18 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-12

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Post Idea #1: White wine

Related Articles – Summarized

26 Different Types Of White Wine: Describing Characteristics

Different kinds of wine grapes, from white to dark ones, are used to make white wines.

This popular white wine can be found in many different regions around the world, from New Zealand to California to South Africa and, of course, France.

This sweet white wine is light and has a low alcohol content to please drinkers who worry about their health or job prospects when drinking wine.

Depending on the growing conditions for Fiano grapes, they can embrace different white wine styles such as light mineral or indulgently rich textures.

This versatile white wine works well with many different food flavors.

Silvaner is among the types of white wine that has been grown in many different regions, including Austria, Franconia, Alsace, and Germany, with its roots stemming from Central Europe.

White Wine Types FAQ What is the most popular type of white wine?

White Wine

White wine is a wine that is fermented without skin contact.

The less early vineyards preferred to select white varieties of grapes because, even if unripe, white grapes allowed wine that was a little sour to still be consumable, while red grapes do not give enough colour and green tannins make the wine bitter.

In a northern vineyard he developed a special wine that would give rise to an exceptional passion for wine produced in a climate where it could not be expected for wine to reach maturity nor sufficient colour.

The aromas from white wine cover almost the whole palette of wine aromas.

Chocolate requires a very powerful wine so white wine selection is quite limited: a natural amber sweet wine is the best compromise.

The drippings of cooking juices is also a role that white wine can be used in; made with a sweet white wine and giving a sour-sweet or sweet-salt sauce.

The most famous white wine in relation to a song is probably: Ah! the white wine by Jean Dréjac and Charles Borel-Clerc.

5 Best White Wines

The best light-bodied white wines come from cooler climates, which produce light and zesty wines.

Full-bodied white wines are the best transition for red wine drinkers who are ready to explore whites.

White wines feature any number of 10 different flavor profiles, which serve to categorize the wine for consumers.

“A cousin of white wine is orange wine, which is made by leaving the skin and seeds of the grapes in the mix with the juice. These wines tend to be big, bold, dry, and sour.”

Wine chillers: Wine Enthusiast Double-Walled Iceless Wine Bottle ChillerAs most white wine should be served and enjoyed chilled, a wine chiller is a must for any white wine lover.

Because wine white is best enjoyed cool, avoid placing your hands around the wine glass lest you warm up the wine with your body heat.

Q. What’s the biggest difference in taste between white and red wines?A. You can find both white and red wines that are light and sharp or bold and smooth, with any number of floral, fruity, or sweet notes.

The 7 Major Types Of White Wines

Any below variety can give dry white wine or sweet white wine.

Districts: chardonnay makes the principle white wine of Burgundy, where it originated.

Chardonnay wines are often wider-bodied than other types of dry whites, with rich citrus flavors.

Food pairings: Moscato shows best on its own: without a proper dish but sweet wines will pair with dessert.

Typical taste: crisp, dry wines with good acid “Bite” are typically made in Italy and Germany.

Districts: gewürztraminer is best known in wines from Alsace, Germany, the U.S. West Coast, and New York.

Typical taste in varietal wine: Rieslings are much lighter than Chardonnay wines.

14 Best White Wines To Buy In 2022

Rosé may be relegated to one “Season,” but a glass of white wine remains pretty damn timeless.

If you don’t plan on drinking these wines immediately, make sure to store them at a temperaturebetween 45 and 70 degrees in a space with around 70 percent humidity.

If the wine bottle has a natural cork, make sure to store it in its side so the cork stays moist.

If you want more of our wine recommendations, try our fave French wines, our fave canned wines, and our fave red wines.

Region: Sonoma County, CA. Decoy is most recognized for its red wines, but the Sonoma County producer develops quality whites at an approachable price, too.

The result is a magically off-dry, boldly acidic wine with notes of ripe Bosc pear, green apple, and notable minerality.

It aims to create wines that showcase the uniqueness of the region and vintage.

Basic Guide To White Wine

Do you love the basic white wines but want to try more?

This visual guide will help you see how different, lesser known varieties fit into the major styles of white wine and will help you determine what to try next! Since there’s so much to know about white wine, this is a great way to help visualize the basics.

These wines are light bodied and dry, with a fresh clean taste.

These wines are typically light bodied with “Green” and herbal aromas like grass, jalapeño, or bell pepper.

These wines pair excellently with salads and herb-driven dishes!

Often with just a touch of residual sugar, these wines are slightly sweet and very aromatic.

These wines are very sweet and perfect for pairing with dessert and sometimes chocolate.

White Wine Nutrition Facts And Health Tips

In health circles, red wine usually gets more attention than white wine because it contains resveratrol-a polyphenol compound found in the skin of the grapes that may have heart-healthy benefits.

The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides the following nutrition information for one 5-ounce glass of white table wine.

Alcohol Most of the calories in white table wine come from alcohol.

White wine contains far less resveratrol than red wine.

The total polyphenol content of red wine is measured in thousands of gallic acid equivalents, whereas white wine is only measured in the hundreds.

According to one study, red wine has six times more resveratrol than white wine.

There have also been specific reports of wine allergy and intolerance, although an allergy to red wine is more common than an allergy to white wine.

Post Idea #2: Heating element

Related Articles – Summarized

Heating Element: What Is It? How Does It Work? Materials

A heating element is a material or device that directly converts electrical energy into heat or thermal energy through a principle known as Joule heating.

Electrical energy used to drive powered equipment generates unnecessary heating in the form of copper loss which ultimately does not produce any useful work.

Heating element types not suitable for use in oxidizing environments, such as graphite, are most often used in vacuum furnaces, or furnaces containing non-oxidizing atmosphere gases, such as H2, N2, Ar or He, where the heating chamber is evacuated of air.

The heating element alone does not comprise the entire heating system.

The resistance wire or the heating element is situated near the walls of the sheathing material for maximum heat transfer.

Due to its good thermal conducting properties, it is used to conduct and distribute heat from the heating element.

Conclusion: A heating element is a material or device that directly converts electrical energy into heat or thermal energy through a principle known as Joule heating.

Heating Elements

BrewHardware.com heating elements are 100% stainless steel from the the tubular sheath down to the hex and threaded bushing part.

Watt density is expresses as generated watts per square inch of element surface area.

These are known as foldback elements and typically fall into Low Watt Density or Ultra Low Watt Density designations.

On higher watt elements such as 4500 and 5500 watt, density is further reduced by making a set of serpentine bends as seen in the picture below.

These are often called “ripple” elements and despite the high wattage, it is the lowest watt density you can use in your boil kettle short of installing multiple lower watt elements in series.

We regularly use 5500 foldback and ripple elements to boil wort and have not had any scorching issues other than the one time we emptied the pot without turning off the element.

Note we have more elements available than the ones in the picture below.

How Do Heating Elements Work?

Heating elements are typically either nickel-based or iron-based.

Electric stoves have coiled heating elements just the right size to heat cooking pots and pans.

Electric radiators make heat with glowing red bars, while electric convector heaters generally have concentric, circular heating elements positioned in front of electric fans.

Clockwise, from top left: 1A) A simple coiled element; 1B) Two coils in a ceramic stove plate; 1C) Two coiled elements in a basic space heater with reflectors to “Beam” their heat into the room; 1D) Ribbon elements in a hair dryer with a fan to blow their heat forward.

That’s only part of the story, because a heating element doesn’t work in isolation: you have to consider how it will fit into a bigger appliance and how it will behave during use.

We often refer to electrical heating-what heating elements do-as “Joule heating” or “Resistance heating,” as though resistance is the only factor that matters.

A simple explanation of how different electric heaters work and how to replace broken heating elements safely.

Post Idea #3: Network analyzer

Related Articles – Summarized

6 Best Network Analyzer Tools For 2022

Many network monitoring tools include SNMP, testing tools, such as Ping and Traceroute, and a network analyzer.

SolarWinds includes a network analyzer tool in its Network Performance Monitor even though the main monitoring mechanism of this service is through SNMP. While SNMP provides constant live network checks, a network analyzer, called Deep Packet Inspection is provided as Quality of Experience statistics.

EDITOR’S CHOICE. The SolarWinds Network Performance Monitor is our top choice as a network analyzer because it offers many forms of network examination techniques as well as packet inspection.

The availability of SNMP monitoring and network performance testing tools as well as deep packet inspection functions makes the NPM a very powerful tool, enabling network administrators to get a deep understanding of network activity.

The system constantly revises its network exploration so any changes to the network get immediately registered in the network inventory and appear as automated alterations to the network topology map.

While the previous three tools on this list offer a network analyzer as an extra feature to their network monitoring system, Omnipeek is a pure network analyzer.

Network Analyzer FAQs What is the best free network analyzer?

What Is A Network Analyzer?

A network analyzer – also called a network protocol analyzer or packet analyzer – is a software application, dedicated appliance or feature set within a network component used in network performance troubleshooting or to enhance protection against malicious activity within a corporate network.

Network analyzers can be installed and run directly on a device to provide packet capture data, or the analyzer can be inserted within the network – typically a network uplink – to simultaneously monitor packet capture data for multiple devices.

Network analyzers are not intended to replace network monitoring tools, firewalls, antivirus programs, or spyware detection programs.

The use of a network analyzer in addition to network health, performance and security tools can provide deeper insights when troubleshooting a performance issue or investigating a security incident.

First, packet capture devices connect to the network and simply record all the data that is being transmitted or received on a physical or wireless network.

In addition to capturing network analysis data that can be analyzed manually by a trained network administrator, some tools come with built-in analysis and AI capabilities to help automate the performance or data security analysis process.

Continue Reading About network analyzer Dig Deeper on Network management software and network analytics.

