-up trucks with built-up side boards, and trucks with additional trailers attempting to dump as one load. Refunds are not available.
Garbage Collection Services in this list provide services to multiple postal codes in and around Maple Ridge.
Please contact each of these businesses individually if you need to verify their service area.
Waste collection is a part of the process of waste management.
Waste collection also includes the curbside collection of recyclable materials that technically are not waste, as part of a municipal landfill diversion program.
Household waste in economically developed countries will generally be left in waste containers or recycling bins prior to collection by a waste collector using a waste collection vehicle.
Later, they meet up with a waste collection vehicle to deposit their accumulated waste.
The waste collection vehicle will often take the waste to a transfer station where it will be loaded up into a larger vehicle and sent to either a landfill or alternative waste treatment facility.
Waste collection considerations of waste during different types of waste and size of bins, positioning of the bins, and how often bins are to be serviced.
The cost of old waste is also a concern in collection of waste across the globe.
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Developed during the 1990s, the technique uses ultra-short laser pulses-a femtosecond is one-millionth of a billionth of a second-which produces no heat to cut into a surface of an object.
Bryan Hood, Robb Report, 23 Nov. 2021 An encounter of a PBH with a human body would represent a collision of an invisible relic from the first femtosecond after the big bang with an intelligent body-a pinnacle of complex chemistry made 13.8 billion years later.
Avi Loeb, Scientific American, 6 June 2021 Ultrashort lasers produce pulses with a duration measured in femtoseconds, and while their overall energy may be small, the power level for that brief duration is extremely high.
David Hambling, Forbes, 11 Mar. 2021 For context, 1 terawatt is 1 trillion watts, while 1 femtosecond is the equivalent of 1 quadrillionth of a second.
Kyle Mizokami, Popular Mechanics, 24 Feb. 2021 Zewail, who would go on to win a Nobel Prize for his research, measured these miniscule changes in femtoseconds; a femtosecond is one millionth of a billionth of a second.
NBC News, 19 Oct. 2020 During the late 1980s and early 1990s the pulse durations were brought down to as little as a few femtoseconds, approaching the time frame of atomic motions.
Caroline Delbert, Popular Mechanics, 15 July 2020 The medium in question is a block of high-purity glass, which has voxels etched into it with femtosecond lasers.
A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10-15 or 1.⁄1 000 000 000 000 000.
Of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.
For context, a femtosecond is to a second as a second is to about 31.71 million years; a ray of light travels approximately 0.3 μm in 1 femtosecond, a distance comparable to the diameter of a virus.
The word femtosecond is formed by the SI prefix femto and the SI unit second.
A femtosecond is equal to 1000 attoseconds, or 1/1000 picosecond.
Because the next higher SI unit is 1000 times larger, times of 10−14 and 10−13 seconds are typically expressed as tens or hundreds of femtoseconds.
200 fs – the average chemical reaction, such as the reaction of pigments in an eye to light.
Marietta Eye Clinic has a team of cataract specialists highly skilled at performing eye surgery with the assistance of the femtosecond laser.
What is It? A femtosecond laser is an infrared laser that emits bursts of laser energy at an extremely fast rate.
A femtosecond laser has a pulse duration in the femtosecond range, or one quadrillionth of a second.
Compared to an Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet laser, another commonly used ophthalmic laser, a femtosecond laser causes less collateral damage – 106 times less damage, in fact.
Benefits of femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery include ability to provide more precise astigmatism treatment, centration of the intraocular lens, and decreased ultrasound energy utilized during removal of the cataract.
The femtosecond laser was approved for refractive and cataract surgery by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2015 and is considered a relatively new development in the history of cataract surgery.
A femtosecond laser can also be used for other ophthalmic procedures such as laser in situ keratomileusis, penetrating keratoplasty, and other types of corneal transplants.
Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery is the latest advance in cataract surgery.
Performed without the use of traditional blades or scalpels, this new generation of cataract surgery employs a particular sort of laser to accurately create incisions and break apart the cataract.
The femtosecond laser is set to make a precise incision and break up the cataract, allowing faster and more accurate cataract surgery.
In manual cataract surgery this is usually done using a needle, but in femtosecond laser cataract surgery a laser is utilized for a more precise result.
The femtosecond laser cataract surgery process has brought a new degree of precision to cataract surgery.
During cataract surgery, laser cataract surgery reduces the need for several surgical instruments and eliminates the use of blades.
Contact an eye doctor near you to find out more about femtosecond laser cataract surgery.
Femtosecond laser assisted cataract surgery is a recent development in the history of cataract surgery.
Available evidence indicates that FLACS does not carry additional risk compared to non-FLACS small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery.
FLACS can offer a greater level of precision and repeatability for creation of tissue planes than manual techniques.
As a result, FLACS is thought, and in some cases has been shown, to offer more precise incisional astigmatism management, lens centration and reduced effective phaco energy.
There is evidence that FLACS can predictably manage lower levels of astigmatism for patients electing this correction at the time of cataract surgery, and can improve patient outcomes with presbyopia correcting IOLs.
There is not sufficient evidence at this point in time to suggest that FLACS offers better outcomes than non-FLACS small incision phacoemulsification cataract surgery for standard cases with a basic monofocal IOL, or that FLACS is cost-effective for all cases.
There is some evidence to suggest that FLACS improves safety and patient outcomes in select medical conditions, but charging for the use of the laser solely for medical reasons in these settings is not approved.
Introduction: Since the introduction, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery was believed to revolutionize cataract surgery.
The aim of this review was to analyze the benefits and drawbacks of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery compared with traditional phacoemulsification cataract surgery.
The following keywords were searched in various combinations: femtosecond laser, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, phacoemulsification cataract surgery, FLACS. Results: The benefits of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery include lower cumulated phacoemulsification time and endothelial cell loss, perfect centration of the capsulotomy, and opportunity to perform precise femtosecond-assisted arcuate keratotomy incisions.
The major disadvantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery are high cost of the laser and the disposables for surgery, femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery-specific intraoperative capsular complications, as well as the risk of intraoperative miosis and the learning curve.
Conclusion: Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery seems to be beneficial in some groups of patients, that is, with low baseline endothelial cell count, or those planning to receive multifocal intraocular lens.
Having considered that the advantages of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery might not be clear in every routine case, it cannot be considered as cost-effective.
Keywords: Cataract surgery; cataract surgery complications; corneal incisions; cost-effectiveness of surgical procedures; femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery; phacoemulsification.
Femtosecond Lasers, Explained By RP Photonics Encyclopedia; Ultrashort Pulses, Mode-Locked Lasers, Performance Parameters, Applications
The RP Photonics Buyer’s Guide contains 96 suppliers for femtosecond lasers.
Laser Quantum specialise in femtosecond laser systems with ultra-short pulses and high repetition rates that offer unique capabilities and benefits to a wide variety of scientific applications.
We have high-power mode-locked femtosecond fiber lasers which operate at 920 nm or 1190 nm – traditionally covered by ultrafast Ti:sapphire lasers and optical parameteric oscillators.
RPMC Lasers offers a good selection of femtosecond lasers, including mode-locked pulsed DPSS lasers, pulsed fiber lasers, and femtosecond range DPSS amplifiers from 900 fs down to 100 fs, with pulse energies up to 500 µJ, average powers up to 100 W, and wavelengths of 1064, 1040, 1035, 1030, 920, 532, and 515 nm.
These actively Q-switched femtosecond systems offer repetition rate options including single shot to 2 MHz, up to a fixed repetition rate of 80 MHz. The high peak power and short pulse widths of femtosecond lasers are ideal for a wide range of applications, especially for cold ablation material processing, non-linear spectroscopy, two-photon microscopy, optogenetics, second harmonic generation, and micromachining.
The VALO Series of ultrafast fiber lasers are unique in their design offering amongst the shortest femtosecond pulses and highest peak powers which can be obtained from a compact turn-key solution.
The ultrashort pulse durations combined with computer controlled group velocity dispersion pre-compensation, allow users of the VALO lasers to achieve the highest peak power exactly where its needed, which makes the lasers ideal for use in multiphoton imaging, advanced spectroscopy and many other applications.
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Most commonly used in the context of a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund, the NAV represents the per share/unit price of the fund on a specific date or time.
Net asset value is commonly used to identify potential investment opportunities within mutual funds, ETFs or indexes.
The fund’s NAV thereby represents a “Per-share” value of the fund, which makes it easier to be used for valuing and transacting in the fund shares.
Since regular buying and selling of fund shares start after the launch of the fund, a mechanism is required to price the shares of the fund.
The assets of a mutual fund include the total market value of the fund’s investments, cash and cash equivalents, receivables and accrued income.
The market value of the fund is computed once per day based on the closing prices of the securities held in the fund’s portfolio.
Fund investors often try to assess the performance of a mutual fund based on their NAV differentials between two dates.
Learn about the various types of fund, how they work, and benefits and tradeoffs of investing in them.
If the value of securities in the fund increases, then the NAV of the fund increases.
If the value of the securities in the fund decreases, then the NAV of the fund decreases.
Looking at each fund’s NAV and comparing it to others does not offer any insight into which fund performed better.
As far as determining which fund is better, it is important to look at the performance history of each mutual fund, the securities within each fund, the longevity of the fund manager, and how the fund performs relative to a benchmark.
If a fund’s net asset value went from $10 to $20 compared to another fund whose NAV went from $10 to $15, it is clear to see that the fund which marked a 100% gain in its NAV is performing better.
The NAV number alone offers no insight as to how “Good” or “Bad” the fund is.
“Net asset value,” or “NAV,” of an investment company is the company’s total assets minus its total liabilities.
If an investment company has securities and other assets worth $100 million and has liabilities of $10 million, the investment company’s NAV will be $90 million.
Because an investment company’s assets and liabilities change daily, NAV will also change daily.
An investment company calculates the NAV of a single share by dividing its NAV by the number of shares that are outstanding.
If a mutual fund has an NAV of $100 million, and investors own 10,000,000 of the fund’s shares, the fund’s per share NAV will be $10. Because per share NAV is based on NAV, which changes daily, and on the number of shares held by investors, which also changes daily, per share NAV also will change daily.
Most mutual funds publish their per share NAVs in the daily newspapers.
The share price of mutual funds and traditional UITs is based on their NAV. That is, the price that investors pay to purchase mutual fund and most UIT shares is the approximate per share NAV, plus any fees that the fund imposes at purchase.
Investors often include net asset value when considering an investment.
Net Asset Value is one way to calculate the value of a mutual fund or an exchange-traded fund.
Net Asset Value is the value of an entity’s assets minus its liabilities divided by outstanding shares.
You may assume that any company or business that has assets and liabilities can calculate its NAV. However, companies generally use a net asset or net worth calculation.
To calculate the net asset value of an entity you will subtract the liabilities from the assets and then divide by the outstanding number of shares.
While the net asset value might help investors identify investment opportunities, they may want to use this calculation method with other metrics to ensure the investment makes sense.
Investment Tips Consider talking to a financial advisor about the net asset value of any securities you’re considering trading.
The formula for net asset value can be derived by deducting all the liabilities from the available assets of the fund, and then the result is divided by the total number of outstanding units or shares.
Net Asset Value Formula – Example #1. Let us take the example of a mutual fund that closed the trading day today with total investments worth $1,500,000 and cash & cash equivalents of $500,000, while the liabilities of stood at $1,000,000 at the close of the day.
Net Asset Value is calculated using the formula given below.
Net Asset Value Formula – Example #2. Let us take the example of an investment firm that manages a larger mutual fund.
Step 4: Finally, the net asset value can be derived by deducting the liabilities of the fund from the assets of the fund and then the result is divided by the total number of outstanding shares as shown below.
From the perspective of both mutual fund analysts and investors, it is important to understand the concept of net asset value because it is the book value of a mutual fund.
The net asset value of a mutual fund is also analogous to the market price of a stock, and as such, it helps in the comparison of the fund with other mutual funds or the industry benchmark.
The same goes for shares of mutual funds and exchange-traded funds, whose market value is represented by a metric known as net asset value, or NAV. Let’s go over how to calculate NAV and how this metric can help fund investors make smart buying and selling decisions.
A fund’s net asset value might therefore be $15 per share one day and $18 per share the next day.
Net asset value has a similar function to looking up a company’s stock price, as it’s an indication of how much one share of a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund is worth.
Net asset value can help investors compare different funds or compare the performance of a single fund to other market or industry benchmarks.
Because mutual funds pay out almost all of their income and capital gains to shareholders, looking at a fund’s total annual return is a better way to measure its potential than looking at changes in its net asset value.
With exchange-traded funds a fund’s net asset value can differ from its market price.
The reason is that exchange-traded funds are subject to supply and demand, which can drive share prices above or below a fund’s net asset value.
This means that the mutual fund’s value per share is $200. Net Asset Value Analysis.
All mutual funds and exchange-traded funds must calculate their net asset value on a daily basis.
Investors primarily use net asset value to compare performances of different funds as well as to compare a fund’s performance against the benchmark index.
