38 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-10

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Post Idea #1: Mammuthus primigenius

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Mammuthus Primigenius

The woolly mammoth of the ice age Mammuthus primigenius is more popularly known as the woolly mammoth that today is regarded as the poster animal for the ice age,‭ ‬a colloquial term for the Pleistocene period which saw a series of glaciations across the upper latitudes of the Northern hemisphere and an overall‭ ‬reduction in global temperatures.

The woolly mammoth like all mammoths is closely related to elephants,‭ ‬but features a number of special adaptations that helped it survive in the much colder latitudes of the northern hemisphere.

The tusks of woolly mammoths are thought by many to have grown so long and curved so that they could sweep off the fresh covering of snow and get at the grass underneath,‭ ‬something that has also been proposed for the woolly rhino Coelodonta that was also active in these open habitats at the same time as the woolly mammoth.

The trunk of the woolly mammoth had an upper lip that was larger than the lower,‭ ‬a feature often represented in cave art depicting woolly mammoths that has since been found preserved in at least one frozen specimen.

Extinction of Mammuthus primigenius Woolly mammoths suffered the same fate as most of the Pleistocene megafauna and seem to have become extinct through a combination of climate change and hunting from early humans.

A small island in the Arctic Ocean,‭ ‬the tundra here supported woolly mammoths till as recently as‭ ‬1700BP. 1 – Mammuthus primigenius, 2 – Mammuthus trogontherii, 3 – Mammuthus meridionalis, 4 – Mammuthus columbi, 5 – Mammut americanum, 6 – Mammuthus exilis.

W. R. Farrand – 1961.- Hair structure of the Woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius and the modern elephants, Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana.

Description: Mammuthus primigenius, or woolly mammoth, is in the same family as modern elephants.

It was relatively small for a mammoth growing to heights of about 9 feet.

Like today’s elephants, the upper incisors of woolly mammoths were greatly elongated to form tusks.

Woolly mammoth teeth were huge and flattened and were used for grinding vegetation.

Woolly mammoths had thick coats of shaggy, black hair for insulation in the cold, Ice Age, tundra climate.

A lot is known about the anatomy of woolly mammoths because frozen carcasses of these animals have been found in Siberia.

Early people painted and etched images of woolly mammoths on cave walls in France and Spain.

Woolly Mammoth

The woolly mammoth is a species of mammoth that lived during the Pleistocene until its extinction in the Holocene epoch.

The woolly mammoth began to diverge from the steppe mammoth about 800,000 years ago in East Asia.

DNA studies show that the Columbian mammoth was a hybrid between woolly mammoths and another lineage descended from steppe mammoths.

Within six weeks from 2005-2006, three teams of researchers independently assembled mitochondrial genome profiles of the woolly mammoth from ancient DNA, which allowed them to confirm the close evolutionary relationship between mammoths and Asian elephants.

These findings were the first evidence of hybrid speciation from ancient DNA. The study also found that genetic adaptations to cold environments, such as hair growth and fat deposits, were already present in the steppe mammoth lineage, and was not unique to woolly mammoths.

The habitat of the woolly mammoth supported other grazing herbivores such as the woolly rhinoceros, wild horses, and bison.

In 1864, Édouard Lartet found an engraving of a woolly mammoth on a piece of mammoth ivory in the Abri de la Madeleine cave in Dordogne, France.

A Prehistoric Elephant

The word “Mammoth” is mostly associated with the woolly mammoth which died out at the end of the last Ice Age.

The woolly mammoth was the only mammoth covered with long hair, and that’s why the majority of people think that all mammoths were the same.

A small population of mammoths survived on St. Paul Island, Alaska, up to 3750 BC, the mammoths that lived on Wrangel Island lived almost 2 thousand years longer – to 2000 BC. The tusks of the largest mammoths reached over 4 meters in length.

Mammoth meat was popular among prehistoric people, which has been proved by numerous cave paintings presenting pursuit scenes.

The Columbian mammoth and southern mammoth originated from it.

Russian scientists have found a frozen mammoth female that froze about 10 thousand years ago.

Mammoths – interesting factsThe first fully preserved mammoth was found in Siberia in 1901.

Definition, Size, Height, Picture, & Facts

Mammoth,, any member of an extinct group of elephants found as fossils in Pleistocene deposits over every continent except Australia and South America and in early Holocene deposits of North America.

The woolly, Northern, or Siberian mammoth is by far the best-known of all mammoths.

Scientific evidence suggests that small populations of woolly mammoths may have survived in North America until between 10,500 and 7,600 years ago.

The oldest preserved mammoth DNA, which also has the distinction of being the oldest known animal DNA, dates to more than one million years ago and may belong to a direct ancestor of the woolly mammoth.

Mammoths were sometimes trapped in ice crevasses and covered over; they were frozen, and their bodies were remarkably well preserved.

The North American imperial mammoth attained a shoulder height of 4 metres.

Remains of arctic plants have been found in the digestive tracts of frozen mammoth carcasses.

Post Idea #2: George Church

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George Church

In the fall of 1973, Church began research work at Duke University with assistant professor of biochemistry Sung-Hou Kim, work that continued a year later with Church in a graduate biochemistry program at Duke on an NSF fellowship.

Since 2007, George Church has served on the, Chinese life sciences company, BGI Group’s scientific advisory board.

In 2017, BGI established the George Church Institute of Regenesis, a research collaboration between Church’s lab and about a dozen staffers at BGI in China.

Church is known for his professional contributions in the sequencing of genomes and interpreting such data, in synthetic biology and genome engineering, and in an emerging area of neuroscience that proposes to map brain activity and establish a “Functional connectome.” Among these, Church is known for pioneering the specialized fields of personal genomics and synthetic biology.

Church is married to fellow Harvard Medical School faculty member in genetics Ting Wu. Church has been outspoken in his support of following a vegan lifestyle, for reasons concerned with health, and with environmental and moral issues.

David Ewing Duncan, 2010, “On a Mission to Sequence the Genomes of 100,000 People: The geneticist George Church advises or licenses technology to most companies involved in sequencing, The New York Times, 7 June 2010, see. Retrieved 26 February 2015. Jeffrey M. Perkel, 2011,”Charting the Course: Three gene jockeys share their thoughts on past and future tools of the trade,” in The Scientist, 1 October 2011.

Heidi Legg, 2014, “Harvard Professor George Church and the future of genomics,” at BetaBoston, a Boston Globe site, 25 December 2014, see.

George Church, Ph.D.

George leads Synthetic Biology at the Wyss Institute, where he oversees the directed evolution of molecules, polymers, and whole genomes to create new tools with applications in regenerative medicine and bio-production of chemicals.

Among his recent work at the Wyss is development of a technology for synthesizing whole genes, and engineering whole genomes, far faster, more accurate, and less costly than current methods.

George is widely recognized for his innovative contributions to genomic science and his many pioneering contributions to chemistry and biomedicine.

George invented the broadly applied concepts of molecular multiplexing and tags, homologous recombination methods, and array DNA synthesizers.

George is Professor of Genetics at Harvard Medical School and Professor of Health Sciences and Technology at Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

He is Director of the U.S. Department of Energy Technology Center and Director of the National Institutes of Health Center of Excellence in Genomic Science.

He has received numerous awards including the 2011 Bower Award and Prize for Achievement in Science from the Franklin Institute and election to the National Academy of Sciences and Engineering.

A little more than two years ago, serial tech entrepreneur Ben Lamm reached out to renowned Harvard geneticist George Church.

Now it’s a company with $15 million in seed funding from a variety of investors and Lamm as CEO. “We had about $100,000 over the last 15 years, which is way, way less than any other project in my lab, but not through lack of enthusiasm,” Church told CNBC. “It is by far the favorite story. We’ve never done a press release on it in all those years. It just comes up naturally in conversation.”

Until now, Church’s vision to revive the woolly mammoth was “Mainly dreaming and talking,” he said.

“The Asian elephant is an endangered species. And so we want to preserve it,” Church said.

The calf Colossal aims to create will look and behave like a woolly mammoth, Church explained.

The genetically modified elephant would be implanted into an engineered endometrium at first, and then would grow in a bag, which would look similar to the artificial womb that Philadelphia scientists used to grow a genetically engineered lamb in 2017, Church said.

If these revived woolly mammoths eventually repopulate the Arctic, they would take down small trees and help repopulate the grasses they thrive on, Church said.

George Church Aging Reversal Progress Update

George Church is a giant in genetics and has started many biotech companies.

Professor Church helped initiate the Human Genome Project in 1984 and the Personal Genome Project in 2005.

He has co-authored 592 papers, 143 patent publications & the book “Regenesis”.

Rejuvenate Bio CEO Dan Oliver, co-founded the company alongside George Church, Ph.D., and Noah Davidsohn, Ph.D., a former postdoctoral fellow in Church’s lab at Harvard and the company’s chief scientific officer.

Rejuvenate Bio recently raised more $10 million in its series A round to propel its gene therapy toward the market for the treatment of heart disease in dogs and toward the clinic for the treatment of aging-related conditions in humans, including heart failure, kidney failure, Type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Rejuvenate Bio’s treatment is a gene therapy that dials up expression of the genes sTGFbetaR2 and FGF21 to reduce levels of the cytokine TGF-beta1 and boost levels of the hormone FGF21, respectively.

Here is a link to the list of George Church lab papers.

George Church’S Woolly Mammoth Project

In ongoing research, Dr. Church is using IDT oligonucleotides, high-quality, double-stranded DNA, to explore the de-extinction of the woolly mammoth.

“We use it for just about every project,” said Dr. Church about IDT’s synthetic DNA. By editing oligos manufactured to have specified characteristics of ancient woolly mammoth DNA with the Asian elephant genome, Dr. Church plans to use CRISPR to create a cold-resistant, virus-resistant elephant whose reduced tusks also make it poacher-resistant.

According to Dr. Church and other scientists, herds of woolly mammoth-looking elephants roaming the tundra is a containment strategy for an enormous, overlooked natural source of greenhouse gas.

The project is about carbon sequestration Dr. Church told IDT: “The Arctic has more carbon to lose in the form of methane and more to gain in the form of new grassroots that persist for centuries.”

Saving an endangered species is Dr. Church’s second reason for doing the woolly mammoth project.

Engineering ancient woolly mammoth DNA. A genetically engineered elephant would resemble the iconic, extinct, Ice Age woolly mammoth, with long, shaggy fur, small ears, and high skull dome.

More about George Church, PhD George Church, PhD, has never shied away from the unknown; instead, he rushes to greet it, study it.

Meet George Church, The Brash Biologist Out To Upend Evolution

Church wants to turbocharge that process by putting new genes into organisms rather than waiting around for them to evolve those genes on their own.

“Public sharing of genetic data is an explicit goal,” the project’s website explains; the more data, the more the possibility of making important discoveries from it, Church figures.

In 1978, as a student at Duke, Church helped determine the three-dimensional structure of transfer RNA, a key genetic molecule.

In the 1980s he helped develop DNA sequencing, which made Church think of himself as an engineer as much as a biologist.

Church was reportedly angry when Eric Lander, a key player in the Human Genome Project of the 1990s, bought different DNA sequencing machines and not the ones Church developed.

In 2013, Church raced a former junior scientist in his lab, MIT’s Feng Zhang, to a draw in the competition to make CRISPR work in human and other mammalian cells just months after scientists led by Jennifer Doudna of the University of California, Berkeley, had CRISPR’d DNA floating in test tubes.

Zhang had no idea his former mentor was even working on CRISPR, he told STAT. In between tRNA and CRISPR, Church coauthored hundreds of scientific papers, from “Predicting regulons and their cis-regulatory motifs by comparative genomics” to “Characterization of Cas9-guide RNA orthologs.”


Bio: Professor at Harvard & MIT, co-author of 625 papers, 156 patent publications & a book “Regenesis”; developed methods used for the first genome sequence & million-fold cost reductions since, plus barcoding, DNA assembly from chips, genome editing, writing & recoding; co-initiated BRAIN Initiative & Genome Projects; machine learning for protein engineering, tissue reprogramming, organoids, xeno-transplantation, in situ 3D DNA, RNA, protein imaging.

His 1984 Harvard PhD included the first methods for direct genome sequencing, molecular multiplexing & barcoding.

His innovations have contributed to nearly all “Next generation” DNA sequencing methods and companies.

This plus his lab’s work on chip-DNA-synthesis, gene editing and stem cell engineering resulted in founding additional application-based companies spanning fields of medical diagnostics & synthetic biology / therapeutics.

He has also pioneered new privacy, biosafety, ELSI, environmental & biosecurity policies.

He is director of an IARPA BRAIN Project and NIH Center for Excellence in Genomic Science.

He has coauthored 590 papers, 155 patent publications & a book.

Post Idea #3: De-extinction

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Shapiro B. Pathways to de-extinction: How close can we get to resurrection of an extinct species? Funct.

Sinding M.S., Gilbert M.T.P. The draft genome of extinct european Aurochs and its implications for de-extinction.

Turner D.D. Biases in the selection of candidate species for de-extinction.

McCauley D.J., Hardesty-Moore M., Halpern B.S., Young H.S. A mammoth undertaking: Harnessing insight from functional ecology to shape de-extinction priority setting.

Rews-Cookson M. Personal communication regarding details about the Genetic Rescue Foundation’s moa de-extinction program.

Wood J.R., Perry G.L.W., Wilmshurst J.M. Using palaeoecology to determine baseline ecological requirements and interaction networks for de-extinction candidate species.

Steeves T.E., Johnson J.A., Hale M.L. Maximising evolutionary potential in functional proxies for extinct species: A conservation genetic perspective on de-extinction.


Germ cells may be edited directly, so that the egg and sperm produced by the extant parent species will produce offspring of the extinct species, or somatic cells may be edited and transferred via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

As opposed to breeding animals for a trait to advance the species in selective breeding, back breeding involves breeding animals for an ancestral characteristic that may not be seen throughout the species as frequently.

The reintroduction of extinct species could have a negative impact on extant species and their ecosystem.

The extinct species’ ecological niche may have been filled in its former habitat, making it an invasive species.

A species could also become extinct again after de-extinction if the reasons for its extinction are still a threat.

In an editorial condemning de-extinction, Scientific American pointed out that the technologies involved could have secondary applications, specifically to help species on the verge of extinction regain their genetic diversity.

A “De-extinction Task Force” was established in April 2014 under the auspices of the Species Survival Commission and charged with drafting a set of Guiding Principles on Creating Proxies of Extinct Species for Conservation Benefit to position the IUCN SSC on the rapidly emerging technological feasibility of creating a proxy of an extinct species.

Definition, History, Ethics, & Facts

Although once considered a fanciful notion, the possibility of bringing extinct species back to life has been raised by advances in selective breeding, genetics, and reproductive cloning technologies.

The near success of the attempt sparked debate about whether species should be brought back from extinction and, if they are brought back, how it should be done and how the species should be managed.

The possibility of bringing extinct species back to life was first explored in the early 20th century, through an approach known as back breeding.

In the 1920s and ’30s, German zoologists Lutz and Heinz Heck crossbred different types of cattle in an attempt to back breed for an animal that resembled the aurochs, an extinct species of European wild ox ancestral to modern cattle.

Reconstructed sequences could be compared against the sequences of extant species, allowing for the identification of not only living species or breeds best suited for back breeding but also genes that would be candidates for editing in living species.

The embryo is then transplanted into the uterus of a surrogate mother, which in the case of de-extinction is a species closely related to the one that is being cloned.

Such cells can be stimulated to differentiate into different cell types, including sperm and eggs that potentially can give rise to living organisms.

De-Extinction: Who, How, When, And Why

Over the next several decades, humans, and the rats, pigs, monkeys and other animals they brought with them, made short work of the small island and the entire species of the dodo, rendering it extinct by 1662.

What if we could apologize for our pillaging ways and resurrect these extinct species?

De-extinction, or resurrection biology, is the process of bringing an extinct species back to life.

To resurrect a species from extinction, we must have a closely related living species and DNA from specimens and fossils of the extinct species.

Genes can be transferred from the extinct species into the genome of the living relative.

DNA from all of these animals has been preserved and there are species living today which are genetically close enough to help create a complete genome and provide surrogacy.

In the future, any of these species could possibly reach the ultimate goal of de-extinction research: they could become a naturally reproducing species, reintroduced into their former environment.

What Is “De-Extinction”, And How Is It Carried Out?

Despite our rapid advances in all major fields of natural science, our planet is prospectively approaching its sixth mass extinction event, as thousands of floral and faunal species are on the verge of disappearing forever.

De-extinction refers to any process by which an extinct organism is revived or brought back to life, or a species that closely resembles an extinct species is recreated.

The former demands the possession of the DNA of the extinct species in order to be carried out.

The DNA is injected into a denucleated egg cell of a modern species, which is in turn introduced into the womb of a surrogate mother where the egg develops into an offspring which is genetically identical to the extinct species.

Herein, the DNA of an extinct species is extensively sequenced, and modern descendants of the species possessing DNA with the greatest percentage of matches with the extinct ancestor’s DNA are selectively allowed to breed.

There is a possibility that species like the passenger pigeons, dodos, woolly mammoths, quaggas and aurochs, and any other extinct species with well preserved DNA samples available, might be once again seen roaming freely upon our future planet.

The introduction of extinct species into an already destabilized biosphere of modern-day ecosystems might threaten the survival of the fragile modern species and recreated “Newcomers” alike.

De-Extinction Could Reverse Species Loss. But Should We Do It?

Of course, the real tragedy was that the loss of the passenger pigeon was neither surprising nor unique.

“We have given an awful exhibition of slaughter and destruction, which may serve as a warning to all mankind,” he said on the House floor, lamenting the passenger pigeon’s impending extinction.

Stewart Brand himself kicked off the event, “TEDxDeExtinction,” with a dramatic talk titled “The Dawn of De-extinction. Are You Ready?” which formally announced their mission to bring back the passenger pigeon.

Loftily christened “The Great Passenger Pigeon Comeback,” the project encapsulated the visionaries’ grand ambitions: More than de-extinction, Brand promised a chance at atonement for our past sins.

“The big-idea concept is that we take the genome of the band-tailed pigeon, or some close relative,” says Green, “And bit by bit, turn by turn, tweak this into a passenger pigeon. It would be like taking your Toyota and swapping out parts until you have a Honda-if Hondas were extinct.”

The wolf reintroduction project, which Phelan describes as “Transformative,” made Yellowstone a bastion of conservation research and, for her, serves as an example of how well-managed reintroductions can be successful, even decades down the road. Abundance, of course, was one of the passenger pigeon’s defining characteristics.

While there’s no doubt that the landscape has changed and ecosystems have been degraded considerably, the passenger pigeons would benefit from being what Ben Novak, lead scientist on the de-extinction project, calls “Generalists”-well equipped to adapt to new forest compositions.

De-Extinction: Can We Bring Extinct Animals Back From The Dead?

Thanks to developments in cloning and gene-editing technology, the prospect of bringing back extinct animals is looking more likely than ever.

So how does de-extinction work, what are its limits, and do we really need to bring back long-dead animals?

Sadly, the kid died a few minutes after she was born, so the poor ibex was not just the first animal to be brought back from extinction, but also the first to go extinct twice.

Although it died out comparatively recently – a few hundred years ago – its final resting place, Mauritius, was simply too hot to preserve its DNA. What’s the point of de-extinction? There are lots of good reasons to bring back extinct animals.

It could be a conservation tool, and by choosing to bring back animals that are genetically unique – like the gastric-brooding frog or the Tasmanian tiger – we could replace not just twigs, but entire branches on the tree of life.

How about Elvis? If we can resurrect animals, could we bring back long-dead humans? In theory, it’s possible.

Cloning – This is one of the principle methods used to bring back certain animals.

Post Idea #4: Central Bank of the Republic of China

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People’S Bank Of China

Central bank of the People’s Republic of China.

The People’s Bank of China is the central bank of the People’s Republic of China responsible for carrying out monetary policy and regulation of financial institutions in mainland China, as determined by People’s Bank Law and Commercial Bank Law.

The bank was established on December 1, 1948, based on the consolidation of the Huabei Bank, the Beihai Bank and the Xibei Farmer Bank.

Between 1950 and 1978 the PBC was the only bank in the People’s Republic of China and was responsible for both central banking and commercial banking operations.

All other banks within Mainland China such as the Bank of China were either organized as divisions of the PBC or were non-deposit taking agencies.

With the exception of special allocations for rural development, the monolithic PBC dominated all business transactions and credit until 1978, when, as part of the Chinese economic reforms, the State Council split off the commercial banking functions of the PB into four independent but state-owned banks, including the Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, the Bank of China, the Agricultural Bank of China, and the China Construction Bank.

In 1983, the State Council promulgated that the PBC would function as the central bank of China.

Central Bank Of The Republic Of China

Established in 1924 and began operating as a national central bank on 1 November 1928.

In 1949, the bank relocated with the Government to Taiwan but did not resume its operations until 1961.

Chin-Long Yang*Terms of appointment: 5 years(current term began on 26 February 2018); appointed by the President of the Republic of China.

If you don’t have a Central Banking account, please register for a trial.

To use this feature you will need an individual account.

Taiwan: Central Bank Of The Republic Of China >> GlobalEDGE: Your Source For Global Business Knowledge

The Central Bank of the Republic of China promotes financial stability, ensures sound banking operations, maintains the stable internal and external value of the currency, and fosters economic development.

The website offers information regarding monetary policy, payment systems, currency exchange, foreign exchange, government securities services, statistics, and publications.

Republic Of China

Fifty Yuan.Printed in the 25th year of the Republic of China.

VG F VF XF AU UNC Frequency 100% 0% 0% Get this banknote A member of this site wants to exchange it: cti4sw.

This index is based on the data of Numista members collections.

It ranges from 0 to 100, 0 meaning a very common coin or banknote and 100 meaning a rare coin or banknote among Numista members.

Contribute to the catalogue Modify or add data on this pageRegister a past auction sale.

Post Idea #5: Phytosterol

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As common sources of phytosterols, vegetable oils have been developed as margarine products highlighting phytosterol content.

The most common plant stanols in the human diet are sitostanol and campestanol, which combined make up about 5% of dietary phytosterol.

Reviewing clinical trials involving phytosterol supplementation, the FDA concluded that when consumed in the range of 1 to 3 grams in enriched foods, phytosterols resulted in statistically significant reductions in blood LDL cholesterol levels relative to placebo.

Health Canada concluded that sufficient scientific evidence exists to support a relationship between phytosterol consumption and blood cholesterol lowering.

A potential safety concern regarding phytosterol consumption is in patients with phytosterolaemia, a rare genetic disorder which results in a 50- to 100-fold increase in blood plant sterol levels and is associated with rapid development of coronary atherosclerosis.

The link between plant sterols and CVD or CHD risk is complicated because phytosterol levels reflect cholesterol absorption.

Phytostanols have a lower estimated intestinal absorption rate than phytosterols and consequently blood phytostanol concentration is generally lower than phytosterol concentration.

ScienceDirect Topics

Phytosterols are the main component of plant membranes and free phytosterols help in stabilizing phospholipid bilayers in plants as same as the role played by cholesterol in animal cells.

Phytosterol concentrations in vegetable oils range from 0.1% to 1.0% and typical phytosterol consumption is in the range of 200 to 400 mg/day.

The production of phytosterol fortified foods has become popular due to the ability of phytosterols to decrease total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans by inhibiting the absorption of dietary cholesterol.

The intestinal absorption of phytosterols is very low so dietary phytosterols do not have adverse effects on health.

Consumption of phytosterols results in competition at the place of absorption in fat tissues between cholesterol and phytosterols.

A short-term study has demonstrated that cholesterol levels increase considerably on a diet containing corn oil free from phytosterols, but when phytosterols are restored, cholesterol absorption decreases to normal.

The main physiological effect of consuming phytosterols is their reported lowering of low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 10-15%. The Food and Drug Administration allows a health claim for food containing phytosterols because of the association with reduced risk of coronary heart disease.

Phytosterols: What Are They, And Do They Have Downsides?

Because phytosterols can block the absorption of cholesterol, they’re often promoted as a way to improve heart health and decrease blood levels of LDL cholesterol.

While these ancient groups of people got plenty of phytosterols from plant foods, many people today regularly get added phytosterols from refined vegetable oils and processed foods like margarine.

Keep in mind that refined vegetable oils, margarine, or phytosterol supplements don’t provide other beneficial nutrients like fiber or vitamins C, K, or A. Thus, it’s best to simply eat more whole foods that contain phytosterols if you’d like to boost your intake.

Phytosterols can decrease cholesterol levels by 8-10%. Some studies also suggest that they could be linked to a lower risk of cancer, although more research is needed.

Although phytosterols may be associated with several benefits, there are a also few downsides to consider.

Although research shows that phytosterols might decrease levels of LDL cholesterol, studies on whether they can reduce the risk of heart disease have found mixed results.

A 12-week study in 232 people with high cholesterol showed that consuming a low fat spread with 3 grams of added phytosterols per day did not affect markers of circulatory health.