Free Network Analyzer is a non-intrusive software network packet sniffer and real-time network protocol analyzer for Windows platform.

Thanks to highly optimized and carefully tuned algorithms, our software network analyzer turns raw data into readable forms online, even at high data rates.

Product remains responsive when monitoring 1Gbps network links, even on a budget desktop PC. Its superior performance makes this network protocol analyser extremely useful for real-time network monitoring and data logging applications.

Freeware version offers you a variety of network protocol analysis features, including the following: deep inspection of major network protocols, protocol-based network data filtering, browsing captured data, searching for specific data patterns with RegEx support, network data logging, importing external WinPcap log files from different protocol analyzers and more.

Free network protocol analyzer installs a filter driver in the NDIS driver stack and then captures network traffic passing through the NIC. This allows you to intercept all data frames starting from the Data Link Layer – Layer 2 of OSI model.

That’s the way network packets are parsed on the Data Link Layer, Network Layer, Transport layer, Session Layer, Presentation Layer and Application Layer.

If you need efficient software-based development and debugging solution for you network applications, devices/drivers, our free network packet analyzer is exactly what you are looking for.

Network Analyzer

A network analyzer is an instrument that measures the network parameters of electrical networks.

Today, network analyzers commonly measure s-parameters because reflection and transmission of electrical networks are easy to measure at high frequencies, but there are other network parameter sets such as y-parameters, z-parameters, and h-parameters.

Network analyzers are used mostly at high frequencies; operating frequencies can range from 1 Hz to 1.5 THz. Special types of network analyzers can also cover lower frequency ranges down to 1 Hz. These network analyzers can be used, for example, for the stability analysis of open loops or for the measurement of audio and ultrasonic components.

Another category of network analyzer is the microwave transition analyzer or large-signal network analyzer, which measure both amplitude and phase of the fundamental and harmonics.

Some portable vector network analyzers, designed for lower accuracy measurement outside using batteries, do attempt some correction for temperature by measuring the internal temperature of the network analyzer.

So if a user has a particular calibration kit details of which are not in the firmware of the network analyzer, the data about the kit can be loaded into the network analyzer and so the kit used.

The network analyzer can read the characterization and control the configuration using a digital bus such as USB. Many verification kits are available to verify the network analyzer is performing to specification.

Best 9 Wi-Fi Analyzer Software And Scanners

What Does a Wi-Fi Analyzer Do? Most Wi-Fi network analyzers work in a similar way, in which you can choose a wireless spectrum to examine, such as 2.4GHz or 5GHz. The Wi-Fi analyzer then examines the spectrum to view networks, their channels, and signal strength.

In simple terms, a Wi-Fi analyzer or scanner gathers information about access points and channels on your network and displays it in an easy-to-understand, visually accessible way.

Using a Wi-Fi network analyzer for consistent Wi-Fi scanning helps you collect data and identify problems and indicate potential solutions, such as switching to another channel to reduce congestion.

Having lots of connected devices can negatively impact your wireless network-when you scan for devices using a Wi-Fi Analyzer or scanner, you can see how many devices are on your network and what those devices are.

Along with detecting and deterring slow network speeds, a Wi-Fi scanner or analyzer can also help you protect your wireless network.

In general, there’s no shortage of tools and software to help you monitor and organize your Wi-Fi networks, whether you’re a casual user or an enterprise professional.

With the inclusion of high-reward tools such as heatmaps, visualizations, and performance metric graphs, the best Wi-Fi analysis tools and network management tools can revolutionize how you get the most out of your connection.

Post Idea #4: General Atomics Aeronautical Systems

Related Articles – Summarized

Post Idea #5: Quantum cryptography

Related Articles – Summarized

Limitations of Modern Cryptosystems Since public key cryptography involves complex calculations that are relatively slow, they are employed to exchange keys rather than for the encryption of voluminous amounts of data.

Because asymmetric encryption is significantly slower than symmetric encryption, a hybrid approach is preferred by many institutions to take advantage of the speed of a shared key system and the security of a public key system for the initial exchange of the symmetric key.

A Quantum Key Distribution Example The following is an example of how quantum cryptography can be used to securely distribute keys.

Quantum Key Distribution Example Now let us suppose that a malicious attacker attempts to infiltrate the cryptosystem and defeat the quantum key distribution mechanisms.

As a result, Eve will not correctly interpret the photons that form the final key, and she will not be able to render a meaningful key and thus be thwarted in her endeavors.

5.3 Sufficiently Rapid Key Delivery Key distribution systems must deliver keys fast enough so that encryption devices do not exhaust their supply of key bits.

In DARPA work, existing VPN key agreement primitives are augmented or completely replaced by keys provided by quantum cryptography.

Quantum Cryptography

Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

Mistrustful quantum cryptography studies the area of mistrustful cryptography using quantum systems.

In contrast to quantum key distribution where unconditional security can be achieved based only on the laws of quantum physics, in the case of various tasks in mistrustful cryptography there are no-go theorems showing that it is impossible to achieve unconditionally secure protocols based only on the laws of quantum physics.

One possibility to construct unconditionally secure quantum commitment and quantum oblivious transfer protocols is to use the bounded quantum storage model.

It is worth mentioning that the study of position-based quantum cryptography has also connections with the protocol of port-based quantum teleportation, which is a more advanced version of quantum teleportation, where many EPR pairs are simultaneously used as ports.

Post quantum algorithms are also called “Quantum resistant”, because – unlike quantum key distribution – it is not known or provable that there will not be potential future quantum attacks against them.

Besides quantum commitment and oblivious transfer, research on quantum cryptography beyond key distribution revolves around quantum message authentication, quantum digital signatures, quantum one-way functions and public-key encryption, quantum fingerprinting and entity authentication, etc.

Quantum Cryptography, Explained

Although the subject has been around for a couple of decades, quantum cryptography is quickly becoming more critically relevant to our everyday lives because of how it can safeguard vital data in a way that current encryption methods can’t.

Hackers don’t even need to wait for quantum computers to start the process because they’re collecting encrypted data now to decrypt later when the quantum computers are ready.

All these principles play a role in how quantum cryptography works.

What’s the difference between post-quantum cryptography and quantum cryptography?

Post-quantum cryptography refers to cryptographic algorithms that are thought to be secure against an attack by a quantum computer.

Quantum cryptography, on the other hand, uses the principles of quantum mechanics to send secure messages, and unlike mathematical encryption, is truly un-hackable.

Quantum cryptography, through QKD, offers the solution we need to safeguard our information well into the future – all based on the complex principles of quantum mechanics.

Quantum Cryptography And Quantum Encryption Explained

Quantum information science, which harnesses the properties of quantum mechanics to create new technologies, has the potential to change how we think about encryption in two main ways.

Quantum cryptography uses the laws of quantum physics to transmit private information in a way that makes undetected eavesdropping impossible.

Quantum key distribution, the most widely studied and viable method of quantum cryptography, uses a series of photons to transmit a secret, random sequence, known as the key.

This is due to a law in quantum mechanics called the uncertainty principle, which says that the act of measuring a property of a quantum system may alter some of the other properties of the quantum object.

Amazon could not secure customer transactions using quantum encryption because it would require cables between its servers and individual devices that make purchases.

In theory, quantum cryptography is unhackable, because eavesdropping would always be detected, but its practical uses are limited.

“To have a truly usable system, you may need to combine quantum cryptography with elements that are not quantum, and those other elements could be vulnerable to attacks that theorists have not envisioned.”

Quantum And The Future Of Cryptography

Better enforcement of cyber hygiene is a short-term solution, but in the long-term, security networks must also be overhauled to implement cryptographic algorithms designed to fend off future attacks made possible with emerging technologies such as quantum computing.

Quantum computing is not just faster than traditional computing methods, but a fundamentally different approach to solve seemingly intractable problems.

The mathematical operations that most traditional cryptographic algorithms rely on could be cracked with a sufficiently strong quantum computer.

President Xi Jinping’s government has spent more than $10 billion to set up the National Laboratory for Quantum Information Sciences, and at the current rate will spend more on quantum research than any other nation by 2030.

A quantum computer employs quantum-bits, also known as qubits, that can be both 0 and 1 at the same time, thus giving the computer its exceptional power.

Existing quantum computers have been built with only a few handfuls of qubits, while a usable quantum computer would require something closer to a million high-quality qubits with robust error correction.

There are steps we can take now to guard against future quantum computational capabilities, including the implementation of post-quantum cryptography algorithms that are secure against both classical and quantum computers.

Post-Quantum Cryptography

“The transition to post-quantum encryption algorithms is as much dependent on the development of such algorithms as it is on their adoption. While the former is already ongoing, planning for the latter remains in its infancy. We must prepare for it now to protect the confidentiality of data that already exists today and remains sensitive in the future.”- U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, Alejandro Mayorkas, March 31, 2021.

The Department of Homeland Security, in partnership with the Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology, has released a roadmap to help organizations protect their data and systems and to reduce risks  related to the advancement of quantum computing technology.

While quantum computing promises unprecedented speed and power in computing, it also poses new risks.

As this technology advances over the next decade, it is expected to break some encryption methods that are widely used to protect customer data, complete business transactions, and secure communications.

DHS’s new guidance will help organizations prepare for the transition to post-quantum cryptography by identifying, prioritizing, and protecting potentially vulnerable data, algorithms, protocols, and systems.

In March, Secretary Mayorkas outlined his vision for cybersecurity resilience and identified the transition to post-quantum encryption as a priority.

DHS also issued internal policy guidance to drive the Department’s own preparedness efforts and is conducting a macro-level analysis to inform the government’s action and ensure a smooth and equitable transition.