The fact is, net asset value is not a true reflection of a fund’s performance.
It is better for investors to use other measures such as compounded annual growth rate or the total annual return to compare different funds and get a better picture of fund performance rather than NAV. Net Asset Value Conclusion.
Net Asset Value is the net value of assets and liabilities of a mutual fund or ETF expressed in a per-share basis.
You can use the net asset value calculator below to work out your own mutual fund value per share by entering the assets, liabilities and outstanding shares.
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This merger marks the most significant milestone on our journey to achieve our vision of becoming the go-to relationship bank.
Combining with Valley will allow us to continue fulfilling our mission to cultivate long-lasting, impactful relationships.
Together, we will become the #29 publicly traded bank in the U.S. by assets and one of the leading relationship-driven commercial banks in our nation.
We’re excited and energized by the opportunities this combination brings and are happy to answer any questions you have.
Please don’t hesitate to reach out to your Leumi Banking Team or myself with any questions at all.
What Matters to You, Matters to Us. Building a successful business takes vision, experience and hard work.
It also requires a close, collaborative banking relationship that supports your company as it grows and evolves.
At Leumi, we deliver the global perspective and guidance you need to succeed – whether you do business around the block or around the world.
With our deep industry knowledge, banking services and a client-focused approach, you can count on us to provide the right combination of products and customized solutions to help you reach your strategic and operational objectives.
We’re excited to announce that Valley Bank has agreed to merge with Bank Leumi USA. Valley has a long history of building strong, lasting relationships with people, businesses, and communities.
Who is Bank Leumi USA? Bank Leumi USA is a relationship-driven boutique bank with global ties.
Learn more about Bank Leumi USA. Who is Valley? We are a regional bank with $42 billion in assets and more than 200 branches located throughout New Jersey, New York, Florida and Alabama.
Why are Valley and Bank Leumi USA merging? Our two banks share a very similar culture and philosophy, one that puts customers first, focuses on building relationships and supporting the local communities we serve in a meaningful way.
Important Information and Where to Find ItIn connection with the proposed acquisition by Valley National Bancorp of Bank Leumi Le-Israel Corporation and the issuance of shares of Valley common stock as consideration in the Transaction, Valley will file with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission a proxy statement of Valley, and Valley may file with the SEC other relevant documents concerning the Transaction.
Participants in the SolicitationValley, Leumi and certain of their respective directors and executive officers may be deemed to be participants in the solicitation of proxies from the shareholders of Valley in respect of the Transaction.
Further information regarding Valley and factors which could affect the forward-looking statements contained herein are set forth in Valley’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, its Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the three-month periods ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, and its other filings with the SEC. Valley assumes no obligation for updating any such forward-looking statement at any time.
When the Bank of Israel was established in 1954, Bank Leumi became a commercial bank.
In 1971, Bank Leumi acquired Arab Israel Bank, which serves mainly the Arab Citizens of Israel in the north of the country.
The Government of Israel nationalized Bank Leumi in 1983, as a result of the Bank Stock Crisis.
In July 2014, Bank Julius Baer announced that it had purchased the private banking assets of Bank Leumi.
Baer bought Bank Leumi S.A., Leumi’s private bank in Luxembourg and Leumi will also transfer the clients of Leumi Private Bank to Baer.
On 5 July 2021, Norway’s largest pension fund KLP said it would divest from Bank Leumi together with 15 other business entities implicated in the UN report for their links to Israeli settlements in the occupied West Bank.
Luxembourg – Due to the activities of Bank Leumi, David Kalai, and Nadav Kalai, Bank Leumi entered into a deferred prosecution agreement, in December 2014, with the US Department of Justice admitting that it conspired to hide assets and income in offshore accounts.
The Households segment covers individuals, excluding individuals covered in Private Banking segment.
The Private Banking segment covers individuals with financial assets portfolio exceeding NIS 3 Million.
The Micro Businesses segment covers businesses with.
The Small Businesses segment covers businesses with operations turnover that is equal to or higher than NIS 10 Million and lower than NIS 50 Million.
The Medium Businesses segment covers businesses with operations turnover that is equal to or higher than NIS 50 Million and lower than NIS 250 Million.
The Large Businesses segment covers with operations turnover equal to or higher than NIS 250 Million.
The Financial Management segment includes trading activities, assets and liabilities management, and real investment activities.
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The 2022 theme for International Women’s Day might be why you’re seeing photos of crossed arms on social media.
This year, the International Women’s Day theme is #BreakTheBias.
The UN’s International Women’s Day theme calls for women and girls “To have a voice and be equal players in decision-making related to climate change and sustainability.”
Here’s what to know about International Women’s Day 2022.
International Women’s Day is celebrated every year on March 8.
In 1910, attendees at the second International Conference of Working Women, a gathering of women from activist and political organizations in Copenhagen, approved the idea of an international day for women.
The earliest International Women’s Day events included rallies for the right to vote and against gender discrimination, as well as women’s anti-war protests and strikes in Russia.
A world free of bias, stereotypes and discrimination.
A world that’s diverse, equitable, and inclusive.
International Women’s Day is powered by the collective efforts of all Collective action and shared ownership for driving gender parity is what makes International Women’s Day impactful.
Gloria Steinem, world-renowned feminist, journalist and activist once explained “The story of women’s struggle for equality belongs to no single feminist nor to any one organization but to the collective efforts of all who care about human rights.” So make International Women’s Day your day and do what you can to truly make a positive difference for women.
Zetkin proposed a special Women’s Day to be organized annually and International Women’s Day was honored the following year in Austria, Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland, with more than one million attending the rallies.
On August 18, 1920, the 19th Amendment was ratified and white women were granted the right to vote in the U.S. The liberation movement took place in the 1960s and the effort led to the passage of the Voting Rights Act, allowing all women the right to vote.
As women come together to celebrate the advancement of gender equality and women’s rights on International Women’s Day, they receive ample support from men who give them flowers or other gifts.
Inspiring female leaders and women with success stories in different areas of life are put in the spotlight to encourage and influence other women all over the world.
Each year International Women’s Day has a theme and for 2020 it was “An equal world is an enabled world.”
No one government, NGO, charity, corporation, academic institution, women’s network, or media hub is solely responsible for International Women’s Day.
International Women’s Day was established and has been celebrated for a long time! As Gloria Steinem says, “The story of women’s struggle for equality belongs to no single feminist nor to any one organization but to the collective efforts of all who care about human rights.” We agree! The day is all about intersectionality, whether that’s the organizations that support International Women’s Day or the type of women the day celebrates.
You are invited to participate in extraordinary, global, multi-media events to educate, enlighten, and empower women and girls worldwide in March 2022.
On International Women’s Day, we will extend a Call to All Women to use their intellectual, nurturing, and creative skills to move the world from where it is now to where we believe it can be in 2030.
We will use International Women’s Day as an annual catalyst.
As a participant in the International Women’s Day events, you will be aligning with the Global Women’s Movement.
Women worldwide will see you as one who cares about the well-being of women; someone who wants what they want – a more prosperous and peaceful world.
Since 1911, International Women’s Day has celebrated the achievements and strength of women around the world, encouraging creators to come up with their own International Women’s Day event ideas.
Events focused on women are a great way to bring colleagues and organizations together to honor the women of the past, present, and future and learn more about the issues women face today.
We’ve also put together 10 creative International Women’s Day event ideas as jumping-off points to help you plan an event that celebrates women’s achievements, raises awareness about workplace bias, and takes action for equality.
They’re working alongside the Soroptimists of the Adirondacks, a volunteer organization for business and professional women who work to improve the lives of women and girls; and the American Association of University Women, which promotes equality and education for women and girls.
Ready to start your own to-do list? Celebrate International Women’s Day this year by planning an event that focuses on gender bias or highlights the achievements of women.
Since so many women have lost their jobs due to COVID-19, host a women’s networking event or job fair offering help with resume writing and preparing for interviews, like the Puerto Rican/Hispanic Chamber of Commerce of Polk County is doing with their International Women’s Business Summit & Job Fair.
Celebrating International Women’s Day with women’s events isn’t about giving empty accolades to women.
This article explains some interesting International Women’s Day facts, reflecting on its importance and history.
Here, we have stated 21 amazing facts about Women’s Day.
Surprise the women in your life with these amazing facts and express your gratitude towards them.
The United Nations began celebrating International Women’s Day in 1975, the year which was announced to be the International Women’s Year.2.
Research has found that between men and women, women are able to recognize 25% more colors and shapes.
There Are More Stay-At-Home Men Than Women In The US. In the US, there are approximately 2,09,000 men who stay at home, which is significantly more than women.
These interesting facts about International Women’s Day are sure to impress those around you! This Women’s Day, show your appreciation to all the women around you by letting them know how special and unique they are.
You found our list of International Women’s Day quotes.
International Women’s Day quotes are famous sayings about women’s power and potential.
“Whether women are better than men I cannot say- but I can say they are certainly no worse.” -Golda Mier.Women’s Day quotes for employees”Think like a queen. A queen is not afraid to fail. Failure is another stepping-stone to greatness.” -Oprah Winfrey.
International Women’s Day quotes are sayings that champion gender equality and women’s empowerment.
Almost any advice by respected and accomplished women makes a great quote for International Women’s Day.Why should you share Women’s Day quotes?
International Women’s Day is about giving women a voice.
Sharing quotes from famous women reminds folks of all women have achieved in the past, and what they might accomplish in the future.
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Out of concern for the health and safety of the public and Supreme Court employees, the Supreme Court Building will be closed to the public until further notice.
The Building will remain open for official business.
All public lectures and visitor programs are temporarily suspended.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States of America.
Article II, Section 2, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution, known as the Appointments Clause, empowers the president to nominate and, with the confirmation of the United States Senate, to appoint public officials, including justices of the Supreme Court.
The Court’s appellate jurisdiction consists of appeals from federal courts of appeal, the United States Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces, the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico, the Supreme Court of the Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia Court of Appeals, and “Final judgments or decrees rendered by the highest court of a State in which a decision could be had”.
A decision rendered by one of the Florida District Courts of Appeal can be appealed to the U.S. Supreme Court if the Supreme Court of Florida declined to grant certiorari, e.g. Florida Star v. B. J. F., or the district court of appeal issued a per curiam decision simply affirming the lower court’s decision without discussing the merits of the case, since the Supreme Court of Florida lacks jurisdiction to hear appeals of such decisions.
Since Article Three of the United States Constitution stipulates that federal courts may only entertain “Cases” or “Controversies”, the Supreme Court cannot decide cases that are moot and it does not render advisory opinions, as the supreme courts of some states may do.
Opinions are also collected and published in two unofficial, parallel reporters: Supreme Court Reporter, published by West, and United States Supreme Court Reports, Lawyers’ Edition, published by LexisNexis.
Failed Supreme Court nominee Robert Bork wrote: “What judges have wrought is a coup d’état,- slow-moving and genteel, but a coup d’état nonetheless.” Brian Leiter wrote that “Given the complexity of the law and the complexity involved in saying what really happened in a given dispute, all judges, and especially those on the Supreme Court, often have to exercise a quasi-legislative power,” and “Supreme Court nominations are controversial because the court is a super-legislature, and because its moral and political judgments are controversial.”
Article III, Section I states that “The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.” Although the Constitution establishes the Supreme Court, it permits Congress to decide how to organize it.
Article III, Section II of the Constitution establishes the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
The Supreme Court agrees to hear about 100-150 of the more than 7,000 cases that it is asked to review each year.
The best-known power of the Supreme Court is judicial review, or the ability of the Court to declare a Legislative or Executive act in violation of the Constitution, is not found within the text of the Constitution itself.
A suit was brought under this Act, but the Supreme Court noted that the Constitution did not permit the Court to have original jurisdiction in this matter.
Since Article VI of the Constitution establishes the Constitution as the Supreme Law of the Land, the Court held that an Act of Congress that is contrary to the Constitution could not stand.
First, as the highest court in the land, it is the court of last resort for those looking for justice.
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the country and leads the judicial branch of the federal government.
The Supreme Court is the only court established by the United States Constitution; all other federal courts are created by Congress.
Article II, Section 2 of the U.S. Constitution gives the President of the United States the authority to nominate Supreme Court justices, and they are appointed with the advice and consent of the Senate.
Each Supreme Court justice is assigned to one of the 13 circuit courts of appeals, according to Title 28, United States Code, Section 42.
The following individuals previously served as Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.
“Additionally, the Court convened for a short period in a private house after the British set fire to the Capitol during the War of 1812. Following this episode, the Court returned to the Capitol and met from 1819 to 1860 in a chamber now restored as the ‘Old Supreme Court Chamber.’ Then from 1860 until 1935, the Court sat in what is now known as the ‘Old Senate Chamber,'” according to SupremCourt.
In 1929, “Architect Cass Gilbert was charged by Chief Justice Taft to design ‘a building of dignity and importance suitable for its use as the permanent home of the Supreme Court of the United States.'” Construction was completed in 1935, and the court moved to its permanent residence at One First Street Northeast, Washington, D.C. According to SupremeCourt.
Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present.
Controversial Supreme Court Nominations Through HistoryThe justices who sit on the Supreme Court of the United States hold a unique governing power, making their selection extremely fraught.
Why Do 9 Justices Serve on the Supreme Court?Only since 1869 have there consistently been nine justices appointed to the Supreme Court.
Judicial BranchThe judicial branch of the U.S. government is the system of federal courts and judges that interprets laws made by the legislative branch and enforced by the executive branch.
Checks and BalancesThe system of checks and balances in government was developed to ensure that no one branch of government would become too powerful.
John MarshallJohn Marshall was the fourth chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
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To calculate your 5-day isolation period, day 0 is your first day of symptoms.
You can end isolation after 5 full days if you are fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing medication and your other symptoms have improved.
You should continue to wear a well-fitting mask around others at home and in public for 5 additional days after the end of your 5-day isolation period.
If you continue to have fever or your other symptoms have not improved after 5 days of isolation, you should wait to end your isolation until you are fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-reducing medication and your other symptoms have improved.
Day 0 is the day of your positive viral test and day 1 is the first full day after the specimen was collected for your positive test.
If you continue to have no symptoms, you can end isolation after at least 5 days.
CDC recommends an isolation period of at least 10 and up to 20 days for people who were severely ill with COVID-19 and for people with weakened immune systems.
Aidin Vaziri, Catherine Ho, Dominic Fracassa, San Francisco Chronicle, 2 Mar. 2022 Travelers will no longer need to show proof of a COVID-19 vaccine or a negative COVID test to bypass a mandatory quarantine.
Alison Fox, Travel + Leisure, 2 Mar. 2022 Singapore abandoned that policy last year, opening travel lanes with several countries to allow in vaccinated travelers without the need to quarantine.
Chiara Vercellone, USA TODAY, 17 Dec. 2021 Marin said a staffer initially informed her that there was no need to quarantine because everyone exposed was vaccinated.
Washington Post, 9 Dec. 2021 Marin said a staffer initially informed her that there was no need to quarantine because everyone exposed was vaccinated.
Reis Thebault, BostonGlobe.com, 8 Dec. 2021 Around the same time as the final Cape Town passengers were being tested, KLM released a statement outlining new rules for passengers arriving from South Africa, including the need to quarantine at a hotel.
Chris Stokel-walker, Wired, 1 Dec. 2021 For instance, to enter Germany, kids under 12 need to quarantine for five days, but don’t need a test.
Cleveland, 24 Oct. 2021 The candy wrappers themselves are not considered contagious, so there’s no need to quarantine the candy before eating it.
At the Red Sea, it was decided after discussion a healthy vessel could pass through the Suez Canal and continue its voyage in the Mediterranean during the incubation period of the disease and that vessels passing through the Canal in quarantine might, subject to the use of the electric light, coal up in quarantine at Port Said by night or by day, and that passengers might embark in quarantine at that port.
According to a “Rapid Review” published in The Lancet in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, “Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.”
The law allows for health officers who have reasonable grounds to detain, isolate, quarantine anyone or anything believed to be infected, and to restrict any articles from leaving a designated quarantine area.
From 1846 onwards the quarantine establishments in the United Kingdom were gradually reduced, while the last vestige of the British quarantine law was removed by the Public Health Act of 1896, which repealed the Quarantine Act of 1825, and transferred from the privy council to the Local Government Board the powers to deal with ships arriving infected with yellow fever or plague.
The Division of Global Migration and Quarantine of the US Centers for Disease Control operates small quarantine facilities at a number of US ports of entry.
Quarantine law began in Colonial America in 1663, when in an attempt to curb an outbreak of smallpox, the city of New York established a quarantine.
Most commonly suspect cases of infectious diseases are requested to voluntarily quarantine themselves, and Federal and local quarantine statutes only have been uncommonly invoked since then, including for a suspected smallpox case in 1963.
a. A condition, period of time, or place in which a person, animal, plant, vehicle, or amount of material suspected of carrying an infectious agent is kept in confinement or isolated in an effort to prevent disease from spreading.
b. An action resulting in such a condition: the government’s quarantine of the animals.
A period of isolation or detention, esp of persons or animals arriving from abroad, to prevent the spread of disease, usually consisting of the maximum known incubation period of the suspected disease.
A strict isolation imposed to prevent the spread of disease.
40 days, of detention or isolation imposed upon ships, people, animals, or plants on arrival at a port or place, when suspected of carrying a contagious disease.
The place, as a hospital, where people are detained.
The keeping away from other people or animals of people or animals that might be carrying an infectious disease.
Isolation and quarantine are public health practices used to protect the public by preventing exposure to people who have or may have a contagious disease.
Isolation separates sick people with a contagious disease from people who are not sick.
Quarantine separates and restricts the movement of people who were exposed to a contagious disease to see if they become sick.
These people may have been exposed to a disease and do not know it, or they may have the disease but do not show symptoms.
Quarantine and stay away from others when you have been in close contact with someone who has COVID-19.
Isolate if you are sick or have tested positive for COVID-19, even if you don’t have symptoms.
As described earlier, quarantine notifications in quarantine policies replace end-user spam notifications that you used to turn on or turn off in anti-spam policies.
The way for you to turn on quarantine notifications is to create and use custom quarantine policies where quarantine notifications are turned on.
In the Microsoft 365 Defender portal, go to Email & collaboration > Policies & Rules > Threat policies > Quarantine policies in the Rules section.
Feature Quarantine policies supported? Default quarantine policies used Anti-spam policies: Spam.High confidence spam.
Assign quarantine policies in supported policies in the Microsoft 365 Defender portal Anti-spam policies.
The global settings for quarantine policies allow you to customize the quarantine notifications that are sent to recipients of quarantined messages if quarantine notifications are turned on in the quarantine policy.
In the Microsoft 365 Defender portal, go to Email & collaboration > Policies & rules > Threat policies > Quarantine policies in the Rules section.
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Basic Information about RNG. Renewable natural gas* is a term used to describe biogasGas resulting from the decomposition of organic matter under anaerobic conditions.
RNG can be used locally at the site where the gas is created or it can be injected into natural gas transmission or distribution pipelines.
Typically, RNG injected into a natural gas pipeline has a methane content between 96 and 98 percent.
Use of RNG can provide benefits in terms of fuel security, economic revenues or savings, local air quality and greenhouse gas emission reductions.
The development of RNG projects can benefit the local economy through the construction of RNG processing and fueling station infrastructure and sale of natural gas-powered vehicles.
RNG is comprised primarily of methane; compared to fossil natural gas, RNG contains zero to very low levels of constituents, such as ethane, propane, butane, pentane or other trace hydrocarbons.
The program also facilitates technology transfer between stakeholders to discuss technical questions regarding the injection of RNG into the natural gas pipeline network.
Renewable natural gas is any pipeline compatible gaseous fuel derived from biogenic or other renewable sources that has lower lifecycle CO2e emissions than geological natural gas.
The majority of the RNG produced today comes from capturing emissions from existing waste streams found in landfills, wastewater treatment plants and animal manure.
This gas must be treated and cleaned, raising it to a standard where it can be injected into existing gas pipelines.
RNG can also be produced using renewable electricity, such as wind or solar power.
Hydrogen can be captured, stored and used, or combined with a source of carbon to produce renewable methane: RNG. Power-to-gas also offers a long-term energy storage solution for renewable electricity.
RNG combines low- to negative life-cycle carbon emissions with the high-energy density, storage capability and transportability of natural gas.
Thus, RNG is highly valued in the transportation sector, but its attributes are equally valued in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors to meet heating needs.
RNG, on the other hand, is natural gas derived from organic waste material found in daily life such as food waste, garden and lawn clippings, and animal and plant-based material.
A study conducted by UC Davis estimates that more than 20 percent of California’s current residential natural gas use can be provided by RNG derived from our state’s existing organic waste alone1.
According to estimates, the United States could produce up to 10 trillion cubic feet of RNG annually by 2030 – that’s more than five times California’s projected natural gas consumption.
Biogas is cleaned and conditioned to remove or reduce non-methane elements in order to produce RNG. The RNG is processed so it’s interchangeable with traditional pipeline-quality natural gas to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the pipeline network and customer equipment.
According to the California Air Resources Board,3 RNG sourced from landfill-diverted food and green waste can provide a 125 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and RNG from dairy manure can result in a 400 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when replacing traditional vehicle fuels.
More than half of all natural gas dispensed in California for transportation utilize RNG, powering buses, refuse trucks and heavy-duty trucks.
As part of our commitment to helping the environment and supporting California in meeting its greenhouse gas reduction goals, SoCalGas® offers expertise and assistance to customers who want to convert organic waste material into biogas or RNG. Through our network of natural gas pipelines, SoCalGas offers the opportunity for RNG to be accepted into our transmission and distribution system and delivered to our customers.
It’s called renewable natural gas, and it’s making the world a better place by reducing emissions, producing clean energy and providing new income for family farmers.
Renewable natural gas is then blended into the existing gas distribution system to serve homes, businesses, power plants and other natural gas consumers.
Renewable natural gas reduces greenhouse gas emissions from farms, food waste and landfills, which protects the climate and makes our air cleaner.
Renewable natural gas combines the environmental benefits of renewables with the reliability of natural gas to meet the 24/7 needs of our customers.
Renewable natural gas generates additional income for family farmers, turning one of their biggest costs into a new source of revenue.
Just like all our endeavors, safety is vital for renewable natural gas, and held to the same stringent utility standards as any energy source we deploy.
Whether a humble cottage or a massive industrial business, natural gas customers can rest assured that renewable natural gas not only delivers the same performance, RNG is as safe as the gas they use today.
The expanded use of RNG and the emerging accounting framework of RNG Certificates provides a new pathway for organizations to eliminate Scope 1 emissions, helping to achieve GHG reduction goals and mitigate the environmental impact of doing business, while creating a pathway to mitigate emissions from hard to electrify natural gas applications.
An RNG Certificate represents the environmental attribute associated with renewable natural gas and is an accounting mechanism to purchase RNG. Similar to electrons on a power grid, RNG cannot be distinguished from fossil fuel in the national pipeline.
Similar to Renewable Energy Certificates, RNG Certificates are unbundled from the physical gas that’s injected in the pipeline, allowing organizations to apply them to their existing gas use in order to purchase RNG. The end-user of the RNG Certificate can claim the environmental benefit of substituting RNG for conventional natural gas.
The Carbon Disclosure Project provides guidance for greenhouse gas accounting with RNG Certificates- and there are fundamental differences from carbon offset reporting and Scope 1 emissions.
With RNG, companies report zero carbon emissions from any natural gas consumption that is matched with RNG Certificates, eliminating Scope 1 emissions associated with natural gas.
Optimistic estimates, like American Gas Foundation’s Renewable Sources of Natural Gas 2019 paper, conclude that RNG can supply no more than a third of current natural gas consumption.
Matching RNG certificates to natural gas use is a direct and immediate way to address Scope 1 carbon emissions.
While many electric utilities in the Northwest are beginning to understand that clean, renewable power is their only possible future, the gas utility sector is taking a different tack with a new pipe dream: renewable natural gas.
RNG is methane gas, chemically identical to fossil natural gas but sourced from decaying feedstocks.
Farms also sometimes capture the gas for on-site heat and power, though it is more common for them to release the gas from manure ponds into the air, where it becomes a greenhouse gas in the earth’s atmosphere.
In 2019, gas usage in the Northwest states of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington totaled 710 million BTUs of gas of the 27 billion BTUs of gas consumed throughout the United States.
All told, the emissions from natural gas account for nearly a quarter of greenhouse gas emissions nationwide.
It may make sense to substitute RNG for natural gas where a net-zero carbon solution doesn’t exist, but from a decarbonization perspective, it does not make sense to use RNG where gas could be simply replaced with net-carbon zero electricity.
The industry aims to create the illusion that our gas system can be decarbonized by introducing a new fuel that can offset today’s gas demand, when in reality, it would offset only a small portion of that demand.
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An Inertial Measurement Unit is a device that can measure and report specific gravity and angular rate of an object to which it is attached.
To learn more about the operation of a MEMS accelerometer see Section 1.3, or to understand the various specifications associated with selecting a suitable accelerometer for your application please refer to Section 3.1 of the VectorNav Inertial Navigation Primer.
GYROSCOPE. A gyroscope is an inertial sensor that measure an object’s angular rate with respect to an inertial reference frame.
To learn more about the operation of a MEMS gyroscope see Section 1.3, or to understand the various specifications associated with selecting a suitable accelerometer for your application please refer to Section 3.1 of the VectorNav Inertial Navigation Primer.
An individual inertial sensor can only sense a measurement along or about a single axis.
To provide a three-dimensional solution, three individual inertial sensors must be mounted together into an orthogonal cluster known as a triad. This set of inertial sensors mounted in a triad is commonly referred to as a 3-axis inertial sensor, as the sensor can provide one measurement along each of the three axes.