Phytosterols & Cholesterol

If these strategies haven’t worked to their fullest potential, or if you want to work to lower your bad cholesterol even further, you can try adding phytosterols to your diet.

Because phytosterols are structurally similar to the body’s cholesterol, when they are consumed they compete with cholesterol for absorption in the digestive system.

As a result, cholesterol absorption is blocked, and blood cholesterol levels reduced.

As part of a heart-healthy eating plan, consuming phytosterols in recommended quantities has been shown to lower total cholesterol up to 10% and LDL or “Bad” cholesterol up to 14%. This reduction is in addition to other cholesterol-lowering strategies you may have initiated, such as eating more heart healthfully or taking a cholesterol-lowering statin.

The effectiveness of phytosterols is so strong that The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends people with high cholesterol consume two grams of phytosterols each day.

Are phytosterols safe to consume on a regular basis?

The body’s tissues do not retain phytosterols, and they do not affect the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Talk to your doctor and/or registered dietitian if you have any questions about including phytosterols in your diet.

Phytosterols And Cholesterol Metabolism

Purpose of review: Phytosterols are plant sterols structurally similar to cholesterol that act in the intestine to lower cholesterol absorption.

Recent findings: Phytosterols displace cholesterol from intestinal micelles, reducing the pool of absorbable cholesterol, but they are also rapidly taken up by enterocytes and increase expression of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette A1 sterol transporter.

Single meal studies show that phytosterols in intact foods are bioactive at doses as low as 150 mg.

The potential effectiveness of phytosterols has been improved in several ways.

Phytosterols can be emulsified with lecithin and delivered in non-fat or low-fat foods and beverages, and the amount of fat in fat-based preparations can be reduced substantially with the retention of bioactivity.

Summary: Phytosterols effectively reduce LDL-cholesterol when given as supplements, and the smaller amounts in natural foods also appear to be important.

Future work will focus on the better delivery of phytosterols in natural foods and supplements and on further defining the mechanisms of action.

Foods that can Help Lower Cholesterol: Phytosterols What are phytosterols? Phytosterols are a natural part of many vegetables and grains.

You might see them listed on a food label as plant sterols or stanols.

Why add foods that contain phytosterols to my diet? These foods can help lower your cholesterol if you have a high cholesterol level.

This part of foods has been shown to block your body from taking up cholesterol and could lower your LDL cholesterol by 10-15%. What foods should I eat more of? Grains, non-starchy vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, legumes, and vegetable oils.

Some companies have started to add this to certain foods.

A few of these products are: Minute Made Premium Heart Wise orangeTM juice Benecol® spread CocaVia® products VitaMuffin VitaTops® dark chocolate pomegranate flavor Promise Activ® spread Smart Balance Heart Right® fat-free milk Smart Balance Heart Right buttery spread How much do you need to eat? Eating 2-3 grams of phytosterols per day has been shown to lower your cholesterol.

How Phytosterols Can Help Lower Your Cholesterol

Phytosterols are one such micronutrient that can significantly lower your LDL cholesterol and reduce your risk of heart disease.

According to the National Lipid Association, eating 2,000 mg of phytosterols each day may lower your LDL cholesterol by 5% to 10% and reduce your risk of heart disease.

Nut Phytosterols per 100 grams Brazil Nut 95 mg Pecan 157 mg Hazelnut 128.1 mg Macadamia 187 mg Pine Nut 236 mg Walnut 131.3 mg Almond 148.6 mg Cashew 150 mg Pistachio 242.7 mg Phytosterols in Vegetables Vegetables are abundant with fiber, antioxidants, and phytosterols-making them an especially good choice to protect your heart.

Fruit Phytosterols per 100 grams Melon 3.3 mg Kiwi 7.1 mg Pear 11 mg Apricot 15.2 mg Peach 14.6 mg Apple 16 mg Cherry 20.1 mg Banana 20.1 mg Orange 30.4 mg Olive 37.7 mg Phytosterols in Legumes Legumes have high concentrations of saponins, fiber, and phytosterols, and researchers believe that eating them regularly could reduce your risk of heart disease by 10%. Included in the legume family are peas, lentils, beans, and peanuts.

Cereal Phytosterols per 100 grams Rice 29 mg White wheat 41.9 mg Wheat flour 140 mg Barley 130.8 Oat bran 150 mg Corn bran 300 mg Wheat grain 315.7 mg Rice bran 450 mg Wheat bran 459 mg Phytosterols in Oils Some oils retain their phytosterol content even when heated, like soybean oil.

What are phytosterols good for? Phytosterols are a micronutrient found in plants that can help to lower LDL cholesterol.

A diet filled with phytosterols appears to lower LDL cholesterol and reduce the likelihood of atherosclerosis development in some healthy persons.

Post Idea #6: Hemodialysis

Related Articles – Summarized


At the start of a hemodialysis treatment, a dialysis nurse or technician places two needles into your arm.

If you’d have a hard time getting to the dialysis center, you may want to consider home dialysis treatments such as home hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

Home hemodialysis lets you have longer or more frequent dialysis, which comes closer to replacing the work healthy kidneys do-usually three to seven times per week, and with treatment sessions that last between 2 and 10 hours.

More dialysis filters your blood more thoroughlyCompared with a standard hemodialysis schedule, daily or nightly home hemodialysis will let you.

Training for home hemodialysisMost dialysis centers require that you have a trained partner in your home during hemodialysis treatments, so you must ask a family member or friend to go through the training with you.

In addition to providing training and a hemodialysis machine that stays in your home, the dialysis center also provides 24-hour support if you have a question or problem.

Talk with your dialysis center’s dietitian to find a hemodialysis meal plan that works for you.


Hemodialysis can help your body control blood pressure and maintain the proper balance of fluid and various minerals – such as potassium and sodium – in your body.

Not having enough red blood cells in your blood is a common complication of kidney failure and hemodialysis.

Fluid overload. Since fluid is removed from your body during hemodialysis, drinking more fluids than recommended between hemodialysis treatments may cause life-threatening complications, such as heart failure or fluid accumulation in your lungs.

Simpler hemodialysis machines have made home hemodialysis less cumbersome, so with special training and someone to help you, you may be able to do hemodialysis at home.

If you’re uncomfortable during the procedure, ask your care team about minimizing side effects by such measures as adjusting the speed of your hemodialysis, your medication or your hemodialysis fluids.

Your hemodialysis care team monitors your treatment to make sure you’re getting the right amount of hemodialysis to remove enough wastes from your blood.

Measurements of the flow of blood through your access site during hemodialysis.


Routine hemodialysis is conducted in a dialysis outpatient facility, either a purpose built room in a hospital or a dedicated, stand-alone clinic.

Hemodialysis is the choice of renal replacement therapy for patients who need dialysis acutely, and for many patients as maintenance therapy.

A nephrologist decides when hemodialysis is needed and the various parameters for a dialysis treatment.

The principle of hemodialysis is the same as other methods of dialysis; it involves diffusion of solutes across a semipermeable membrane.

Daily hemodialysis is typically used by those patients who do their own dialysis at home.

Such dialyzers require newer dialysis machines and high-quality dialysis solution to control the rate of fluid removal properly and to prevent backflow of dialysis solution impurities into the patient through the membrane.

Beta-2-M is removed with high-flux dialysis, but is removed even more efficiently with IHDF. After several years, patients on hemodialysis begin to develop complications from beta-2-M accumulation, including carpal tunnel syndrome, bone cysts, and deposits of this amyloid in joints and other tissues.

NCBI Bookshelf

Patients with unacceptable quality of life should be spared the discomfort of HD as survival on dialysis may be no longer with most of the additional time spent on having or recovering from dialysis sessions.

A nephrology nurse is specialized to assess dialysis patients, assure proper administration of medications and treatment, and oversee the dialysis process.

The patient care technician performs the dialysis treatment and monitors patients throughout while biomedical technicians maintain the machines and water quality at the dialysis center.

Community house hemodialysis provides a homelike non-institutional setting with flexible scheduling similar to home HD. Each patient has a separate space with a machine bay, dialysis equipment, and other consumables and is responsible for their own dialysis.

Patients seeking nocturnal dialysis are limited to their bedrooms, while those fearing unintentional needle dislodgement may prefer daytime dialysis.

A cardiology referral for echocardiography is mandatory in all dialysis patients, 1 to 3 months after dialysis initiation, on an inter-dialytic day, and at 3-year intervals thereafter.

12.Brown EA, Johansson L, Farrington K, Gallagher H, Sensky T, Gordon F, Da Silva-Gane M, Beckett N, Hickson M. Broadening Options for Long-term Dialysis in the Elderly: differences in quality of life on peritoneal dialysis compared to haemodialysis for older patients.

Hemodialysis, A Type Of Dialysis

Hemodialysis is one type of dialysis treatment for kidney failure.

At the start of each hemodialysis treatment, a dialysis technician will place two needles in your arm using the vascular access.

Your blood will flow through one needle from your vascular access to the dialysis machine, and then from the dialysis machine back to your body through the other needle.

If you choose to have hemodialysis, you may do your treatments in a dialysis center or at home, during the day or at night.

Your target weight is what you should weigh after you have finished each dialysis treatment.

Yes, and because you do not have to travel to a dialysis center, you will have more flexibility to fit dialysis into your daily schedule.

You can do your treatment sessions at a dialysis center in the city you are visiting.

What Is Hemodialysis?

If you visit a dialysis center, you will likely hear some of the warning sounds made by a dialysis machine.

Some people feel that dialysis lasts a long time; however, healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and dialysis must do the job in only 12 or so hours a week.

More dialysis centers are beginning to offer in-center nocturnal hemodialysis based on reports of patients feeling better about their quality of life and having good lab results.

Talk to your doctor if you are interested in home hemodialysis or in-center nocturnal dialysis.

Some of the disadvantages are that they will have to travel to and from hemodialysis three times each week and it takes advanced notice to travel and arrange for dialysis in a visiting dialysis center.

Because nocturnal dialysis is performed during nonproductive sleeping hours, many people report they feel that their lives are more “Normal” because they don’t have to take time out of their days for dialysis.

There are diet and fluid restrictions with peritoneal dialysis; however, these are usually not as limited as hemodialysis because this therapy is performed every day.

Dialysis: Purpose, Procedure, And Complications

If your kidney disease becomes very severe and crosses a point where there’s not enough function to maintain the body, then you need either a transplant or dialysis.

You typically start dialysis when you have symptoms or your lab tests show toxic levels of waste in your blood.

You can have hemodialysis in a hospital, a dialysis treatment center, or at home.

Once the area heals, you’ll be trained on how to do PD since you’ll be doing it yourself.

You’ll use the catheter to transfer dialysis solution from a bag into your belly.

If you want to stop dialysis because you feel depressed or ashamed, your doctor may urge you to speak to a counselor first.

Dialysis is not for everyone, particularly for the very elderly and those with very severe medical conditions.

Post Idea #7: Guardian Capital Group

Related Articles – Summarized

Guardian Capital

Institutional investors Toronto-based Guardian Capital LP has been managing institutional assets since 1962.

Along with our subsidiaries in the UK and US, we execute investment strategies on behalf of pension plans, insurers, foundations, endowments, family offices and mutual funds around the world.

See mandates and strategies Private investors Guardian Capital Advisors LP has provided private wealth management to individuals, families, charitable organizations and family foundations since 1992.

We deliver tax-efficient, customized investment solutions through a team of portfolio managers in Vancouver, Calgary and Toronto and private banking.

Learn about private wealth Advisors and retail investors The institutional investment expertise of Guardian Capital LP and our UK- and US-based subsidiaries are made available to financial advisors and their clients through our sub-advisory relationships with ETFs, mutual funds, segregated funds and closed end funds, our proprietary mutual funds and ETFs and our role within some of the industry’s leading separately managed account programs.

Guardian Capital

About Guardian Capital Group Guardian Capital Group Limited is a diversified, global financial services company.

LEARN MORE. *Guardian Capital LP is a wholly owned subsidiary of Guardian Capital Group Limited and the successor to its original investment management business, which was founded in 1962.

FINRA’s BROKER CHECK. You should consider the investment objectives, risks, charges and expenses of the Alta Quality Growth Fund, Guardian Capital Fundamental Global Equity Fund, and Guardian Capital Global Dividend Fund carefully before investing.

Guardian Capital Funds are offered only to United States residents, and information on this website is intended only for such persons.

There is no guarantee that the Guardian Capital Funds will meet its investment objective.

GuardCap Asset Management Limited, is a non-US wholly owned subsidiary of Guardian Capital LP, and serves as the Fund’s investment sub-adviser.

Effective January 28, 2022, Guardian Capital LP has delegated responsibility for the day-to-day management of the Fund to GuardCap Asset Management Limited.

Guardian Capital Group, LLC.

Welcome to our Web site, where you’ll find a wealth of information in the form of newsletter articles, calculators, and research reports.

We hope your visit will help you understand the opportunities and potential rewards that are available when you take a proactive approach to your personal financial situation.

We have created this Web site to help you gain a better understanding of the financial concepts behind insurance, investing, retirement, estate planning, and wealth preservation.

Most important, we hope you see the value of working with skilled professionals to pursue your financial goals.

We’re here to help educate you about the basic concepts of financial management; to help you learn more about who we are; and to give you fast, easy access to market performance data.

We hope you take advantage of this resource and visit us often.

Be sure to add our site to your list of “Favorites” in your Internet browser.

Guardian Capital Partners

We work hard and smart, which unlocks incremental value beyond what a portfolio company management team can do on its own.

We have the playbook, tool box and proven lower middle-market experience to guide and govern a business from being a family run business to a much stronger, more diversified and higher growth middle-market enterprise.

We have a very strong and broad base of blue-chip Limited Partner investors in our Funds.

Extensive network of executive level professionals, board level operators and personal contacts uncommon for private equity funds our size, which helps unlock opportunities and create incremental value.

DisclaimerGuardian Capital Partners Management is a Pennsylvania-based investment adviser registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940.

This website is presented for informational purposes and is not an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy interests in a fund or investment vehicle managed by Guardian Capital Partners.

An investment in a fund is speculative and involves a high degree of risk.

Guardian Capital Launches Guardian Smart Infrastructure Management, A Direct Infrastructure Investment Business Focused On The Future

Guardian is pleased to announce that experienced infrastructure investors Robert Mah and Christopher Lee will lead GSIM’s investment team.

Their combined experience includes serving in senior roles at a number of global investment banks, a large public investment fund, General Partners of core infrastructure funds and, most recently, as Partners of Smart Infrastructure Managers.

Mr. Mah and Mr. Lee have collectively managed over US$ 15B of direct infrastructure investments globally, and worked together for the last few years on developing the strategy of Smart Infrastructure Managers.

“The launch of Guardian Smart Infrastructure Management is an exciting development for Guardian as we bring on board a very talented team whose leaders are steeped in the knowledge and experience of investing in private infrastructure assets,” said George Mavroudis, President and Chief Executive Officer, Guardian.

“Direct infrastructure investment has proven to be an extremely popular asset class among large institutional investors around the globe,” said Mr. Mah.

“Our focus will be to apply proven, value-enhancing technologies to existing infrastructure and greenfield assets, thereby increasing efficiencies and revenues. The demand for this type of infrastructure investing is accelerating and we believe our focus will garner the interest of both existing and prospective investors. Guardian’s resources and relationships will enable us to accelerate our Smart Infrastructure strategy alongside our strategic partners, and allow us to pursue direct opportunities globally in digital infrastructure assets and companies. The demand for this type of infrastructure investing is becoming more relevant for investors as the broader asset class matures.”

About Guardian Capital Group Limited Guardian Capital Group Limited is a diversified, global financial services company operating in two main business segments: Asset Management and Wealth Management.

Guardian Capital Group

Guardian Capital Group, founded in 1962, operates several fully owned subsidiaries whose operations are to provide investment management services, financial advisory services, retail distribution of mutual funds, insurance, and general corporate services.

Guardian Capital Group is headquartered in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, and became publicly listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange in 1969.

As of December 31, 2015, the company has $24.2 billion in assets under management.

In May 2001, Guardian Capital Group sold a portion of its retail mutual fund business with roughly $2 billion in assets under management to the Bank of Montreal in exchange for 4.96 million common shares, worth roughly $180 million.

Guardian Capital LP, one of Canada’s largest investment management firms and a subsidiary of Guardian Capital Group, actively manages many of BMO’s mutual fund products.

Mavroudis has been with the company since 2005 in the position of Senior Vice-President, Strategic Planning and Development.

Prior to joining Guardian Capital Group, Mavroudis held previous appointments as a Managing Director with J.P. Morgan Asset Management in its London, New York City, Moscow, and Toronto offices.

Post Idea #8: Hydraulic accumulator

Related Articles – Summarized

Hydraulic Accumulators

Charge these accumulators to the pressure you need, and they will help a system maintain a constant pressure during pump failure.

UN/UNF thread connections have straight threads and are also known as O-ring Boss fittings.

To increase or decrease an accumulator’s charge.

For technical drawings and 3-D models, click on a part number.

These accumulators come with a charge of nitrogen and are ready to use.

They help a system maintain a constant pressure during pump failure.

Hydraulic Accumulators

In the course of an aircraft’s operation, the maximum volume of oil from the system into the hydraulic accumulator, is an important index for the design of the hydraulic accumulator, pressurized fuel tank and closed hydraulic system of the aircraft, which must be taken into full consideration.

7.2.2 Piloted Hydraulic Control SystemPiloted systems have a dedicated hydraulic pilot supply for each subsea function and a hydraulic supply line to a simple subsea control module.

At the SCM, a hydraulic accumulator provides a reserve of hydraulic energy to speed up the tree valve opening response time.

Provide transient flow in a short time: The hydraulic accumulator can provide the peak flow in a short time in an intermittent work hydraulic system such as the landing gear control and flap control.

The hydraulic accumulator can decrease the size and reduce the weight of the hydraulic system.

Work as an emergency power supply: When the hydraulic power supply system suddenly stops feeding the hydraulic fluid, the hydraulic accumulator can provide the fluid to keep the system operational in case of emergency.

Absorb the pressure ripple of the hydraulic system: Because the hydraulic system has inherent flow ripple and fluid solid coupling vibration, its pressure ripple will influence the actuation system performance.

What Are Hydraulic Accumulators? How Do They Work?

The point I try to emphasize here is “Energy is stored.” Have you ever wondered how energy is stored? Read here to know about one of the most widely used energy storage devices, the hydraulic accumulator.

In the case of a hydraulic lift or hydraulic crane, a large amount of energy is required when the lift or crane is moving upward.

The hydraulic pump pumps the fluid into the accumulator, which is nothing but a sealed container.

The inlet of the cylinder is connected to the pump, which continuously supplies water or the hydraulic fluid under pressure to the cylinder.

The pump supplies hydraulic fluid under pressure continuously.

The pump pressurizes the hydraulic oil through the accumulator and pipelines, thus operating the corresponding valves.

To supplement pump flow: As discussed earlier, the most common use for accumulators is to supplement pump flow.

Hydraulic Accumulator

A hydraulic accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which an incompressible hydraulic fluid is held under pressure that is applied by an external source of mechanical energy.

An accumulator enables a hydraulic system to cope with extremes of demand using a less powerful pump, to respond more quickly to a temporary demand, and to smooth out pulsations.

Around the same time, John Fowler was working on the construction of the ferry quay at nearby New Holland but could not use similar hydraulic power as the poor ground conditions did not permit a tall accumulator tower to be built.

A raised weight accumulator consists of a vertical cylinder containing fluid connected to the hydraulic line.

The original 1887 accumulator is in place in its tower, an external accumulator was added in 1954 and this system was used until 2010 to power the Cumberland Basin lock gates.

A spring type accumulator is similar in operation to the gas-charged accumulator above, except that a heavy spring is used to provide the compressive force.

The welded metal bellows accumulator provides an exceptionally high level of accumulator performance, and can be produced with a broad spectrum of alloys, resulting in a broad range of fluid compatibility.

Post Idea #9: Bosch Rexroth

Related Articles – Summarized

The Official Bosch Rexroth AG Catalog Website

Today, Bosch Rexroth AG is a large engineering and industrial company with a staff of more than thirty thousand people with its head office in Laura am Main.

Bosch Rexroth has official locations on five continents, and the extensive list of authorized dealers on the Bosch Rexroth official website has dozens of companies worldwide.

Traditions of German quality are combined in Bosch Rexroth with high technological potential due to the acquisition of a wide range of industrial companies in Germany.

Bosch Rexroth

CytroConnect Solutions Know today what to expect tomorrow.

Our customized digital solutions to support the maintenance of your hydraulic systems.

Our modular approach starts with a data visualization solution of the current condition, which can be extended to a rule-based condition monitoring solution or even a predictive analytics service to perform predictive maintenance.

Bosch Rexroth In Stock Now!

Bosch Rexroth’s complete line of hydraulic pumps serve virtually every industry in manufacturing and technology.

Being a global industry leader in hydraulic pumps, Bosch Rexroth works closely with customers who deal with difficult application areas.

Being able to work with a variety of applications has allowed their engineers to develop unique electrohydraulic innovations in control technology resulting in hydraulic pumps with greater precision, dependability, and reliability.

To help keep your system safe and operating at maximum efficiency Rexroth offers all the pump accessories you need.

Bosch Rexroth has industrial hydraulic cylinder solutions for all applications.

Their industrial hydraulic cylinders are built to work in the toughest conditions.

Rexroth has rendered hydraulics even more capable, from mill-type to tie rod hydraulic cylinders; they have your hydraulic cylinder for safe and reliable lifting.

Bosch Rexroth SA

Bosch Rexroth Africa Logistics is the overseas procurement, import and export arm for all Bosch Rexroth South Africa Group of Companies.

Bosch Rexroth Africa Logistics manages the entire interlinking supply chain to ensure an effective distribution network of the Bosch Rexroth South Africa Group of Companies complete range of products into Africa.

As the central warehouse for all Bosch Rexroth hydraulic products, Bosch Rexroth Africa Logistics also provides an extensive support network to all branches, distributors and resellers.

Bosch Rexroth

Bosch Rexroth AG is an engineering firm based in Lohr am Main in Germany.

It is the result of a merger on 1 May 2001 between Mannesmann Rexroth AG and the Automation Technology Business Unit of Robert Bosch GmbH, and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Robert Bosch GmbH. Bosch Rexroth employs over 31,000 people worldwide, and achieved total revenue of 6.2 billion euro in 2019.

Bosch Rexroth manufactures products and systems associated with the control and motion of industrial and mobile equipment.

In 2017, the company announced a partnership with Trumpf and Heraeus to build servo valves using the former’s TruPrint 5000 laser powder additive manufacturing machines to build a servo valve.

Bosch Rexroth

What is the attraction of ctrlX AUTOMATION? Dr. Andreas Angerer, Head of Research & Innovation of our ctrlX World Partner, XITASO GmbH immediately gets the open software architecture of the ctrlX CORE, which is built on Ubuntu Core, into his mind.

Or that we can guarantee real-time requirements with the PREEMPT RT patch from the Real-Time Linux project.

Another example is that he can use the ctrlX Data Layer as a generic interface and abstraction layer for interprocess, but a. See more.

Post Idea #10: Merkel-cell carcinoma

Related Articles – Summarized

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer that usually appears as a flesh-colored or bluish-red nodule, often on your face, head or neck.

Merkel cell carcinoma is also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

Treatment options for Merkel cell carcinoma often depend on whether the cancer has spread beyond the skin.

The first sign of Merkel cell carcinoma is usually a fast-growing, painless nodule on your skin.

Merkel cell carcinoma is associated with the development of other skin cancers, such as basal cell or squamous cell carcinoma.

Merkel cell carcinoma usually arises in people who have light-colored skin.

Even with treatment, Merkel cell carcinoma commonly spreads beyond the skin.

What Is Merkel Cell Carcinoma?

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare type of skin cancer.

Merkel cells are thought to be a type of skin neuroendocrine cell, because they share some features with nerve cells and hormone-making cells.

Merkel cells are found mainly at the base of the top layer of the skin.

Merkel cells were first described in the late 1800s by a German doctor named Friedrich Merkel.

Because Merkel cells are a type of neuroendocrine cell, Merkel cell carcinoma is also sometimes called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin.

Merkel cell tumors often look like firm, pink, red, or purple lumps or bumps on the skin.

For more on these types of cancers, see Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancer and Melanoma Skin Cancer.

The Skin Cancer Foundation

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, aggressive form of skin cancer with a high risk for returning and spreading, often within two to three years after initial diagnosis.

Merkel cell carcinoma is 40 times more rare than melanoma, with an estimated one case per 130,000 people in the U.S. What is a Merkel cell?

Merkel cells are located deep in the top layer of skin.

Merkel cells are connected to nerves, signaling touch sensation as “Touch receptors.” MCC was named after Merkel cells due to the similar microscopic features; however, recent research suggests that it is unlikely that MCC originates directly from normal Merkel cells.