Post Idea #6: Physical vapor deposition

Related Articles – Summarized

Physical Vapour Deposition Physical Vapor DepositionPhysical vapor deposition describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods that can be used to produce thin films and coatings.

Physical vapor deposition is characterized by a process in which the material goes from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then back to a thin film condensed phase.

The most common physical vapor deposition processes are sputtering and evaporation.

The procedure for physical vapor deposition is as follows: sputtering/evaporation of different components to produce a vapor phase; supersaturation of the vapor phase in an inert atmosphere to promote the condensation of metal nanoparticles; and consolidation of the nanocomposite by thermal treatment under inert atmosphere.

2 Physical Vapor DepositionPhysical vapor deposition is a vaporization coating technique that involves the transfer of material at the atomic level.

1.4.2 Physical vapor depositionPhysical vapor deposition is a vaporization coating technique, involving the transfer of material on an atomic level under vacuum conditions.

Physical vapor deposition(PVD), the term that includes both evaporation and plasma-assisted sputtering, andchemical vapor deposition together with all of their variant and hybrid combinations are the basic film deposition processes treated in this book.

EE-527: MicroFabrication Physical Vapor Deposition R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Physical Vapor Deposition Gas Phase Gas Phase Transport Evaporation Condensed Phase Condensation Condensed Phase R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Equilibrium Vapor Pressure P* is the partial pressure of a gas in equilibrium with its condensed phase at a given temperature T. – There is no net transfer of material from one state to the other.

R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Evaporation Rates – 2 This can be viewed as two opposing fluxes: evaporant vapor rate goes as P rate goes as P* The net evaporation flux is the difference between the impingement rates for the two fluxes: dN e 1 / 2 2mk BT P* P Ae dt condensed evaporant R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Evaporation Rates – 3 Hertz only measured rates of about 1/10 of the above using Hg vapor.

The mass of the evaporated material is t Ae M e dAe dt 0 0 R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Free Evaporation Versus Effusion Evaporation from a free surface is termed Langmuir evaporation.

R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Directional Dependence of a Free Point Source The evaporated mass from a point source is isotropic: d d dM e M e 4 4 For a condensation surface of dAc = r2d/cos, obtain: d 3 M e dAe dt dM c Me cos 2 dAc 4 r To put a uniform coating inside a spherical surface, a point source must be located at the center of the sphere.

Common evaporant materials: – Au, Ag, Al, Sn, Cr, Cu, Sb, Ge, In, Mg, Ga – CdS, PbS, CdSe, NaCl, KCl, AgCl, MgF2, CaF2, PbCl2 R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Resistance Heated Evaporation Sources foil dimple boat wire hairpin alumina coated foil dimple boat wire helix foil trough chromium coated tungsten rod wire basket alumina crucible with wire basket alumina crucible in tantalum box R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Characteristics of Specific Resistance Evaporator Sources Principal considerations: – Required temperature to achieve P* ~ 10-2 torr, TP*-2.

Common evaporant materials: – Everything a resistance heated evaporator will accommodate, plus: – Ni, Pt, Ir, Rh, Ti, V, Zr, W, Ta, Mo – Al2O3, SiO, SiO2, SnO2, TiO2, ZrO2 R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Electron Beam Heated Evaporation Source 270 degree bent electron beam pyrolytic graphite hearth liner magnetic field evaporation cones of material 4-pocket rotary copper hearth recirculating cooling water cathode filament beam forming aperture R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Electron Beam Heated Evaporation – 2 270° bent beam electron gun is most preferred: – – – – Filament is out of direct exposure from evaporant flux.

R. B. Darling / EE-527 / Winter 2013 Characteristics of Specific e-Beam Evaporator Sources Principal considerations: – – – – – – – – – – – – Thermal conductivity Sublimation versus evaporation from a liquid state Decomposition of non-elemental sources Expansion or contraction upon freezing Soft x-ray emission threshold Tendency to splatter Reactivity with oxygen Reactivity with copper, i.e. the hearth Toxicity Effects of chamber wall deposits Need for a hearth liner, e.g. C or BN Magnetic elements can create some problems.

Physical Vapor Deposition

Physical Vapor Deposition is a set of vacuum deposition methods in which a solid material.

Because in the PVD process, the material is transported and accumulated atom-by-atom or molecule by molecule in a vacuum to the substrate surface, the deposited films have high purity and efficiency that for many applications compared to other deposition methods.

In general, wherever there is a need for coating with very thin, pure, durable and clean thin films, PVD is the key to solving the problem.

Atom-to-atom deposition in PVD allows control of density, stoichiometry and atomic structure of the thin film.

By using the appropriate materials and creating special conditions during the coating process, coatings with desirable properties such as hardness, lubricity and good adhesion can be created on various surfaces.

The field of application of these friction-reducing coatings is very wide.

Titanium nitride coatings and the like are also among the coatings that, in addition to being beautiful, have a high resistance to abrasion and corrosion and are used to cover building valves and door handles that are in constant contact with the hand.

Physical Vapor Deposition

Physical vapor deposition, sometimes called physical vapor transport, describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings.

Cathodic arc deposition: a high-power electric arc discharged at the target material blasts away some into highly ionized vapor to be deposited onto the workpiece.

Electron-beam physical vapor deposition: the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electron bombardment in “High” vacuum and is transported by diffusion to be deposited by condensation on the workpiece.

Evaporative deposition: the material to be deposited is heated to a high vapor pressure by electrical resistance heating in “High” vacuum.

Pulsed laser deposition: a high-power laser ablates material from the target into a vapor.

Sputter deposition: a glow plasma discharge bombards the material sputtering some away as a vapor for subsequent deposition.

By varying the gases and duration of the process, a range of colors is produced by Physical Vapor Deposition on stainless steel.

What Is Physical Vapour Deposition?

Physical vapour deposition is a thin-film coating process which produces coatings of pure metals, metallic alloys and ceramics with a thickness usually in the range 1 to 10µm. Physical vapour deposition, as its name implies, involves physically depositing atoms, ions or molecules of a coating species on to a substrate.

Thermal evaporation uses the heating of a material to form a vapour which condenses on a substrate to form the coating.

Sputtering involves the electrical generation of a plasma between the coating species and the substrate.

All three techniques can be used for the direct deposition of a material or for ‘reactive’ use in which chemical reaction occurs in the vapour/plasma phase between atoms of the coating material and ‘reactive’ gases.

The temperature of the substrate being coated is typically in the range of 200-400°C, considerably lower than temperatures associated with CVD. PVD is a line-of-sight process and requires the substrate surface to be easily accessible.

PVD is a batch coating process with typical cycle times of 1 to 3 hours, depending on the material being deposited and the desired coating thickness.

There are many uses for coatings prepared by PVD; applications include aluminium tracks and ceramic resistors for electronic circuitry; anti-reflective ceramic coatings for optics; decorative coatings on plastics; corrosion resistant coatings on gas turbine blades; and wear prevention coatings for machine and press tools.

What Is A Physical Vapor Deposition?

Physical vapor deposition is a family of coating processes in which thin films are deposited by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto the substrate.

In the physical vapor deposition process, the high-purity, solid coating material is either evaporated by heat or by bombardment with ions.

At the same time, a reactive gas is introduced; it forms a compound with the metal vapor and is deposited on the substrate as a thin, highly adherent coating.

Advantages of PVD:.These coatings are harder and more corrosion resistant than coatings applied by other processes.

Most coatings have high temperature resistance, good impact strength, excellent coating adhesion, excellent abrasion resistance and are very durable.

A multitude of substrate materials can be coated: metals, alloys, ceramics, glass, polymers, etc.

These coatings are generally used to improve hardness, wear resistance and oxidation resistance.

What Is PVD Coating? Physical Vapor Deposition Coatings

PVD Coating refers to a variety of thin film deposition techniques where a solid material is vaporized in a vacuum environment and deposited on substrates as a pure material or alloy composition coating.

As the process transfers the coating material as a single atom or on the molecular level, it can provide extremely pure and high performance coatings which for many applications can be preferable to other methods used.

The two most common Physical Vapor Deposition Coating processes are Sputtering and Thermal Evaporation.

This type of physical vapor deposition coatings can also be highly resistant to tarnishing and corrosion, enabling them to be used for a wide range of decorative finishes with colors that do not fade.

To achieve a uniform thin film coating thicknesses that are often a few atoms or molecules thick, parts to be coated are often rotated on several axis at a uniform speed, or placed on conveyor belts moving past the deposition material’s plasma stream.

Of all of the benefits of the PVD Coating process that produce some of the toughest, most brilliant and cutting edge technology of our time ranging from microchips to solar panels, none is more important than the fact that PVD Coatings can be applied with no toxic residues or byproducts which degrade our planet’s environment.

Sputtering is a thin film coating technique where a target material to be used as the coating is given an electrical charge causing it to be bombarded with ionized gas molecules in a vacuum environment causing atoms to be “Sputtered” off into the plasma.

Post Idea #7: Hybrid rice

Related Articles – Summarized

International Rice Research Institute

Because hybrid rice can outyield other varieties of rice, it is a key technology that meets the increasing global demand for rice.

Researching the science of rice heterosis and other traits of hybrid rice.

IRRI became involved in hybrid rice research in 1979, and since then, with our partners in the public and private sectors, we have led research, development, and use of hybrid rice in the tropics.

More hybrid rice varieties are now becoming available that allow farmers to significantly raise rice yields and thus overall rice productivity and profitability.

The most poplar hybrid rice parents used in Asian countries outside of China have been bred by IRRI. They are being used in public and private hybrid rice development programs and have been commercialized across many Asian countries.

IRRI not only develops rice hybrid rice directly for farmers importantly, we also support the pre-breeding hybrid rice programs of our public and private sector partners by providing promising hybrid rice germplasm.