An inertial measurement unit measures and reports raw or filtered angular rate and specific force/acceleration experience by the object it is attached to.
POS MV. The POS MV combines data from Global Navigation Satellite System, angular rate and acceleration data from an IMU, and heading data from GNSS Azimuth Measurement System.
These systems provide robust and accurate positioning and orientation with a full 6 degrees of freedom.
The POS MV is used in conjunction with shipboard mapping systems, such as multibeam sonar and interferometric sonar, to provide high-resolution acceleration and orientation information along with the associated geospatial location information.
Heading Accuracy: 0.03° with 2 m antenna baseline, 0.015° with 4 m baseline.
The submersible enables the sensor to be located near or directly on the sonar transducer head to reduce errors caused by relative motion between IMU and sonar head or by inaccuracies of lever-arm measurements.
Heading Accuracy: 0.02° with 2 m antenna baseline, 0.01° with 4 m baseline.
Heading Accuracy: 0.015° with 2 m antenna baseline, 0.008° with 4 m baseline.
SBG Systems offers a wide line of IMU / INS, whether your applications requirements are size or performance.
An Inertial Measurement Unit, also known as IMU, is an electronic device that measures and reports acceleration, orientation, angular rates, and other gravitational forces.
There are different types of IMU sensors: the one based on FOG, the RLG IMUs, and lastly, IMU based on MEMS technology.
MEMS-based systems therefore combine high performance and ultra-low power in a smaller unit.
What Difference between an IMU, an AHRS, and an Inertial Navigation System?
An Attitude and Heading Reference System, also called a motion unit, adds a central processing unit that embeds the Extended Kalman Filter to calculate attitude with heading relative to magnetic north.
Inertial Navigation Systems are composed of an IMU and additionally embed a GPS/GNSS receiver.
IMUs are often incorporated into Inertial Navigation Systems which utilize the raw IMU measurements to calculate attitude, angular rates, linear velocity and position relative to a global reference frame.
In land vehicles, an IMU can be integrated into GPS based automotive navigation systems or vehicle tracking systems, giving the system a dead reckoning capability and the ability to gather as much accurate data as possible about the vehicle’s current speed, turn rate, heading, inclination and acceleration, in combination with the vehicle’s wheel speed sensor output and, if available, reverse gear signal, for purposes such as better traffic collision analysis.
In a navigation system, the data reported by the IMU is fed into a processor which calculates attitude, velocity and position.
A major disadvantage of using IMUs for navigation is that they typically suffer from accumulated error.
The accuracy of the inertial sensors inside a modern inertial measurement unit has a more complex impact on the performance of an inertial navigation system.
High performance IMUs, or IMUs designed to operate under harsh conditions, are very often suspended by shock absorbers.
Decreasing these errors tends to push IMU designers to increase processing frequencies, which becomes easier using recent digital technologies.
220.127.116.11.1 Inertial measurement unitThe IMU is a sensor that measures triaxial acceleration and triaxial angular velocity.
While IMUs have shown to be reliable in movement monitoring, IMUs often require the use of at least two sensors in different locations, typically, placed on the foot and calf, which can be bulky and susceptible to the sensors sliding down the leg affecting the accuracy of the motion being tracked.
3.3 Inertial measurement unitThe IMU sensor communicates with the BLE Nano Embedded Board via I2C communication.
5.6.4 Stabilization with Inertial MeasurementsAn IMU that is fixed to a camera measures the camera’s acceleration and angular velocity.
There clearly are many aerospace applications where MEMS IMUs can play a vital role, as evidenced by the worldwide MEMS inertial sensing market having dramatically increased in the past 10 to 15 years, from about US$250 million of sales in 1995 to over US$2.5 billion sales in 2000.
The single MEMS IMU sensor chip enables integration of inertial measurement.
Built-tn calibration permits monitoring the state of IMU performance, while vibration control and ruggedness maintains continuous operation of the IMU. The programmability of this MEMS IMU enables the rapid development, implementation and evaluation of new systems architectures for new missions.
Collins Aerospace has a long and respected heritage in the design and development of inertial sensors and today specializes in high performance, compact and rugged Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems products.
The SiIMU02® MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit is an all-digital, second generation, micro electro-mechanical systems inertial measurement unit.
It delivers excellent angular and linear inertial measurement performance in a compact and lightweight package, and includes an option that delivers proven performance that is gun hard to 20,000g.
LITIS® Tactical grade, FOG-level performance, all-digital IMU. The LITIS® tactical grade Inertial Measurement Unit offers near fiber optic gyro performance in a compact, lightweight, rugged design.
SiNAV® is an integrated navigation system combining a tactical performance MEMS IMU with state of the art military GPS receiver technology, navigation processing and power conditioning electronics to deliver tactical, free inertial performance and navigational accuracy on the ground, on the water, or in the air.
Designed to provide high performance under harsh environmental conditions, this device uses our highly successful silicon vibrating structure gyro SiVSG® MEMS angular rate sensor to deliver improved bias and noise performance.
IMU25™ Compact, lightweight FOG performance IMU. IMU25™ is the company’s latest tactical grade, modular, non-licensable MEMS IMU. IMU25 delivers performance equivalent to a fibre optic gyro device in a rugged, MEMS package that can be tailored to meet specific customer needs.
There are many types of IMU, some of which incorporate magnetometers to measure magnetic field strength, but the four main technological categories for UAV applications are: Silicon MEMS, Quartz MEMS, FOG, and RLG. Silicon MEMS IMUs are based around miniaturized sensors that measure either the deflection of a mass due to movement, or the force required to hold a mass in place.
MEMS IMUs are ideal for smaller UAV platforms and high-volume production units, as they can generally be manufactured with much smaller size and weight, and at lower cost.
FOG IMUs use a solid-state technology based on beams of light propagating through a coiled optical fiber.
Typically larger and more costly than MEMS-based IMUs, they are often used in larger UAV platforms.
RLG IMUs utilise a similar technological principle to FOG IMUs but with a sealed ring cavity in place of an optical fiber.
Quartz MEMS IMUs use a one-piece inertial sensing element, micro-machined from quartz, that is driven by an oscillator to vibrate at a precise amplitude.
Quartz MEMS technology features high reliability and stability over temperature, and tactical-grade quartz MEMS IMUs rival FOG and RLG technologies for SWaP-C metrics.
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NSAIDs are a class of medications used to treat pain, fever, and other inflammatory processes.
NSAIDs have well-known adverse effects affecting the gastric mucosa, renal system, cardiovascular system, hepatic system, and hematologic system.
Cardiovascular adverse effects can also be increased with NSAID use; these include MI, thromboembolic events, and atrial fibrillation.
Hematologic adverse effects are possible, particularly with nonselective NSAIDs due to their antiplatelet activity.
For a complete list of adverse effects for an individual NSAID, please see the StatPearls article for that particular drug.
With NSAID hypersensitivity or salicylate hypersensitivity, as well as in patients who have experienced an allergic reaction after taking NSAIDs.
Patient education on the use of NSAIDs is an important piece of care that providers need to pay attention to because of the many possible adverse effects on multiple different organ systems.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are available by prescription and over-the-counter.
Examples of prescription NSAIDs include ibuprofen, naproxen, diclofenac, and celecoxib.
Information on NSAIDs Section 505(o)(4) FDAAA Safety Labeling Change Notification for “Use of NSAIDs during pregnancy and potential serious risks of fetal renal dysfunction, oligohydramnios, and neonatal renal impairment”.
The SLC notification letter was issued to NSAIDs approved under section 505(b) and certain NSAIDs approved under 505(j),.
NEW. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA recommends avoiding use of NSAIDs in pregnancy at 20 weeks or later because they can result in low amniotic fluid.
FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA strengthens warning that non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can cause heart attacks or strokes.
FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA has reviewed possible risks of pain medicine use during pregnancy.
There are nearly two dozen different NSAIDs available, but they all work in the same way, and that is by blocking a specific group of enzymes called cyclo-oxygenase enzymes, often abbreviated to COX enzymes.
Higher dosages of NSAIDs tend to result in more COX-2 enzyme inhibition, even in those NSAIDs traditionally seen as low risk.
NSAIDs with higher activity against COX-2 enzymes should be used with caution in people with cardiovascular disease or at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
NSAIDs are one of the most widely prescribed group of medicines; however, they are associated with some serious side effects.
People with pre-existing heart disease are more at risk and certain NSAIDs, such as diclofenac and celecoxib, have been linked to more heart-related side effects than others.
Gastrointestinal side effects are also common, and usually related to dosage and duration of treatment although some NSAIDs, such as ketorolac, aspirin and indomethacin, are associated with a higher risk.
NSAIDs can potentially cause a range of side effects, especially when used at higher than recommended dosages for long periods of time.
Acetaminophen is not an NSAID. It’s a pain reliever and fever reducer but doesn’t have anti-inflammatory properties of NSAIDs.
You may have side effects if you take large doses of NSAIDs, or if you take them for a long time.
Unless your doctor tells you to do so, don’t take an over-the-counter NSAID with a prescription NSAID, multiple over-the-counter NSAIDs or more than the recommended dose of an NSAID. Doing so could increase your risk of side effects.
You may have to stop taking NSAIDs if you notice your blood pressure increases even if you’re taking your blood pressure medications and following your diet.
Known allergies to medications, especially aspirin, other NSAIDs and sulfa drugs.
Please check with your pharmacist or healthcare provider before starting an NSAID to determine if your current medications, both prescription and OTC, and also your dietary/herbal supplements, are compatible with the NSAID. Do this especially if you are on warfarin, clopidogrel, corticosteroids, phenytoin, cyclosporine, probenecid and lithium.
If you take diuretics to control your blood pressure, you may be at greater risk of kidney problems if you take an NSAID. Phenylketonuria.
The main adverse drug reactions associated with NSAID use relate to direct and indirect irritation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Hydrogen sulfide NSAID hybrids prevent the gastric ulceration/bleeding associated with taking the NSAIDs alone.
NSAIDs should be used with caution in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease due to their tendency to cause gastric bleeding and form ulceration in the gastric lining.
While NSAIDs as a class are not direct teratogens, use of NSAIDs in late pregnancy can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and kidney ADRs in the fetus.
Some NSAID hypersensitivity reactions are truly allergic in origin: 1) repetitive IgE-mediated urticarial skin eruptions, angioedema, and anaphylaxis following immediately to hours after ingesting one structural type of NSAID but not after ingesting structurally unrelated NSAIDs; and 2) Comparatively mild to moderately severe T cell-mediated delayed onset, skin reactions such as maculopapular rash, fixed drug eruptions, photosensitivity reactions, delayed urticaria, and contact dermatitis; or 3) far more severe and potentially life-threatening t-cell-mediated delayed systemic reactions such as the DRESS syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, the Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis.
NSAIDs interact with the endocannabinoid system and its endocannabinoids, as COX2 have been shown to utilize endocannabinoids as substrates, and may have a key role in both the therapeutic effects and adverse effects of NSAIDs, as well as in NSAID-induced placebo responses.
While studies have been conducted to see if various NSAIDs can improve behavior in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease and observational studies in humans have shown promise, there is no good evidence from randomized clinical trials that NSAIDs can treat or prevent Alzheimer’s in humans; clinical trials of NSAIDs for treatment of Alzheimer’s have found more harm than benefit.
NSAIDs – nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – are a type of pain reliever.
Doctors use NSAIDs to treat many things that cause pain or inflammation, including arthritis.
Over-the-counter NSAIDs are effective pain relievers, but they are intended for short-term use.
They all reduce pain and inflammation, but you might find that you get more relief from one NSAID over another, and some NSAIDs may have fewer side effects than others.
Use acetaminophen instead of NSAIDs for pain relief that your doctor doesn’t feel requires an anti-inflammatory drug.
Doctors prescribe NSAIDs in different doses depending on your condition.
Your doctor may prescribe higher doses of NSAIDs if you have rheumatoid arthritis, for example, because often there is a lot of heat, swelling, redness, and stiffness in the joints with RA. Lower doses may be enough for osteoarthritis and muscle injuries, since there is generally less swelling and often no warmth or redness in the joints.
While a medication can be a safe and effective treatment for these orthopedic conditions, there may be safe alternatives to a medication.
Before beginning any medication, discuss the pros and cons with your healthcare provider, and always be sure your primary physician is aware of any new medication you are taking, especially if you are taking it regularly.
NSAIDs are available both over-the-counter and as a prescription medication.
Often patients will experience a different response in treatment with a different medication.
One of the best reasons to consider some of the newer, prescription medications, such as Celebrex or Mobic, is that these may be taken as once-a-day doses rather than three or four times daily.
The benefits of taking an anti-inflammatory medication need to be balanced with the possible risks of taking the medication.
Determining the best NSAID for your condition may depend on a number of different factors, and what works well for one individual may not be the best medication for another.
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Inflammation plays a key role in many diseases, some of which are becoming more common and severe.
Microbiome – Studies of various microbiome imbalances and disease states show connections to inflammation.