Normal Merkel cells in the skin: In this illustration of a cross-section of the skin, normal Merkel cells are shown in red and connect to nerves shown in yellow.

When Luis found out he had Merkel cell carcinoma, a rare form of skin cancer, he was determined to beat it.

Want to spread the word about skin cancer awareness? Complete the form and you may end up on our website.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma Treatment-Patient Version

General Information About Merkel Cell Carcinoma Key PointsMerkel cell carcinoma is a very rare disease in which malignant cells form in the skin.

Merkel cell carcinoma, also called neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin or trabecular cancer, is a very rare type of skin cancer that forms when Merkel cells grow out of control.

Stages of Merkel Cell Carcinoma Key PointsAfter Merkel cell carcinoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body.

The following stages are used for Merkel cell carcinoma: Stage 0.Stage I.Stage II.Stage III.Stage IV.Merkel cell carcinoma can recur after it has been treated.

A CT scan of the chest and abdomen may be used to check for primary small cell lung cancer, or to find Merkel cell carcinoma that has spread. A CT scan of the head and neck may also be used to find Merkel cell carcinoma that has spread to the lymph nodes.

If Merkel cell carcinoma spreads to the liver, the cancer cells in the liver are actually cancerous Merkel cells.

Treatment Option Overview Key PointsThere are different types of treatment for patients with Merkel cell carcinoma.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare, clinically aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine neoplasm with a high mortality rate.

Though the etiology is not precisely known, Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA has been found recently in a large percentage of MCC tumors.

Other suggested risk factors include sun exposure, immunosuppression, and a history of prior malignancy.

Work up of patients with MCC most notably includes nodal staging via clinical examination or sentinel lymph node biopsy.

The prognosis for most patients with MCC is poor, and the rarity of MCC precludes the prospective, randomized clinical trials necessary to elucidate optimum treatment protocols.

Most published data support the use of a multimodality approach centered around surgical excision with negative margins, sentinel lymph node biopsy to establish the presence or absence of nodal metastases, adjuvant radiothearpy to decrease the risk of recurrence, and systemic chemotherapy in the case of widespread disease.

Merkel Cell Carcinoma

Patients treated for Merkel cell carcinoma face a five-year recurrence rate of 40%-markedly higher than the recurrence rates for melanoma and other skin cancers, according to research recently published in JAMA Dermatology.

In the study cohort of more than 600 patients, 95% of …. Direct cellular reprogramming enables development of viral T antigen-driven Merkel cell carcinoma in mice.

One of the issues most often raised in the field of Merkel cell carcinoma is ‘why is there no mouse model for this polymavirus-driven cancer?’ The study by Verhaegen and colleagues answers that question, after well over a decade of effort by over a dozen labs attempting to do this.

Simply put, it wa…. An Extensive Case of Merkel Cell Carcinoma due to Fright of COVID-19.

We have also seen so many cases of delayed diagnosis of MCC due to unfounded fears of contracting COVID by visiting a physician’s office.

It is important to seek appropriate medical care, even in these tricky times, as this dramatic example demonstrates.

Merkel-Cell Carcinoma

MCC is sometimes mistaken for other histological types of cancer, including basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, lymphoma, and small cell carcinoma, or as a benign cyst.

Although MCC was initially named for the Merkel cell due to histologic and physiologic similarities between MCC and Merkel cells, the cellular progenitor of MCC has been a heavily debated question.

MCC is similar to Merkel cells in its histological appearance and shares many immunohistochemical markers with Merkel cells, including epidermal marker cytokeratin 20 and neuroendocrine markers synaptophysin and chromogranin A. Furthermore, the ion channel Piezo2 and transcription factor Atoh1, both specific to Merkel cells, are also expressed by MCC. However, Merkel cells are post-mitotic cells with a low probability of cancerous transformation.

They have not been shown to support Merkel-cell polyoma virus infection, which is believed to drive oncogenesis in approximately 80% of MCC. Instead, it has been proposed the MCC may originate from a Merkel cell precursor, at which point it gains features similar to those of Merkel cells.

Others have argued that MCC likely derives from an epithelial precursor cell due to its frequent presence in mixed tumors including epithelial neoplasms such as squamous cell carcinoma.

In addition to standard examination under light microscopy, immunohistochemistry is also generally required to differentiate MCC from other morphologically similar tumors such as small cell lung cancer, the small cell variant of melanoma, various cutaneous leukemic/lymphoid neoplasms, and Ewing’s sarcoma.

In March 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to Avelumab, a PDL1 inhibitor, to treat adults and children above 12 years with metastatic MCC. In December 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to Pembrolizumab for all ages with recurrent locally advanced or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

Post Idea #11: Financial Planning Standards Council

Related Articles – Summarized

Financial Planning Standards Board

Consumers worldwide feel challenged by their finances, but aren’t sure whom to trust for professional financial planning advice.

Financial Planning Standards Board Ltd. establishes, upholds and promotes worldwide professional standards for financial planning to foster public confidence in the financial planning profession.

FPSB demonstrates its commitment to excellence through its ownership of the international CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER certification program outside the United States.

Which consumers will/should use automated advice tools.

How regulators can oversee such a dynamic and complex field.

How the global financial planning community can adjust to automated advice.

Financial Planning Standards Council

TABLE OF CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. Financial Planning Standards Council is pleased to comment on the preliminary recommendations of the Ontario government-appointed Expert Committee to Consider Financial Advisory and Financial Planning Policy Alternatives.

Delegating responsibility for the oversight of professional Financial Planning advice to organizations that are not experts in this area risks forever tying the provision of Financial Planning advice exclusively to transactions and accounts, thereby depriving consumers of the holistic professional service of Financial Planning that they so badly need.

Through our association with the international Financial Planning Standards Board, the standards that FPSC has developed form the basis of the international standards for Financial Planning used by other Financial Planning Professional Bodies in 26 territories worldwide.

Financial Planning – As defined by the Committee, Financial Planning is “Any review and analysis of a person’s: current financial and personal circumstances, present and future financial needs, priorities and objectives, the risks associated with his or her current circumstances, future needs, objectives and priorities which can but need not include the establishment of strategies to address and mitigate these matters whether or not a formal financial plan is prepared.”

APPENDIX B: ABOUT FPSC. Financial Planning Standards Council is a not-for-profit organization that develops, promotes and enforces professional standards in financial planning through CERTIFIED FINANCIAL PLANNER® certification.

The Canadian Financial Planning Definitions, Standards & Competenciesis the first unified, definitive source on financial planning definitions and professional financial planning standards in Canadian history.

8 The Financial Planning Coalition, whose members include the Canadian Institute of Financial Planners, Financial Planning Standards Council, the Institute of Advanced Financial Planners, and the Institut québécois de planification financière, was formed in 2009 to establish a framework for a profession for those holding themselves out as Financial Planners in Canada.

MANDATE We achieve our purpose by: 3 3 Defining financial planning Developing and enforcing standards Certifying financial planning professionals Ensuring appropriate education of prospective and existing financial planning professionals Promoting FPSC and CFP professional brands as synonymous with the financial planning profession 2017 FPSC ENFORCEMENT AND DISCIPLINARY REVIEW REPORT OBTAINING FPSC CERTIFICATION The path to FPSC certification is a rigorous process.

The Standards of Professional Responsibility for CFP Professionals and FPSC Level 1 Certificants in Financial Planning define the ethical and professional responsibilities of those certified by FPSC. FPSC® Code of Ethics The Code of Ethics embodies the standard of ethical conduct to which all FPSC certificants must adhere.

FPSC® Rules of Conduct FPSC certificants are held to high standards of care, including an obligation to act in their clients’ best interests.

Closed with Guidance 2017 In 2017, Guidance was issued in the following areas: 15 15 Conflict of interest Failure to perform due diligence Failure to make adequate inquiries of a power of attorney regarding withdrawals Signature falsification Inaccurate and misleading product recommendations or advice Compliance with regulatory rules relating to the use of blank-signed forms Criminal offense 2017 FPSC ENFORCEMENT AND DISCIPLINARY REVIEW REPORT Anonymized Letters of Guidance and Advice from the panel are published on FPSC’s website in and serve as notice to the public and FPSC certificants regarding the type of conduct that is of concern.

Disciplinary Hearings Where there is a finding of misconduct, the Hearing Panel may: Issue a Letter of Admonishment Impose a remedial action plan Suspend FPSC certification Ban an individual from seeking renewal or reinstatement of certification Revoke FPSC certification Award costs against the certificant FPSC Hearing Panels consist of three members of the Hearing Panel Roster and include, at a minimum, two CFP professionals.

A certificant’s disciplinary history is linked to the Find a Planner or Certificant tool on FPSC’s website and a publicly accessible, historically searchable database is maintained by FPSC. Hearing Panel Penalty Decisions Issued in 2016 and 2017 18% 54% 28% Suspension Revocation Prohibition on Recertification/Renewal In 2017, matters that were referred to a Hearing Panel involved the following allegations: 16 16 Financial Planning Advice Suitability Presumptive Bar Conflict of Interest Disclosure Client First Client Service Failure Forgery Failure to Supervise 2017 FPSC ENFORCEMENT AND DISCIPLINARY REVIEW REPORT In 2017, 63% of certificants were represented by counsel at the hearing stage.

17 17 2017 FPSC ENFORCEMENT AND DISCIPLINARY REVIEW REPORT ABOUT FPSC A professional standards-setting and certification body working in the public interest, FPSC’s purpose is to drive value and instill confidence in financial planning.

INSURANCE COUNCIL OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Notice to all Life Insurance Agents In August 2001 the Insurance Council of British Columbia published Notice ICN #01-006 which addressed the use of terms such as Financial Planner, Financial Advisor or similar types of titles by life insurance agents.

Once these suggestions were taken into consideration, Council finalized its policy on life insurance agents holding themselves out as a Financial Planner, or providing financial planning advice.

Set out in the following pages are the criteria Council recommends a life insurance agent consider before he or she decides to hold out as a Financial Planner or advertise as providing financial planning advice.

ICN #02-001 April 22, 2002 Insurance Council of B.C. Financial Planning REQUIREMENTS FOR INSURANCE AGENTS TO HOLD OUT AS FINANCIAL PLANNERS Life insurance agents who use any one of the following titles: Financial Planner; Financial Advisor; or Financial Consultant; OR, hold themselves out as providing the following services: Financial Planning; Financial Consulting; or Financial Advising; OR, otherwise purport to be a financial planner or provide financial planning advice, must meet the following qualification and disclosure criteria.

For the purposes of the above, Council defines financial planning as: Providing objective, integrated and comprehensive advice following an assessment of an individual’s current financial situation and current and future financial needs, except as is required in the performance of the licensee’s duties as a life insurance agent.

Licensees who are holding themselves out as a financial planner must have successfully completed one of the courses of study outlined in 1(a) or have successfully completed the courses and examinations in the Chartered Life Underwriter program offered by the Canadian Association of Insurance and Financial Advisors prior to June 1995.

Where the name of the agency or other form of publication would cause a member of the public to believe agency representatives are financial planners, then any licensee within the agency who does not meet the qualifications, should disclose to their clients that he or she is not qualified to conduct financial planning.

Post Idea #12: MSA Safety

Related Articles – Summarized

MSA Safety Donates $400,000 In Safety Equipment To Ukraine Firefighters

This donation is made in partnership with FIRE AID, a UK-based non-profit organization that facilitates the donation of fire and rescue equipment around the world.

The donation comprises a wide range of fire safety equipment, including self-contained breathing apparatus, fire helmets, firefighter protective apparel, fire boots, fire gloves, and safety goggles.

“Through our existing partnership with FIRE AID, we have the opportunity to help support the safety needs of firefighters doing everything they can to help others in their own cities and towns,” he said.

FIRE AID has a history of helping support firefighters in Ukraine.

About FIRE AID. FIRE AID is a UK based charity, which brings together its 30 member organizations to deliver humanitarian aid to fire & rescue services worldwide.

FIRE AID provides a unique database for fire and rescue services and suppliers to donate perfectly useable equipment to our projects, saving it from being scrapped and recycling it to save lives overseas.

All equipment donations are accompanied by expert training, delivered by volunteer fire fighters and medics.

MSA Safety Reaches New 52-Week Low At $129.06

Shares of MSA Safety Incorporated hit a new 52-week low during trading on Tuesday.

MSA Safety last announced its earnings results on Thursday, February 17th. The industrial products company reported $1.67 earnings per share for the quarter, beating the consensus estimate of $1.29 by $0.38.

MSA Safety had a net margin of 1.35% and a return on equity of 21.99%. During the same quarter in the previous year, the business posted $1.27 EPS. On average, equities research analysts expect that MSA Safety Incorporated will post 5.23 EPS for the current year.

A number of large investors have recently modified their holdings of MSA. Norges Bank bought a new position in MSA Safety during the 4th quarter valued at about $43,175,000.

Brendel Financial Advisors LLC bought a new position in MSA Safety during the 4th quarter valued at about $3,846,000.

State Street Corp grew its holdings in MSA Safety by 7.7% during the 4th quarter.

Finally, Champlain Investment Partners LLC grew its holdings in MSA Safety by 4.7% during the 4th quarter.

Power Moves: This CMU Professor Joined A Federal AI Commission

The commission will bring together leaders in AI across academia and the public and private sectors, a press release from the university said, with the hope that this idea-sharing can help propel US advancements and regulations around AI. “The establishment of this commission is extremely timely, as AI becomes more integrated into our lives. It is therefore critical that the voices and input from people across society be reflected in the U.S. vision and strategy for AI,” Tucker said in a statement.

Chaired by former Maryland Rep. John Delaney and New Jersey Rep. Mike Ferguson, the commission will bring together Tucker and other thought leaders to discuss future research and recommendations relating to regulation, R&D competitiveness, future jobs related to the industry and more.

Pittsburgh researcher nabs $50,000 for innovative glaucoma medical research.

Kun-Che Chang, an assistant professor of ophthalmology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, was announced this week as a recipient of $50,000 in grant money from the Glaucoma Research Foundation to further his research into new treatment targets for glaucoma.

“Glaucoma Research Foundation is funding six researchers at prestigious medical research centers with our one-year Shaffer Grants,” said Andrew Iwach, Glaucoma Research Foundation board chair, in a statement.

We will continue to fund the four principal investigators engaged in our multi-year Catalyst for a Cure Vision Restoration Initiative. With this diverse research portfolio, we are doing our best to invest in research that brings us closer to our goal of finding a cure for glaucoma and restoring vision, while at the same time developing better solutions for glaucoma patients today.”

Chang’s funding will go toward his research project “A New Therapeutic Gene for RGC Survival and Axon Regeneration in Glaucoma.”

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MSA Safety

Mine Safety Appliances, or MSA Safety Incorporated, is a maker of safety products to protect workers exposed to a variety of hazardous conditions in such industries as construction, the military, fire service, and chemical, oil, and gas production.

Best known for its iconic reinforced Bakelite Skullgard hard hat, the company’s product line includes gas monitoring and detection instruments, filter-type respirators, gas masks, breathing apparatus used by firefighters, thermal imaging cameras, firefighter helmets, ballistic body armor, military communications systems, a broad range of industrial head and fall protection products, and safety products for Do-It-Yourself consumers.

The corporation’s assets are managed through two business segments: MSA North America and MSA International.

MSA has sales and manufacturing operations throughout the world and sells products to customers in more than 140 countries.

MSA brand firefighting helmets were notably used by the Los Angeles County Fire Department and were seen regularly on 1970s TV shows.

MSA continues to manufacture firefighting protective helmets and in 2000 acquired competitor, Cairns Helmets.

Cairns firefighting helmets are now produced under the MSA Cairns label.

Post Idea #13: Greenlane Hldgs

Related Articles – Summarized

Greenlane Holdings, Inc.

Greenlane is the premier global platform for the development and distribution of premium cannabis accessories, packaging, vape solutions, and lifestyle products.

We operate as a powerful house of brands, third-party brand accelerator, and omni-channel distribution platform, providing unparalleled product quality, customer service, compliance knowledge, and operations and logistics to accelerate our customers’ growth.

Founded in 2005, Greenlane serves a diverse and expansive customer base with more than 8,000 retail locations, including licensed cannabis dispensaries, smoke shops, and specialty retailers.

As a pioneer in the cannabis space, Greenlane is the partner of choice for many of the industry’s leading multi-state operators, licensed producers, and brands, including PAX Labs, Storz & Bickel, Cookies, Grenco Science, DaVinci, and CCELL. We proudly own and operate a diverse brand portfolio including Pollen Gear™, the K.Haring Glass Collection by Higher Standards, Marley Natural™, and VIBES™ rolling papers.

Higher Standards, Greenlane’s flagship brand, offers both a high-end product line and immersive retail experience with groundbreaking stores in New York City’s Chelsea Market and Malibu, California.

Greenlane also owns and operates Vapor.com and VapoShop.com, two industry-leading, direct-to-consumer e-commerce platforms in North America and Europe respectively.

Greenlane Holdings Shares Rise On Cost-Cutting Plans

Cannabis accessories company Greenlane Holdings GNLN, -3.86% said Thursday it will save $8 million in costs after reducing its work force as part of a plan to accelerate its path to profitability.

The company did not provide a number of people that were affected by the move.

Greenlane said it may generate liquidity in excess of $30 million from a series of moves including the sale of non-core assets, a sale leaseback of the company’s headquarters, price hikes, disposing of low-margin inventory, and taking out an asset-based loan.

Greenlane plans to reduce its adjusted selling, general & administrative expenses to $14 million to $16 million by the third quarter, down from $26.6 million in the third quarter of 2021.

The company increased its fourth-quarter gross margin target to between 20% and 22%, up from 18% to 20%. Shares of Greenlane jumped 7% in premarket trades.

Greenlane Sees Q4 Revenue At $55.5-56.5 Million – New Cannabis Ventures

The Company expects these initiatives to help it achieve adjusted selling, general & administrative expenses of between approximately $14.0 million and $16.0 million on a quarterly basis by Q3 2022, down from approximately $26.6 million in Q3 2021.

On a preliminary basis, the Company is reiterating its expectation of net sales to be between $55.5 million and $56.5 million for the fourth quarter and between approximately $165.5 million and $166.5 million for the full year ended December 31, 2021.

Adjusted SG&A is expected to be between approximately $20.0 million and $22.0 million for the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2021, and between $75.0 million and $77.0 million for the full year ended December 31, 2021.

Net loss is expected to be between approximately $11.0 million and $13.0 million for the fourth quarter ended December 31, 2021, and between approximately $53.0 million and $55.0 million for the full year ended December 31, 2021.

For the full year ended December 31, 2021, Adjusted EBITDA is expected to be a loss of between approximately $21.0 million and $23.0 million.

About Greenlane Holdings, Inc. Greenlane is the premier global platform for the development and distribution of premium cannabis accessories, packaging, vape solutions, and lifestyle products.

The NCV Newswire by New Cannabis Ventures aims to curate high quality content and information about leading cannabis companies to help our readers filter out the noise and to stay on top of the most important cannabis business news.

Greenlane Holdings Shares Rise On Cost-Cutting Plans

Cannabis accessories company Greenlane Holdings said Thursday it will save $8 million in costs after reducing its work force as part of a plan to accelerate its path to profitability.

The company did not provide a number of people that were affected by the move.

Greenlane said it may generate liquidity in excess of $30 million from a series of moves including the sale of non-core assets, a sale leaseback of the company’s headquarters, price hikes, disposing of low-margin inventory, and taking out an asset-based loan.

Greenlane plans to reduce its adjusted selling, general & administrative expenses to $14 million to $16 million by the third quarter, down from $26.6 million in the third quarter of 2021.

The company increased its fourth-quarter gross margin target to between 20% and 22%, up from 18% to 20%. Shares of Greenlane jumped 7% in premarket trades.

Greenlane Announces Cost Cutting Plans To Increase Liquidity, Shakes-Up Management

Greenlane revealed that it has completed a reduction in force – as part of its ongoing cost-cutting initiatives to accelerate the path to profitability – which is expected to result in roughly $8 million in annualized cash compensation cost savings.

The plan is expected to help generate liquidity in excess of $30 million if all measures described above are implemented successfully.

Preliminary Estimated & Unaudited Q4 & FY 2021 Financial Highlights Reiterates its expectation of net sales to be between $55.5 million and $56.5 million for the fourth quarter and between approximately $165.5 million and $166.5 million for the full year.

Adjusted SG&A is expected to be between approximately $20 million and $22 million for the fourth quarter, and between $75 million and $77million for the full year.

Net loss is expected to be between approximately $11 million and $13 million for the fourth quarter, and between approximately $53 million and $55 million for the full year.

Adjusted EBITDA is expected to be a loss of between approximately $5.5 million and $7.5 million for the fourth quarter.

For the full year, Adjusted EBITDA is expected to be a loss of between approximately $21 million and $23 million.

Greenlane Holdings, Inc. Expected To Post Quarterly Sales Of $56.10 Million

Equities analysts expect that Greenlane Holdings, Inc. will report sales of $56.10 million for the current fiscal quarter, Zacks reports.

Two analysts have provided estimates for Greenlane’s earnings, with the highest sales estimate coming in at $56.20 million and the lowest estimate coming in at $56.00 million.

Greenlane posted sales of $36.27 million during the same quarter last year, which suggests a positive year over year growth rate of 54.7%. The business is scheduled to announce its next quarterly earnings report on Wednesday, March 30th. On average, analysts expect that Greenlane will report full year sales of $166.12 million for the current fiscal year, with estimates ranging from $166.04 million to $166.20 million.

Zacks Investment Research’s sales calculations are an average based on a survey of sell-side research analysts that follow Greenlane.

In other Greenlane news, insider Adam Schoenfeld sold 38,200 shares of Greenlane stock in a transaction that occurred on Friday, December 17th. The stock was sold at an average price of $1.05, for a total transaction of $40,110.

Charles Schwab Investment Management Inc. grew its holdings in shares of Greenlane by 18.5% in the 2nd quarter.

Barclays PLC raised its holdings in Greenlane by 150.5% during the third quarter.

Post Idea #14: Container ship

Related Articles – Summarized

Container Ship

A container ship is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.

Today, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container ships, and the largest modern container ships can carry up to 24,000 TEU. Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial seaborne vessels.

So fundamental to container ship design are cell guides that organizations such as the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development use their presence to distinguish dedicated container ships from general break-bulk cargo ships.

40 foot containers are the primary container size, making up about 90% of all container shipping and since container shipping moves 90% of the world’s freight, over 80% of the world’s freight moves via 40 foot containers.

From 2008 to 2009, new container ship prices dropped by 19-33%, while prices for 10-year-old container ships dropped by 47-69%. In March 2010, the average price for a geared 500-TEU container ship was $10 million, while gearless ships of 6,500 and 12,000 TEU averaged prices of $74 million and $105 million respectively.

In 2008 the South Korean shipbuilder STX announced plans to construct a container ship capable of carrying 22,000 TEU, and with a proposed length of 450 m and a beam of 60 m. If constructed, the container ship would become the largest seagoing vessel in the world.

Compared to today’s largest container ships, Maersk Line’s 15,200 TEU Emma Mærsk-type series, a 20,000 TEU container ship would only be moderately larger in terms of exterior dimensions.

ScienceDirect Topics

The larger container ships use dedicated container ports and tend not to have their own cargo handling gantries.

A 40-ft container is classed as 2 TEU. Container ships are of ever increasing size to take advantage of the economies of scale.

The shares of administrative and other costs, container and equipment, and inland transportation have been much lower than the shares of terminal, ship, and fuel costs, all about 20-27%. As far as the individual container ships.

Containers have very little strength in any direction other than vertically through the corner posts, thus it is necessary to provide substantial support to the containers when they are on the ship.

Stowage of containers is with their longer dimension fore and aft since the ship motion transmitted to cargo is greater in rolling than pitching and it is therefore prudent to limit any possible cargo movement within the container to the shorter transverse dimension.

Below-decks containers are restrained in vertical cell guides, which are typically 150 150 12 angles and they are structurally supported so that any dynamic forces other than purely vertical are transmitted as much as possible through the ship’s structure and not into the containers.

These are not widely used and many ships carrying containers above deck rely on various deck and hatch sockets with locking and nonlocking stackers mating with the standard container corners, plus lashings to secure the containers.

History, Types And Design

The load holding capacitance of container vessels is measured in terms of Twenty-foot Equivalent Units or TEUs, with the biggest container ships carrying as much as over 15,000 -16,000 TEUs.

The design of the concomitant container vessel is decisive.

In most of the container vessels, lift away types of Hatch covers are used.

Within a container ship, there are well-demarcated holds that separate each container from each other which simplifies the entirety of the filing of the containers.

Within their ambit, there are several different types of container ships.

Types Of Containers ISO containers, also referred to as intermodal containers, are used to transport freight.

In the coming days, container ships have a lot more challenges to face, but the Container shipping industry will always stand strong.