In 2008, IRRI established the Hybrid Rice Development Consortium which aims to renew and strengthen collaboration between the private and public sector, and improve hybrid rice technology dissemination.

Hybrid Rice

Hybrid rice is a type of Asian rice that has been crossbred from two very different parent varieties.

Chinese scientist Yuan Longping, renowned as the “Father of Hybrid Rice”, is the most famous researchers on hybrid rice.

Another Chinese agronomist, Li Zhengyou, developed the Dian-type hybrid rice, and was a pioneer in the research of high-altitude hybrid rice.

In China, hybrid rice is estimated to be planted on more than 50% of rice-growing fields and it is credited with helping the country increase its annual rice yields, which are among the highest in Asia.

Hybrid rice is also grown in many other important rice-producing countries including Indonesia, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, Brazil and USA. A 2010 study published by the International Rice Research Institute, reports that the profitability of hybrid rice in three Indian states varied from being equally profitable as other rice to 34% more profitable.

Outside of China, other institutes are also researching hybrid rice, including the IRRI, which also coordinates the Hybrid Rice Development Consortium.

The third-generation hybrid rice technology is a genetically engineered sterile male line as a genetic tool, which allows all rice to theoretically find the “Other half” that suits them and produce excellent offspring.

Hybrid Rice

Hybrid rice typically yields 15-20% more grain than inbred rice varieties grown under the same conditions, as a result of heterosis.

Hybrid rice can provide an avenue for African rice farmers to boost rice yields and improve profitability.

Hybrid rice seed production can be a lucrative business for seed companies and create employment opportunities for Africa’s youth.

In 2010, AfricaRice launched its own hybrid rice breeding program to develop locally adapted hybrids.

The results of the trials supported the release of the first hybrid rice variety ISRIZ-9 in 2017 by ISRA in Senegal.

Hybrid ISRIZ-9 together with some promising hybrids newly developed by AfricaRice are being promoted by the Rice Compact of the African Development Bank-funded project on Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation in SSA. Since hybrid rice is new to Africa, a training program on hybrid rice is being jointly implemented by TAAT and the West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development.

The AfricaRice hybrid rice program continues to develop three-line hybrids, some of which are better than ISRIZ-9 and have yield potential of up to 14-15 t/ha.

Hybrid Rice

The male-sterile line provides a material basis for the production of a large number of hybrid seeds, the maintainer line is used to propagate the sterile line, and the restorer line is used to pollinate the sterile line to produce male-recovered hybrid rice seeds with heterosis three-line hybrid rice and two-line hybrid rice.

Several rice breeding organizations across the country used a variety of methods, such as extensively measuring the maintainer line and artificially creating a maintainer line, to screen the male sterility maintainer lines by crossing and testing them with thousands of rice varieties.

Researchers from over ten provinces used a variety of rice seeds to test many restorer lines and found that the recovery genes of WA cytoplasmic male sterility were primarily distributed in closely related low-latitude tropical rice varieties.

Restorer lines created by combining restorer line restorer line, restorer line excellent line germplasm, reincarnation selection, and molecular marker-assisted selection reduce the risk of genetic uniformity from the extroverted restorer line and promote the renewal of WA hybrid rice varieties.

The fertility of two-line hybrid rice is controlled only by the nucleus and can be categorized as either photo-sensitive or thermo-sensitive, based on the primary and secondary effects of light and temperature on the fertility of the genic male-sterile line.

Since there is no limit from the restorer line or the maintainer line, the high rate of resource utilization makes it easier to breed highyielding, high-quality, multi-resistance hybrid rice.

The critical temperature for the fertility conversion of the sterile line Peiai 64S, which was the most widely used PTGMS line in the production of two-line hybrid rice in China, was 23.3 °C when it passed the provincial appraisal in 1991.

Hybrid rice for food security Chinese scientists bred the world’s first rice hybrid in 1974.

Fifteen million ha – about half of China’s total rice area – are now under hybrid rice cultivation; national average rice yields have increased from 3.5 to 6.2 tonnes/ha.

In China, the area under hybrid rice production is now about 15 million ha, and accounted for about 50 percent of the total rice area in 1995.

Areas of hybrid rice, the United Nations Development cultivation in Asian countries Programme and the Asian Country Area of hybrid rice Development Bank have provided Viet Nam 480 000 strong and consistent support to India 200 000 improving national capacity in hybrid Philippines 90 000 rice breeding, F1 seed production and research facilities in several countries.

WHY HYBRID RICE? A new opportunity: Increasing attention has been given to the development of a new generation of rice varieties, including hybrid rice, new plant types and transgenic rices.

Hybrid rice for adverse ecologies: in some countries, the use of hybrid rice has revealed better heterosis in unfavourable soil and climatic conditions – such as saline soils and uplands – than in favourable irrigated rice conditions.

FAO’S HYBRID RICE PROGRAMME In compliance with the International Rice Commission’s recommendations, FAO gives high priority to the large-scale adoption of hybrid rice outside China.

3.4 Hybrid Rice & Seed

Hybrid rice is produced when the egg is fertilized by pollen from anthers of a rice plant from a different variety or line.

The graph below compares the grain yield of hybrid rice and inbred rice.

The table below shows that hybrid rice area continuously expands in most rice growing countries.

Click on the icon to see a flowchart of 3-Line Hybrid Rice Evaluation and Seed Production.

Click on the icon to see a flowchart of 2-Line Hybrid Rice Evaluation and Seed Production.

The production of hybrid rice seed in China shows a steady increase between 1976 and 2002 despite the decrease of available land.

The pictures below show differences in hybrid rice seed production in Asia and the USA. 3.

Yuan Longping, Whose Hybrid Rice Helped Feed The World, Dies At 90

Yuan Longping, a Chinese scientist who developed strains of hybrid high-yield rice that helped alleviate famine and poverty around the world, enabling farmers to feed a growing planet with fewer resources, died May 22 at a hospital in Changsha, China.

In the early 1970s, Mr. Yuan and his team developed hybrid strains that typically yielded 20 percent more rice than conventional varieties, transforming Chinese agriculture after years of famine and scarcity.

Rather than limit his rice technology and growing techniques to China, Mr. Yuan pushed to share them with the world.

He ultimately partnered with the United Nations and the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines, in addition to teaching farmers in India, Vietnam and elsewhere how to grow hybrid rice.

In a phone interview, he added that hybrid strains account for about 15 percent of world rice production.

Mr. Yuan forged ahead with his research, concluding in the mid-1960s that male-sterile rice plants were key to producing a vigorous, high-yield hybrid strain.

Mr. Yuan later directed a national hybrid rice research and development center and lent his name to a Chinese seed company.

Post Idea #8: Volvo Trucks

Related Articles – Summarized

Industry-Leading Commercial Semi Trucks

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Welcome To Volvo Trucks

Volvo Trucks: Groundbreaking collaboration to accelerate green transport of concrete.

Unicon, the largest producer and supplier of ready-mixed concrete in Denmark, intends to place the largest private single order to date for electric trucks that will run on Danish roads.

The 11 Volvo FM Electric trucks will start being delivered in the end of the year.

Unicon and Volvo Trucks have agreed on a long-term collaboration that aims to develop and implement complete truck and body electric solutions for the concrete industry.

Volvo Trucks

Volvo Group was reorganised on 1 January 2012 and as a part of the process, Volvo Trucks ceased to be a separate company and was instead incorporated into Volvo Group Trucks, with Volvo’s other truck brands, Renault Trucks, Mack Trucks.

The first Volvo truck rolled off the production lines in 1928, and in 2016 Volvo Trucks employed more than 52,000 people around the world.

Named Volvo GM Heavy Truck Corporation, Volvo would take responsibility for development, design, and production of heavy trucks of the joint venture, named WhiteGMC. All General Motors heavy product lines were discontinued; the joint venture rebadged the White product line as WhiteGMCs while Autocars remained in production.

In 1997, Volvo AB purchased the rest of its stake in Volvo GM, renaming it Volvo Trucks North America.

In 1996, Volvo released the Volvo VN-series, the first Volvo truck developed outside of White or General Motors.

In 2009, Volvo began to relocate the operations of its Mack Trucks subsidiary to Greensboro, where the North American operations of Volvo Trucks have been headquartered.

Volvo aims to start production of its new heavy duty Volvo FH, Volvo FM and Volvo FMX trucks there at the end of 2022.

Volvo Trucks Introduces EV Route Planning, Connected Technology Tools

Volvo Trucks North America introduced two new technology tools to support customers in successfully deploying Volvo VNR Electric Class 8 models into their fleet operations.

The new route planning and connected technology tools are designed to help customers maximize performance capabilities and benefits of the zero-tailpipe emission Volvo VNR Electric model, the OEM noted.

To help customers identify the ideal Volvo VNR Electric configuration to support local and regional distribution routes, Volvo Trucks has designed a route planning tool, the Electric Performance Generator, as an extension of its connectivity platform.

Volvo Trucks customers who are currently operating VNR Electrics will be able to access the EPG tool, which leverages Volvo Trucks’ connectivity platform to integrate with its Remote Diagnostics and battery health monitoring services, to plan for optimized daily operation of their Volvo VNR Electric trucks.

Volvo Trucks has also introduced connected technology solutions from leading telematics provider Geotab, to provide fleet managers with full visibility into the real-time performance of their Volvo VNR Electric fleet.

These new technology solutions will be introduced in 2022 and come standard as part of the Volvo Gold Contract, Volvo Trucks’ premier service offering for the Volvo VNR Electric model.