Chronic liver inflammation and cancer – By suppressing one of the body’s natural mechanisms to fight cancer, chronic liver inflammation can lead to a new tumor-promoting pathway.
Nanotechnology and lung inflammation – Silver nanowires, which are used in personal care products, food storage boxes, and computers, were taken up by cells in the lungs of rats, leading to lung inflammation.
Inflammation and Parkinson’s disease – Blocking a brain enzyme called soluble epoxide hydrolase in mice helped curb the inflammation associated with the development and progression of Parkinson’s Disease.
NIEHS continues to support a wide variety of research projects focused on inflammation and its role in wellness and disease.
Can we prevent chronic inflammation and associated diseases using the above knowledge?
Think of inflammation as the body’s natural response to protect itself against harm.
Chronic inflammation can also occur in response to other unwanted substances in the body, such as toxins from cigarette smoke or an excess of fat cells.
Inside arteries, inflammation helps kick off atherosclerosis-the buildup of fatty, cholesterol-rich plaque.
A simple blood test called the hsCRP test can measure C-reactive protein, which is a marker for inflammation, including arterial inflammation.
Nearly 25 years ago, Harvard researchers found that men with higher CRP levels-approximately 2 milligrams per liter or greater-had three times the risk of heart attack and twice the risk of stroke as men with little or no chronic inflammation.
They also found that people with the greatest degree of arterial inflammation benefited the most from aspirin, a drug that helps prevent blood clots and also damps down inflammation.
Like aspirin, statins also appear to work particularly well in people with arterial inflammation.
Possible Causes What are the most common causes of inflammation?
Some lifestyle factors also contribute to inflammation in the body.
Supplements: Certain vitamins and supplements may reduce inflammation and enhance repair.
Some research shows that people who follow a Mediterranean diet have lower levels of inflammation in their bodies.
Inflammation is an essential part of your body’s healing process.
Chronic inflammation is a symptom of other health conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis.
You can reduce inflammation by eating anti-inflammatory foods and managing stress.
Very generally speaking, inflammation is the body’s immune system’s response to an irritant.
If the inflammation is severe, it can cause general reactions in the body.
When an inflammation occurs in your body, many different immune system cells may be involved.
The increased blood flow also allows more immune system cells to be carried to the injured tissue, where they help with the healing process.
The inflammatory mediators have yet another function: They make it easier for immune system cells to pass out of the small blood vessels, so that more of them can enter the affected tissue.
The immune system cells also cause more fluid to enter the inflamed tissue, which is why it often swells up.
In some diseases the immune system fights against the body’s own cells by mistake, causing harmful inflammations.
Chronic inflammation is aslower and generally less severe form of inflammation.
The specific symptoms you have depend on where in your body the inflammation is and what’s causing it.
Long-term inflammation can lead to a number of symptoms and affect your body in many ways.
The ESR test is rarely performed alone, as it doesn’t help pinpoint specific causes of inflammation.
If your doctor believes the inflammation is due to viruses or bacteria, they may perform other specific tests.
If your inflammation is due to an underlying autoimmune condition, your treatment options will vary.
Inflammation is a normal and natural part of your body’s immune response.
You can think of acute inflammation as the “Good” kind because it helps us heal, while chronic inflammation is the “Bad” kind because of its association with chronic disease.
Acute Inflammation Acute inflammation is typically caused by injuries, like a sprained ankle, or by illnesses, like bacterial infections and common viruses.
Chronic Inflammation Chronic, long-term inflammation can last for years or even an entire lifetime.
Scientists don’t know why chronic inflammation happens, as it doesn’t seem to serve a purpose like acute inflammation.
Chronic inflammation often progresses quietly, with few independent symptoms.
Inflammation causes pain because swelling pushes on sensitive nerve endings, sending pain signals to the brain.
While inflammation is a normal immune system response, long-term inflammation can be damaging.
Inflammation lasting 2-6 weeks is designated subacute inflammation.
Chronic inflammation is inflammation that lasts for months or years.
Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings.
In general, acute inflammation is mediated by granulocytes, whereas chronic inflammation is mediated by mononuclear cells such as monocytes and lymphocytes.
Specific patterns of acute and chronic inflammation are seen during particular situations that arise in the body, such as when inflammation occurs on an epithelial surface, or pyogenic bacteria are involved.
Purulent inflammation: Inflammation resulting in large amount of pus, which consists of neutrophils, dead cells, and fluid.
Although the processes involved are identical to tissue inflammation, systemic inflammation is not confined to a particular tissue but involves the endothelium and other organ systems.
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Reactive ion etching is a high resolution mechanism for etching materials using reactive gas discharges.
One major advantage to RIE over other forms of etching is that the process can be designed to be highly anisotropic, allowing for much finer resolution and higher aspect ratios.
Main article: P5000 RIE. The P5000 is a 3 chamber tool designed for production etching.
The glass etcher excels at deep etching of fused silica but it also has a nearly vertical SiO2 etch.
Deep reactive ion etching, while often referring specifically to the Bosch process, generally is any RIE used to etch high aspect ratio features.
The STS Glass Etcher is a DGRIE tool for high aspect ratio etching of silicon dioxide, glass, and fused silica.
The reactive species are chosen for their ability to react chemically with the material being etched.
Reactive Ion Etching uses a combination of chemical and physical reactions to remove material from a substrate; it is the simplest process that is capable of directional etching.
A highly anisotropic etching process can be achieved in RIE through the application of energetic ion bombardment of the substrate during the plasma chemical etch.
The RIE process thus provides the benefits of highly anisotropic etching due to the directionality of the ions bombarding the substrate surface as they get accelerated towards the negatively biased substrate, combined with high etch rates due to the chemical activity of the reactive species concurrently impinging on the substrate surfaces.
The synergistic effect of ion bombardment on increased etch rates in the presence of chemically active species was first demonstrated and explained by Coburn and Winters, where they showed the significantly higher silicon etch rate in the presence of both Ar+ ion beam and XeF2 gas compared to either the Ar+ ion beam or the XeF2 gas only as illustrated in Figure 1.
In the RIE process, the ions carry sufficient energy to break the chemical bonds of the atoms in the substrate that they impinge upon lowering the activation energy for the chemical etching reactions and thus increasing the reaction rates with the reactive neutrals that are also incident on the substrate surface.
In certain etching chemistries, there may be reaction byproducts that are formed on the surface and act as inhibitors for the chemical etch processes.
Thus RIE is sometimes also referred as Ion-Enhanced Etching or Reactive and Ion Etching.
We had the honour to discuss with Dr Oscar Kennedy, UCLQ Postdoctoral Fellow, and Dr Wing Ng, Senior Research Fellow, from University College London about their latest research projects and how they use our PlasmaPro® 80 RIE system.
Dr Oscar Kennedy has used PlasmaPro RIE system to create superconducting circuit by etching the superconducting NbN film, whereas Dr Wing Ng has used the RIE system to accurately pattern a 50 nm gap with smooth sidewalls between a pair of waveguides for chip‑based optical buffers.
Reactive-ion etching is an etching technology used in microfabrication.
RIE is a type of dry etching which has different characteristics than wet etching.
The types and amount of gas used vary depending upon the etch process; for instance, sulfur hexafluoride is commonly used for etching silicon.
Very high plasma densities can be achieved, though etch profiles tend to be more isotropic.
Because of the large voltage difference, the positive ions tend to drift toward the wafer platter, where they collide with the samples to be etched.
Due to the mostly vertical delivery of reactive ions, reactive-ion etching can produce very anisotropic etch profiles, which contrast with the typically isotropic profiles of wet chemical etching.
Etch conditions in an RIE system depend strongly on the many process parameters, such as pressure, gas flows, and RF power.
Reactive ion etching is a directional etching process utilizing ion bombardment to remove material.
The most notable difference between reactive ion etching and isotropic plasma etching is the etch direction.
The plasma will etch in a downward direction with almost no sideways etching.
Plasma Etch provides superior equipment for virtually all plasma processing applications, and we’re proud to say that we have some of the most effective plasma etching systems in the industry.
Faster etching can also be achieved by raising the temperature of the chamber during the reactive ion etch process.
We offer temperature controlled systems that can either raise the temperature for faster etching times or lower the temperature for products with temperature sensitive components.
We build a wide range of reactive ion etching systems to ensure that your size, volume, and etching requirements are covered.
Bryan Janaskie Shuk Yin Chuk ENEE 416 Reactive-ion Etching VS Deep Reactive-ion Etching Reactive-ion etching and deep reactive-ion etching are both dry etching techniques used in microelectromechanical systems fabrication.
The etch depths for RIE is limited to around 10um at a rate up to 1um/min, while DRIE can etch up to 600um or more with rates up to 20u/min.
Reactive ion etching RIE combines the plasma and sputter etching processes.
F based plasmas are used for more isotropic etching while Cl and Br are used for more anisotropic etching.
The combination of the chemical etching, which is isotropic and the physical etching, which is anisotropic allows a wide range of ability in molding the anisotropy of the etching.
RIE has a lower etch rate compared to DRIE, lower selectivity and can cause Figure 2 Reff Etching chemistries surface damage to the wafer.
The process can easily be used to etch completely through a silicon substrate, and etch rates are 3-4 times higher than wet etching.
Plasma etching is a very prominent method of removing materials from a wafer surface.
The etching is carried out in a specialized process equipment called the plasma etcher.
Inside the plasma etcher, gas species are broken up by the electric field, creating active gaseous radicals that are electrically charged.
In general, physical etching is more directional and anisotropic, whereas chemical etching is isotropic and material selective.
If the electrode holding the wafer is grounded, the etching is called plasma etching.
If the wafer is fixed to an electrode on which AC bias is applied, the etching is called reactive ion etching Compared with plasma etching, reactive ion etching is more physical in nature and its etch rate distribution is more anisotropic.
A deep reactive ion etching process is a special class of reactive ion etching, using special processing equipment, gas mixture, and recipe.
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Inductively coupled plasma ionizationICP is an atmospheric pressure ionization method, but unlike the previously mentioned atmospheric pressure ionization methods, ICP is a hard ionization method, which results in complete sample atomization during sample ionization.
The potential of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is affected by polyatomic interferences for some mineral elements that can be overcome by different sample introduction methods or separating procedures with chelating resins.
2.3 Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopyICP-OES, also referred to as ICP-AES, utilizes a plasma torch, a device that causes gas to ionize and become electrically conductive in a state known as plasma.
Inductively coupled plasmaInductively coupled plasma.
Despite these challenges, the multiple collector inductively coupled plasma isotope ratio mass spectrometer is proving capable of revealing subtle differences in the isotopic abundances of many elements that were previously thought to have uniform terrestrial isotopic composition.
12.1.1 Inductively coupled plasma as an ion sourceInductively coupled plasmas.
4.1 Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and mass spectrometry.
An inductively coupled plasma or transformer coupled plasma is a type of plasma source in which the energy is supplied by electric currents which are produced by electromagnetic induction, that is, by time-varying magnetic fields.
The high temperature of the plasma allows the determination of many elements, and in addition, for about 60 elements degree of ionization in the torch exceeds 90%. The ICP torch consumes ca.
The ICPs have two operation modes, called capacitive mode with low plasma density and inductive mode with high plasma density, and E to H heating mode transition occurs with external inputs.
Plasma electron temperatures can range between ~6,000 K and ~10,000 K, and are usually several orders of magnitude greater than the temperature of the neutral species.
Argon ICP plasma discharge temperatures are typically ~5,500 to 6,500 K and are therefore comparable to that reached at the surface of the sun.
As a result, ICP discharges have wide applications where a high-density plasma is needed.
By contrast, in a capacitively coupled plasma, the electrodes are often placed inside the reactor and are thus exposed to the plasma and subsequent reactive chemical species.
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is an elemental analysis technology capable of detecting most of the periodic table of elements at milligram to nanogram levels per liter.
It is used in a variety of industries including, but not limited to, environmental monitoring, geochemical analysis, metallurgy, pharmaceutical analysis, and clinical research.
ICP-MS systems are powerful analytical instruments; to obtain the best quality of data from these instruments, sample preparation and introduction methods must be performed with care.
Learn which sample types can be analyzed by ICP-MS and what sample preparation and introduction conditions must be considered.
Know how ICP-MS data are generated inside the mass analyzer, prior to being collected for analysis.
Recognize and correct for factors that interfere with accurate ICP-MS data analysis.
Understand the systems and technology that drive ICP-MS systems.
More recently, other types of electrical discharges, namely plasmas have been used as atomization/ excitation sources for AES. These techniques include inductively coupled plasma and direct coupled plasma.
Current plasma sources provide a much easier method of handling liquid and gaseous samples.
An inductively coupled plasma can be generated by directing the energy of a radio frequency generator into a suitable gas, usually ICP argon.
The temperature within the plasma ranges from 6,000-10,000 K. A long, well-defined tail emerges from the top of the high temperature plasma on the top of the torch.
The excitation area is situated in the crook of the tripod and it has a temperature of 6,000 K. To increase the current density and thus the plasma temperature it is necessary to squeeze the plasma in order to decrease the current cross section.
Inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectroscopy is a type of emission spectroscopy that uses the inductively coupled plasma to produce excited atoms and ions to emit electromagnetic radiation at wavelengths characteristic of a particular element.
It has also be referred to as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, where it is widely used in minerals processing to provide the data on grades of various ore streams for the construction of mass balances.
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Oxford Instruments is a leading provider of high technology tools and systems for research and industry.
We design and manufacture equipment that can fabricate, analyse and manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular level.
MARKETS & APPLICATIONS Plasma technology is used in the fabrication of most semiconductor devices created today across a wide range of industries.
It is able to provide unique solutions for the creation and manipulation of matter with atomic-scale accuracy.
WORLD-LEADING SYSTEMS High-performance, reliable and flexible systems across several etching & deposition technologies.
Systems range from single load-lock R&D systems to full clusterable production systems for high volume manufacturing.
A takeover approach for Oxford Instruments by a long-established listed counterpart based in Surrey has been pulled due to the “Significant uncertainty in global economic conditions” brought about by the war in Ukraine.
Last week, Spectris made a non-binding indicative cash and share proposal for Oxford Instruments.
The terms of the deal – which Oxford Instruments shed light on after share price movement – valued each Oxford Instruments share at £31.
“Therefore, discussions regarding the possible offer by Spectris for the entire issued and to be issued share capital of Oxford Instruments have been terminated,” it said.
“Spectris chief executive Andrew Heath added:”Oxford Instruments is a quality company and the strategic and financial rationale for a combination of our businesses is highly compelling.
In its own statement, Oxford Instruments said: “The proposal was unsolicited and the board continues to believe that Oxford has a clear and compelling strategy to achieve growth and create value for shareholders over the medium-term.”
Oxford Instruments is the parent company to a number of organisations including Andor, Asylum Research, Imaris and Plasma Technology.
The proposal, which was made on Friday, followed a series of earlier proposals from Spectris, the first of which was received on 11 February, the company said.
Shareholders would receive 1,950p in cash plus 1,150p in new Spectris shares for each of their shares.
“Discussions between the parties remain ongoing. A further announcement will be made as and when appropriate.”
At 1545 GMT, Oxford Instruments shares were up 33% at 2,680p, while Spectris shares were down 8% at 2,833p.
“Spectris chief executive Andrew Heath said:”A combination of Spectris and Oxford Instruments would bring together two highly complementary businesses and create a leading global player in precision measurement.
“Oxford Instruments’ highly attractive, differentiated technologies are leaders in their fields and, combined with our own, will deliver a significantly enhanced value proposition for customers. The Spectris board believes that a combination of our businesses will deliver a stronger future for both companies as a UK champion in the high technology instrumentation sector, and create immediate and long-term value for shareholders.”
Oxford Instruments plc is a United Kingdom manufacturing and research company that designs and manufactures tools and systems for industry and research.
The company is headquartered in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England, with sites in the United Kingdom, United States, Europe, and Asia.
The company was founded by Sir Martin Wood in 1959 with help from his wife Audrey Wood to manufacture superconducting magnets for use in scientific research, starting in his garden shed in Northmoor Road, Oxford, England.
It was the first substantial commercial spin-out company from the University of Oxford and was first listed on the London Stock Exchange in 1983.
It had a pioneering role in the development of magnetic resonance imaging, providing the first superconducting magnets for this application.
The first commercial MRI whole body scanner was manufactured at its Osney Mead factory in Oxford in 1980 for installation at Hammersmith Hospital, London.
Oxford Instruments was not able to capitalise on these inventions itself, granting royalty-free license to Philips and General Electric whilst developing a joint venture with Siemens in 1989: this was dissolved in 2004.
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Carbon Capture & Storage HELPING MEET THE UNITED STATES’ NET-ZERO GOALS In response to the world’s climate crisis, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fossil Energy and Carbon Management is investing in carbon management technologies to help the nation achieve net-zero emissions by 2050 while also minimizing the environmental impacts of fossil fuel generation and use.
One of FECM’s key priority areas is carbon capture and storage.
CCS is a method used to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and can help achieve deep decarbonization in existing power and industrial sectors.
TOTAL U.S. ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN 2020 + COAL + PETROLEUM = NATURAL GAS 79% CCS Is the only process that can deliver deep emissions reductions in hard-to-reduce industrial sectors, such as steel, fertilizer, and cement.
Will help drive the critical energy transition needed to achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.
These projects will advance point-source CCS technologies that can capture at least 95 percent of CO2 emissions generated from natural gas power and industrial facilities that produce commodities, such as cement and steel.
LEARN MORE about FECM’s carbon management efforts by visiting the FECM website and signing up for official news announcements.
Carbon capture and storage is the process of capturing waste carbon dioxide from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants.
Transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.
The aim is to prevent the release of large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere.
The possibility of capturing carbon dioxide greenhouse gas, an approach known as carbon capture and storage, could help mitigate global warming.
The strategy is to trap carbon dioxide where it is produced at power plants that burn fossil fuels and at factories so that the greenhouse gas isn’t spewed into the air.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated that catching carbon at a modern conventional power plant could reduce emissions to the atmosphere by approximately 80-90% compared to a plant that doesn’t have the technology to catch carbon.
To adapt power plants to catch carbon dioxide, absorption towers would need to replace smokestacks.
Make carbon easy to catch: Fossil fuels burned in pure oxygen instead of air produce exhaust that is mostly carbon dioxide and water vapor.
Old oil fields can’t fit that much carbon dioxide and once more oil extracted from the oil field is burned, it adds more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
A power plant set up with a way to store carbon dioxide in minerals would need 60-180% more energy than a power plant without.
ExxonMobil is the leader in carbon capture, with current carbon capture capacity totaling about 9 million tons per year.
Supporting policies that can reduce emissions Deploying carbon capture and storage technology to reduce emissions is critical to achieving the goals laid out in the Paris Agreement.
Industry support for large-scale carbon capture and storage continues to gain momentum in Houston HOUSTON, Texas – Three additional companies have announced their support for exploring the implementation of large-scale carbon capture and storage technology in and around the Houston industrial area.
An environmental solution with economic benefits As decarbonization solutions continue to scale up around the world, carbon capture and storage offers an opportunity to create a vast network of new jobs, spark billions in economic development and generate infrastructure investments around large industrial hubs.
Rock solid: A top engineer talks carbon storage safety Carbon capture and storage is a technology that safely captures CO2 at industrial sources, transports it and injects it permanently deep into the earth, diverting it from the atmosphere and limiting the impact it has on the environment.
Large-scale carbon capture opportunities are in the works around the world, from Houston to Rotterdam to Singapore.
Today, that means taking a leading role in providing the products that enable modern life, reducing carbon emissions and developing needed technologies to advance a lower-carbon emissions future.
Contrary to the indirect forms of sequestrations like forestation or enhanced ocean uptake of CO2 which focusses on removing CO2 from atmosphere, CCS relies on avoiding atmospheric emissions altogether.
1.1 MAIN DRIVERS OF CO2 EMISSIONS The below mentioned identity proves useful understanding the main drivers of CO2 emissions.
In CO2 emissions = GDP x x Where, GDP- gross domestic product; measure of size of economy Energy consumption/ unit GDP- measure of ‘energy intensity’ of economy, hence policies are aimed at reducing CO2 emissions through increased energy efficiency like setting a standard for fuel economy in cars or energy standards for appliances.
2.1 CHEMICAL & PHYSICAL ABSORPTION OF CO2 In most coal burning power plants for flue gas streams with either low or moderate concentration of CO2, so far the best capture method is ‘absorption’.
Although the chemical absorption can remove CO2 at low concentration, but breaking the chemical bonds between the solvent and CO2 involves a lot of energy.
Once the nitrogen is removed from the process, flue gas streams would eventually have a higher concentration of CO2, thus eliminating the need for the costly CO2 capture.
The CO2 utilized in these industries currently comes from natural formations, so if the captured CO2 is put to use then it would result in a net reduction of carbon emission.
Most carbon capture technologies aim to stop at least 90% of the CO2 in smokestacks from reaching the atmosphere.
As the technology approaches 100% efficiency, it gets more expensive and takes more energy to capture additional CO2.
Carbon capture and storage is any of several technologies that trap carbon dioxide emitted from large industrial plants before this greenhouse gas can enter the atmosphere.
CCS could capture more CO2, and thus do more to combat climate change, if industries and governments decide not only to invest in CCS at a large scale but also to pay extra to maximize its potential.
“Thirty years ago, people were still learning about the climate and how much CO2 we needed to get out. So getting 90 percent of the CO2 out of a coal plant was pretty good,” Herzog says.
From an engineering perspective, it is easier to capture carbon from a gas with a higher concentration of CO2 because more molecules of carbon dioxide are flowing past the scrubbers.
A carbon price would be one way to create those incentives, by taxing plants on whatever CO2 enters the atmosphere.
Carbon capture and storage could represent one of the best solutions for achieving a net-zero future while still meeting the world’s growing energy needs.
As the world struggles to wean itself off fossil fuels, carbon capture and storage could represent a viable solution for transitioning to a net-zero future.
The U.S. energy sector is already ahead of the curve when it comes to carbon sequestration.
More than 50% of the world’s carbon capture capacity is in the U.S., and that share could increase.
The U.S. represents more than half of global carbon capture capacity.
One underappreciated opportunity is to apply carbon capture at large stationary sources, such as fossil fuel-fired power plants.
For more Morgan Stanley Research on carbon capture and storage, ask your Morgan Stanley representative or Financial Advisor for the full report, “The Turbulence of the Transition”.
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As the source of available carbon in the carbon cycle, atmospheric carbon dioxide is the primary carbon source for life on Earth and its concentration in Earth’s pre-industrial atmosphere since late in the Precambrian has been regulated by photosynthetic organisms and geological phenomena.
Baker’s yeast produces carbon dioxide by fermentation of sugars within the dough, while chemical leaveners such as baking powder and baking soda release carbon dioxide when heated or if exposed to acids.
Carbon dioxide is used in many consumer products that require pressurized gas because it is inexpensive and nonflammable, and because it undergoes a phase transition from gas to liquid at room temperature at an attainable pressure of approximately 60 bar, allowing far more carbon dioxide to fit in a given container than otherwise would.
Carbon dioxide extinguishers work well on small flammable liquid and electrical fires, but not on ordinary combustible fires, because they do not cool the burning substances significantly, and when the carbon dioxide disperses, they can catch fire upon exposure to atmospheric oxygen.
As the concentration of carbon dioxide increases in the atmosphere, the increased uptake of carbon dioxide into the oceans is causing a measurable decrease in the pH of the oceans, which is referred to as ocean acidification.
Contrary to the long-standing view that they are carbon neutral, mature forests can continue to accumulate carbon and remain valuable carbon sinks, helping to maintain the carbon balance of Earth’s atmosphere.
The carbon dioxide content of the blood is often given as the partial pressure, which is the pressure which carbon dioxide would have had if it alone occupied the volume.
In Brief: Human activities have profoundly increased carbon dioxide levels in Earth’s atmosphere.
Carbon dioxide is an important heat-trapping gas, which is released through human activities such as deforestation and burning fossil fuels, as well as natural processes such as respiration and volcanic eruptions.
The first graph shows atmospheric CO2 levels measured at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, in recent years, with the average seasonal cycle removed.
The second graph shows CO2 levels during the last three glacial cycles, as reconstructed from ice cores.
Since the beginning of the industrial era, human activities have raised atmospheric concentrations of CO2 by nearly 49%. This is more than what had happened naturally over a 20,000 year period.
The time series below shows global distribution and variation of the concentration of mid-tropospheric carbon dioxide in parts per million.
The overall color of the map shifts toward the red with advancing time due to the annual increase of CO2.
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A coalition of businesses, government agencies and nonprofits is eyeing a section of southeastern Ohio for the storage of carbon dioxide captured from factories and power plants.
The partnership, the Midwest Regional Carbon Initiative, involves several organizations including the Columbus-based research nonprofit Battelle and the Norwegian energy company Equinor, which has oil and gas operations in Pennsylvania.
Tax incentives encouraging the use of carbon capture are on rise, and government agencies see carbon capture and storage as a way to achieve President Joe Biden’s goal of cutting the nation’s carbon emissions in half by 2030.
Representatives of Battelle and Equinor say the geography in southeastern Ohio is ideal for carbon storage.
Tax credits for carbon capture are currently worth $35 to $50 per ton of CO2 captured, he noted.
A recent study from the watchdog group Global Witness found that a carbon capture system on a Canadian coal-fired power plant owned by oil giant Shell caught only 48% of the facility’s carbon dioxide, less than the 90% Shell boasted when it installed the system.
Proponents of carbon capture say it will become cheaper and more efficient as more researchers study its application and more carbon emitters use it.
In preparation for what could be a new avenue in California’s fight against climate change, the state’s first environmental review of a carbon capture and sequestration project kicked off last Friday in Kern County.