MSC Container Ship Adrift Off Canada’S East Coast Being Towed To Nova Scotia

The Canadian Coast Guard posted Wednesday evening on Facebook that it was “Monitoring the cargo ship MSC Kim, adrift with engine problems off Port au Port Newfoundland and Labrador.”

At 3:00 on Thursday, the Coast Guard posted an update, saying that the MSC Kim.

Was no longer adrift, “After the Atlantic Kingfisher successfully secured a towline [that] morning.” The ship was being towed to Sydney, Nova Scotia.

The ship left the Port of Halifax on March 5 headed for Montreal when it lost power in the Gulf of St. Lawrence.

MSC hired the Atlantic Kingfisher from Atlantic Towing to tow the container ship to port.

March 11, 2022.Gram Car Carriers secures new charter deal in Asia.

March 10, 2022.Hapag-Lloyd takes over container liner business of DAL. March 10, 2022.Former Frontline boss Macleod set to join Norden board.

What Are Container Ships?

Container ships are ocean going ships which are specifically designed to handle shipping containers, giant metal boxes which usually measure 40 feet long.

In the 1950s, the technique was perfected, and by the end of the century, these ships were moving millions of tons of goods all over the planet.

Early container ships were designed to be loaded with railway boxcars.

In the 1950s, Malcolm McLean, who founded McLean Trucking and later moved into shipping, refined the technique, moving just the container onto the ship, rather than the container and the wheeled chassis used to support it.

Usually, the storage space of container ships is measured in terms of Twenty-foot Equivalent Units.

The contents of a container are listed on a manifest, and containers are loaded so that containers going to different destinations are stacked together on the ship, allowing for rapid unloading at the end destination.

Like other very large ships, container ships carry a certain amount of risk for their owners.

Shipping Containers For Sale

Conexwest is a US-based business that specializes in a comprehensive selection of versatile, weatherproof, and secure shipping containers for sale.

If you require easy accessibility to your cargo, our fleet of shipping containers for sale offers an assortment of entry configurations, including quad doors, doors on both ends, roll-up doors, or open side doors.

NEW “One Trip” containers are shipped from Asia with a single container cargo load. These containers are referred to as “New” or in “Like new” condition.

Conexwest is a one-stop-shop for not only the largest selection of shipping and storage containers for sale but also for a comprehensive variety of fabrication services.

The Warranty Coverage Period for New ISO shipping containers is ten years from the date of purchase from Conexwest.

The Warranty Coverage Period for Used Cargo Worthy ISO shipping containers is five years from the date of purchase from Conexwest.

Use our interactive map to discover shipping containers for sale near you.

Post Idea #15: T. Rowe Price

Related Articles – Summarized

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I’m looking to access my employer-sponsored retirement program.

I’m an institutional investor or consultant looking to review investment strategies and discover timely insights.

I’m a broker-dealer, registered investment advisor, DC-focused advisor, or trust or bank financial professional.

I’m looking to access my retirement plan or gain insights on retirement plan strategies.

T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. Position Reduced By FourThought Financial LLC

FourThought Financial LLC trimmed its stake in shares of T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. by 3.7% during the fourth quarter, HoldingsChannel reports.

FourThought Financial LLC’s holdings in T. Rowe Price Group were worth $975,000 as of its most recent SEC filing.

Newbridge Financial Services Group Inc. bought a new position in T. Rowe Price Group during the 2nd quarter valued at $29,000.

Finally, PFG Private Wealth Management LLC bought a new position in T. Rowe Price Group during the 3rd quarter valued at $89,000.

BMO Capital Markets reduced their price target on shares of T. Rowe Price Group from $240.00 to $198.00 and set an “Outperform” rating on the stock in a research report on Friday, January 28th. Bank of America initiated coverage on shares of T. Rowe Price Group in a research report on Thursday, December 16th. They issued an “Underperform” rating and a $212.00 price target on the stock.

T. Rowe Price Group had a net margin of 40.18% and a return on equity of 35.83%. T. Rowe Price Group’s quarterly revenue was up 13.2% on a year-over-year basis.

The ex-dividend date of this dividend is Monday, March 14th. This represents a $4.80 annualized dividend and a yield of 3.44%. T. Rowe Price Group’s dividend payout ratio is presently 32.93%. T. Rowe Price Group Company Profile.

T. Rowe Price Review 2021: Pros, Cons And How It Compares

One app: T. Rowe Price Personal app available for iPhone and Android.

T. Rowe also offers a lineup of more than 130 no-load mutual funds, which is in keeping with founder Thomas Rowe Price Jr.’s position that fees should be based on the assets under management, not charged as a commission – that is, an upfront or back-end sales load.Another attractive feature is the firm’s selection of no-transaction-fee mutual funds, which totals approximately 3,000, and its lineup of 300 commission-free ETFs.Direct investment access to T. Rowe’s fund lineup: A bonus for T. Rowe customers: Buying the company’s own funds right from the source, instead of through another brokerage, means you avoid paying any transaction fee and any markup charged by a middleman.

Note on account setup for new customers: T. Rowe Price funds are sold directly, not through the company’s brokerage, and held in a separate retail account.

If you want to buy non-T. Rowe funds and any stocks or ETFs through the company, you’ll need to set up a T. Rowe brokerage account.

Fund screening and retirement planning tools: This is where T. Rowe Price really shines for mutual fund investors.

Investors can cut the commission in half to $9.95 a trade by making more than 30 trades a year or being enrolled in T. Rowe Price Select Client Services.

The company charges an annual service fee of $20 on mutual fund accounts with balances below $10,000; that charge can be waived by subscribing to electronic delivery of statements or maintaining a balance of at least $50,000 across all T. Rowe Price accounts.

T.Rowe Price Reviews

We placed our firm’s retirement account with T. Rowe Price in 2021 and they have been the absolute worst when it comes to customer service.

After closing all the accounts, mom receives long letter from T. Rowe explaining that due to T. Rowe’s error regarding withdrawing the correct tax amounts, one of mom’s smallest accounts was now in debt to the IRS several thousand dollars, and T. Rowe would not take responsibility for any of it.

I have multiple accounts with T. Rowe Price.

I have taxable accounts and retirement accounts with T Rowe Price.

My company moved 2500 accounts from Fidelity to T Rowe Price 1 1/2 years ago.

T. Rowe Price seemed intent on turning my account over.

My retirement account has been held with T Rowe for over 5 years because they were the company associated with my former employer.

T. Rowe Price

T. Rowe Price Group, Inc. is an American publicly owned global investment management firm that offers funds, advisory services, account management, and retirement plans and services for individuals, institutions, and financial intermediaries.

Consistently ranked among the world’s top asset managers, T. Rowe Price was named one of the best places to work in money management by Pensions&Investments and was one of Fortune’s most admired companies in 2020.

In 1971, the year Price completely retired, T. Rowe Price opened its Fixed Income Division, and began to modernize and diversify its operations.

Retirement Plan Services were launched in the 1990s alongside additional new services and funds, including mutual funds acquired from other companies such as USF&G. This momentum, and the firm reaching $100 billion assets under management, pushed T. Rowe Price to create an asset management partnership with Sumitomo Bank and Daiwa Securities in Tokyo in 1999, and to purchase 100% interest of the London-based Rowe Price-Fleming International, which was renamed T. Rowe Price International.

As of 2019, T. Rowe Price has continued to focus on active management rather than passive management.

In the decade from 2010 to 2020, T. Rowe Price increased its assets under management from $400 billion to $1.6 trillion and annual revenues increased 10.2 percent to $6.2 billion over 2019, placing it 447 on the Fortune 500 list of the largest U.S. companies.

Roger McNamee, former manager of the T. Rowe Price Science & Technology Fund who since founded the venture capital firm Elevation Partners.

Post Idea #16: Retirement planning

Related Articles – Summarized

Retirement Planning: A 5-Step Guide For 2022

Our aim with this retirement planning guide is to help you achieve that goal.

A retiree who earns an average of $63,000 per year before retirement should expect to need $44,000 to $57,000 per year in retirement.

Generally, you should aim to save for retirement at the same time you’re building your emergency fund – especially if you have an employer retirement plan that matches any portion of your contributions.

A cornerstone of retirement planning is determining not only how much to save, but also where to save it.

If you don’t have a workplace retirement plan, you can open your own retirement account.

There is no single best retirement plan, but there is likely a best retirement plan – or combination of retirement accounts – for you.

Investing for retirement evolves alongside you as you change jobs, add to your family tree, endure stock market ups and downs and get closer to your retirement due date.

Retirement Planning: Fidelity’S Guidance, Tools, And Planning Information

IMPORTANT: The projections or other information generated by the Planning & Guidance Center Retirement Analysis and Retirement Income Calculator regarding the likelihood of various investment outcomes are hypothetical in nature, do not reflect actual investment results, and are not guarantees of future results.

Optional investment management services provided for a fee through Fidelity Personal and Workplace Advisors LLC, a registered investment adviser and a Fidelity Investments company.

Discretionary portfolio management provided by its affiliate, Strategic Advisers LLC, a registered investment adviser.

Brokerage services provided by Fidelity Brokerage Services LLC, and custodial and related services provided by National Financial Services LLC, each a member NYSE and SIPC. FPWA, Strategic Advisers, FPTC, FBS, and NFS are Fidelity Investments companies.

Virtual Assistant is Fidelity’s automated natural language search engine to help you find information on the Fidelity.com site.

As with any search engine, we ask that you not input personal or account information.

Fidelity does not guarantee accuracy of results or suitability of information provided.

This Is The Best Kept Secret In Retirement Planning & It’S About To Make Retirement More Expensive & Complicated

When planning for retirement few of us sit around the kitchen table, in our employer’s 401(k) retirement seminar, or at a financial advisor’s desk factoring in transportation as a major cost of retirement.

In effect, transportation is a hidden cost of retirement.

It may be hidden, but one of the best kept secrets in retirement planning is that transportation is the second largest expenditure in retirement after housing.

With gas prices on the rise, supply chain costs increasing globally, the push to purchase new electric vehicles, combined with the impact of rising transportation costs in nearly everything we buy, or experience, transportation must now come out from the shadows of retirement planning and be factored into the budgets and the lifestyle choices of later life.

How the added costs of transportation will factor into working in retirement is uncertain.

How will rising transportation costs affect your retirement travel plans?

The best kept secret in retirement planning just got told.

City Contemplating Going Back To Old Retirement Plan

KINGSPORT – The city is looking at changing its retirement plan in an attempt to retain employees and to make Kingsport more attractive to potential employees.

The Kingsport Board of Mayor and Aldermen approved conducting an actuarial study on the possibility of rejoining the Tennessee Consolidated Retirement System, a retirement plan the city left 10 years ago.

The plan the city is potentially looking at would be a hybrid model, part of it a defined contribution plan and part of it a defined benefit plan, commonly know as a pension plan.

The city had been in the state plan for decades and was actually the first municipality in the state of Tennessee to join in 1949.

So in 2012 the city dropped that plan and went to a defined contribution plan run by a private company, MissionSquare, formerly known as IMCA. Copas said the big questions about the state plan were addressed after the city pulled out.

Copas said there would be about 380 city employees and 380 noncertified school employees who would be affected by any change the city made.

Copas said a big reason for considering the change is because the city finds it hard recruiting potential employees from other municipalities who are already in the state system.

Retirement Planning From Start to Finish Life is about the journey… From beginning to end, life is full of milestones-graduating college, getting your first job, starting a family, buying your first home-but perhaps one of the most challenging is a comfortable retirement.

2 Getting Started: More than 25 years until retirement Whether you’ve just landed your first job, joined a new company, or have reentered the workforce after some time off, now is the right time to start saving for retirement.

MID-CAREER RETIREMENT PLANNING MILESTONES 49% of non-retired Americans are not confident they will reach their retirement goals.

Lifehappens.org 4 Approaching Retirement: Less than 10 years until retirement You’ve come to the point where retirement is just over the horizon.

Now more than ever you’ll want to have your budget in place, along with a clear understanding of retirement Did You Know? Starting at age 50, you may begin making “Catch-up” contributions to retirement plans and IRAs.

5 Post-Career Retirement Planning You have put your plan into action and it’s time to reap the benefits of your nest egg.

5 POST-CAREER RETIREMENT PLANNING MILESTONES Here are some ideas to keep it simple: Helpful Resources Post-Career Planning: www.

7 Best Free Retirement Planning Spreadsheets For 2022

Preparing your retirement takes careful planning that begins years in advance.

You can build your own retirement planner, but it’s faster and easier to get started with a free template.

So here are seven of the best free retirement spreadsheet templates.

Set your retirement goals and determine how much savings you need with this accessible retirement financial planner template.

Enter your age, salary, savings, and investment return information, as well as desired retirement age and income, and the retirement planning template will calculate and chart the required earnings and savings each year to achieve your goals.

This is a great spreadsheet that helps you track retirement goals, rates of return and inflation, current savings rate, and basic retirement needs.

From the author of the book “Keys to a Successful Retirement” and owner of The Retirement Manifesto website comes this simple and useful retirement calculator.

Retirement Planning

Retirement planning, in a financial context, refers to the allocation of savings or revenue for retirement.

The goal of retirement planning is to achieve financial independence.

Producers such as a financial planner or financial adviser can help clients develop retirement plans, where compensation is either fee-based or commissioned contingent on product sale; see Professional certification in financial services.

Plan how active you want to be when you reach retirement age, engage in part-time, contract work or in activities that doesn’t overextend oneself.

The Monte Carlo method is the most common form of a mathematical model that is applied to predict long-term investment behavior for a client’s retirement planning.

Contemporary retirement planning models have yet to be validated in the sense that the models purport to project a future that has yet to manifest itself.

A more moderate school believes that retirement planning methods must further evolve by adopting a more robust and integrated set of tools from the field of complexity science.

Post Idea #17: Opto-isolator

Related Articles – Summarized


An opto-isolator is an electronic component that transfers electrical signals between two isolated circuits by using light.

An opto-isolator contains a source of light, almost always a near infrared light-emitting diode, that converts electrical input signal into light, a closed optical channel, and a photosensor, which detects incoming light and either generates electric energy directly, or modulates electric current flowing from an external power supply.

Since LEDs can sense light in addition to emitting it, construction of symmetrical, bidirectional opto-isolators is possible.

An opto-isolator connects input and output sides with a beam of light modulated by input current.

Diode opto-isolators employ LEDs as sources of light and silicon photodiodes as sensors.

Such fluctuations may be destructive, for example, when an opto-isolator in the feedback loop of a DC-to-DC converter changes its transfer function and causes spurious oscillations, or when unexpected delays in opto-isolators cause a short circuit through one side of an H-bridge.

Like all semiconductor diodes, are capable of detecting incoming light, which makes possible construction of a two-way opto-isolator from a pair of LEDs.

ScienceDirect Topics

6.4.2 Linear ApplicationsThe curve of input current vs. output current for optoisolators.

With a small PLC, all the outputs might be of one type, such as 240 V AC, 1 A. With modular PLCs a range of outputs can be accommodated by selection of the modules to be used.1.3.2 Sourcing and SinkingThe terms sourcing and sinking are used to describe the way in which DC devices are connected to a PLC. With sourcing, using the conventional current flow direction as from positive to negative, an input device receives current from the input module, that is, the input module is the source of the current.

With sinking, using the conventional current flow direction, an input device supplies current to the input module, that is, the input module is the sink for the current.

Since, the only current through the optocoupler flows into the control board from where the PWM signal is supplied, the integrity of the signal in the control broad is preserved better than the case of allowing the total current from the control board.

To verify the common mode current flow through two different paths, a boost converter is operated with output voltage of 300 V. The designed GD is used to drive the active device of the boost converter, and common mode current at the control voltage supply to the GD is measured.

During turn-on, the common mode current through isolated power supply has a peak value of 0.32 A, and the peak value of current through optocoupler is 0.18 A. During turn-off, the corresponding peak values are 0.21 and 0.09 A, respectively,.

Scale: Ch1, common mode current through isolated power supply, icmps: 0.2 A/div, Ch2, device voltage, Vds: 250 V/div, Ch3, common mode current through optocoupler, icmop: 0.2 A/div, Ch5, dc link voltage, Vout: 250 V/div, time 100 ns/div.

What Is An Optoisolator And How Does It Work?

An optoisolator is a semiconductor device that transfers an electrical signal between isolated circuits using light.

The schematic of an optoisolator consists of an emitter, in this case an infrared light-emitting diode or laser diode for input signal transmission and a photosensor for signal reception.

An optocoupled solid-state relay contains a photodiode optoisolator that drives a power switch on the output side, usually a complementary pair of MOSFETs.

Optoisolators offer a safe way to make high-voltage components and low-voltage devices work together in a proportional way.

The optoisolator is enclosed in a single device and has the appearance of an integrated circuit or a transistor with extra leads.

Optoisolators are most suited to isolation voltage from digital signals, but they can also be used to transfer analog signals.

Optoisolator components can also protect Ethernet and fiber optic cables from electrical surges.

Which Types Of Opto-Isolators Are Right For Your Signal?

In simplest terms, an opto-isolator works by taking an input electrical signal and converting it into a light signal using a light-emitting diode, generally operating in the near-infrared spectrum.

There are many different types of opto-isolators that are widely used in communications, control, and monitoring systems where data signals could provide a point of ingress for harmful voltages to damage a device.

The image below shows the typical circuit diagram for an opto-isolator or opto-coupler with inputs on the left and outputs on the right.

Where an opto-isolator is used to decouple ground planes or voltage sensing inputs, the rate of change of the isolated signal is relatively unimportant.

As with any semiconductor device, the photodiode used in the opto-isolator will have an element of non-linearity in the relationship between the input and output, which can distort the signal being passed through the isolator.

Opto-isolators typically use a near-infrared LED to convert an electrical input signal into an equivalent light signal.

Opto-isolators come in a broad range of different types that are optimized for particular applications.

Post Idea #18: Earnings call

Related Articles – Summarized

Overview, Importance, And Structure

An earnings call is a conference call during which the management of a Private vs Public Company.

The main difference between a private vs public company is that the shares of a public company are traded on a stock exchange, while a private company’s shares are not.

Generally, the earnings call is accompanied by an official press release that summarizes the key points of a company’s financial performance.

Generally, public companies announce their upcoming earnings calls several days or even several weeks prior to the event.

The disclaimer is intended to limit the company’s liability if the forward-looking assumptions made by the company’s management drastically differ from the actual results in the future.

The managers provide an overview of the company’s upcoming goals and milestones, as well as discuss how the plans will impact the future financial performance of the company.

“Unexpected earnings” is the term used in accounting to address the difference between a company’s actual earnings for a period and the.

What Is An Earnings Call & Earnings Release?

Some investors will even consider the tenor of how an earnings call unfolds, paying attention to how leadership explains key pieces of information and how they navigate analyst questions at the backend of the call.

The welcome portion of the earnings call is sometimes called a “Commercial” because it’s functionally a sales pitch for the company.

The earnings release contains the actual financial content that will be disclosed during the call.

The earnings release is accompanied by slides that are presented alongside the overall call script.

There are a few tactics that investors employ to glean the most possible insight out of an earnings call and release.

The earnings release is usually made available at least an hour prior to the earnings call itself.

Financial news websites are also likely to syndicate the release, and some will ever share call transcripts after the call ends.

What Is Earnings Call?

Earnings Call refers to a conference call or a webcast by the management of a public company to discuss the financial results achieved by the company during the period under consideration, such as for a quarter or a financial year.

The information regarding hosting of the earnings call is given in advance by the company officials.

After issuing a general safe harbor statement, the earnings call is taken over by the company’s top-level officials.

The next session of the earnings call is where the outside participants are given a chance to ask the company officials any queries they have.

The call is important for the participants who gather financial information about the company, which thereby helps them to make their investment decisions.

Disadvantages The call may be less useful and uninteresting if the company officials just run the pre-recorded scripts or just read out the written information.

Investors look forward to the earnings call of large companies to have deep insight into the company’s financial results and its future goals.

Earnings Call

An earnings call is a teleconference, or webcast, in which a public company discusses the financial results of a reporting period.

Earnings calls usually happen, or at least begin, while the stock market on which the company’s shares are traded is closed to trading, so that all investors will have had a chance to hear management’s presentation before trading in the stock resumes.

Generally, the call will begin with a company official, typically the Investor Relations Officer, reading a safe harbor statement to limit the company’s liability should actual results prove different from expected indicators reported in the discussion.

If the company has a website, then there will probably be a section titled Investor Relations or Investors, where call schedules and archived past calls will typically be posted.

If the call occurs within 48 hours of a press release filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission on Form 8-K and meets certain other criteria, there is no obligation to separately report the call to the SEC. Otherwise, it must be reported on Form 8-K. If the call contains non-Generally Accepted Accounting Principles information, then there are additional requirements under SEC regulations, including Regulation FD. Companies headquartered in the United States with securities traded on a US-based stock market or other exchange are required to file audited annual reports with the SEC on Form 10-K following the end of a fiscal year and unaudited reports on Form 10-Q following the end of a fiscal quarter.

These companies announce earnings and generally hold an earnings call quarterly.

Some companies with shares traded on foreign stock exchanges also have American Depositary Receipts that are traded on US stock exchanges and are required to file Forms 20-F and 6K with the SEC. They are likely to have their earnings announcements and calls coordinated with the schedule required in the country where their shares are traded.

Post Idea #19: Background check

Related Articles – Summarized

Background Checks, Pre-Employment Background Check

HireRight provides more than 100 background screening services across more than 200 countries and territories.

Our focus is to develop innovative and agile solutions designed to meet the screening needs of our customers while anticipating the future evolution of the screening industry.

We’re driven by speed, efficiency and quality and backed by one of the most experienced teams in the industry.

You too can depend on HireRight as your background check company to provide your organization with an intelligent approach to screening – one that is grounded in years of trusted experience in helping clients make sound, fast decisions with confidence.

10 Best Background Check Services Of 2022 [Updated]

A background check is the process of compiling both public and confidential information to investigate and review a person’s history.

Before choosing any companies to help you with the task, first you’ll need to understand the difference between background checks for personal use and those for employment or business purposes, to better assess which service best fits your needs.

Locate a long-lost relative, learn about your new neighbor, or check yourself out Background checks have become increasingly popular, and online dating is just one of the many scenarios where they could be useful on a personal level.

So if you’re planning on running a background check on the girl next door to determine whether you can hire her as a babysitter, you need to obtain the report from a company that is FCRA-compliant.

In 2017, the National Association of Professional Background Screeners, a non-profit trade association that represents the interests of companies offering background screening services, commissioned a national survey to measure how companies approached background checks to identify the current trends and practices.

If your company hires medical caregivers, you’ll want to conduct a background check that includes an Office of the Inspector General’s sanctions report and an I-9 employment eligibility verification, to ensure compliance and protect your company’s funds and resources.

Billing Practices While there are a fair share of complaints about people search and background check companies across multiple consumer review websites, most of them complain about one thing: unclear billing practices.

Criminal History Background Check

For questions regarding your PA Access to Criminal History request, please call the PATCH helpline at 888-783-7972.

Make sure that you have the control number and the date that you requested your PATCH check.

If you mailed your request in, you will need to call 888-783-7972 , option 1, to obtain your control number.

Enter the control number, date of request and your name as it was entered when you submitted the request.

Request Under Review – The request has been added to our queue and will be worked on chronologically.

No Items Found – This means that you have entered something incorrectly when searching for your request.

Notary Fee – $5; optional, available for standard record check requests.

Background Checks

Different types of background checks require different types of forms and different fees.

What kinds of background checks are available? The Bureau of Criminal Apprehension can provide criminal history information as statute allows.

School Hiring Authorities Minnesota schools are required to conduct background checks on any employees who will have contact with children as part of their jobs.

Rental Properties The Kari Koskinen Manager Background Check Act requires Minnesota rental property owners to conduct background checks on any employee who may access a tenant’s home as part of their duties.

The Minnesota Child Protection Background Check Act authorizes children’s service providers to request criminal history background checks on individual children’s service workers.

Firefighter Background Checks Minnesota Statute requires criminal history background checks on all applicants for employment at a fire department.

Minnesota Statute requires businesses which hire private security officers to conduct background checks on those employees.

People Search & Reverse Phone Lookup

If you suspect that someone in your life may have a history of violence, the safest way to know for sure is to perform a public arrest records search.

With Instant Checkmate, you can search for felony and misdemeanor offenses, as well as other infractions such as speeding tickets.

Is there a felon, a sex offender, or a former inmate on your block? Search criminal records to find out.

If you wanted to search records in a different state, you might have to actually travel to that state and appear in person.

Instant Checkmate is one of the best public criminal records search engines you can use online.

Our members turn to our website every day to learn the facts about the people in their lives.

Become an Instant Checkmate member today, and find the truth about anyone.

Office Of The Attorney General

The background check process begins when an applicant agency provides an applicant with a BCIA 8016, REQUEST FOR LIVE SCAN SERVICE form.