The Volvo Gold Contract is a turn-key solution that allows customers to have operational peace of mind with electric vehicles and includes the full Uptime Services bundle for the Volvo VNR Electric, combining Volvo Trucks’ battery monitoring service with its trusted Remote Diagnostics, Volvo Action Service and ASIST via the Volvo Trucks 24/7 Uptime Center.

Volvo Trucks Adds Service Tracking To Roadside Assistance Program

Volvo Trucks North America has announced the launch of an all-new service tracking feature to its Volvo Action Service roadside assistance program.

“Not only will the service tracker provide a convenient and modernized experience for our customers, but it will also help our highly trained Volvo Action Service employees be more efficient,” said Ashley Murickan, product marketing manager, Volvo Trucks North America.

“As nearly every form of communication is digital, we are going above and beyond to provide complete visibility and elevated roadside assistance for our customers.”

The Volvo Action Service service tracking feature offers operational advantages such as efficiency gains, automatic dispatching, and enhanced insights for the preferred vendor network.

Modern service experiences with higher visibility and live tracking of the provider’s location via an interactive map – similar to ride share platforms.

The ETA is also updated with live traffic conditions and job progress for even further insights to both customers and the certified experts at the Volvo Uptime Center in Greensboro, North Carolina, which provides all Volvo Trucks customers 24/7 assistance across North America.

“Volvo Action Service plays a critical role in keeping us ahead of the curve in the connectivity space, and this added tracking feature will enable Volvo Trucks to deliver on a high-quality customer experience.”

Domasco Launches All-New Volvo Trucks Range In Qatar

Doha: The new Volvo FMX and FM range of trucks are designed to attract drivers with a new cab and better visibility, becoming the ultimate workplace on wheels in all segments.

The exterior of the next generation Volvo FMX and FM range has a new aerodynamic shape, with distinctive lines on the front and a single sleek character line sweeping the side of the all new cab.

The new Volvo FMX and FM range comes with increased space in the day cab and storage of up to 800 litres.

The interior is highlighted by a new dashboard offering more storage space, new colours and a modern dynamic display.

“The all new Volvo FMX & FM with an entirely new cab, increased payloads and innovative safety features will satisfy our customer expectations in areas such as sustainability, cost efficiency, safety and productivity. With increased front axle loads of up to 20 tonnes and featuring the heaviest addition to Volvo’s chassis range of a 38 tonne bogie that allows for a Gross Vehicle Weight of up to 58 tonnes, the new Volvo FMX is built for the toughest conditions and most demanding assignments,” said Ramez Hamdan, Managing Director at Al Futtaim Industrial Equipment, UAE, KSA & Qatar.

By designing the robust new FMX construction truck that can carry more tonnes and maneuver more easily, while keeping the driver safe and comfortable, Volvo Trucks can help increase both productivity and profitability in the construction industry.

Volvo Trucks are distributed in Qatar by Doha Marketing Services Company, a leading multi-brand company in Qatar and a member of the Al Futtaim Group.

Volvo Trucks

Volvo Trucks supplies complete transport solutions for discerning professional customers with its full range of medium- and heavy-duty trucks.

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10 h. Delat med OffentligToughest trucking on earth? Heather Jones knows all about it as she drives her Volvo FH16 XXL road train through the vast landscape of the Pilbara, north West Australia.

Post Idea #9: Large goods vehicle

Related Articles – Summarized

Large Goods Vehicle

A large goods vehicle, or heavy goods vehicle, in the European Union is any truck with a gross combination mass of over 3,500 kg.

Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kg and 12,000 kg and N3 for all goods vehicles over 12,000 kg as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3,500 and 7,500 kg which according to the EU are also “Large goods vehicles”.

Category C1 allows the holder to drive a large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of up to 7,500 kg with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass of up to 750 kg.

This licence can be obtained at 18 years of age and is the replacement for the HGV Class 3 in the UK. Category C1+E allows the holder to drive a large goods vehicle with a maximum authorised mass of up to 7,500 kg with a trailer over 750 kg maximum authorised mass, provided that the maximum authorised mass of the trailer does not exceed the unladen mass of the vehicle being driven, and provided that the combined maximum authorised mass of both the vehicle and trailer does not exceed 12,000 kg.

Category C allows the holder to drive any large goods vehicle with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass of up to 750 kg.

Category C+E: allows the holder to drive any large goods vehicle with a trailer having a maximum authorised mass of over 750 kg.

In the United Kingdom, the related term Ordinary Goods Vehicle is used for medium and large goods vehicles.

Large Goods Vehicle Definition

Heavy goods vehicle means any goods carriage the gross vehicle weight of which, or a tractor or a road-roller the unladen weight of either of which, exceeds 12,000 kilograms;.

Goods vehicle means a motor vehicle constructed or adapted for use for the carriage of goods or burden of any description or a trailer so constructed or adapted;.

School vehicle means any school bus, school van, other school vehicle and private vehicle used to transport students or staff members to and from school or any school-sponsored activity or event.

Tank vehicle means a motor vehicle designed to transport liquid or gaseous materials within a tank having a rated capacity of 1,001 or more gallons either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or chassis.

Commercial vehicle means a motor vehicle constructed for the conveyance of goods or merchandise, or for the conveyance of materials used in any trade, business, industry or work whatsoever, other than a motor vehicle for the conveyance of passengers, and includes any motor vehicle that is designed primarily for the carriage of persons, but which has been fitted or adapted for the conveyance of the goods, merchandise or materials referred to, and is in fact used for that purpose;.

Heavy vehicle means a vehicle with a gross vehicle mass of more than 4.5 tonnes;.

Off-Road Vehicle means any vehicle while it is being operated on a road not maintained by a federal, provincial, state, or local agency, not including entrance or departure ways to private property, or any vehicle which cannot be licensed to drive on a public road and is designed and manufactured primarily for off-road usage.

Large Goods Vehicle

The category /transport/lgv/ contains data associated with the greenhouse gas emissions of large goods vehicle transport.

The returned value implicitly represents emissions for an entire vehicle journey(s), i.e. on a per vehicle basis.

In these cases, the value returned represents only the emissions attributable to the quantity of freight specified, rather than the full vehicle journey.

Large goods methodologies available through CarbonKitHeavy goods – DEFRA. The DEFRA heavy goods vehicles category contains the most recently published DEFRA data on greenhouse gas emissions associated with representative lorry types in UK. The methodology uses distance-based, per vehicle emissions factors, requiring the user to specify the distance travelled.

Generic car transport – IPCC. The IPCC large goods transport category contains data on lorry-associated emissions sourced from the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories.

Vehicle types are organised according to fuel type and emissions control technology.

The GHGP large goods vehicle category contains data on lorry-associated emissions sourced from the latest World Resources Institute Greenhouse Gas Protocol documentation.

Definition Of Large Goods Vehicle By The Free Dictionary

Printer Friendly Figures released under freedom of information legislation show the council spent PS1.3 million on agency large goods vehicle.

Drivers between 2016-17 and 2018-19.It makes it easier to see into the cab of a large goods vehicle.

Roderick Williams was driving a silver-coloured Kia Carens when it was in a collision with a large goods vehicle.

At Ynysforgan roundabout, Swansea, around 12.25am on Wednesday, April 25.”Following this enhanced medical check process, a further medical check for all passenger carrying vehicle and large goods vehicle. drivers in the form of a twoyearly eyesight examination has been introduced.”For instance large goods vehicle.

Adam Edgar, 24, of Barker Butts Lane, Coundon, admitted two counts of speeding in a large goods vehicle.

“Driving a bus, especially with school children on board is nothing like driving a private vehicle or even a large goods vehicle. given the obvious distractions for the driver, such as noise, but the safety of those on board is and must remain the primary responsibility and priority of that driver,” Pudwell added.

On the M6 near Coleshill on July 6 at approximately 4.50am.”A large goods vehicle.

Meaning In The Cambridge English Dictionary

Irrespective of the definition, what is a large goods vehicle? From the.

The total number of large goods vehicle licences issued since 1991 is 1,019,355.

The book will contain not only the official recommended syllabus for learning to drive a large goods vehicle, but also useful information for trainers, experienced drivers and operators.

Clause 2 applies the arrangements that are peculiar to the driving of large goods vehicles and passenger carrying vehicles in the new unified licensing system.

The new arrangement will bring the drivers of large goods vehicles into line with that policy.

All are designed to limit a vehicle’s maximum speed and are required by law to be fitted to large goods vehicles and coaches.

During 1992-93, the vehicle inspectorate examined 196,475 large goods vehicles.

Large Goods Vehicle Driver Apprenticeship

A large goods vehicle driver apprenticeship is a training scheme that leads to a career as a truck driver.

A large goods vehicle driver carries out deliveries of goods.

The day-to-day role of a large goods vehicle driver depends on lots of factors, including the type of product being transported and where the goods are being delivered to.

Without truck drivers there would be no food in our supermarkets, no clothes in our shops, houses wouldn’t get built, consumers wouldn’t receive parcels ordered online and homes and fuel stations would have no fuel to heat our homes and to run our cars! Lorry drivers can make deliveries to and from factories and warehouses, shops or even private homes, and there are lots of different types of trucks which are all used for different types of transportation.

As well as driving safely on our roads, large goods vehicle drivers today have lots of other responsibilities, including driving economically to minimise the vehicle’s fuel consumption; carefully managing the load being transported, from safely securing the load before transporting to off-loading the goods at the delivery location for the customer; and making sure that the delivery is completed on time.

A long-distance lorry driver can be away from home for days at a time, driving across the world, whereas regional and local drivers will stay closer to home, most likely returning to ‘base’ every day.

Driving the vehicle in a safe and fuel-efficient manner.

The Large Goods Vehicle Driver C And E Standard Apprenti-Kit

The Level 2 Large Goods Vehicle Driver C & E Standard is designed for LGV drivers who deliver to a range of settings.