The review will focus on a plan by local oil producer California Resources Corp. to gather carbon dioxide from various industrial sources and bury it in depleted oil reservoirs using half a dozen injector wells 26 miles southwest of Bakersfield in the Lost Hills Oil Field.
The project is the furthest along of several such proposals geared toward helping California reach its goal of carbon neutrality by 2045.
It would earn state and federal financial incentives if operated as envisioned by Santa Clarita-based CRC. Carbon TerraVault I, as the carbon capture and sequestration project is known, would bury more than 1 million metric tons of CO2 per year – the equivalent of taking 200,000 passenger vehicles off the road – up to a total of 48 million tons.
“CCS projects can have immediate and long-lasting environmental, economic, and employment benefits to our nearby communities – and we are excited our first CCS project EIR is kicking off in Kern County,” CRC said in an emailed statement.
Lorelei Oviatt, Kern’s top planner and director of the county’s Planning and Natural Resources Department, confirmed the review that began Friday is the first for a CCS project in California.
Public input on the project’s draft review is due by 5 p.m. April 4.
A CO2 blood test measures the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood.
Too much or too little carbon dioxide in the blood can indicate a health problem.
Other names: carbon dioxide content, CO2 content, carbon dioxide blood test, bicarbonate blood test, bicarbonate test, total CO2; TCO2; carbon dioxide content; CO2 content; bicarb; HCO3.
A CO2 blood test is often part of a series of tests called an electrolyte panel.
Your health care provider may have ordered a CO2 blood test as part of your regular checkup or if you have symptoms of an electrolyte imbalance.
If your health care provider has ordered more tests on your blood sample, you may need to fast for several hours before the test.
Some prescription and over-the-counter medicines can increase or decrease the amount of carbon dioxide in your blood.
Carbon dioxide,, a colourless gas having a faint sharp odour and a sour taste.
At ordinary temperatures, carbon dioxide is quite unreactive; above 1,700 °C it partially decomposes into carbon monoxide and oxygen.
Ammonia reacts with carbon dioxide under pressure to form ammonium carbamate, then urea, an important component of fertilizers and plastics.
Carbon dioxide is slightly soluble in water, forming a weakly acidic solution.
Carbon dioxide is used as a refrigerant, in fire extinguishers, for inflating life rafts and life jackets, blasting coal, foaming rubber and plastics, promoting the growth of plants in greenhouses, immobilizing animals before slaughter, and in carbonated beverages.
Ignited magnesium continues to burn in carbon dioxide, but the gas does not support the combustion of most materials.
Prolonged exposure of humans to concentrations of 5 percent carbon dioxide may cause unconsciousness and death.
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Any one of the air purifiers below should improve your indoor air quality, filter out smoke and airborne particles and provide fresh air.
While the ionic filtration technology isn’t a huge plus, it also won’t produce significant ozone, as tested by the California EPA. If you want an air purifier for a midsize room, Coway’s HEPA air purifier is one of the best air purification options around with one of the most adventurous looks.
According to Shaughnessy, who has a doctorate in chemical engineering, most air cleaners run your air through a filter designed to catch indoor air pollutants like dust particles and dust mites you might otherwise inhale.
The Molekule presents a complicated problem: Its maker claims its proprietary PECO air filter destroys airborne particles much smaller than 0.03 micrometer, but it filters air at such a slow rate that, even if the company’s claims are accurate, it cleans the air very inefficiently compared with HEPA air purification models.
The Dyson TP04 air purifier features a handful of extra goodies, including an oscillating fan to help circulate clean air around larger rooms, an app with home air quality data and a small but nifty display.
Depending on your health needs, or if you live in a home with many sources of air pollution, cleaner air and better air flow might really make a big difference for you or your children.
Air purifiers generally use fans to blow the air inside the room through an internal filter or chamber, which captures particles floating in the air.
Using ACH to categorize air purifiers overcomes a common problem in the way manufacturers rate their air purifiers in their advertising.
After a sixth round of testing, encompassing 47 different air purifiers and more than 200 hours of lab and real-world trials, the Coway AP-1512HH Mighty remains our pick as the best air purifier for most people.
Molekule Air and Air Mini: The worst air purifiers we’ve ever tested.
Now-withdrawn company literature gave us an an idea of its volumetric limits: The company used to claim that the Air provides “a full replacement” of the air in a 600-square-foot room in “Under an hour” and in a 150-square-foot room in “Under 15 minutes.” That wording suggested that the Air has a maximum ACH of around 4 in a 150-square-foot room with 8-foot ceilings.
These results rank the Molekule Air Mini as the second-worst air purifier we have ever tested, behind-you guessed it-the Molekule Air.
Purifiers work best in a contiguous space; if you want to clean the air in both the living room and a bedroom, for example, it’s best to get a purifier for each room or to move a single purifier around with you.
HEPA stands for high-efficiency particulate air and refers to the fact that HEPA filters let air pass through with little resistance while quickly capturing almost all the particles the air is carrying.
An air purifier or air cleaner is a device which removes contaminants from the air in a room to improve indoor air quality.
One fluid dynamic modelling study from January 2021 suggests that operating air purifiers or air ventilation systems in confined spaces, such as an elevator, during their occupancy by multiple people leads to air circulation effects that could, theoretically, enhance viral transmission.
Active air purifiers release negatively charged ions into the air, causing pollutants to stick to surfaces, while passive air purification units use air filters to remove pollutants.
HEPA purifiers, which filter all the air going into a clean room, must be arranged so that no air bypasses the HEPA filter.
Although the capture rate of a MERV filter is lower than that of a HEPA filter, a central air system can move significantly more air in the same period of time.
Plasma air purifiers are a form of ionizing air purifier.
Air purifiers may be rated on a variety of factors, including Clean Air Delivery Rate; efficient area coverage; air changes per hour; energy usage; and the cost of the replacement filters.
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Ituran Location & Control is set to give its latest quarterly earnings report on Monday, 2022-03-07.
Analysts estimate that Ituran Location & Control will report an earnings per share of $0.46.
Ituran Location & Control bulls will hope to hear the company to announce they’ve not only beaten that estimate, but also to provide positive guidance, or forecasted growth, for the next quarter.
New investors should note that it is sometimes not an earnings beat or miss that most affects the price of a stock, but the guidance.
Last quarter the company beat EPS by $0.03, which was followed by a 6.12% drop in the share price the next day.
Shares of Ituran Location & Control were trading at $21.31 as of March 02.
Over the last 52-week period, shares are up 3.45%. Given that these returns are generally positive, long-term shareholders are likely bullish going into this earnings release.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2020.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending June 30, 2020.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending March 31, 2020.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending December 31, 2019.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2019.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending June 30, 2019.
ITRN earnings call for the period ending March 31, 2019.
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AUTOMOTIVE. Driving a Safer Future Modern vehicles are becoming mobile data centers.
Advanced emerging features such as collision detection, lane departure warnings, and autonomous driving require massive amounts of secure data processing, networking and storage.
Working closely with leading automotive manufacturers and technology partners, Marvell is delivering automotive chipset innovations for a safer future.
Marvell Technology, Inc. is an American company, based in Delaware, which develops and produces semiconductors and related technology.
In July 2016, Marvell appointed Matt Murphy as its new President and CEO. On July 6, 2018, Marvell completed its acquisition of Cavium, Inc. On the same day, it announced the appointment of Syed Ali, Brad Buss and Edward Frank to the Marvell Board of Directors.
In September 2019, Marvell completed the acquisition of Aquantia Corp. In April 2021, Marvell completed the acquisition of Inphi Corporation.
Following Marvell’s 2019 acquisition of Avera Semiconductor, Marvell offers custom ASIC tailored to clients’ specific design goals.
At the time of the announcement, the co-acting regional director of the SEC’s San Francisco office stated, among other things, that the SEC did not believe that the lack of cooperation and remediation shown by Marvell merited much credit in terms being lenient with Marvell.
In December 2012, a Pittsburgh jury ruled that Marvell had infringed two patents by incorporating hard disk technology developed and owned by Carnegie Mellon University without a license.
On February 17, 2016, Marvell agreed to a settlement in which Marvell will pay Carnegie Mellon University $750,000,000.
PRNewswire/ – Marvell Technology, Inc., a leader in infrastructure semiconductor solutions, today reported financial results for the fourth fiscal quarter and the full fiscal year, ended January 29, 2022.
Non-GAAP net income for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 was $429 million.
“Marvell delivered record revenue of $1.34 billion. in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, growing 11 percent sequentially and 68 percent year over year, exceeding the midpoint of guidance. The Marvell team continued to rack up design wins, securing additional sockets at key customers leveraging our advanced technology platforms,” said Matt Murphy.
For the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, a non-GAAP tax rate of 5.0% has been applied to the non-GAAP financial results.
Marvell believes that the presentation of non-GAAP financial measures provides important supplemental information to management and investors regarding financial and business trends relating to Marvell’s financial condition and results of operations.
While Marvell uses non-GAAP financial measures as a tool to enhance its understanding of certain aspects of its financial performance, Marvell does not consider these measures to be a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Consistent with this approach, Marvell believes that disclosing non-GAAP financial measures to the readers of its financial statements provides such readers with useful supplemental data that, while not a substitute for GAAP financial measures, allows for greater transparency in the review of its financial and operational performance.
Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations in that they do not reflect all of the costs associated with the operations of Marvell’s business as determined in accordance with GAAP. As a result, you should not consider these measures in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of Marvell’s results as reported under GAAP. The exclusion of the above items from our GAAP financial metrics does not necessarily mean that these costs are unusual or infrequent.
Marvell Technology Inc. Market Price Of $63.41 Offers The Impression Of An Exciting Value Play – Invest Chronicle
Marvell Technology Inc. had a pretty favorable run when it comes to the market performance.
The 1-year high price for the company’s stock is recorded $91.78 on 01/04/22, with the lowest value was $60.96 for the same time period, recorded on 02/24/22.
Marvell Technology Inc. full year performance was 52.76%. Price records that include history of low and high prices in the period of 52 weeks can tell a lot about the stock’s existing status and the future performance.
Presently, Marvell Technology Inc. shares are logging -32.43% during the 52-week period from high price, and 67.22% higher than the lowest price point for the same timeframe.
Analysts verdict on Marvell Technology Inc. During the last month, 24 analysts gave the Marvell Technology Inc. a BUY rating, 2 of the polled analysts branded the stock as an OVERWEIGHT, 3 analysts were recommending to HOLD this stock, 1 of them gave the stock UNDERWEIGHT rating, and 0 of the polled analysts provided SELL rating.
In a similar fashion, Marvell Technology Inc. posted a movement of -0.05% for the period of last 100 days, recording 10,176,168 in trading volumes.
Raw Stochastic average of Marvell Technology Inc. in the period of last 50 days is set at 7.95%. The result represents downgrade in oppose to Raw Stochastic average for the period of the last 20 days, recording 14.22%. In the last 20 days, the company’s Stochastic %K was 25.92% and its Stochastic %D was recorded 29.93%. Let’s take a glance in the erstwhile performances of Marvell Technology Inc., multiple moving trends are noted.
Stockholders of record on Friday, April 8th will be given a dividend of 0.06 per share by the semiconductor company on Wednesday, April 27th. This represents a $0.24 annualized dividend and a dividend yield of 0.37%. The ex-dividend date is Thursday, April 7th. Marvell Technology has decreased its dividend payment by 9.1% over the last three years and has increased its dividend annually for the last 1 consecutive years.
Marvell Technology has a dividend payout ratio of 10.8% indicating that its dividend is sufficiently covered by earnings.
Marvell Technology last released its earnings results on Thursday, March 3rd. The semiconductor company reported $0.50 earnings per share for the quarter, beating the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $0.48 by $0.02.
Marvell Technology had a positive return on equity of 5.19% and a negative net margin of 10.48%. Marvell Technology’s revenue was up 68.3% compared to the same quarter last year.
Susquehanna Bancshares reiterated a “Buy” rating and issued a $100.00 target price on shares of Marvell Technology in a report on Thursday, February 24th. Wells Fargo & Company decreased their price target on Marvell Technology from $80.00 to $70.00 and set an “Equal weight” rating for the company in a report on Friday.
KGI Securities began coverage on Marvell Technology in a report on Tuesday, December 7th. They set an “Outperform” rating for the company.
Finally, The Goldman Sachs Group upgraded Marvell Technology from a “Neutral” rating to a “Buy” rating and lifted their target price for the stock from $63.00 to $95.00 in a research report on Friday, December 3rd. Four research analysts have rated the stock with a hold rating and twenty-five have given a buy rating to the company’s stock.
Marvell Technology Inc is near the top in its sector according to InvestorsObserver.
Marvell Technology Inc gets a 93 rank in the Technology sector.
Find out what this means to you and get the rest of the rankings on MRVL! What do These Ratings Mean? Trying to find the best stocks can be a daunting task.
Investors Observer* makes the entire process easier by using percentile rankings that allows you to easily find the stocks who have the strongest evaluations by analysts.
Not only are these scores easy to understand, but it is easy to compare stocks to each other.