The applicant completes the form with his/her personal information and takes the form to a live scan operator where the applicant must provide the appropriate identification.

The live scan operator checks the applicant’s identification, inputs the applicant’s personal descriptor information, captures the applicant’s fingerprints electronically, and transmits the data to the DOJ. At the conclusion of the session, the applicant should be provided an applicant transaction identifier number, a number used to identify the transaction.

If there is, the technician applies the dissemination criterion statutorily mandated for the applicant type, e.g., the type of employment, certification, or license, and prepares a background check response for the applicant agency pursuant to Penal Code section 11105.

The applicant agency must also ensure they have provided complete and accurate information, specifically the applicant agency ORI, the name of the agency authorized to receive the CORI, mail code, the authorized type of applicant, and a description of the type of license, certification, or permit; also referred to as the working title of the applicant.

If an applicant’s fingerprints are rejected twice by the FBI due to poor print quality, the form BCIA 8020, REQUEST FOR APPLICANT NAME CHECK BY THE FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION must be submitted to the DOJ’s FBI Response Unit by the applicant agency, to request a name check of the FBI national criminal history database.

Pursuant to Penal Code section 11105, if an adverse employment, licensing, or certification decision is made based on the results of the criminal history background check, the applicant agency must provide a copy of those results to the applicant immediately.

Background Check

A background check is a process a person or company uses to verify that an individual is who they claim to be, and this provides an opportunity to check and confirm the validity of someone’s criminal record, education, employment history, and other activities from their past.

The applicant have to receive a copy of the background check so the applicant could have an opportunity to make sure if the information in the background check is correct.

The applicant has to receive a copy of the background to check or update the information that appears on the background check.

The employer must obtain consent from the applicant granting approval of the background check.

Employers use disclosed information from past employers when a background check does not provide enough information on the employee.

Employers could use social media as tool to conduct a background check on an applicant.

In Michigan, the system of criminal checks has been criticized in a recent case where a shooting suspect was able to pass an FBI check to purchase a shotgun although he had failed the check for a state handgun permit.

Post Idea #20: Online dating application

Related Articles – Summarized

The Best Dating Apps For 2022

A dating app that only works on Thursday? What a concept! Many even have special video services they’ve introduced specifically to deal with dating in a post-COVID world, as we’ll explain later.

If you don’t fall into the cis-hetero dating pool, you’ll be happy to know that most of the apps reviewed here are inclusive.

As this is 2021, all of these services, even the decades-old Match, offer both iPhone apps and Android apps.

Sometimes the responsible thing to do is to stay home, and that created quite a dilemma for dating apps.

Apps with more specific target audiences are also adopting this feature, including the mobile-only Muslim dating app Muzmatch.

Facebook Dating users can choose to use other Facebook communications apps, such as Messenger or the experimental Tuned and Sparked, apps specifically for quarantined couples and speed dating, respectively.

Dating is hard work, so we did some of the legwork for you by taking a deep dive into 10 of the most popular apps.

Dating, Make Friends & Meet New People

” Thanks to Tinder I have found the love of my life and we are to be married.

” I honestly had been on many Tinder dates and was absolutely sure I was meeting a fling to get a free meal and have some fun3 years and sooo many dates and memories later, I am married to my Tinder guy, Kenny!

” …just gotten out of a bad breakup and created a Tinder account to keep my mind off the breakup.

After about a week of talking, we decided to meet up at a local bar for drinks…we decided to tie the knot in an 18 person ceremony in New Jersey on June 27th 2020.” We were at a crossroads and so after a few months of casually dating, we decided to end things.

From there we never stopped talking, dating each other and falling deeper in love.

Tinder brought us together and for that, I am forever grateful.

” My college roommate and I both would stay up on Tinder, not looking for anything serious.

Online Dating Application

An online dating application is an online dating service presented through a mobile phone application, often taking advantage of a smartphone’s GPS location capabilities, always on-hand presence, and easy access to digital photo galleries and mobile wallets to enhance the traditional nature of online dating.

These apps can simplify and speed the process of sifting through potential dating partners, chatting, flirting, and potentially meeting or becoming romantically involved over traditional online dating services.

The launch of Tinder in 2012 led to a growth of online dating applications, both by new providers and by traditional online dating services that expanded into the mobile app market.

Online dating offers convenience; people want dating to work around their schedules.

60% of U.S. adults agree that online dating is a good way to meet people and 66% say they have gone on a real date with someone they met through an application.

Online dating has made dating very superficial; the picture on a user’s profile may cause someone to match or not match before even getting to know their personalities.

Online dating platforms are also becoming breeding grounds for honeypots wherein attackers create fake profiles to steal user’s private information, one such work studies and evaluates user’s vulnerabilities of disclosing personally identifiable information in Tinder, a mobile dating app.

Dating Application Form Template

Application forms are critically important to companies, schools, and nonprofits.

Jotform simplifies online application forms, whether you need it for collecting information for loans, job applications, scholarships, or even housing.

If you don’t have the proper application template, you could be hindering your ability to get tasks done or collect the information you need.

Create your own form by either selecting from one of our application form samples or start a basic application form from scratch.

Using the Jotform form builder to format and customize the application form template to match your needs.

Try one of our free online application form templates today!

6.! Online Dating Application – Mobile dating services, also known as cell dating, cellular dating, or cell phone dating, allow individuals to chat, flirt, meet, and possibly become romantically involved by means of text messaging, mobile chatting, and the mobile web.

Eventually, online dating progressed in to online dating applications: location based dating applications accessible on your mobile device, which are less complicated than standard online dating on a computer.

Graph 3 How long have you had an online dating application? Response Percent 61.4% 17.1% 12.9% 8.6% answered question skipped question Answer Options 1-6 months 1+ years 2+ years More than two years Response Count 86 24 18 12 140 50 How long have you had an online dating application? 1-6 months 1+ years 2+ years The fourth question derived from question three asking the respondents to clarify how often they used online dating applications.

Graph 4 How often do you use online dating applications? Response Percent 27.3% 9.1% 16.1% 47.6% answered question skipped question Answer Options 1-3 times per week 4-6 times per week Daily Less than 4 times a month Response Count 39 13 23 68 143 47 How often do you use online dating applications? 1-3 times per week 4-6 times per week Daily The next question dove further in to what respondents were seeking when using online dating applications.

Graph 5 What are you seeking when you using online dating applications? Response Percent 44.9% 11.4% 16.5% 27.2% answered question skipped question Answer Options Romantic relationship Friendship Hook-up Other ! 36 Response Count 71 18 26 43 158 32 ! What are you seeking when you using online dating applications? Romantic relationship Friendship Hook-up The sixth question asked respondents how willing they were to meet up with a person they met on an online dating application.

Graph 6 How willing are you to meet up with an individual you met on an online dating application? Response Percent 32.4% 31.3% 19.8% 16.5% answered question skipped question Answer Options Likely Undecided Unlikely Not at all ! 37 Response Count 59 57 36 30 182 8 ! How willing are you to meet up with an individual you met on an online dating application? Likely Undecided Unlikely The seventh question explored further in to the reasons as to why people use online dating applications.

Graph 7 Do you think people use online dating applications for attention to cure loneliness? Response Percent 37.0% 54.0% 3.7% 5.3% answered question skipped question Answer Options Somewhat Yes Undecided No ! 38 Response Count 70 102 7 10 189 1 ! Do you think people use online dating applications for attention to cure loneliness? Somewhat Yes Undecided The next question asked respondents what dating applications they participated in.

Post Idea #21: Suburban Propane Partners, L.P.

Related Articles – Summarized

Investor Relations

About Us. A Master Limited Partnership since 1996, Suburban Propane Partners, L.P. has been in the customer service business since 1928.

A value and growth-oriented company headquartered in Whippany, New Jersey, Suburban Propane is managed for long-term, consistent performance.

Suburban Propane is a nationwide marketer and distributor of a diverse array of energy-related products, specializing in propane, fuel oil and refined fuels, as well as marketing natural gas and electricity in deregulated markets.

With more than 3,300 full-time employees, Suburban Propane maintains business operations in 41 states, providing dependable service to approximately 1 million residential, commercial, industrial and agricultural customers through approximately 700 locations.

Suburban Propane Partners, L.P. Announces Deal To Acquire 25% Equity Stake In Independence Hydrogen

PRNewswire/ – Suburban Propane Partners, L.P., a nationwide distributor of propane, renewable propane, and other energy sources; including low carbon alternatives, today announced it purchased a 25% equity stake in Independence Hydrogen, Inc., a veteran-owned and operated supplier of gaseous hydrogen solutions, for $30.0 million.

Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a veteran-owned and operated, privately-held company developing a gaseous hydrogen ecosystem to deliver locally-sourced hydrogen to local markets, with a primary focus on material handling and backup power applications.

“We believe in the role that hydrogen will play in the move toward decarbonization across many sectors of the economy. In line with our commitment to the military veterans’ community through our SuburbanCares corporate pillar, we are extremely excited to partner with the team at Independence Hydrogen to help them achieve their vision and mission of localized hydrogen production and distribution,” said Michael Stivala.

“Suburban Propane joins our existing investors at Hivers & Strivers, a venture group that backs military veterans exclusively, to create a true partnership with a shared vision to supply clean hydrogen locally in resilient, networked hubs for powering the American energy transition. We are excited to collaborate with Suburban Propane who is a force multiplier with many synergies to further accelerate our rapid expansion.”

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables will also hold the Partnership’s 39% equity stake in Oberon Fuels, acquired in September 2020.

With Suburban Propane – promoting the clean burning and versatile nature of propane and renewable propane as a bridge to a green energy future and developing the next generation of renewable energy.

About Independence Hydrogen, Inc.Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a privately-held company that is a pioneer in building the American hydrogen economy.

Suburban Propane To Acquire Stake In Independence Hydrogen

Suburban Propane Partners purchased a 25 percent equity stake in Independence Hydrogen, a veteran-owned and -operated supplier of gaseous hydrogen solutions, for $30 million.

According to Suburban Propane, hydrogen can help decarbonize the material handling, transportation and heavy industry sectors, and provide grid resiliency as backup power and long-duration storage to enable the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources.

“We believe in the role that hydrogen will play in the move toward decarbonization across many sectors of the economy,” says Michael Stivala, president and CEO of Suburban Propane.

Stivala says Suburban Propane’s focus on safety and its localized service model are situated to support the adoption of hydrogen solutions in the marketplace and accelerate the growth of Independence Hydrogen.

“I have the honor of leading a team of fellow veterans with fierce execution skills, and we are on a mission to make our communities safer and more energy resilient with reliable, cost-effective and environmentally friendly hydrogen,” says William Lehner, Independence Hydrogen’s founder and CEO. “Suburban Propane joins our existing investors at Hivers & Strivers, a venture group that backs military veterans exclusively, to create a true partnership with a shared vision to supply clean hydrogen locally in resilient, networked hubs for powering the American energy transition.”

Suburban Propane says its formation of Suburban Renewable Energy will serve as a platform for its investments in renewable energy technologies and businesses.

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables will also hold the partnership’s 39 percent equity stake in Oberon Fuels, acquired in September 2020.

Suburban Propane Buys 25% Equity Stake In Virginia Company For $30M

Suburban Propane Partners LP of Whippany announced March 10 it purchased a 25% equity stake in gaseous hydrogen solutions supplier Independence Hydrogen Inc. for $30 million.

The company also announced it created a new subsidiary, Suburban Renewable Energy LLC, as part of its long-term goal of building out a renewable energy platform.

The purchase aligns with Suburban Propane’s commitment to invest in “Innovative solutions to support the economy-wide transition to a sustainable energy future, while also advancing the clean energy benefits of propane to support the transition.”

Independence Hydrogen is a veteran-owned and -operated, privately held company based in Ashburn, Va., that develops a gaseous hydrogen ecosystem to deliver locally sourced hydrogen to local markets.

“We believe in the role that hydrogen will play in the move toward decarbonization across many sectors of the economy. In line with our commitment to the military veterans’ community through our SuburbanCares corporate pillar, we are extremely excited to partner with the team at Independence Hydrogen to help them achieve their vision and mission of localized hydrogen production and distribution,” said Michael Stivala, Suburban Propane president and CEO, said in a statement.

Suburban Propane’s formation of a the wholly owned subsidiary Suburban Renewable Energy will serve as the platform for its investments in renewable energy technologies and businesses.

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables will also hold the partnership’s 39% equity stake in Oberon Fuels, acquired in September 2020.

Suburban Propane Partners, L.P. Announces Deal To Acquire 25% Equity Stake In Independence Hydrogen

WHIPPANY, N.J., March 10, 2022 /PRNewswire/ – Suburban Propane Partners, L.P., a nationwide distributor of propane, renewable propane, and other energy sources; including low carbon alternatives, today announced it purchased a 25% equity stake in Independence Hydrogen, Inc., a veteran-owned and operated supplier of gaseous hydrogen solutions, for $30.0 million.

Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a veteran-owned and operated, privately-held company developing a gaseous hydrogen ecosystem to deliver locally-sourced hydrogen to local markets, with a primary focus on material handling and backup power applications.

“We believe in the role that hydrogen will play in the move toward decarbonization across many sectors of the economy. In line with our commitment to the military veterans’ community through our SuburbanCares corporate pillar, we are extremely excited to partner with the team at Independence Hydrogen to help them achieve their vision and mission of localized hydrogen production and distribution,” said Michael Stivala, Suburban Propane President and Chief Executive Officer.

“Suburban Propane joins our existing investors at Hivers & Strivers, a venture group that backs military veterans exclusively, to create a true partnership with a shared vision to supply clean hydrogen locally in resilient, networked hubs for powering the American energy transition. We are excited to collaborate with Suburban Propane who is a force multiplier with many synergies to further accelerate our rapid expansion.”

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables will also hold the Partnership’s 39% equity stake in Oberon Fuels, acquired in September 2020.

The Partnership is supported by three core pillars: Suburban Commitment – showcasing the Partnership’s 90+ year legacy, and ongoing commitment to the highest standards for dependability, flexibility, and reliability that underscores the Partnership’s commitment to excellence in customer service; SuburbanCares – highlighting the Partnership’s continued dedication to giving back to local communities across the Partnership’s national footprint and Go Green with Suburban Propane – promoting the clean burning and versatile nature of propane and renewable propane as a bridge to a green energy future and developing the next generation of renewable energy.

About Independence Hydrogen, Inc. Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a privately-held company that is a pioneer in building the American hydrogen economy.

Suburban Propane Partners, L.P. Announces Deal To Acquire 25% Equity Stake In Independence Hydrogen

PRNewswire/ – Suburban Propane Partners, L.P., a nationwide distributor of propane, renewable propane, and other energy sources; including low carbon alternatives, today announced it purchased a 25% equity stake in Independence Hydrogen, Inc., a veteran-owned and operated supplier of gaseous hydrogen solutions, for $30.0 million.

Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a veteran-owned and operated, privately-held company developing a gaseous hydrogen ecosystem to deliver locally-sourced hydrogen to local markets, with a primary focus on material handling and backup power applications.

“We believe in the role that hydrogen will play in the move toward decarbonization across many sectors of the economy. In line with our commitment to the military veterans’ community through our SuburbanCares corporate pillar, we are extremely excited to partner with the team at Independence Hydrogen to help them achieve their vision and mission of localized hydrogen production and distribution,” said Michael Stivala.

“Suburban Propane joins our existing investors at Hivers & Strivers, a venture group that backs military veterans exclusively, to create a true partnership with a shared vision to supply clean hydrogen locally in resilient, networked hubs for powering the American energy transition. We are excited to collaborate with Suburban Propane who is a force multiplier with many synergies to further accelerate our rapid expansion.”

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables will also hold the Partnership’s 39% equity stake in Oberon Fuels, acquired in September 2020.

With Suburban Propane – promoting the clean burning and versatile nature of propane and renewable propane as a bridge to a green energy future and developing the next generation of renewable energy.

About Independence Hydrogen, Inc.Independence Hydrogen, Inc. is a privately-held company that is a pioneer in building the American hydrogen economy.

Suburban Propane Partners agrees to acquire a 25% equity stake in gaseous hydrogen supplier Independence Hydrogen for $30M, and creates a new Suburban Renewable Energy subsidiary as part of its long-term goal of building out a renewable energy platform.

Independence Hydrogen is a privately-held company developing a gaseous hydrogen ecosystem to deliver locally-sourced hydrogen to local markets, with a primary focus on material handling and backup power applications.

In addition to the investment in Independence Hydrogen, Suburban Renewables also will hold the partnership’s 39% stake in Oberon Fuels, a developer and producer of renewable dimethyl ether acquired in 2020.

Suburban Propane Partners offers “Old school value,” attractively priced with a nearly 9% yield, Cory Cook writes in a bullish analysis posted on Seeking Alpha.

Post Idea #22: Townsquare Media

Related Articles – Summarized

Townsquare Media Careers

If you want to grow professionally, be on the cutting edge and still have fun, then we want you to join the Townsquare Media family.

Competitive Pay We value our employees, so we pay them competitively.

Concierge Health Services We believe receiving health care should be simple and convenient.

Employee Discounts Enjoy special employee discounts on some of your favorite brands.

Townsquare Media is proud to be home to some of Radio Ink’s 30 and Under Superstars.

Host Deborah Parenti recently interviewed five TSM employees in the video below.

Check out the video to learn more about these rising stars and how they’re transforming traditional media.

Townsquare Media

Townsquare Media, Inc. is an American radio network and media company based in Purchase, New York.

On April 30, 2012, Townsquare Media announced a deal to acquire 55 stations in 11 markets from Cumulus Media, in exchange for Townsquare’s stations in the markets of Bloomington and Peoria, IL and $126 million.

Townsquare Interactive is the digital marketing division of Townsquare Media and focuses on creating comprehensive web presences for small businesses across the United States.

Peak, which like Dial Global and Townsquare has a large investment held by Oaktree, also had its Boise cluster folded into Townsquare.

Townsquare then ceased print publication of XXL. In August 2015, Townsquare Media acquired North American Midway Entertainment of Farmland, Indiana, an amusement park company with operations in the United States and Canada.

On October 16, 2017, Townsquare Media announced the transition of Steven Price, Townsquare’s founder and chief executive officer, to the new role of Executive Chairman of the Board.

On January 2, 2019, Townsquare Media announced the departure of Co-Chief Executive Officer Dhruv Prasad and the transition of Bill Wilson from Co-Chief Executive Officer to sole chief executive officer of the company.

Small Business Marketing, Website Design, SEO

If you need more customers, you need us! Get seen by more potential customers.

Now that we have Townsquare, we don’t need to be obsessing over those things because we have other people that can take care of that for us.

Post Idea #23: Net income

Related Articles – Summarized

Net Income

Net income also refers to an individual’s income after taking taxes and deductions into account.

Business analysts often refer to net income as the bottom line since it is at the bottom of the income statement.

Calculating NI for Businesses To calculate net income for a business, start with a company’s total revenue.

When basing an investment decision on NI, investors should review the quality of the numbers used to arrive at the taxable income and NI. Personal Gross Income vs. NI Gross income refers to an individual’s total earnings or pre-tax earnings, and NI refers to the difference after factoring deductions and taxes into gross income.

To calculate taxable income, which is the figure used by the Internal Revenue Service to determine income tax, taxpayers subtract deductions from gross income.

The difference between taxable income and income tax is an individual’s NI. For example, an individual has $60,000 in gross income and qualifies for $10,000 in deductions.

As stated above, the difference between taxable income and income tax is the individual’s NI, but this number is not noted on individual tax forms.

What Is Net Income? Definition, How To Calculate It

Net income refers to the amount an individual or business makes after deducting costs, allowances and taxes.

In commerce, net income is what the business has left over after all expenses, including salary and wages, cost of goods or raw material and taxes.

For an individual, net income is the “Take-home” money after deductions for taxes, health insurance and retirement contributions.

To calculate net income, take the gross income – the total amount of money earned – then subtract expenses, such as taxes and interest payments.

You may have some other sources of income such as Social Security checks, side jobs or investment income which can add to your net income.

Understanding net income is important because it helps clarify how much can be spent on living expenses as well as discretionary spending.

If they look at net income instead and make sure budgeted spending is below their net income, they could instead start saving money for the future.

The Profit Of A Business After Deducting Expenses

Net income is the amount of accounting profit a company has left over after paying off all its expenses.

The Income Statement is one of a company’s core financial statements that shows their profit and loss over a period of time.

Net earnings are also used to determine the net profit margin.

Net profit margin is also used in the DuPont method for decomposing return on equity – Return on EquityReturn on Equity is a measure of a company’s profitability that takes a company’s annual return divided by the value of its total shareholders’ equity.

A company with high ROE due to high net profit margins, for example, can be said to operate a product differentiation strategy.

These articles will teach you business valuation best practices and how to value a company using comparable company analysis, discounted cash flow modeling, and precedent transactions, as used in investment banking, equity research, of a business.

Since net profit includes a variety of non-cash expenses such as depreciation, amortization, stock-based compensation, etc.

For now, we’ll get right into how to calculate net income using the net income formula.

Net income is one of the most important line items on an income statement.

Another useful net income number to track is operating net income.

If Wyatt wants to calculate his operating net income for the first quarter of 2021, he could simply add back the interest expense to his net income.

20,000 net income + $1,000 of interest expense = $21,000 operating net income.

Calculating net income and operating net income is easy if you have good bookkeeping.

Your company’s income statement might even break out operating net income as a separate line item before adding other income and expenses to arrive at net income.

How To Calculate Net Income: Formula Plus Examples

Learning about net income and how to calculate it can help you determine how your salary and paycheck differ.

In this article, we discuss what net income is, compare net income to gross income and show how to find net income.

How to find net income Calculating your personal net income may require you to look through old records and do a bit of math.

Net income refers to income after taxes, so you will need to subtract deductions from your gross annual income.

What’s the difference between net income vs. gross income? While net income refers to your income after deductions, gross income refers to your total or pre-tax earnings.

What is operating net income? Operating net income-also referred to as “Earnings Before Interest and Taxes” or “EBIT”-is very similar to net income but minus unrelated account income and expenses, such as income tax, interest income and gains or losses from sales of fixed assets.

To calculate operating income, you would use the following formula:Net Income + Interest Expense + Taxes = Operating Net Income.

What Is Net Income?

When a company reports earnings, there are two numbers most investors pay attention to – the revenue and the net income.

Net income is known as the bottom line, and is the amount of profit the company made after paying all of its expenses.

When calculating net income, start with the top line, or revenue number.

Finally, subtract taxes, interest, and any other expenses to arrive at the net income.

Subtracting these from the operating income gives you a net income of $95,000.

Net income lets you know how much profit the company made after paying all of its expenses.

If you divide the net income by the number of outstanding shares, this is how you calculate the widely used earnings per share metric, which can help you assess a stock’s valuation and calculate several other metrics as well.

Net Income

In business and accounting, net income is an entity’s income minus cost of goods sold, expenses, depreciation and amortization, interest, and taxes for an accounting period.

As profit and earnings are used synonymously for income, net earnings and net profit are commonly found as synonyms for net income.

Net income is informally called the bottom line because it is typically found on the last line of a company’s income statement.

Net income can also be calculated by adding a company’s operating income to non-operating income and then subtracting off taxes.

Net profit: To calculate net profit for a venture, subtract all costs, including a fair share of total corporate overheads, from the gross revenues or turnover.

Net sales – Cost of goods sold = Gross profit – SG&A expenses – Research and development = Earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization – Depreciation and amortization = Earnings before interest and taxes – Interest expense = Earnings before taxes – Tax expense = Net income.

Net sales = gross sales – Gross profit = net sales – cost of goods sold Gross profit percentage = 100%. Operating profit = gross profit – total operating expenses Net income = operating profit – taxes – interest Net sales = gross sales – Gross profit = net sales – cost of goods sold Operating profit = gross profit – total operating expenses Net profit = operating profit – taxes – interest Net profit = net sales – cost of goods sold – operating expense – taxes – interest.

Post Idea #24: Cerebral palsy

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Cerebral Palsy?

The main sign that a child might have CP is a delay reaching motor or movement milestones.

After a CP diagnosis is made, a team of health professionals works with the child and family to develop a plan to help the child reach his or her full potential.

No single treatment is the best one for all children with CP. Before deciding on a treatment plan, it is important to talk with the child’s doctor to understand all the risks and benefits.

CP is caused by abnormal development of the brain or damage to the developing brain that affects a child’s ability to control his or her muscles.

The abnormal development of the brain or damage that leads to CP can happen before birth, during birth, within a month after birth, or during the first years of a child’s life, while the brain is still developing.

If you think your child is not meeting movement milestones or might have CP, contact your doctor or nurse and share your concerns.

Even if your child is not yet old enough for kindergarten or enrolled in a public school, call your local elementary school or board of education and ask to speak with someone who can help you have your child evaluated.

Cerebral Palsy

Those with stiff muscles have spastic cerebral palsy, those with poor coordination in locomotion have ataxic cerebral palsy, and those with writhing movements have dyskinetic cerebral palsy.