The standard is designed for LGV Drivers who are responsible for ensuring that the right products are delivered at the right time.

LGV drivers are skilled and careful drivers, they always maintain the integrity of their load and vehicle.

LGV Drivers will deliver to a range of settings, and may be required to work in shifts, usually working alone.

Drivers will have the responsibility of preparing the vehicle and the load for deliveries, carrying out daily walk round check sheets and reporting defects to the appropriate person.

All prices are per unit and are exclusive of VAT and shipping.

Post Idea #10: Organophosphate

Related Articles – Summarized


These are the cholinergic effects of exposure of the nervous system to organophosphates.

The organophosphates produced were used as insecticides, with parathion and malathion being the first organophosphates pesticides to be synthesized in the US. Nerve gas has been used from World War I to the present day as a chemical warfare agent.

Organophosphates have the ability to irreversibly bind to AChE and prevent the breakdown of ACh.

Organophosphates manifest their clinical presentation mainly on the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system.

The main effect of acute exposure to organophosphates is poisoning.

Organophosphates have potential benefits as pesticides, but their use comes with risks.

Exposure to organophosphates can be life-threatening.


The wide variety of substitutes used in organophosphate esters results in great variations in physicochemical properties, varying from highly polar to very hydrolysis resistant characteristics.

Organophosphate pesticides degrade rapidly by hydrolysis on exposure to sunlight, air, and soil, although small amounts can be detected in food and drinking water.

A 2013 review of 27 studies on prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate pesticides found all but one showed negative neurodevelopmental outcomes.

A systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure was done in 2014.

In the US the organophosphate phosmet was banned for use on household fruit trees, ornamentals, and domestic pets in 2001 as other pesticides became available for these uses.

According to the EPA, organophosphate use in 2004 accounts for 40% of all insecticide products used in the United States.

Out of concerns for potential hazards of organophosphate exposure to child development, the EPA began phasing out forms of organophosphates used indoors in 2001.

CHAPTER 5 HIGHLIGHTS Organophosphate Insecticides Acts through phosphorylation of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme at nerve endings Organophosphates are a class of insecticides, several of which are highly toxic.

4,13 CHAPTER 5 Organophosphates Other specific properties of individual organophosphates may render them more hazardous than basic toxicity data suggest.

Highly Toxic Commercial Products continued fensulfothion fonofos fosthietan isofenphos mephosfolan2,3 methamidophos methidathion methyl parathion mevinphos mipafox2 monocrotophos phorate phosfolan2,3 Signs and Symptoms of Poisoning phosphamidon Symptoms of acute organophosphate poisoning develop during or after exposure, within minutes to hours, depending on method of exposure.

27 Toxic cardiomyopathy has been reported after severe poisoning due to sarin, a weaponized organophosphate compound structurally similar to the insecticides.

These persons are particularly vulnerable to the action of the muscle-paralyzing drug succinylcho- CHAPTER 5 Organophosphates line, often administered to surgical patients, but not organophosphates.

In very severe poisonings by ingested organophosphates, particularly the more lipophilic and slowly hydrolyzed compounds, metabolic disposition of toxi- 51 CHAPTER 5 Organophosphates cant may require as many as 5-14 days.

Prophylactic dosage with either atropine or pralidoxime may mask early signs and symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and thus allow the worker to continue exposure and possibly progress to more severe poisoning.

ScienceDirect Topics

Multiple lines of evidence suggest that mechanisms in addition to or other than AChE inhibition contribute to the long-term effects associated with acute OP intoxication and to neurobehavioral deficits linked to repeated, subclinical OP exposures.

The goals of this chapter are to: summarize the evidence documenting that not only acute OP intoxication but also repeated subclinical OP exposures elicit neuroinflammatory responses; discuss mechanisms hypothesized to mediate OP-induced neuroinflammation; review the available evidence suggesting that neuroinflammation may contribute to the pathogenesis of OP neurotoxicity and/or neuroprotective mechanisms triggered in response to OP-induced injury; and identify critical data gaps that need to be addressed to better understand the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of OP-induced neuroinflammation.

Attempts to make point-of-care approaches have been the trend in both detecting and rescuing OP exposure in the current research of OP toxicity.

There has been recent concern regarding the occurrence of chronic neurologic and neurobehavioral dysfunction related to acute or prolonged, low-level OP exposure.

The syndrome, labeled chronic OP-induced neuropsychiatric disorder, has been linked to acute, low-level exposure, as well as long-term exposures and includes a variety of neurologic and behavioral symptoms.

98 A critical analysis of the literature related to acute and chronic low-level OP exposure concludes that reports have inconsistent symptoms, poor or absent correlation with OP exposure, or significant methodologic deficiencies.

The acute cholinergic crisis develops within hours of exposure to OPs and may last as long as 96 hours.

Organophosphate Poisoning: Symptoms, Treatment, And More

Organophosphate poisoning can occur when you’re exposed to them for too long or at high levels.

Organophosphate poisoning can be short- or long-term.

Organophosphate poisoning can cause several serious complications.

The people most at-risk for unintentional organophosphate poisoning are those who live or work on or near farms.

Organophosphate poisoning is distinguished from other types of poisoning by a very fast onset of symptoms.

If you have symptoms of organophosphate poisoning, your doctor try to determine how severely you were exposed.

Organophosphate poisoning is a serious medical condition, no matter how small the dose.

“They’re considered junior-strength nerve agents because they have the same mechanism of action as nerve gases like sarin,” explained Dana Boyd Barr, an exposure scientist at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, who has studied organophosphate poisoning.

In countries such as India, where regulations may not be as strict or the implementation and enforcement of regulations are not as effective, the likelihood of organophosphate poisoning through the contamination of food can be higher, Boyd Barr said.

The Indian school case is not the first instance of organophosphate poisoning: In 1986, more than 20 people in Sierra Leone, many of them children, died after eating bread made with flour that was transported in a truck that was previously used to carry organophosphates.

While high-level exposure to organophosphates can lead to death in the short term, several studies have suggested that chronic low-level exposure can also have serious health consequences, especially for infants and young children.

A 2010 study by Boyd Barr and colleagues that looked at Mexican-American children living in agricultural regions of California found that prenatal and early childhood exposure to organophosphates can increase the risks of neurological disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. “This chronic low-level exposure that we all might be exposed to”-and which is considered safe in the U.S.-“Could functionally decrease the neurological capacity of children,” Boyd Barr said.

According to Jay Feldman, executive director of the nonprofit advocacy group Beyond Pesticides, the United States and many other countries do a good job of evaluating the health risks of short-term exposure to pesticides such as organophosphates, but not the potential dangers of chronic exposure.

While the EPA does conduct what is known as “Ecotox” studies on organophosphate pesticides, the studies tend to focus on short-term exposure risks.

Organophosphate Poisoning: Symptoms And Treatment

This article looks at organophosphate poisoning, how to recognize it, the risk factors, and what to do if poisoning occurs.

Organophosphate poisoning symptoms can range from mild to severe and vary widely depending on the type and degree of exposure.

Organophosphate exposure can also lead to long-term complications.

Organophosphate poisoning can occur if a person is exposed to the chemicals in high doses or over a long time.

The study looked at data for 108 children aged 16 and under who received treatment for organophosphate poisoning in one hospital in 2019.

Anyone who experiences symptoms of organophosphate poisoning should spend time in the hospital under observation.

Anyone who experiences symptoms after exposure to organophosphates needs immediate medical attention.

Post Idea #11: Toilet Tank

Related Articles – Summarized

Toilet Tank Replacements

If your toilet tank has cracked, then you will be able to find an affordable option for replacement here.

The great thing about two-piece toilets is that you will never have to replace a perfectly good toilet bowl.

We even carry replacement toilet parts like new tank lids and even flappers.

They are bulky parts so they take up a lot of space in the toilet tank.

One of the most important pieces of toilet install advice that we can provide would be to double and triple check the mounting assembly and layout of both the toilet tank and toilet bowl.

Most toilet units have a standard mount width between the toilet tank and the toilet bowl but on the rare occasion the measurements are different.

If you are hesitant about piecing together a two piece toilet or question whether or not we have a tank that will fit your existing toilet bowl please call our customer service hotline.

Toilet Parts & Toilet Diagram

If you’re unfamiliar with the Parts of a toilet or don’t have a good Toilet tank diagram, you might not know how to fix toilets, or where to start when replacing toilet tank parts.

Once I learned what the toilet tank parts were and how they functioned, I was able to buy the toilet parts and quickly take care of the repair myself.

With a good diagram of toilet parts – the majority of toilet repairs can easily be fixed by the homeowner.

If you need some help identifying them, refer to the toilet parts diagram for a complete look at all the interior Toilet Parts.

Toilet seats are offered in two different shapes, different sizes, and materials, but all toilet seats attach to the toilet bowl using the same method – with two toilet bolts.

To install a new toilet seat, simply set the new toilet seat in place, then install two new bolts and screws, and secure the new toilet seat tightly.

8) Position toilet bowl bolts in place, and carefully set the toilet on top of the new wax ring, allowing the toilet bolts to slide through the bottom side of the toilet.

Toilet Flush Mechanisms: Toilet Tanks

At TOILET FLUSH HANDLE LEVER REPLACEMENT. Toilet Flush Valves What happens inside the toilet cistern / tank when the toilet is flushed?

When a gravity type toilet is flushed, the toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system.

The two most common toilet flush valves used on toilets that make use of a tank or cistern are the flapper type toilet flush valve and the tank ball type toilet flush valve.

The toilet flush valve sends water out of the toilet tank or cistern or directly from the building water supply without a toilet tank or cistern into the toilet bowl below to flush waste into the building drain system.