You can find the best stock in technology or look for the sector that has the highest average score.
What’s Happening With Marvell Technology Inc Stock Today? Marvell Technology Inc stock is trading at $61.83 as of 1:11 PM on Monday, Mar 7, a drop of -$1.58, or -2.49% from the previous closing price of $63.41.
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Cancer is a disease in which cells in the body grow out of control.
When cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer.
Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may spread to lymph nodes or other organs in the body, such as the brain.
Cancer from other organs also may spread to the lungs.
Lung cancers usually are grouped into two main types called small cell and non-small cell.
These types of lung cancer grow differently and are treated differently.
Non-small cell lung cancer is more common than small cell lung cancer.
People who smoke have the greatest risk of lung cancer, though lung cancer can also occur in people who have never smoked.
Lung cancer typically doesn’t cause signs and symptoms in its earliest stages.
Smoking causes the majority of lung cancers – both in smokers and in people exposed to secondhand smoke.
Doctors believe smoking causes lung cancer by damaging the cells that line the lungs.
Over time, the damage causes cells to act abnormally and eventually cancer may develop.
Doctors divide lung cancer into two major types based on the appearance of lung cancer cells under the microscope.
Small cell lung cancer occurs almost exclusively in heavy smokers and is less common than non-small cell lung cancer.
Quitting smoking can have an overall positive effect on a person’s life expectancy, quality of life, and overall health after they receive a lung cancer diagnosis.
Although scientists have spent decades showing that smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer, little research has investigated what happens to those who continue to smoke following a lung cancer diagnosis.
This article explores what researchers have discovered about the benefits of quitting smoking after receiving a lung cancer diagnosis.
A 2021 study found that people who quit smoking following a diagnosis of lung cancer showed improvements in overall life expectancy compared with those who did not.
A small 2021 study showed that quitting smoking could help prevent the progression of lung cancer.
In an older study, researchers noted that quitting smoking can lead to several positive outcomes for the person, including improving the effectiveness of their lung cancer treatment.
Recent and longer standing research has shown that quitting smoking following a lung cancer diagnosis can benefit a person in several ways.
NEW YORK, March 7, 2022 /PRNewswire/ – The Lung Cancer Research Foundation and the EGFR Resisters, in their second year of a research award partnership, announce their intent to fund at least two new grants specific to EGFR positive lung cancer in 2022.In 2021, the EGFR Resisters funded one of LCRF’s Pilot Grants awarded to Yang Tian, PhD, from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, whose research project is titled “Targeting lung lineage plasticity to suppress Osimertinib-induced drug-tolerant persisters.” Although there has been an increase in progression-free survival in patients with EGFR-mutated lung cancer due to targeted therapy with EGFR TKIs, the cancer eventually develops acquired resistance.
The EGFR Resisters and its members are responding to the urgent need for additional research to combat treatment resistance by partnering with LCRF on a new oncogenic-driver specific grant track in 2022.
For the new grants available, the members of the EGFR Resisters have raised more than $200,000 for lung cancer research in 2021 and are targeting a total of $300,000 for 2022.”The passion and commitment of patient groups to advance lung cancer research is unmatched,” remarked Dennis Chillemi, Executive Director of LCRF. “The EGFR Resisters are trailblazers in this respect and have led the way for other patient groups to speed the advancement of research that will directly impact the survival of patients with lung cancer. LCRF is honored to be a partner with the EGFR Resisters in achieving this goal.”
About the Lung Cancer Research Foundation The Lung Cancer Research Foundation® is the leading nonprofit organization focused on funding innovative, high-reward research with the potential to extend survival and improve quality of life for people with lung cancer.
To date, LCRF has funded 394 research grants, totaling nearly $39 million, the highest amount provided by a nonprofit organization dedicated to funding lung cancer research.
With close to 3,500 members in almost 90 countries, the EGFR Resisters aims to improve outcomes for all those with EGFR positive lung cancer by supporting patients and caregivers, increasing awareness and education for community members, improving access to effective diagnosis and treatment, and accelerating and funding research.
The mission of the EGFR Resisters is to understand the unmet needs of the community and to use the strength of collaboration to drive important research questions and fund novel research and clinical trials.
In a recent review, authors outlined major factors inhibiting uptake of standardized, effective, and accessible low-dose CT screening for lung cancer throughout Europe.
One study conducted in 2002 “Reported an overall 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality after 6.5 years of follow-up when using LDCT compared to chest x-ray for lung cancer screening,” the authors wrote.
Similar to inclusion criteria outlined by CMS, most LDCT lung cancer screening trials select participants based on age and smoking status.
An additional barrier to increased LDCT screening uptake for lung cancer is weighing its benefit-harm ratio, as participants can be exposed to radiation during the scans.
Different screening frequency can be based on a person’s lung cancer risk or presence of baseline lung nodules and new nodules detected; however, the latter option is not supported by evidence from existing trials.
Because of these variations, the researchers propose implementation of lung cancer screening strategies should be tailored to each specific country with regard to cost per quality-adjusted life-year.
“A different approach to the use of AI in LDCT-lung cancer screening is lung nodule classification using radiomics or deep learning models to distinguish between benign and malignant nodules,” researchers added.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, since about 98-99% of all lung cancers are carcinomas, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Vaping may be a risk factor for lung cancer, but less than that of cigarettes, and further research is necessary due to the length of time it can take for lung cancer to develop following an exposure to carcinogens.
For nitrogen dioxide, an incremental increase of 10 parts per billion increases the risk of lung cancer by 14%. Outdoor air pollution is estimated to cause 1-2% of lung cancers.
Targeted therapy of lung cancer is growing in importance for advanced lung cancer.
Surgery might improve outcomes when added to chemotherapy and radiation in early-stage SCLC. The effectiveness of lung cancer surgery for people with stage I – IIA NSCLC is not clear, but weak evidence suggests that a combined approach of lung cancer resection and removing the mediastinal lymph nodes may improve survival compared to lung resection and a sample of mediastinal nodes.
The most effective intervention for avoiding death from lung cancer is to stop smoking; even people who already have lung cancer are encouraged to stop smoking.
Lung cancer is the third-most common cancer in the UK, and it is the most common cause of cancer-related death.
Lung cancer includes two main types: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer.
Smoking causes most lung cancers, but nonsmokers can also develop lung cancer.
Explore the links on this page to learn more about lung cancer treatment, prevention, screening, statistics, research, clinical trials, and more.
Related Articles – Summarized
Consistent mutational differences have not been defined based on ethnicity or smoking status, although the prevalence of oncogenic drivers might be anticipated to be higher in the rare never-smokers with SCLC than in tobacco users with SCLC. A growing number of reports have characterized the histological transformation of lung adenocarcinoma to an aggressive neuroendocrine phenotype resembling SCLC, which is associated with acquired resistance to inhibitors of EGFR or other tyrosine kinase receptors but, again, tumour sample numbers are too small to make strong conclusions regarding specific genetic or epigenetic alterations beyond the ubiquitous loss of p53 and RB in this transition-.
In addition to being involved in SCLC evolution and response to therapy, alterations in lineage plasticity and cell fate regulators may also influence the ability of SCLC tumours to develop from diverse cell types.
Cellular pathways affected in SCLCAlthough SCLC tumours are highly metastatic, how cell adhesion and cell migration are affected by the genetic and transcriptional changes in SCLC cells is not completely understood.
The CTC abundance in SCLC suggests that the circulation is a major route of metastatic transmission, although lymph node metastases are also frequent in patients with SCLC and in mouse models of SCLC,. Small clusters of malignant cells have been observed in both blood and lymphatic vessels in patients with SCLC: adhesion between CTCs in these small clusters may be an important aspect of cell survival during metastasis.
Basaloid carcinoma, a subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, shares the small cell size with SCLC and can be mistaken for SCLC in small or crushed biopsies.
The National Lung Screening Trial involved random assignment of over 53,000 individuals at risk for lung cancer to annual screening for 3 years with either annual low-dose CT or chest X-ray and detected SCLC tumours in 133 individuals.
The NELSON screening trial involved over 15,000 individuals at risk of lung cancer and confirmed an overall reduction in lung cancer mortality with annual low-dose CT screening, but data analyses specific to SCLC have not been reported.
Small Cell CarcinomaSmall cell carcinomas of the prostate are histologically identical with small cell carcinomas of the lung149,150.
Using immunohistochemical techniques, small cell components are negative for PSA and PAP. There are conflicting studies as to whether small cell carcinomas of the prostate are positive for thyroid transcription factor-1.The average survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of the prostate is less than 1 year.
Small Cell CarcinomaSmall cell carcinoma is one of the most uncommon variants of mammary carcinoma.
The diagnosis of small cell carcinoma should be made when metastatic disease from other sites, such as lung or Merkel cell carcinoma from skin, are excluded.
A recent study has shown that ERG can be used to distinguish primary bladder small cell carcinoma from prostate small cell carcinoma.
The stem cell theory thinks that small cell carcinoma of the bladder arises from multipotent stem cells, and this theory is supported by the observation that small cell carcinoma and other types of bladder carcinomas often coexist.
Many are associated with a component of conventional SCC. However, unlike most other HPV-related oropharyngeal carcinomas, HPV-related small cell carcinomas do not appear to be associated with a better prognosis than HPV-related SCC. Like small cell carcinoma arising in other organ systems, HPV-related small cell carcinoma of the oropharynx appears to be an aggressive disease with most patients developing distant metastases and dying from disease.
General Information About Small Cell Lung Cancer Key PointsSmall cell lung cancer is a disease in which malignant cells form in the tissues of the lung.
There are two types of lung cancer: small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
Stages of Small Cell Lung Cancer Key PointsAfter small cell lung cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the chest or to other parts of the body.
The following stages are used for small cell lung cancer: Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer.
If small cell lung cancer spreads to the brain, the cancer cells in the brain are actually lung cancer cells.
The following stages are used for small cell lung cancer: Limited-Stage Small Cell Lung CancerIn limited-stage, cancer is in the lung where it started and may have spread to the area between the lungs or to the lymph nodes above the collarbone.
Treatment of Extensive-Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment of Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.
Cancer that starts in the lung is called lung cancer.
So when lung cancer spreads to the brain, it’s still called lung cancer.
Call us at 800-227-2345 or see If You Have Non-small Cell Lung Cancer to learn more about non-small cell lung cancer.
In limited stage small cell lung cancer it’s most often used along with chemo to treat the tumor and lymph nodes in the chest.
Chemo is most often the main treatment for small cell lung cancer.
In most cases, you will not have surgery if you have small cell lung cancer.
Immunotherapy is treatment that either boosts your own immune system or uses man-made versions of parts of the immune system that attack the small cell lung cancer cells.
Small-cell lung cancer, sometimes called small-cell carcinoma, causes about 10%-15% of all lung cancer.
Small-Cell Lung Cancer CausesThe predominant cause of both small-cell lung cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer is tobacco smoking.
Small-cell lung cancer is more strongly linked to smoking than non-small cell lung cancer.
Those living with a smoker have about a 30% increase in the risk of developing non-small cell lung cancer and 60% increase risk for small cell lung cancer compared to people who are not exposed to secondhand smoke.
Samples of lymph nodes are taken from this area to look for cancer cells…Once the patient has been diagnosed with lung cancer, exams and tests are performed to find out whether the cancer has spread to other organs.
Extensive stage: In this stage, cancer has spread from the lung to other parts of the body…Small-Cell Lung Cancer TreatmentSome of the most commonly used medications for the treatment of persons with small-cell lung cancer are cisplatin, cyclophosphamide, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, irinotecan, lurbinectedin, paclitaxel, topotecan, and vincristine.
The 5-year survival rate is between 2% and 31%. People with small-cell lung cancer in the advanced stage cannot be cured, but treatments are available to improve the quality of life and treat any symptoms of the cancer or its treatment.
The two major types of lung cancer are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.
SCLC is the more aggressive form of lung cancer.
About 1 in 3 people with SCLC have limited stage when first diagnosed, according to the ACS.Extensive stage lung cancer.
If cancer cells are found in the fluid surrounding the lungs, the cancer will also be considered to be in the extensive stage.
The symptoms of SCLC usually don’t surface until the cancer has already progressed to a more advanced stage.
According to the American Lung Association, secondhand smoke can increase your risk for developing lung cancer by almost 30 percent.
Secondhand smoke causes more than 7,000 deaths from lung cancer each year.
Why are some cancers described as small cell and some as large cell? What do these terms mean? Answer From Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. The terms “Small cell” and “Large cell” are merely descriptive terms for the appearance of the cancer cells under the microscope.
An example is small cell lung cancer, prostate cancer, or neuroendocrine cancer of the pancreas.
Examples include skin cancer or any other type of cancer that starts in the lining of some organs, such as a bronchus of a lung.
This term means the cancer cells appear very abnormal.
The most common type of kidney cancer is classified as clear cell.
On the other hand, breast cancer rarely has a clear cell appearance.
So clear cells on a breast biopsy may indicate that the cancer didn’t originate in the breast but spread there from another area of the body, such as a kidney.