Spastic cerebral palsy is the type of cerebral palsy characterized by spasticity or high muscle tone often resulting in stiff, jerky movements.

Ataxic cerebral palsy is observed in approximately 5-10% of all cases of cerebral palsy, making it the least frequent form of cerebral palsy.

Dyskinetic cerebral palsy is an extrapyramidal form of cerebral palsy.

Adults with cerebral palsy may not seek physical therapy due to transport issues, financial restrictions and practitioners not feeling like they know enough about cerebral palsy to take people with CP on as clients.

Because children with cerebral palsy are often told that it is a non-progressive disease, they may be unprepared for the greater effects of the aging process as they head into their 30s. Young adults with cerebral palsy experience problems with aging that able-bodied adults experience “Much later in life”.

Maverick documentary filmmaker Kazuo Hara criticises the mores and customs of Japanese society in an unsentimental portrait of adults with cerebral palsy in his 1972 film Goodbye CP. Focusing on how people with cerebral palsy are generally ignored or disregarded in Japan, Hara challenges his society’s taboos about physical handicaps.

Symptoms And Causes

In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with exaggerated reflexes, floppiness or spasticity of the limbs and trunk, unusual posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary greatly from person to person.

The brain disorder causing cerebral palsy doesn’t change with time, so the symptoms usually don’t worsen with age.

Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain.

Problems during labor and delivery may increase the risk of cerebral palsy.

The healthier you are heading into a pregnancy, the less likely you’ll be to develop an infection that results in cerebral palsy.

Rarely, cerebral palsy can be caused by brain damage that occurs in childhood.

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Cerebral Palsy: What You Need to Know Injuries to the brain before, during or after birth can cause cerebral palsy.

Almost half the children affected by cerebral palsy develop hypertonia or spasticity.

Cerebral palsy is a condition that affects movement and muscle tone.

Hip dysplasia is a deformity of the hip that can be found on one or both hips in children with an underlying neuromuscular condition such as CP. Increased or decreased tone in the muscles can lead to migration of the femoral head out of the hip socket, requiring additional treatment, such as proximal femoral osteotomy or acetabular osteotomy.

Neuromuscular scoliosis is a condition of the spine associated with an underlying neuromuscular condition, such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy or spinal cord injury.

Toe walking is a condition in children with an underlying neuromuscular disorder that leads to high tone or muscle tightness in a child’s ankles, and can cause them to walk on the toes or balls of the feet.

Children with a neuromuscular disorder can exhibit increased muscle tone that leads to a contracture of the muscle, preventing it from stretching well.

National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke

What is Cerebral Palsy?What are the early signs?What causes cerebral palsy?What are the risk factors?Can cerebral palsy be prevented?What are the different forms?What other conditions are associated with cerebral palsy?How is cerebral palsy diagnosed?How is cerebral palsy treated?

Cerebral palsy refers to a group of neurological disorders that appear in infancy or early childhood and permanently affect body movement and muscle coordination Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to or abnormalities inside the developing brain that disrupt the brain’s ability to control movement and maintain posture and balance.

All people with cerebral palsy have problems with movement and posture, and some also have some level of intellectual disability, seizures, and abnormal physical sensations or perceptions, as well as other medical disorders.

Some metabolic disorders can masquerade as CP. Most of the childhood metabolic disorders have characteristic brain abnormalities or malformations that will show up on an MRI. Other types of disorders can also be mistaken for CP or can cause specific types of CP. For example, coagulation disorders can cause prenatal or perinatal strokes that damage the brain and produce symptoms characteristic of CP, most commonly hemiparetic CP. Referrals to specialists such as a child neurologist, developmental pediatrician, ophthalmologist, or otologist aid in a more accurate diagnosis and help doctors develop a specific treatment plan.

The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke,, a part of the National Institutes of Health, is the nation’s leading funder of basic, clinical, and translational research on brain and nervous system disorders.

Another NIH agency, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, also conducts and supports research on cerebral palsy.

CPRN enables groundbreaking clinical research on CP and the study of long-term outcomes from the many interventions that children go through after their initial diagnosis of CP. The CP NOW Foundation welcomes the community to discuss their experiences with CP on MyCP.org, their research partner and a web portal for community participation in research through discussions and surveys in the CPRN community registry owned and operated by CPRN. As researchers continue to explore new treatments for cerebral palsy and to expand our knowledge of brain development, we can expect significant improvements in the care of children with cerebral palsy and many other disorders that strike in early life.

Cerebral Palsy: Symptoms, Treatments, And Causes Of Cerebral Palsy

The specific symptoms an individual exhibits will depend on the type of cerebral palsy they have as well as the location of the affected muscle groups.

Cerebral palsy is a disorder that can affect the patient in a number of ways, and the type and severity of symptoms will vary depending on the extent of the brain injury sustained.

Because different forms of cerebral palsy are caused by injuries to different areas of the brain, and multiple brain injuries can occur, some patients exhibit more than one type of CP. In mixed-CP cases, symptoms of more than one type are present.

In addition to the type of symptoms experienced, cerebral palsy can also be classified by the severity of symptoms.

A cerebral palsy diagnosis can be reached when symptoms are present and a brain injury can be found.

By managing symptoms and preventing secondary conditions from developing or worsening, cerebral palsy treatments can focus on allowing a child to live the best life possible.

Although CP is a serious and lifelong condition, many treatments are available that can reduce the severity of symptoms and allow children with cerebral palsy to live long, independent and active lives.

Definition Of Cerebral Palsy

Though Cerebral Palsy can be defined, having Cerebral Palsy does not define the person that has the condition.

While Cerebral Palsy is a blanket term commonly referred to as “CP” and described by loss or impairment of motor function, Cerebral Palsy is actually caused by brain damage.

An individual with Cerebral Palsy will likely show signs of physical impairment.

The impairment caused by Cerebral Palsy is manageable.

Individuals diagnosed with Cerebral Palsy have a neurological condition which primarily causes physical impairment involving limitation or loss of function and mobility.

Individuals with Cerebral Palsy often have associative and co-mitigating conditions that also impose additional challenges, such as a learning impairment, seizures, and vision or hearing loss.

No. Cerebral Palsy is not a disease – it is actually a term used to describe a range of conditions that typically cause physical impairment.

Post Idea #25: United Airlines

Related Articles – Summarized

United Airlines To Allow Vaccine-Exempt Employees To Return To Work

United Airlines will allow employees who requested religious or medical exemptions to its vaccine mandate to return to their regular jobs from unpaid leave or alternate roles, the airline said Thursday.

United announced in August 2021 it would require all U.S.-based employees to be vaccinated against COVID-19 or they would be required to leave the company.

About 200 employees lost their jobs because they did not get vaccinated or seek an exemption, United said.

About 2,200 employees have exemptions to the mandate, United said in a memo to employees.

United said in a memo to employees it put in place several rules to protect workers, including the vaccine mandate, and urged employees to get vaccine boosters.

Among the United employees who have died during the COVID-19 pandemic were five with vaccine exemptions, United said.

Southwest Airlines said at the end of February no employees had lost jobs over vaccine rules.

‘Kiss My Ass!’ United Airlines Not Forgiven After Announcing Un-Vaxxed Staff Can Return To Work

The decision follows a US appeals court ordering another review of a decision handed down that refused to block United Airlines from enforcing a vaccine mandate for workers.

United Airlines has the distinction of being the first major airline that mandated all employees to get the jab in August of 2021.

Other airlines followed United’s lead, including Southwest Airlines.

It is unclear if those airlines will also hypocritically reverse course.

The politics of mandates have cost airlines big time.

Southwest Airlines is expected to post its second annual loss in 47 years.

United was down by more than 10 percent during trading on Monday, Delta was down eight percent, and American Airlines was down approximately seven percent, according to the New York Post.

CHICAGO – United Airlines will bring back employees who were placed on unpaid leave last year because they refused to get vaccinated against COVID-19.

New reported cases of COVID-19 in the United States have dropped sharply since mid-January, when the highly contagious omicron variant began to wane.

More than 2,000 workers claimed a medical or religious exemption from vaccination.

A United spokeswoman said Thursday that the company still requires new employees to be vaccinated.

More than 950,000 Americans have died from COVID-19 since the pandemic started, but the rates of new cases, hospitalizations and deaths have fallen in the past two months.

Through Monday, the seven-day rolling average for daily new cases in the U.S. fell 52% to about 42,000 over the previous two weeks, according to data from Johns Hopkins University.

The average topped 800,000 daily cases in mid-January.

United Airlines On The App Store

With our everchanging environment and the need more than ever to empower our customers with more ability to self-serve and stay informed, we’ve worked to enhance our United app to deliver information more consistently, timelier and easier than before for all users – all while keeping many of the same features you know and love.

Our redesigned app will now deliver information you need more consistently than ever before with improved navigation for a more seamless experience.

During your trip, our app home screen gives you quick access to important details by opening to the most useful and relevant information, for all users whether you’re signed in or not.

When you find one that’s right, book it on the app using money, award miles or even your electronic travel certificates.

View and change your seat assignments, or enhance your trips by adding Economy Plus® seating, Premier Access®, United Club℠ passes, travel bundles and more.

Have questions?- Message our contact center directly through the Contact Us section in the app.

Family Sharing Up to six family members can use this app with Family Sharing enabled.

Flights Reservation

United Airlines baggage policy does allow each traveler one carry-on bag and one personal item, such as a handbag or briefcase.

These carry-on items may not exceed 45 inches in length, width, and height, and if they do, you must check them in with the airline carrier.

United Airlines baggage fees are determined by your itinerary and final destination.

The price of first and second checked baggage also depends on the date of ticketing.

To plan ahead, enter your flight information into the United Airlines baggage calculator to view the cost of baggage for your flight.

United Airlines

The United brand name was established by the amalgamation of several airlines in the late 1920s, the oldest of these being Varney Air Lines, which was founded in 1926 but was taken over by Continental Airlines management in 2010 in what was described as a “Merger of equals” and a newly created holding company for the airlines.

On June 27, 2019, the parent company’s name changed from United Continental Holdings to United Airlines Holdings.

Prior to the merger between United and Continental, United Airlines aircraft offered Economy Plus, while Continental did not.

United Club is the airline lounge associated with United Airlines and United Express carriers.

United Airlines, Inc. is publicly traded through its parent company, United Airlines Holdings.

According to investigators, between 2012 and 2015 United submitted delivery scan data to make it appear that United and its partner airlines complied with International Commercial Air requirements with accurate delivery times when in fact they were automated delivery scans with aspirational delivery time.

Some employees within United worked to hide this fact from the USPS. United Airlines Flight 976 was a regularly scheduled flight from Ministro Pistarini International Airport, Buenos Aires to John F. Kennedy International Airport, New York City on October 19, 1995.

United Flights & Reservations

Houston, TX Airport to Chicago, IL Airport with 278 flights every month.

Denver, CO Airport to Houston, TX Airport with 269 flights every month.

Houston, TX Airport to Denver, CO Airport with 269 flights every month.

Denver, CO Airport to Chicago, IL Airport with 265 flights every month.

Newark, NJ Airport to San Juan Airport with 121 flights every month.

San Juan Airport to Newark, NJ Airport with 121 flights every month.

For more info about changing your flight with United Airlines with Travelocity, please visit our Customer Service Portal.

Post Idea #26: United Airlines Holdings

Related Articles – Summarized

United Airlines Holdings

UAH owns and operates United Airlines, Inc. UAL Corporation agreed to change its name to United Continental Holdings in May 2010, when an agreement was reached between United and Continental Airlines where United would acquire Continental.

On June 27, 2019, the name of the parent company was changed from United Continental Holdings to United Airlines Holdings.

United Cogen, Inc. United Vacations, Inc…. Early in February 2008, UAL Corporation and Continental Airlines began advanced stages of merger negotiations and were expected to announce their decision in the immediate aftermath of a definitive merger agreement between rival Delta Air Lines and Northwest Airlines.

In June 2008, CEOs of both United Airlines and Continental Airlines signed an alliance pact presaging their eventual merger.

On October 1, 2010, UAL Corporation completed its acquisition of Continental Airlines and changed its name to United Continental Holdings, Inc. Although the two airlines remained separated until the operational integration was completed, as of this day both airlines are corporately controlled by the same leadership.

United updated their branding once again in August 2010, replacing the words “United Airlines” with the single word UNITED and changing the font to United’s traditional upper-case sans-serif font.

United Airlines and United Express operate more than 4,500 flights a day to 339 destinations; 140 million customers were carried on 1.5 million flights in 2015.

Post Idea #27: Hang Seng Index

Related Articles – Summarized

Asian Stocks Falls On Inflation And War Worries As Hang Seng Index Drops 2.9%; Yen Declines: Markets Wrap

Chinese stocks listed in the U.S. had their worst day since 2008 as traders were whiplashed by renewed regulatory concerns.

Equities in Asia fell Friday as the fastest U.S. inflation in 40 years drove Treasury yields higher and raised expectations for steeper interest-rate hikes.

An MSCI Inc. gauge of the region’s stocks was on track for its fourth consecutive weekly decline, weighed by losses in Japan, China and Hong Kong where a technology gauge slumped more than 6%. Chinese stocks listed in the U.S. had their worst day since 2008 as traders were whiplashed by renewed regulatory concerns.

U.S. futures turned lower, suggesting caution remains after a selloff Thursday as the war in Ukraine showed no sign of easing.

The data compounded investors’ concerns about the risks to the global economy from the conflict-driven surge in commodity markets over the past couple of weeks.

“The biggest risk is inflation,” said Fiona Cincotta, senior market analyst at City Index.

The European Central Bank unexpectedly accelerated its wind-down of monetary stimulus, signaling it’s more concerned about record inflation than weaker economic growth.

Amazonsaw its share price soar 6.7% during after-market trade after the company announced a share split and $10 billion buyback plan, which will remove hurdles for its inclusion in the Dow Jones Industrial Average index.

The consumer price index is expected to hit 7.9% in February, marking a fresh four-decade high.

The core inflation, which strips volatile food and energy items, is likely to come in at 6.4%. If actual readings surpass forecasts, investors may be even more worried about rising price levels and their ramifications for wage pressure and corporates’ profit margins.

Crude oil prices hit the highest level since 2008 before pulling back sharply on Wednesday.

Falling oil prices may alleviate concerns about the negative impact on economic recoveries as the cost of energy and raw material prices abates.

DailyFX. Hong Kong’s Hang Seng Index may embrace a rebound on Thursday after experiencing a huge intraday price swing on the prior day.

The overall trend remains bearish biased however, as price formed consecutive lower highs and lower lows over the past few months.

Hang Seng Index Looking Likely To Start A New Bullish Move

The Hang Seng index is starting is looking bullish after weeks of a strong downward move.

The Index is also likely to gain over 10 percent of its value in its next bullish move.

Hang Seng is a weighted index of the top 60 Hong companies based on their market capitalization that trade on the Hong Kong Exchange.

The Index has become a benchmark for blue-chip stocks traded on the Hong Kong stock exchange in recent years.

The Index is also classified as a price index with no adjustments made for cash dividends and warrant bonuses.

Today, the markets for the Index opened at 21879 and have since gained 2.5 per cent to trade at the current prices of 21905.

Although the general market trends will still be bearish-biased, the current bullish push is likely to see Hang Seng gain more than 10 per cent from its current prices.

Overview, Constituent Stocks, Calculation

The Hang Seng Index is a stock market index in Hong Kong.

The Hang Seng Index is the main indicator of the Hong Kong market’s overall performance.

The Hang Seng Index is calculated based on a free-float-adjusted, market capitalization-weighted approach.

Although the Hang Seng Index was started in 1969, the index was calculated retroactively to 1965.

Its base was set at 100 points, equal to the total value of the Hang Seng Index’s constituent stocks when the market closed on July 31, 1964.

The highest annual return occurred in 1972 when the index rose 147.07%. The lowest annual return occurred in 1974 when it contracted by -60.54%. In the 2010s, the Hang Seng Index grew by an average of approximately 3.7% per year.

A stock market index, also known as a stock index, measures a section of the stock market.

Hang Seng Index

The Hang Seng Index is a freefloat-adjusted market-capitalization-weighted stock-market index in Hong Kong.

HSI was started on November 24, 1969, and is currently compiled and maintained by Hang Seng Indexes Company Limited, which is a wholly owned subsidiary of Hang Seng Bank, one of the largest banks registered and listed in Hong Kong in terms of market capitalisation.

Ho Sin Hang, chairman of the Hang Seng Bank, conceived the idea of creating the Hang Seng Index as a “Dow Jones Index for Hong Kong”.

Along with Hang Seng Director Lee Quo-wei, he commissioned Hang Seng’s head of Research Stanley Kwan to create the index, which debuted on November 24, 1969.

When the Hang Seng Index was first published, its base of 100 points was set equivalent to the stocks’ total value as of the market close on July 31, 1964.

The Hang Seng Composite Index Series was launched on October 3, 2001, targeting on providing a broad standard of the performance of the Hong Kong stock market.

Hang Seng Industry Classification System is a comprehensive system designed for the Hong Kong stock market by Hang Seng Indexes Company Limited.

Post Idea #28: Styrene-butadiene

Related Articles – Summarized


For SBS modified bitumen: ratio of the out-of-plan bending vibration γCH of trans-butadiene at 965 cm− 1 for SBS copolymer to the in-plan bending vibration SCH3 at 1376 cm− 1 for the bitumen.

One can suppose that there is a better compatibility of oxidized sBs molecules with bitumen molecules, leading to a homogenization of sBs.

The preparation was carried out according to the industrial proprietary process Styrelf® where the PmBs are crosslinked in situ by a sulphur derivative under moderate shear stirring for a couple of hours at 180°C.Copolymer-1 is a linear SB diblock with 25% styrene, whereas copolymer-2 is a radial sBs triblock with around 25% styrene as well.

Kinetic evolution of Styrelf®-PmB with SB diblock copolymer and radial SBS triblock copolymer by infrared mapping.

The kinetic study of Styrelf®-PmB with 6% SB diblock copolymer shows no changes in morphology during ageing modified bitumenUnlike physical blends of SBS and bitumen, EVA bitumen blends manufactured with the same 70/100 penetration-grade bitumen display an inverse biphasic structure, with bitumen nodules dispersed in the polymeric phase as shown in Fig.

When one styrene group from one SBS molecule joins one clump, and the other polystyrene chain of the same SBS molecule joins another clump, the different clumps become tied together with rubbery polybutadiene chains.

8.5.2 Ageing of SBS PMBsThe effect of ageing on the rheological properties of SBS PMBs differs from that seen for conventional bitumens.


Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene.

About 50% of car tires are made from various types of SBR. The styrene/butadiene ratio influences the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder and less rubbery.

SBR is derived from two monomers, styrene and butadiene.

Latex SBR is extensively used in coated papers, being one of the cheapest resins to bind pigmented coatings.

SBR is often used as part of cement based substructuralwaterproofing systems where as a liquid it is mixed with water to form the Gauging solution for mixing the powdered Tanking material to a slurry.

Styrene-butane rubber is also used in gasketed-plate heat exchangers.

Industrial manufacture began during World War II, and was used extensively by the U.S. Synthetic Rubber Program to produce Government Rubber-Styrene; to replace the Southeast Asian supply of natural rubber which, under Japanese occupation, was unavailable to Allied nations.

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber: Uses, Structure & Material Properties

The major use of SBR is in the production of tires, particularly car and lightweight vehicles tires.

Cold SBR is used for lighter duty tires and other mechanical goods.

SBR is neither suitable for truck tire treads nor for elastic thread for golf ball manufacture.

Solution SBR is generally more expensive than the e-SBR and is used in Specialty applications.

Non-tire and non-automotive uses of SBR are in industries that require hoses, belts, gaskets, or seals.

SBR fulfills the key requirements for these applications like end use and service, trouble-free processability as well as volume cost & availability of raw material.

Properties which make SBR suitable material for choice are its abrasion and degradation resistance.

Styrene Butadiene Rubber ASTM D1418 & ISO 1629 Designation: SBR ASTM D2000, SAE J200 Type/Class: AA, BA Mil-R-3065 Class: RS Advantages: Similar properties to NR but with improved ageing and temperature resistance; good dynamic, mechanical and fatigue properties; high strength, resilience and abrasion properties; good resistance to many inorganic chemicals.

Limitations: Suffers from poor tear strength, oxidation, ozone, UV and weathering; limited oil resistance; not recommended for use in contact with acids and organic liquids; temperature resistance is still low.

Styrene-Butadiene Rubber

Styrene-butadiene rubber, a general-purpose synthetic rubber, produced from a copolymer of styrene and butadiene.

Exceeding all other synthetic rubbers in consumption, SBR is used in great quantities in automobile and truck tires, generally as an abrasion-resistant replacement for natural rubber.

For many purposes SBR directly replaces natural rubber, the choice depending simply on economics.

In SBR the main effect of oxidation is increased interlinking of the polymer chains unlike natural rubber, it tends to harden with age instead of softening.

These characteristics determine the use of the rubber in tire treads; essentially, its proportions decrease as the need for heat resistance increases until 100 percent natural rubber is reached in the heaviest and most severe uses, such as tires for buses and aircraft.

SBR is a product of synthetic rubber research that took place in Europe and the United States under the impetus of natural rubber shortages during World Wars I and II. By 1929 German chemists at IG Farben had developed a series of synthetic elastomers by copolymerizing two compounds in the presence of a catalyst.

During World War II the United States, cut off from its East Asian supplies of natural rubber, developed a number of synthetics, including a copolymer of butadiene and styrene.

A Complete Guide On Styrene Butadiene Copolymer Resins

Styrene butadiene copolymers resins represent a versatile family of resins for adhesive and sealant development.

Features of SBC Resins One of the most important features of Styrene Butadiene Copolymer adhesives and sealants is their versatility.

Major variations in Styrene Butadiene Copolymer resins include:Mid-Block Type The strength and stiffness of the block copolymer depends on:The chemical nature of the midblock segments.

Styrene Content The cohesive strength of styrene butadiene copolymer adhesives is primarily determined by its stress-strain behavior, and this is closely related to the volumetric phase ratio of polystyrene endblock to elastomer midblock and to the morphology of these two phases.

The main Styrene Butadiene Copolymer resins used in adhesive formulations usually have a styrene content of 15-45%. Styrene Content, % Molecular Weight Hardness, Shore A 20 160,000 47 30 140,000 65 40 130,000 91 Molecular Architecture Although a wide range of tri-block, di-block, and star SBC architectures are available with styrene contents ranging from 10% to more than 70%, the number of Styrene Butadiene Copolymer products that are useful in adhesive and sealant applications are more limited.

Primary Ingredients in Styrene Butadiene Copolymer-based Adhesive & Sealants In addition to the base polymer, Styrene Butadiene Copolymer adhesive and sealant formulations contain additives and modifiers that are carefully blended to give optimized products relative to their processing and end-use requirements.

Find Suitable Styrene Butadiene Copolymer Grade View a wide range of styrene butadiene copolymers available in the market today, analyze technical data of each product, get technical assistance or request samples.

We Are A Styrene Butadiene Styrene Supplier

BassTech International is a global supplier of synthetic rubbers, plastics, and polymers.

Our knowledgeable sales team and global support system keep us at the forefront of synthetic rubber technology.

One of our core products is styrene butadiene styrene.

We offer SBS in crumb and powder forms with a variety of packaging options to suit any production need.

What is SBS? Styrene-butadiene Styrene is a synthetic rubber commonly referred to as SBS. The rubber is classified as a block co-polymer.

The structure of SBS allows for a blend of hard plastic and elastic properties.

The synthetic rubber is widely used in modified bitumen roofing, mastics, sealants, coatings, and paving.

Post Idea #29: Synthetic rubber

Related Articles – Summarized

Definition, History, Synthetic Rubber Vs Natural Rubber & Uses

Synthetic rubber is usually derived from additional polymers of polyene monomers and, unless the synthetic rubber is disclosed as a polysulfide rubber, laminates containing such a layer will be classified with additional polymers.

Synthetic rubber serves as a substitute for natural rubber in many cases, especially when improved material properties are required.

Synthetic Rubber vs Natural Rubber Natural Rubber Synthetic Rubber The rubber which is obtained from natural sources such as plants and animals rubber called natural rubber.

It remains to be seen if synthetic rubber, on quality and uniformity basis will continue to be consumed voluntarily under the present price relationship of natural and synthetic rubber.

Uses of Synthetic Rubber Synthetic rubber is preferred over natural rubber for some uses if the price differential is not too great.

Polyisoprene synthesis is the artificial rubber which has identical properties with those of natural rubber in the chemical composition of ingredients used in its manufacture.

How do you make synthetic rubber?What are the different types of synthetic rubber?Where is synthetic rubber used?Why is natural rubber better than synthetic?Is synthetic rubber renewable?

Synthetic Rubber

Production of synthetic rubber in the United States expanded greatly during World War II since the Axis powers controlled nearly all the world’s limited supplies of natural rubber by mid-1942, following the Japanese conquest of most of Asia.