Gravity flush toilet: the conventional and most common water-operated toilet world-wide is flushed by water that flows into the toilet bowl by gravity; the reservoir tank must be above and is typically attached to or part of the toilet assembly, though early flush toilets placed the flush tank much higher on the wall in an effort to obtain a more cleansing flush for early bowl designs.

DUAL FLUSH TOILETS. Water saving toilets use several strategies to reduce the volume of water used in flushing away waste: varying flush volume, pressure or power assisted flush using a small flush water volume, and reduced flush water volume using a reservoir barrier in th cistern or toilet tank.

At FLUSHOMETER TOILETS & URINALS. …. Continue reading at TOILET FLUSH VOLUME or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX. Or see TOILET FLUSH OPERATION FAQs – question & answers about flush toilet parts and repairs posted originally on this page.

How To Clean A Toilet Tank

If you don’t know how to clean the inside of your toilet tank, don’t fret.

How Often You Should Clean Your Toilet Tank? Experts suggest cleaning your toilet tank twice a year to avoid mildew, rust, and grime-and to prevent a buildup of minerals that can damage the parts.

Using Vinegar to Clean the Toilet Tank: From mildew to hard-to-tackle calcium deposits, vinegar is an inexpensive, natural cleaner that dissolves a range of bathroom offenders, including toilet tank rust.

How to Clean the Inside of a Toilet Tank Wear rubber gloves.

If the toilet tank walls still look dirty, spray an all-purpose cleaner onto the inside walls.

For particularly stained or foul tanks, turn the water valve off, flush the toilet until the tank is empty, and fill the tank with just vinegar, letting it sit overnight.

Maintaining Your Toilet Tank To avoid nasty buildup and extensive cleaning sessions, consider using drop-in tablets to help maintain your toilet tank and prevent the formation of mildew, rust, and bacteria, making it a lot easier to clean the next time around.

Post Idea #12: Fluidmaster

Related Articles – Summarized

Fluidmaster Vs Korky: Best Toilet Repair Equipment

Here comes the Fluidmaster and Korky toilet repair equipment.

Fluidmaster and Korky both are extremely qualified toilet repair equipment out there.

Which one will you choose? Let’s have a detailed comparison between Fluidmaster vs Korky toilet repairs equipment.

Difference Between Fluidmaster vs Korky Fluidmaster Toilet Equipment Korky Toilet Equipment DurabilityDurabilityMade of corrosion resistance material like solid brass bolts that ensures durability.

Solid brass bolt construction makes Fluidmaster toilet repair equipment durable and strong.

Korky toilet repairing equipment is a light designed universal kit that fits into most toilets.

Fluidmaster vs korky are most commonly used toilet repair equipment.

Post Idea #13: Flush toilet

Related Articles – Summarized

Toilet Finder & Map On The App Store

Flush Toilet Finder is the quickest, simplest way of finding a public bathroom or restroom.

Simply open the app and it will display the nearest toilets to you.

Search through 200,000 public loos all around the world!- Find which WC’s have disabled access, a fee for usage or require a key!- Get immediate directions on how to locate them!- Add a toilet to increase our list of toilets and improve the app for everyone!- Rate and report a toilet by swiping to the left on a toilet in the list!- Support for the latest iPhone and iPad models.

Install Flush Toilet Finder today and you’ll be at a public restroom in minutes.

This is the ad-supported version of Flush Toilet Finder Pro and is similar to other apps such as SitOrSquat.

The developer, JRustonApps B.V., indicated that the app’s privacy practices may include handling of data as described below.

Family Sharing Up to six family members can use this app with Family Sharing enabled.

Best Flushing Toilet 2022 Reviews

As a professional plumber, the most common question I ever faced is “What is the best flushing toilet on the market”? It depends a lot on your budget, bathroom size, and the features you want from a toilet.

Check below my recommended best flushing toilet 2022.

If you need a one-piece toilet with SanaGloss, then this is the best flushing toilet for that.

Drake toilet has a powerful flushing system and one of the best commercial toilet that you can buy at an affordable price.

If you need a toilet for residential applications, then it is the best flushing toilet for that.

The powerful flush of a toilet depends on GPF. If you buy a 1.60 GPF toilet then, it will give a stronger flushing power than the 1.28 GPF toilet flush.

Still, have a question after reading this Best Flushing Toilet Reviews article? Comment below.

Top 12 Flushing Toilets For Maximum Power And Water Saving 2022

Are you looking for the best flushing toilet? Keep reading to discover the selection of various brands, models and types of toilets with the most powerful flushing.

The toilets with pressure-assisted flushing systems use gravity and compressed air to create a force that eliminates rear-discharge toilets.

Best Overall: TOTO CST744SL#01 2-Piece Gravity Flushing Toilet”One of the best TOTO toilets with gravity-fed flushing mechanism enhanced with G-Max flush, durable and easy to install”.

Best Flushing Elongated: Signature Hardware Two-Piece Elongated Flushing Toilet”Water-efficient, tall toilet with soft-close seat included, visible trapway and classy toilet design”.

The Champion 4 is one of the best and most praised toilets by American Standard and the best flushing toilets ever.

Modern toilets combine excellent water efficiency to ensure the best performance and minimal water consumption.

In general, the best flushing toilets use water efficiently.

10 Best Flushing Toilets Of 2022

Choosing a flushing toilet can be an important decision.

You need something functional that works well, but you also want to buy one that looks good – the flushing toilet can have a great impact on the overall visual effect of your bathroom.

Toilets generally come as one-piece or two-piece models.

Look out for toilets with a dual-flush capability.

“The standard size if 2”, but some toilets have larger flush valves, delivering a faster, more powerful flush.

Many people will find elongated toilets more comfortable, but round ones are better in smaller bathrooms since they take up less space.

As you can see, when it comes to choosing the best flushing toilet, there are many great options in a range of styles and at prices to suit any budget.

3 Ways To Manually Flush A Toilet

If your toilet won’t flush and you can’t repair it immediately, you’ll need to know how to flush it manually.

The good news is that manually flushing a toilet is simple to do, and you can still flush your toilet even if the water supply is turned off.3 Ways to Manually Flush a Toilet.

One of the simplest ways to manually flush your toilet is pouring a bucket of water into the toilet bowl.

If done correctly, the water should push the waste in the toilet through the pipes, and your toilet will flush.

To fix the issue, you can manually flush it by pouring water into your toilet tank.

If your toilet doesn’t manually flush after taking these steps, the flapper in your toilet tank may need to be replaced.

If your toilet will not flush, and manually flushing your toilet doesn’t do the trick, give your local Mr. Rooter® Plumbing a call.

Macerator Toilets & Toilet Pumps By Saniflo

Unlike traditional toilets, which discharge waste gravitationally, Saniflo macerating toilet units discharge waste to the back of the toilet.

In addition to producing macerators and pumps specifically for upflush toilet systems, Saniflo also specializes in a wide assortment of gray water pumps and grinder pumps, as well as condensate removal and discharge pipe systems.

In addition to the fact that labor costs are far lower than those associated with a traditional toilet install, the Saniflo system also allows you to install a new toilet without demolishing the current floor area, creating a huge mess, or dubbing a portion of your home a construction zone.

Unlike many other brands on the market, Saniflo makes it possible to purchase the macerator pump alone or to buy the entire macerating toilet unit plus a toilet kit, which includes the tank, pump, and bowl.

Ideal for virtually all installations and ideal for a vast selection of uses, the Saniflo Toilet is one of the most flexible, affordable, and straightforward upflush toilet units on the market.

Durable, designed to last, and easy to install-even without the help of a plumber, the Saniflo toilet is a welcome addition to the world of upflush toilets at large and is an exciting upgrade to your home, office, or rental space.

To learn more about the Saniflo toilet line or to find out which unit is right for you, check our Upflush Toilet product finder quiz.

Toilet Flushes Slowly And Incompletely: Causes And Solutions

Toilets that are flushing slowly and incompletely are not only annoying, but they can also cause overflow or cause further damage to the toilet.

What causes a toilet to flush slowly and incompletely.

If your toilet is flushing slowly and incompletely, then there’s something wrong with either the toilet itself or the drain lines.

Enough water in the toilet tank means that you’re going to get a flush with sufficient power to create a siphon, helping material be sucked through the toilet hole.

The absence of a blockage will create an effective flush and thus make the toilet water flow smoothly and rapidly down the toilet.

How to fix a toilet that flushes slowly and incompletely.

If your toilet is flushing slowly and incompletely, here are a few DIY fixes that can solve the problem.

Post Idea #14: Amy’s Kitchen

Related Articles – Summarized

Amy’S Withdrawal From Scannell Site Likely Due To ‘Timeline Issues’

A week after the public learned of the decision by Amy’s Kitchen to pull out of one of Petaluma’s most prominent downtown developments, city planners have confirmed that the organic food giant’s plans for a riverfront world headquarters appeared shaky as early as last summer.

Petaluma planning officials say the withdrawal won’t shutter the overall project, a 40-acre, mixed-use development promising to transform a long-neglected eastside portion of the Petaluma River.

The withdrawal by Amy’s Kitchen from the so-called Scannell Mixed-Use Development site was publicly revealed in a February Planning Commission meeting, taking commissioners by surprise.

Until Scannell confirmed of Amy’s withdrawal from the plans in January, Ursu said staff continued to process the original application.

He added that under Amy’s agreement with Scannell, the restaurant chain had a way out “If certain milestones hadn’t been reached in a certain time period.” Ursu said that most likely meant Amy’s wished to set up in their new headquarters within one year, when the project would likely not be completed for up to five years.