Operation Pointblank bombing targets of Nazi Germany included the Schkopau plant and the Hüls synthetic rubber plant near Recklinghausen, and the Kölnische Gummifäden Fabrik tire and tube plant at Deutz on the east bank of the Rhine.

The Ferrara, Italy, synthetic rubber factory was bombed August 23, 1944.

A synthetic rubber plant at Oświęcim, in Nazi-occupied Poland, was under construction on March 5, 1944 operated by IG Farben and supplied with slave labor, by the SS, from the associated camp Auschwitz III. The most prevalent synthetic rubber is styrene-butadiene rubbers derived from the copolymerization of styrene and 1,3-butadiene.

Silicone rubber is also a synthetic elastomer composed of silicone polymers.

Some synthetic rubbers are less sensitive to ozone cracking than NR. Natural rubber is sensitive owing to the double bonds in its chain structure, but some synthetic rubbers do not possess these bonds and so are more resistant to ozone cracking.

A new class of synthetic rubber is the thermoplastic elastomers which can be moulded easily unlike conventional NR vulcanized rubber.

ScienceDirect Topics Polymerization processesSynthetic rubber.

Emulsion polymerization is used for synthetic rubber production.

Can be used to make rubber bands but are too soft and tacky for many applications such as tires.

In 1909, the first patent for synthetic rubber was granted to F. Hofman in Germany, who used isoprene obtained from mineral sources.

In Germany, lack of access to natural rubber sources during World War I accelerated work on synthetic rubber.

In Russia, synthetic rubber production reached 90,000 tons in 1939.In the United States, the first commercial efforts were concentrated on oil-resistant types of rubber, which natural rubber and poly(butadiene-styrene) rubber are not.

6.6 Acrylonitrile-butadiene rubberNitrile Rubber is a synthetic rubber.

Types Of Synthetic Rubber,What Is Synhetic Rubber,Types Of Rubber

Rubber is a broad term used to refer to many types of different polymers, simply called the types of rubber that are all elastomers.

Before knowing about all these synthetic rubber varieties, get to know what is synthetic rubber and what are its chemical types.

As opposed to natural rubber where there is only one chemical type, there are approximately 20 different chemical types of synthetic rubber, and within all of the types of rubber, there are different grades.

The different types of rubber, especially the synthetic rubber types have their own individual properties and advantages.

There are different types of synthetic rubber having different properties and manufacturers and suppliers are producing different range of rubber products which are used for commercial and industrial purpose.

Two types of gases too contribute in the producton of general types of rubbers in the category of synthetic rubber.

For more details about synthetic rubber production, check out Synthetic Rubber.

Synthetic Rubber 7 Little Words Bonus

In just a few seconds you will find the answer to the clue “Synthetic rubber” of the “7 little words game”.

Each bite-size puzzle in 7 Little Words consists of 7 clues, 7 mystery words, and 20 letter groups.

There is no doubt you are going to love 7 Little Words!Now back to the clue “Synthetic rubber”.

Here you’ll find the answer to this clue and below the answer you will find the complete list of today’s puzzles.

Now just rearrange the chunks of letters to form the word Neoprene.

Tags: Synthetic rubber, Synthetic rubber 7 little words, Synthetic rubber crossword clue, Synthetic rubber crossword.

Synthetic Rubber Crossword Clue, Crossword Solver

Search millions of clues to find answers to crossword puzzle clues.

Wordplays has answers to Quick puzzles, General Knowledge puzzles, Cryptic Crossword Puzzles, and Variety puzzles.

The Crossword Solver find answers to clues found in the New York Times Crossword, USA Today Crossword, LA Times Crossword, Daily Celebrity Crossword, The Guardian, the Daily Mirror, Coffee Break puzzles, Telegraph crosswords and many other popular crossword puzzles.

Post Idea #30: Herbal medicine

Related Articles – Summarized

Johns Hopkins Medicine

A product made from plants and used solely for internal use is called an herbal supplement.

Many prescription drugs and over-the-counter medicines are also made from plant products, but these products contain only purified ingredients and are regulated by the FDA. Herbal supplements may contain entire plants or plant parts.

Herbal supplement labels can’t refer to treating specific medical conditions.

Talk to your doctor before taking herbal supplements.

Learn as much as you can about the herbs you are taking by consulting your doctor and contacting herbal supplement manufacturers for information.

Do not self-diagnose, and talk to your doctor before taking any herbal supplements.

Talk to your doctor about your symptoms and discuss herbal supplements before use.

Herbal Medicine

According to a survey by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, herbal therapy or the usage of natural products other than vitamins and minerals was the most commonly used alternative medicine when all use of prayer was excluded.

In 1995, the total turnover of nonprescription-bound herbal medicines in pharmacies was equal to almost 30% of the total turnover of nonprescription-bound medicines in Germany, and in the United States, the annual retail sales of herbal products was estimated to be US$5.1 billion.

In India, herbal medicine is a common practice, and about 960 plant species are used by the Indian herbal industry, of which 178 are of a high volume, exceeding 100 metric tons per year.

In China, in 2003, traditional herbal medicines played a prominent role in the strategy to contain and treat severe acute respiratory syndrome, and in Africa, a traditional herbal medicine, the Africa flower, has been used for decades to treat wasting symptoms associated with HIV. Herbal medicines are also very common in Europe, with Germany and France leading in over-the-counter sales among European countries, and in most developed countries, one can find essential oils, herbal extracts, or herbal teas being sold in pharmacies with conventional drugs.

In a survey conducted across 129 countries, WHO reported the following issues regarding herbal medicines: lack of research data, appropriate mechanisms for control of herbal medicines, education and training, expertise within the national health authorities and control agency, information sharing, safety monitoring, and methods to evaluate their safety and efficacy.

The support needed from different countries includes information sharing on regulatory issues, workshops on herbal medicines safety monitoring, general guidelines on research and evaluation of herbal medicines, provision of databases, herbal medicine regulation workshops, and international meetings.

Herbal medicines are in widespread use and although many believe herbal medicines are safe, they are often used in combination and are drawn from plant sources with their own variability in species, growing conditions, and biologically active constituents.

Herbal Medicine

Herbal medicine is the study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine.

Establishing guidelines to assess safety and efficacy of herbal products, the European Medicines Agency provided criteria in 2017 for evaluating and grading the quality of clinical research in preparing monographs about herbal products.

In the United States, the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health of the National Institutes of Health funds clinical trials on herbal compounds, provides fact sheets evaluating the safety, potential effectiveness and side effects of many plant sources, and maintains a registry of clinical research conducted on herbal products.

Herbal remedies can also be dangerously contaminated, and herbal medicines without established efficacy, may unknowingly be used to replace prescription medicines.

One 2009 review concluded that regulation of herbalists in Australia was needed to reduce the risk of interaction of herbal medicines with prescription drugs, to implement clinical guidelines and prescription of herbal products, and to assure self-regulation for protection of public health and safety.

The World Health Organization, the specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health, published Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials in 1998 to support WHO Member States in establishing quality standards and specifications for herbal materials, within the overall context of quality assurance and control of herbal medicines.

In the European Union, herbal medicines are regulated under the Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products.

9 Popular Herbal Medicines: Benefits And Uses

Here are 9 of the world’s most popular herbal medicines, including their main benefits, uses, and relevant safety information.

Chamomile is a flowering plant that also happens to be one of the most popular herbal medicines in the world.

Despite limited scientific evidence, chamomile remains one of the most popular herbal medicines in the world and is used to treat a broad range of ailments.

Many herbal medicines have not been studied rigorously enough to verify their safety for pregnant or breastfeeding women.

Herbal medicines carry many possible side effects, so you should consult your healthcare provider prior to taking them.

Many people around the world rely on herbal medicines to treat health conditions.

Keep in mind that, like conventional drugs, herbal remedies may interact negatively with other medicines.

Herbal Medicine & The Top 10 Herbal Medicine Herbs

Written records of the use of herbal medicine date back more than 5,000 years, and for much of history, herbal medicine was the only medicine.

Well-known systems of herbal medicine like Traditional Chinese Medicine and Ayurvedic Medicine believe in the central idea that there should be an emphasis on health rather than on disease.

Milk thistle extracts have been used as traditional herbal medicine remedies for almost 2,000 years.

Botanical medicine may also cause allergic reactions or interact with conventional drugs, which is why you should consult your health care provider before beginning any herbal treatments.

Herbalists, naturopathic physicians, pharmacists, medical doctors and Traditional Chinese Medicine practitioners can provide information about herbal medicine and help you to choose what herb is best to address your health concerns.

Final Thoughts on Herbal Medicine Natural planet products have been used throughout human history for various purposes.

Herbal medicine is more cost-effective than modern medicine, it’s easier to obtain and it has several health benefits that are comparable to modern pharmaceuticals.

Herbal Medicine Programs

The Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in Cannabis Science: Therapeutics, Product Design, and Quality Assurance is one of the few graduate programs in the U.S. to focus on cannabis and to support this rapidly growing industry.

The program educates students about cannabis-based products with an emphasis on health effects, safety, formulation, and quality assurance.

The program addresses CBD-dominant hemp-based dietary supplements and wellness products, as well as THC-dominant medical and recreational marijuana.

The program is 15 credits, can be completed in 1 year, and is delivered fully online.

University Of Rochester Medical Center

Chamomile for the skin may be used to treat skin irritation from radiation cancer treatments.

Echinacea is commonly used to treat or prevent colds, flu, and infections, and for wound healing.

Feverfew should not be used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines because these medicines may change how well feverfew works.

Because some information suggests that ginkgo can increase the risk of bleeding, it should not be used with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, anticoagulants, anticonvulsant medicines, or tricyclic antidepressants.

It’s considered safe by the FDA. But it shouldn’t be used with warfarin, heparin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines, estrogens, corticosteroids, or digoxin.

Milk thistle is used to treat liver conditions and high cholesterol, and to reduce the growth of cancer cells.

St. John’s has been shown to cause dangerous and possibly deadly interactions with commonly used medicines.

Post Idea #31: OTCMKTS:NSUPF

Related Articles – Summarized

Northern Superior Resources Inc Stock Price & Analysis

About Northern Superior Resources Inc. Northern Superior Resources Inc., an exploration stage junior mining company, engages in the identification, acquisition, evaluation, and exploration of gold properties in Ontario and Québec, Canada.

Show more Stock Price FAQs What is today’s stock price of Northern Superior Resources Inc? The current stock price of Northern Superior Resources Inc is $0.64.

What is Northern Superior Resources Inc’s 52-week change? NSUPF 52-week high stock quote is $1.26, which is 96.90% above the current share price.

The Northern Superior Resources Inc 52-week low stock price is $0.43, which is 32.80% below the current share price.

Northern superior resources inc’s worth today based on market capitalisation is $46.24M. How much dividend does Northern superior resources inc Pay? What is Northern superior resources inc’s Price to Earning ratio?

Northern superior resources inc has a Price to Earning ratio of 0.00.

Who are the owners of Northern superior resources inc? Who are the key executives of Northern superior resources inc?

NSUPF Stock Predictions

Should I buy or sell NSUPF stock? If you are thinking about buying OTCMKTS: NSUPF, make sure you check out the free NSUPF stock predictions report provided by MarketClub.

They use their proprietary Smart Scan and Trade Triangle technology to analyze the stock and you will get an instant report on how NSUPF will perform in the near future.

You will get a free NSUPF forecast report will be sent to your email.

Northern Superior Stock Analysis: Price, Forecast, And News

Gives Northern Superior an overall rank of 31, which is below average.

Northern Superior is in the bottom half of stocks based on the fundamental outlook for the stock and an analysis of the stock’s chart.

It considers technical and fundamental factors and is a good starting point for evaluating a stock.

This is most useful for short- to medium-term stock and option traders.

Who this matters to: The Long-Term Technical Ranking is a good gauge of how a stock has traded over the past several months.

This is useful for medium to long-term stock and option traders.

Who this matters to: Valuation Ranking is most-useful for value-focused investors who plan to hold a stock for the long term.

Post Idea #32: Ion exchange

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

The ion-exchange rate depends on the rate of ion diffusion from solution into ionite, chemical reaction of double ion exchange in ionite and displaced ion diffusion from ionite into the solution.

Each type of ion exchange material can also be anionic, capable of sorbing negative ions, or cationic, capable of sorbing positive ions from solution.

Ion exchange resins have specific metal and organic compound uptake capacity and are used during ion exchange.

The standard water softening ion exchange system uses cation resins only, to exchange soluble ions such as sodium for the hardness-causing calcium and magnesium.

Applications of ion exchange membranes are considered in Chapter 8.The modern history of ion exchange began in about 1850 when two English chemists, Thompson.

An exchange of ions is then possible between the mobile ions in the exchanger and ions with like-charge in the surrounding liquid, as long as those ions are not too large and electro-neutrality is maintained.

Ion-exchange materials may be classified as: naturally occurring ion exchangers; synthetic ion exchangers; composite ion exchangers; and ion-exchange membranes.

What Is Ion Exchange?

Ion exchange is a water treatment process commonly used for water softening or demineralization, but it also is used to remove other substances from the water in processes such as dealkalization, deionization, denitrification, and disinfection.

Ion exchange describes a specific chemical process in which unwanted dissolved ions in water and wastewater – like nitrate, fluoride, sulfate, and arsenic – are exchanged for other ions with a similar charge.

In the exchange of cations during water treatment, positively charged ions that come into contact with the ion exchange resin are exchanged with positively charged ions available on the resin surface, usually sodium.

Recently ion exchange resins have been increasingly used to produce drinking water.

Ion exchange is used extensively in water softening, where it’s considered a solid, proven technology.

In fruit juice decolorization, ion exchange is used to decolorize must from grapes and is also used for demineralization in wineries.

Although ion exchange and biological treatment are widely recognized as the two leading technologies for denitrification, ion exchange is typically used to treat for nitrates in groundwater, while biological treatment is typically used to treat surface water.

Ion Exchange

Ion exchange is a reversible interchange of one kind of ion present in an insoluble solid with another of like charge present in a solution surrounding the solid with the reaction being used especially for softening or making water demineralised, the purification of chemicals and separation of substances.

Ion exchange usually describes a process of purification of aqueous solutions using solid polymeric ion-exchange resin.

Ion exchangers are either cation exchangers, which exchange positively charged ions, or anion exchangers, which exchange negatively charged ions.

Ion exchangers can have binding preferences for certain ions or classes of ions, depending on the physical properties and chemical structure of both the ion exchanger and ion.

Ion exchange is a reversible process, and the ion exchanger can be regenerated or loaded with desirable ions by washing with an excess of these ions.

Ion exchange can also be used to remove hardness from water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions for sodium ions in an ion-exchange column.

Production of backwash, flushing, and rinsing wastewater during regeneration of ion-exchange media limits the usefulness of ion exchange for wastewater treatment.

What Is An Ion Exchange System And How Does It Work?

If you’re wondering whether IX is right for your facility, you might be asking “What is an ion exchange system and how does it work?”.

A well-designed IX system conforms to the conditions of a specific application in both physical design specifications and in the chosen IX resin material.

IX resins are the most critical factor in IX system design.

This is accomplished by passing an ionic solution through an IX resin that serves as a matrix where the ion exchange reaction is allowed to take place.

As the process or waste stream flows through the IX resin, the loosely held ions on the surface of the resin are replaced by ions with a higher affinity for the resin material.

Magnetic ion exchange resins are often deployed for removal of natural organic matter from feed water.

To learn more about SAMCO’s IX technologies and services, visit our page on ion exchange resin technologies here.

Examples: A monovalent atomic cation: the sodium ion Na+ A divalent atomic cation: the calcium ion Ca++ A monovalent molecular cation: the ammonium ion NH4+ A monovalent atomic anion: the chloride ion Cl- A monovalent molecular anion: the nitrate ion NO3- A divalent molecular anion: the carbonate ion CO3= A divalent complex anion: the chromate ion CrO4= The trivalent aluminium cation Al+++ exists only in very acidic solution, not in normal water.

Ion exchange introduction 3 FD Sep 2008 Rohm and Haas Ion Exchange To soften water, you take a cation exchange resin on which the mobile ion inside the beads is sodium and you pass the hard water through a column filled with the sodium form resin.

The result of the softening process is not a net removal of the hardness ions from water, it is the replacement of the hardness ions by sodium ions.

You can see that one Ca++ ion getting in causes two H+ ions to leave the resin, whilst one Na+ cation is exchanged for one H+ ion.

So demineralisation can be summarised in the following picture: Na Cl Na Cl Cl Na OH H H H OH OH Figure 7: Demineralisation summary! Ion exchange introduction 5 FD Sep 2008 Rohm and Haas Ion Exchange How resins look like Figure 8: Sample of a macroporous cation resin Figure 9: A gel-type Amberjet anion resin under the microscope Ion exchange introduction 6 FD Sep 2008 Rohm and Haas Ion Exchange Column operation In the laboratory as well as in industrial plants, ion exchange resins are used in columns.

Limits of ion exchange For ion exchange to be efficient there must be a difference in affinity between the ion in the resin and the ion or ions you want to remove from solution.

Selective ion exchange Thanks to differences of affinity for different ions, common ion exchange resins can be used to remove selectively ions from water.

Ion Exchange Systems

Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, selenium, radionuclides, and zinc are just a few examples of the compounds that our ion exchange systems have removed from water.

Ion exchange systems can also be used to remove non-metallic compounds such as ammonia, nitrate, perchlorate, and silicate.

In general, ion exchange resins can be classified into four groups: 1) strong acidic cation exchange resins, 2) weak acidic cation exchange resins, 3) strong basic anion resins, and 4) weak basic anion exchange resins.

A resin bed’s capacity to pull contaminants from a solution is determined by the number of available exchange sites , called “Exchange capacity.” When there are several cations or anions are present in water, those cations or anions will compete each other for the exchange sites.

Other than flow rate, the ion exchange systems effectiveness is largely determined by the influent solution’s chemistry and physical characteristics.

Pretreatment is often needed before the ion exchange vessels to ensure the most efficient use of the ion exchange resin.

If there are several different contaminants present, a series of vessels, each with different ion exchange resins may be used.

Ion Exchange India Limited

At Ion Exchange, we bring you total environment solutions – water treatment, waste water treatment & recycle, zero liquid discharge.

Specialists in water and environment management for over five decades, we provide solutions across industry, homes and communities.

Integrating extensive process technologies, design, engineering and project management capability, we offer total solutions with single source responsibility.

“To be the leader in our business which is so vital to people’s lives and the environment”.

Post Idea #33: Chief economist

Related Articles – Summarized

America First Policy Institute

This team member will be responsible for compiling and presenting timely, accessible analysis of economic data, trends, and policies for AFPI’s target audiences.

But is not limited to, blogs, issue briefs, presentations, and contributions to longer form research products.

The Chief Economist will provide research support for each of AFPI’s 22 policy centers, assisting them with gathering data, quantitative analysis, and synthesis of relevant academic literature in support of their research and policy analysis.

The Chief Economist will also support policy development in close coordination with policy staff and the research director.

This team member should have a strong economic policy background, extensive experience analyzing and presenting various forms of economic data and have a strong commitment to advancing the America First agenda.

Please send cover letter, resume, salary requirement, writing samples, and references.

AFPI is a non-profit, non-partisan research institute offering competitive salaries and benefits to qualified candidates.

What Does A Chief Economist Do?

Chief economists have the role of providing expertise to organizations or institutions in the area of finance and economics.

Frequently, a chief economist may work in a management capacity with researchers or financial analysts.

On a day-to-day basis, the chief economist may interact with numerous people throughout the organization.

Many chief economists have advanced degrees in business, economics, or marketing.

The chief economist might brainstorm and then design economic projects to help organizations increase their economic status.

Providing counsel and advising their employer on fiscal issues is an important role for the chief economist.

The main role of a chief economist is to help organizations advance economically.

Office Of The Chief Economist

The Office of the Chief Economist was created in 2013 to conduct research and analysis in support of FINRA’s rulemaking and policy agendas.

The Office works closely with the Office of General Counsel and other departments in order to assess the economic implications of policies and programs in new and existing rulemaking.

In order to advance that effort, the Office is responsible for gathering and analyzing data on securities firms and markets.

The Office of the Chief Economist works to achieve its objective through a variety of activities.

The Office of the Chief Economist also works collaboratively with a range of departments across FINRA to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of FINRA’s regulatory and investor education programs.

Office of the Chief Economist working papers present findings of staff research and analysis in support of FINRA’s rulemaking and policy agendas.

Office of the Chief Economist research notes are concise analyses intended to stimulate and augment timely policy debates related to FINRA’s mission.

US Department Of Transportation

About Us. Initiates and develops Secretarial policies relating to the financing of transportation infrastructure; the use of economic analysis in evaluating infrastructure investments, rulemakings, Departmental programs, and other initiatives; the use of economic analysis in reducing congestion and enhancing the efficient operation of transportation networks; and other applications of economic analysis in transportation policymaking.

The Office of the Chief Economist examines transportation policy issues from an economic perspective, conducts analyses of the economic effects of transportation policies, and designs more economically efficient policies.

These analyses focus on the economic impact of transportation investments, strategies for using transportation infrastructure more efficiently, ways of increasing the economic efficiency of federal transportation programs, new ways of financing transportation infrastructure, and analyzing the costs and benefits of transportation rulemakings, in collaboration with the Office of Regulation in the Office of the General Counsel.

FunctionsReviews the economic efficiency of Departmental programs designed to assist transportation capital markets.

Conducts analyses of economic impacts of transportation security measures.

Represents the Department in meetings with economists from the White House, in collaboration with C-50, with respect to rulemakings, other Cabinet Departments, and the national and international transportation economics community.

Develops and coordinates national freight transportation policy within the Department and among Federal agencies to support commercial goods movement.

Chief Economist Salary

These charts show the average base salary, as well as the average total cash compensation for the job of Chief Economist in the United States.

The base salary for Chief Economist ranges from $208,770 to $319,350 with the average base salary of $274,020.

The total cash compensation, which includes base, and annual incentives, can vary anywhere from $271,120 to $397,810 with the average total cash compensation of $342,610.

Office Of The Chief Economist

Our latest chartbook, The training wheels are coming off.

Our latest analysis explores an economy in transition.

As fiscal stimulus has ended and the fed is projected to increase rates multiple times in 2022, how will the economy react? With inflation currently at its highest point in 40 years we explore the main drivers behind this and what our forecast is for the coming year.

Inflation: the economy has reached the highest rate of inflation seen since the 1970s, and most of today’s workforce were far too young to have managed through a period of hyper-inflation.

So how should companies be adjusting their strategies as a result?

Policy response: what will the impact of the Fed funds rate path be? How many increases and over what length of time, and how will this help to reduce the inflationary environment?

Can the economy handle policy normalization? For our latest analysis of the current economic environment.

Chief Economist

Chief economist is a single-position job class having primary responsibility for the development, coordination, and production of economic and financial analysis.

The chief economist is a supervisory and leading class with substantial responsibility for the exercise of independent judgement in employing, disciplining, or adjudicating grievances of subordinates.

In the European Union, the post of Chief Economist was created in 2003 as part of the European Commission, reporting to the Director General for Competition.

In Kenya, as of 1998, the role of chief economist was expressed as “Chief Economist/Statistician” and resided in the Ministry of Planning and National Development, one responsibility of which was to lead “a planning department or the Central Bureau of Statistics”.

In the United States government, there are several Offices of the Chief Economist for different departments.

The Office of the Chief Economist within the United States Department of State was first staffed in March 2012 by Heidi Crebo-Rediker, and the Office of the Chief Economist within the United States Department of Agriculture is led, as of 2014, by Joseph W. Glauber.

In Canada, the Office of the Chief Economist reports and advises on international trade and economic issues, including global, regional and sectoral trends and developments; and undertakes trade and economic research and analysis in support of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada’s various functions: trade and investment policy, including negotiation of international agreements; international business development; and trade litigation.

Post Idea #34: Reserve Bank of New Zealand

Related Articles – Summarized

Reserve Bank Appoints New Chief Economist

The Reserve Bank has filled the last major gap in its senior ranks with the appointment of a new chief economist.

Paul Conway, currently chief economist at BNZ, will replace Yuong Ha, who resigned after 25 years with the central bank.

RBNZ Governor Adrian Orr said Conway knew the New Zealand economy well and had international experience with time as an economist with the OECD. “He has a great mix of skills, including a background in research, which will be a key part of his leadership role at the Reserve Bank.”.

Conway has also worked as economics and research director at the Productivity Commission, as well as a private consultant, and at Westpac.

“Crazy moment to be taking on that role and I feel a ton of responsibility in helping steer our economy through what’s coming,” Conway said in a post on his LinkedIn page.

Conway will be one of four RBNZ officials on the interest rate setting monetary policy committee.

He will join in May, at a time when inflation is tipped to rise beyond 7 percent forcing aggressive interest rate rises to bring it back into the RBNZ’s 1-3 percent target band.

Reserve Bank Of New Zealand Definition

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the name of the central bank of New Zealand.

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is responsible for maintaining monetary policy, meeting the currency needs of the public, and providing support services for other banks in the country, in addition to maintaining the stability of the nation’s financial system.

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand was established in 1934 after the passage of the Reserve Bank Act of 1933.

The Reserve Bank derives its powers not only from the Reserve Bank Act of 1933 but also from The Non-bank Deposit Takers Act of 2013, Insurance Act of 2010 and the Anti-Money Laundering and Countering Financing Terrorism Act of 2009.

The Bank conducts monetary policy for New Zealand to promote price stability and maximum employment in New Zealand’s economy.

One of the primary responsibilities of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand is issuing the country’s currency, which is the New Zealand Dollar.

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is responsible for regulating banks, insurers, and non-bank deposit takers such as credit unions.

Reserve Bank Of New Zealand

The Reserve Bank of New Zealand is the central bank of New Zealand.

The Reserve Bank’s primary function, as defined by the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989 is to provide “Stability in the general level of prices.”

The Bank by virtue of the Reserve Bank Act has the sole right of issuing New Zealand legal tender notes and coins.

The Reserve Bank also acts to supervise the New Zealand banking system to ensure that the system remains healthy, however it does not guarantee that a bank will not fail, or face problems.

All registered banks operating in New Zealand must issue a quarterly disclosure statement, and the Reserve Bank supervises these.

Under Part 5D of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Act 1989, the RBNZ is charged with the enforcement of the credit rating and prudential requirements applying to non-bank deposit takers in New Zealand.

These functions were introduced by the enactment of the Reserve Bank of New Zealand Amendment Act 2008.

The unsustainable level of house prices poses monetary & financial stability challenges.

It will come as no surprise that our next Financial Stability Report we’ll again elaborate on why we view the level of house prices as unsustainable & why it matters bit.

Post Idea #35: Slingshot Aerospace

Related Articles – Summarized

Slingshot Aerospace Closes $25 Million Fundraising Round

The company plans to use the funds to expand and commercialize its space collision-avoidance platform.

WASHINGTON – Slingshot Aerospace, a company that develops technologies for space situational awareness, announced March 10 it has raised $25 million in Series A-1 funds.

Slingshot will use the new funds to accelerate the commercialization of Slingshot Beacon, a space collision avoidance platform where commercial, government and civil satellite operators can share space traffic information.

“Space situational awareness is ripe for disruption,” said Daniel Herscovici, partner at Edison Partners.

A lot of investment is going into rockets and satellites but less attention is paid to the “Critical infrastructure that is necessary in order for these objects to be successful in space,” said Jenna Bryant CEO and co-founder of Embedded Ventures.

For humans to continue to operate in space, a digital infrastructure to manage traffic and data transparency is key, said Stricklan said.

The space community should be worried about “Geopolitical aggressive behavior” like Russia’s anti-satellite missile test in November that blew up a spacecraft in low Earth orbit, creating a large cloud of debris.

Space Tech Startup Slingshot Aerospace Raises $25 Million To Fuel Growth

Slingshot Aerospace, which makes software that makes an air traffic control-style software for satellites and other space objects, has raised $25 million as it looks to commercialize its products and grow its team.

Stricklan, Slingshot Aerospace’s CEO, said more companies are launching objects into space, which is leading to an increase in space debris.

“There are 115,000 satellites planned to enter space by 2030. As space becomes more congested, the risk of crashes dramatically increases which means collision avoidance decisions will need to be made across all government, commercial and civil space entities,” Stricklan said.

Slingshot Aerospace also makes a space simulation tool called Slingshot Laboratory, which gives customers immersive space education and training.

More: Austin space tech firm CesiumAstro raises $60 million to continue growth.

Space technology has taken off in what is increasingly viewed as a new space age driven by commercial companies, and Austin has become a hub for companies in that field.

This article originally appeared on Austin American-Statesman: Space tech startup Slingshot Aerospace raises $25 million to fuel growth.

In Order To Assist Satellite Operators In Navigating Space Traffic, Slingshot Aerospace Has Raised $25 Million In Funding – Bestgamingpro

“Avoidance manoeuvres” are necessary even for the International Space Station.

You may be able to get away with running a $1 billion satellite in the vastness of space, but you’re going to want to avoid crashing it into anything or anybody.

The firm creates a “Real-time digital environment of space” by combining data from many sources, enabling space operators to better manage and safeguard their assets.

NASA, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, the United States Space and Air Forces, and OneWeb are among the many clients of Slingshot Aerospace.

Disruption of space situational awareness is an excellent opportunity.

According to Edison Partners’ Daniel Herscovici, “No universal platform exists for satellite operators to communicate and cooperate in real time with actionable information to resolve on-orbit conjunctions and maximise global space awareness.'”.

Others in the space awareness startup community, including LeoLabs and Kayhan Space, may disagree, but there’s little doubt that Slingshot is putting up a strong platform.

Draper Associates & ATX Venture Partners Lead Slingshot Aerospace’S Oversubscribed $25 Million Series A-1 Funding Round

Slingshot Aerospace, Inc., a company building world-class space simulation and analytics products to accelerate space sustainability, announced today that it has raised $25 million in Series A-1 funds.

Slingshot Aerospace, a company building world-class space simulation and analytics products to accelerate space sustainability, announced today that it has raised $25 million in Series A-1 funds.

“We invested in Slingshot Aerospace because the company is revolutionizing the space industry and bringing the global space-faring community together in a way that has never been done before,” said Tim Draper, Founding Partner, Draper Associates.

Slingshot Aerospace will use the new funds to accelerate the commercialization of its products and technologies, including Slingshot Beacon, the industry’s first space collision avoidance cross-coordination and communications platform.

“No common platform exists for satellite operators to communicate and collaborate in real time with actionable information to resolve on-orbit conjunctions and optimize global space awareness. We believe Slingshot has cracked the code and is well positioned to expand Slingshot Beacon and the company’s other products to every space operator around the world. The company’s offerings will keep the industry flying safer as the number of objects in space increases, while elevating sustainability across the international community for generations ahead.”.

“At Embedded, we invest in space technologies beyond the launch that meet at the intersection of innovation, national security, and safety. Slingshot Aerospace is providing a vital capability through Slingshot Beacon that will ensure safe space operations for years to come.”

Slingshot Aerospace is accelerating space sustainability by accurately virtualizing the space operating environment and layering in global coordination to remove uncertainty, reduce risk, and preserve assets that are vital to our way of life.

Slingshot Aerospace’S A + A-1 Funding Has Raised Million$$

Slingshot Aerospace, Inc., has raised $25 million in Series A-1 funds – the new money is in addition to the $9.6 million Series A funds raised in October of 2020, bringing the total raised for the A and A-1 rounds to $34.6 million, to date.

Slingshot Aerospace will use the new funds to accelerate the commercialization of its products and technologies, including Slingshot Beacon, the industry’s first space collision avoidance, cross-coordination and communications platform.

Slingshot Aerospace is bringing the space domain into the digital environment to create a fully virtualized, dynamic orbital environment for its customers with its space simulation and analytics solutions.

Slingshot Aerospace is accelerating space sustainability by accurately virtualizing the space operating environment and layering in global coordination to remove uncertainty, reduce risk, and preserve assets that are vital to our way of life.

“We invested in Slingshot Aerospace because the company is revolutionizing the space industry and bringing the global space-faring community together in a way that has never been done before,” said Tim Draper, Founding Partner, Draper Associates.

“No common platform exists for satellite operators to communicate and collaborate in real time with actionable information to resolve on-orbit conjunctions and optimize global space awareness. We believe Slingshot has cracked the code and is well positioned to expand Slingshot Beacon and the company’s other products to every space operator around the world. The company’s offerings will keep the industry flying safer as the number of objects in space increases, while elevating sustainability across the international community for generations ahead.”.

“At Embedded, we invest in space technologies beyond the launch that meet at the intersection of innovation, national security, and safety. Slingshot Aerospace is providing a vital capability through Slingshot Beacon that will ensure safe space operations for years to come.”

Patrick O’Sullivan On LinkedIn: Melanie Stricklan, CEO & Cofounder, Recently Joined EVONA On Their

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Slingshot Aerospace Raises $25M In Series A-1 Funding Round

Slingshot Aerospace, an Austin, TX and El Segundo, CA-based company building space simulation and analytics products to accelerate space sustainability, raised $25M in Series A-1 funding.

Led by CEO Melanie Stricklan, Slingshot Aerospace is advancing space simulation and analytics solutions that seek to help government and commercial customers accelerate space sustainability.

Slingshot Beacon, the company’s space collision avoidance cross-coordination and communications platform, connects commercial, government and civil customers on one system to design, manage, and safeguard their satellites and other assets; mitigate risks; and ensure reliable operations for all spaceflight operators.

The company intends to use the funds to accelerate the commercialization of Slingshot Beacon and to hire 40 new employees over the next 12 months.

Since inception in July 2017, Slingshot has raised $42m in funding.

Post Idea #36: Space traffic management

Related Articles – Summarized

Space Traffic Management Architecture

Space is becoming increasingly congested due to rising numbers of on-orbit satellites and debris objects.

Uncontrolled growth will severely affect future space operations.

NASA Ames has developed a novel patent-pending technology known as Space Traffic Management which provides a robust framework for on-orbit coordination of activities to enhance the safety, stability, and sustainability of operations in the space environment.

The STM system is critical for ensuring that the expanding orbital population operates safely and efficiently, avoiding collisions and radio-frequency interference while still facilitating widespread space operations in an increasingly congested space environment.

While efforts to date have focused on improving Space Situational Awareness and enabling operator to operator coordination, there is growing recognition that a broader system for Space Traffic Management is necessary.

The STM architecture forms the framework for an STM ecosystem, which enables the addition of third parties that can identify and fill niches by providing new, useful services.

By making the STM functions available as services, the architecture reduces the amount of expertise that must be available internally within a particular organization, thereby reducing the barriers to operating in space and providing participants with the information necessary to behave responsibly.

Space Traffic Management

Space traffic management is defined by the International Academy of Astronautics as “The set of technical and regulatory provisions for promoting safe access into outer space, operations in outer space and return from outer space to Earth free from physical or radio-frequency interference.”

Space traffic includes launch vehicles, as well as orbiting objects such as satellites of all sizes and the International Space Station.

Space debris risk mitigation is major concern, due to the fact that collision with space debris can destroy vehicles and other space assets.

The United Nations bureau most concerned with space traffic management is the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs.

Space traffic management can be regarded as part of international space law.

“In the United States, President Donald Trump signed Space Policy Directive-3 on 18 June 2018, which defined Space Traffic Management as”the planning, coordination, and on-orbit synchronization of activities to enhance the safety, stability, and sustainability of operations in the space environment.

Space Diplomacy is involved if specific international negotiations are involved to represent national interests in an international Space Traffic Management.

INTRODUCTION: INTERNATIONAL MINIMUM SPACE TRAFFIC STANDARDS E XISTING SPACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT is linked to existing space law, primarily the Outer Space Treaty, the International Telecommunications Union legal regime, and the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee space debris guidelines.

22 Such legislation should be speedily adopted to allow the FAA to regulate civilian space traffic and to enforce any international space traffic standards for the greater safety of all space traffic.

19 20 2018] SPACE TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT STANDARDS 367 Neither have India and China implemented Outer Space Treaty, Article I. The Outer Space Treaty does not provide the opportunity to assign space traffic management functions to new international decision-making STM authorities, that is, unless the Treaty is amended to establish a standing international organization for STM, like ICAO was established to organize international aviation traffic standards.

A concerted, international scheme, such as unified space flight standards, has the benefit that all space objects use the same rules for avoiding other navigable space objects and non-navigable space objects.

Space flight standards can be established to strengthen the construction and operation of space objects- the way space objects are built and navigated-the same way that airplane construction and navigation are standardized by the ICAO flight standards.

The COPUOS work is based on UN Resolution 70/1 and on implementation by the states of Outer Space Treaty, Article VI. The draft guidelines of the COPUOS working group are directed at implementing the seventeen Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN. The draft guidelines have value in creating space traffic management guidelines: the draft COPUOS guidelines include concern for the safety, reliability, and economy of outer space traffic; the guidelines are also evidence that that COPUOS can produce guidelines for outer space that may later establish a precedent for specific COPUOS space traffic guidelines.

Under the ICAO model, a treaty instrument in the nature of a protocol to the Outer Space Treaty or an independent treaty instrument similar to the International Civil Aviation Convention would establish a space navigation commission like the ICAO ANC, which would draft minimum traffic standards for outer space and submit the drafts for final adoption by a space navigation council.

From Space Traffic Awareness To Space Traffic Management

“A lot of time we talk about space traffic management,” said U.S. Space Force Maj. Gen. DeAnna Burt, commander of the Combined Force Space Component Command of U.S. Space Command, in a speech at the Advanced Maui Optical and Space Surveillance Technologies, or AMOS, conference in Hawaii in mid-September.

THE NEED FOR BETTER DATA. Without a space traffic control authority directing satellites to maneuver, it’s up to satellite operators to decide whether and how to move their spacecraft to avoid potential collisions.

A study by commercial space situational awareness company COMSPOC Corp., presented at AMOS, found no consensus among major satellite operators regarding the conditions they use to determine whether to perform a collision avoidance maneuver.

COMSPOC worked with the Space Data Association, a group of satellite operators that share SSA data, to see what metrics companies use to determine if a close approach is too close for comfort.

SpaceX’s Starlink constellation, with nearly 1,700 satellites in orbit today, has contributed to many of those, such as one in September 2019 when the European Space Agency said it moved an Earth observation satellite, Aeolus, to avoid a close approach with a Starlink satellite after complaining of a lack of coordination with SpaceX. After that incident “We went to work on coordinating,” said David Goldstein, principal guidance, navigation and control engineer at SpaceX. That includes an agreement with NASA announced in March where SpaceX agreed it would move its Starlink satellites in the event of any close approaches with NASA satellites.

In April, OneWeb said it had to move one of its satellites just days after its launch from Russia in late March when Space Force SSA data predicted a close approach to a Starlink satellite.

With no near-term prospect of an overarching space traffic control authority, she argued the best approach to reducing collision risks between satellites is a self-organized network of satellite operators that agree upon standards for who should maneuver and in what circumstances.

Post Idea #37: Superluminescent diode

Related Articles – Summarized

Superluminescent Diodes, Explained By RP Photonics Encyclopedia; SLD, Superluminescent LED, Broadband, White Light

Encyclopedia > letter S > superluminescent diodes.

Superluminescent diodes are optoelectronic semiconductor devices which emit broadband optical radiation based on superluminescence.

The chromatic dispersion of fibers and other optical components is often measured with techniques which require some broadband light source.

In principle, an SLD is a semiconductor optical amplifier with no input signal, but it is optimized for a good combination of output power and bandwidth, and therefore better suited for broadband light generation than an all-purpose SOA. The RP Photonics Buyer’s Guide contains 23 suppliers for superluminescent diodes.

This reliable, cost-effective, rugged, broadband light source produces overlapping spectral coverage within the range 1230 nm to 1730 nm, depending on the configuration, allowing up to 19 unique spectral combinations, and average powers up to 130mW. The LTC-OSE series is suitable for direct integration into existing OEM products for optical coherence tomography, optical sensing, white light interferometry and others.

1049/el:19961117 V. R. Shidlovski and J. Wei, “Superluminescent diodes for optical coherence tomography”, Proc.

See also: superluminescent sources, superluminescence, white light sources, white light interferometers, optical coherence tomographyand other articles in the categories photonic devices, optoelectronics, non-laser light sources.

Superluminescent Diode

The total optical power emitted by an SLED depends on the drive current.

The optical power emitted by SLEDs is distributed over a wide spectral range.

Relative intensity noise figures in of several SLED modules at different driving current levels SLED center wavelength 100 mA 150 mA 200 mA 300 mA 400 mA 500 mA 1550 nm −121.5 −123.5 1550 nm −124.5 −127.5 −128.0 −129.5 −130.0 1300 nm −123.5 −125.0 −126.5 −127.0 −127.5 1300 nm −124.0 −124.5 1600 nm −123.0 −123.0.

SLEDs are optical sources with a rather wide optical bandwidth.

SLEDs from certain component manufacturers are on the market featuring intrinsically safe designs with high robustness against optical back reflections.

The SLED modules includes indium phosphide based superluminescent light-emitting diodes operating in the high wavelength range as well as gallium arsenide based devices operating from 630 to 1100 nm.

SLEDs find application in situations demanding high intensity and spatial coherence but where a need for a broad, smooth optical output spectrum makes laser diodes unsuitable.

Superluminescent Diode

Mainly due to the influence of bending, the PMD of a cabled fiber can be completely different from that of the same fiber on a spool.

Many sensors can be multiplexed along the length of a fiber by using different wavelengths of light for each sensor, by sensing the time delay as light passes along the fiber through each sensor.

The optical characteristics of an optical fiber is sensitive to the strain, temperature, and pressure, which modulates the intensity, phase, polarization, wavelength, or transit time of light in the fiber.

A fiber-optic AC/DC voltage sensor in the middle and high voltage range can be created by inducing measurable amounts of Kerr nonlinearity in single mode optical fiber by exposing a calculated length of fiber to the external electric field.

With appropriate sensor design, this type of fiber can be used to measure different electrical and magnetic quantities and different internal parameters of fiber material.

Electrical power can be measured in a fiber by using a structured bulk fiber ampere sensor coupled with proper signal processing in a polarimetric detection scheme.

Extrinsic fiber optic sensors use an optical fiber cable, normally a multimode one, to transmit modulated light from either a non-fiber optical sensor, or an electronic sensor connected to an optical transmitter.

Superluminescent Diodes

Superluminescent diodes are broadband light sources that emit light with a short coherence length and high brightness, making them ideal for applications such as spectral domain optical coherence tomography, fiber optic gyroscopes, and optical sensing.

Thorlabs offers visible-wavelength SLDs in TO-56 can or butterfly packages, as well as a selection of NIR-wavelength SLDs in butterfly packages that includes versions optimized for use in SD-OCT systems.

SLD benchtop sources are also available, which are all-in-one solutions that integrate an SLD, controller, and TEC in one unit with either a single mode or polarization-maintaining FC/APC output.

FiberLabs Inc » Superluminescent Diode

The SLD is a semiconductor device to emit low-coherence light of a broad spectrum like LED, but high brightness like LD. Light emitted in a narrow active layer similar to LD can be efficiently incident to the fiber.

The mechanism of SLD emission is the same as semiconductor laser and light emitting diode.

While the SLD has the AR-coated end of the active layer to prevent reflected light, the both end surfaces of the LD is cleaved to form Fabry-Perot resonator.

Angled waveguide structure SLD. Light of SLD is low-coherence and broad. The difference between the SLD and LD is the presence or absence of the reflection at the ends.

In the case of the SLD, as shown in Fig.3, the spontaneous emission light is amplified by stimulated emission during the advance through the active layer, and is outputted as it is.

The light is called superluminescence and is the same type of light emitted from the rare earth doped fiber referred to as ASE light.

Since the spontaneous emission light as a seed light has a random phase and a broad spectrum, the superluminescence also becomes a low-coherence light with a broadband spectrum.

Superluminescent Laser Diodes

Superluminescent laser diodes are optoelectronic semiconductor devices that emit broadband optical radiation based on superluminescence.

In terms of construction, they are similar to laser diodes, containing an electrically driven p-n junction and an optical waveguide.

Importantly SLDs lack optical feedback by reflections, so that no laser action can occur.

Optical Coherence Tomography is a high-resolution and deeply penetrating 3D imaging method.

Luxmux’s broadband light sources are suitable for both spectral domain and swept source OCT. Customers will see an increased axial resolution with our broadband, tunable light sources.

Luxmux SLEDs provide superior performance for Time-Domain OCT systems, which require SLEDs with a strong spectral shape and optical coherence for sidelobe suppression.

Use the filters on this page, or check out our ‘How to Select a Laser Diode’ page to assist in narrowing down the selection.

Feedback effects in high-power and low-power SLDs. Evidently, SLD sensitivity to feedback depends strongly on SLD gain.

We would recommend contacting us for more details for each particular type of SLD. ambient T, degC SLD spatial characteristics Most of SLDs emit at single transverse mode.

SLD polarization Polarization of SLD emitters depend strongly on their structure; there are some SLDs with TE/TM polarization ratio > 50:1 this is not the common rule, and there are SLDs which have it 3:1 ratio, or are depolarized.

SLD noise SLD noise spectrum is white, with Relative Intensity Noise value exceeding short noise by about 30 dB for “Mostly typical” SLD with output power 3 – 5 mW or high.

RIN value does not depend on power strongly and ranges from -120 dB/Hz to -140 dB/Hz in different types of SLDs. So-called 1/f-noise also exists in SLD. It usually dominates over white noise component starting 10 kHz or less; unfortunately there is not too much data about this phenomenon in SLDs. SLD modulation Usually, SLD are intended for use as CW light sources, and suppliers do not care too much about their modulation bandwidth.

Latent damage nearby crystal facet, being the reason for extra reflection, may not effect SLD power considerably but may strongly increase SLD spectral ripple and makes device non-useable; – Minor optical feedback may easily result in fatal SLD damage, especially if SLD is powerful.

“LD-like” approach is not correct because of at least two differences between SLD and LD: – SLD are driven by considerably higher current; lifetime of laser diodes is known to be dependent on driving density, and in some structures driving density is the key lifetime limiting factor; – Non-uniform distribution of driving in SLD active region may speed-up degradation.

Post Idea #38: High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes

Related Articles – Summarized

High-Brightness Polarized Light-Emitting Diodes

The coherent nature of the diffraction by PhCs not only retains the original polarization of light but also offers directional light extraction, resulting in high-brightness polarized LEDs.

We develop a theoretical model of light emission in m-plane GaN and of its interaction with PhCs, and discuss the important parameters to design and enhance the directional polarized light emission.

The directional extraction of polarized light by the embedded PhCs is seen in Figure 3b, where the enhancement in polarized light emission is observed for angles up to 43°, and beyond that the emitted intensity is similar for both samples.

The polarization-preserving and directional light extraction properties from PhCs, along with the enhanced interaction of the embedded PhCs with the guided light, were combined to yield a directional polarized light emitting diode.

High power and high external efficiency m-plane InGaN light emitting diodes.

Tsujimura H, Nakagawa S, Okamoto K, Ohta H. Characteristics of polarized electroluminescence from m-plane InGaN-based light emitting diodes.

Polarized spontaneous emission from blue-green m-plane GaN-based light emitting diodes.

High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) Market Key Players, Volumes, And Investment Opportunities 2022-2028

Wide-ranging market information of the Global High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) Market report will surely grow business and improve return on investment.

The report has been prepared by taking into account several aspects of marketing research and analysis which includes High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) market size estimations, market dynamics, company & market best practices, entry level marketing strategies, positioning and segmentations, competitive landscaping, opportunity analysis, economic forecasting, industry-specific technology solutions, roadmap analysis, targeting key buying criteria, and in-depth benchmarking of vendor offerings.

This High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) Market research report gives CAGR values along with its fluctuations for the specific forecast period.

The latest High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) market research report provides a thorough evaluation of this industry vertical, highlighting all the factors that will bolster or hinder the inflow of revenue in the upcoming years.

Market Penetration: Comprehensive information on the product portfolios of the top players in the High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) Market.

Competitive Assessment: In-depth assessment of the market strategies, geographic and business segments of the leading players in the market.

Market Diversification: Exhaustive information about new products, untapped geographies, recent developments, and investments in the High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes(LED) Market.

High-Brightness Blue Light-Emitting Diodes Enabled By A Directly Grown Graphene Buffer Layer

Single-crystalline GaN-based light-emitting diodes with high efficiency and long lifetime are the most promising solid-state lighting source compared with conventional incandescent and fluorescent lamps.

The lattice and thermal mismatch between GaN and sapphire substrate always induces high stress and high density of dislocations and thus degrades the performance of LEDs.

Here, the growth of high-quality GaN with low stress and a low density of dislocations on graphene buffered sapphire substrate is reported for high-brightness blue LEDs.

Gr films are directly grown on sapphire substrate to avoid the tedious transfer process and GaN is grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition.

The introduced Gr buffer layer greatly releases biaxial stress and reduces the density of dislocations in GaN film and Inx Ga1-x N/GaN multiple quantum well structures.

The as-fabricated LED devices therefore deliver much higher light output power compared to that on a bare sapphire substrate, which even outperforms the mature process derived counterpart.

The GaN growth on Gr buffered sapphire only requires one-step growth, which largely shortens the MOCVD growth time.

High Brightness AlGaInP Light-Emitting Diodes

Abstract: This paper reviews the recent progress of AlGaInP high brightness light-emitting diodes.

After the discussion of some basic material properties and the general problem of light extraction we will discuss several approaches of high efficiency devices.

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