The company’s withdrawal from the Scannell plans follows a complaint filed Jan. 20 by five employees at its Santa Rosa facility who claimed they sustained injuries due to poor work conditions.

Ursu said Scannell wishes to proceed with no physical changes to the commercial development plans on the site and will continue to market the space to other companies who wish to lease the space.

Amy Morton On Women-Owned Businesses: They Work

As a fourth-generation restaurateur, the restaurant business was not new to Amy Morton.

Roughly three decades later, Morton pursued her own identity in the restaurant game and opened Found Kitchen in Evanston, a farm-to-table restaurant with an all-woman team.

“I didn’t make a decision that I was only going to work with just women,” Morton said.

“I think it’s something that has been proven over and over again – women-owned businesses frequently wind up working with other women, not because we won’t work with men, but because we energetically know how to work together in a way that really works,” she said.

As the steakhouse and Found Kitchen established themselves in the city, Morton said she was able to be at home with her daughters when they were in high school, which was important to her.

While the reckoning of the #MeToo movement has impacted all job sectors, Morton said she never felt the sexual harassment in the restaurant world that others described.

Ten years later, Morton said if she had to do it all over again, she would always pick Evanston as the place to launch her businesses.

Ask Amy: Response To Cooking Leaves A Bad Taste

Dear Amy: I learned how to cook from my mother, grandmother, and aunts – who all lived under the same roof.

In a Latin family like mine, it was a given that women learned to cook.

The problem is that this woman cannot cook, and she has no interest in learning.

She doesn’t see anything wrong with her lack of cooking skills.

Amy, how do we tell this woman that her cooking is making us sick without offending her? – Not Hungry.

Your mother-in-law doesn’t see anything wrong with her lack of cooking skills – because she doesn’t have cooking skills, and doesn’t seem to want to acquire them.

Your husband should ask his mother, “Mom, could you cook this longer? I’m not sure this is cooked-through.”

‘Treated Like Donkeys’: Amy’S Kitchen Accused Of Leaving Some Factory Workers Injured

When Ines De La Luz showed up for work at the Amy’s Kitchen factory in Santa Rosa, California, wearing an arm brace, prescribed after she couldn’t move her hand at the end of a fast-paced shift making frozen burritos in July 2020, she says a supervisor ordered her to remove the brace and return to the production line.

It was the start of a 1½-year ordeal that would send her back and forth to a doctor who she says hesitated to give her tougher work restrictions, and eventually to a new job in the factory disinfecting the cafeteria, alongside other injured workers.

The workers who spoke to NBC News all work out of the Santa Rosa factory, which is its oldest factory and functions as a command center for manufacturing operations.

Amy’s Kitchen disputes that it mistreats injured workers.

The workers say they are expected to prove any injuries they report to human resources with a doctor’s note, typically from physicians working at a nearby Concentra, a for-profit urgent care chain.

In recent months, a contractor has been holding meetings at the factory in which it divides workers into small groups to talk to them about unions.

In recent weeks, workers say that the contractors hired by Amy’s Kitchen to talk about unions have also been seen walking around the factory floor.

Worker At Amy’S Kitchen Files Official Complaint Over Working Conditions

A factory worker at Amy’s Kitchen who previously spoke out about working conditions has filed a formal complaint with the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health on behalf of all workers at the company’s Santa Rosa plant.

The complaint to Cal/OSHA was filed on Jan. 20 by Cecilia Luna Ojeda, who previously spoke to NBC News along with one former and three current workers.

Amy’s Kitchen previously told NBC News it does not want workers to unionize because it prefers to have a direct relationship with workers.

The complaint Ojeda filed, which asked regulators to take “Immediate action,” also described unsafe speeds on the production line and workers who were not properly accommodated after they were injured.

The complaint went into detail about how high quotas and other logistics at the factory create what Ojeda alleged is an unsafe working environment.

Workers said line speeds at Amy’s Kitchen had increased over the years without an increase in pay or attention to how the faster speed could cause injuries.

The complaint shared the story of one worker who asked for a chair following a recommendation from her doctor who subsequently was “Ignored and shamed.” The story appears to match an account that a worker previously gave to NBC News about being denied a chair that her doctor requested.

Amy’S Kitchen

Amy’s Kitchen is a family-owned, privately-held American company based in Petaluma, California, that manufactures organic and non-GMO convenience and frozen foods.

Founded in 1987 by Andy and Rachel Berliner, and incorporated since 1988, the company took its name from their daughter, Amy.

Amy’s Kitchen supports non-GMO food and GMO labeling initiatives, and was a major sponsor of Farm Aid’s annual benefit concert in 2012, 2013, and 2014.

In May 2017, the company hired a new global president, former Mars Inc. executive Xavier Unkovic who had worked as global president of Mars Drinks, CEO of Royal Canin Canada and CEO of Royal Canin USA. Unkovic was promoted to CEO in August 2020 but left the company in May 2021.

As of 2017, the company makes more than 250 organic products in 27 categories, including burritos, bowls, pizza, wraps, soup, chili, and candy.

The majority of the food products have Kosher certification; there are a small number that still do not as the company is still in the process of transitioning to 100% Kosher as of 2020.

The company has over 120 vegan offerings and makes over 130 gluten-free products.

Amy’S Kitchen

Amy’s Kitchen, a pioneer in the healthy food business, made an investment in Southern Oregon 10 years ago that has been heralded as a defining moment in the region’s economy.

“In 2012, with demand for Amy’s continually growing, we opened our kitchen in Medford and built our ideal kitchen from the ground up,” said George Pelch, Amy’s local plant manager.

Once the expansion was complete, Amy’s workforce grew to 950 in Medford, making it one of the largest employers in Southern Oregon.

The local plant, boasting 450,000-square-feet of space, produces two of Amy’s largest product categories, soups and pizzas.

Bringing Amy’s to the region required foresight on the part of owners Andy and Rachel Berliner as well as a lot of heavy lifting and years of courting by officials, particularly Southern Oregon Regional Economic Development, Inc., Business Oregon and jurisdictional partners.

Because one of Amy’s core values is the care of their employees, both the Santa Rosa and Medford locations have on-site health centers with bilingual staff.

Amy’s has a Local Donation Committee at its plant that is geared to helping local nonprofits as well as outreach to the community.

Post Idea #15: Beyond Meat

Related Articles – Summarized

Beyond Meat Given New $40.00 Price Target At The Goldman Sachs Group

Beyond Meat had its price objective trimmed by The Goldman Sachs Group from $47.00 to $40.00 in a report published on Monday morning, Benzinga reports.

According to data from MarketBeat, Beyond Meat currently has an average rating of Hold and an average target price of $75.42.

Beyond Meat last released its quarterly earnings results on Wednesday, February 23rd. The company reported earnings per share for the quarter, missing the consensus estimate of by.

Ninety One UK Ltd acquired a new stake in shares of Beyond Meat in the third quarter worth $74,665,000.

Norges Bank purchased a new stake in Beyond Meat during the 4th quarter worth $38,257,000.

Finally, BlackRock Inc. lifted its stake in shares of Beyond Meat by 10.4% during the third quarter.

Its products include ready-to-cook meat under The Beyond Burger and Beyond Sausage brands, and frozen meat, namely, Beyond Chicken Strips and Beyond Beef Crumbles.

Covid-19 Has Pushed Americans Back To Grandma’S Kitchen Where Meatloaf, Not Beyond Meat, Is On The Menu

Americans have flocked to comfort food in what advertisers used to say over and over, “These uncertain times,” and it’s benefited some of the biggest companies in the $1 trillion U.S. food market – Mondelez, JBS, Nestle, Unilever and General Mills.

Basir founded a food startup, A Dozen Cousins – not part of the flameout – that’s trying to break Big Food’s lock on nostalgia with a line of multicultural beans, rices and sauces.

Nearly 70% of the respondents in a September 2020 survey said they’re consuming more comfort food and envision themselves continuing to consume more.

There’s been more surprise than delight in the recent performance of food startups that have gone public in the Covid era.

The results have been mixed, but some startups are leveraging success from that exposure to land deals with big food companies to create products that are a hybrid of comfort and new.

Reformulating already iconic products – some might call the products a variation on comfort food – could be as advantageous for Big Food stalwart Kraft Heinz as it is for NotCo.

While the tie-up could boost a startup like NotCo in a tough environment for new companies, Kraft Heinz, even with $26 billion in annual revenue from 40 countries, could use some help attracting younger consumers who might be receptive to making vegan not-dogs a new comfort food and topping them with Heinz ketchup.

Shares of Impossible’s rival, Beyond Meat, tumbled in afternoon trading.

Shares of Impossible’s rival, Beyond Meat, tumbled more than 7% in afternoon trading; the stock has plunged 68% in the last 12 months, dragging its market value down to $2.72 billion.

Moskow compared the test to the co-branding strategy that Costco’s Kirkland line uses for fresh meat with large suppliers like Tyson Foods.

The partnership could introduce meat alternatives to more consumers, particularly those who are more price sensitive.

Rising costs for meat in recent months have helped both companies draw closer to that goal.

Kroger has already dabbled in private label plant-based meat.

Correction: Kroger and Impossible Foods are partnering to sell plant-based meals made with Impossible’s meat substitutes.

Beyond Meat

Beyond Meat is a Los Angeles-based producer of plant-based meat substitutes founded in 2009 by Ethan Brown.

Upon licensing Hsieh and Huff’s technology, Beyond Meat launched its first product, Beyond Chicken Strips, in Whole Foods location in 2012 and expanded nationally in 2013.

In 2014, Beyond Meat developed its first plant-based beef product, Beyond Beef Crumbles, and has since expanded into plant-based pork.

Tyson Foods purchased a 5% stake in Beyond Meat in October 2016, but sold its 6.5% stake and exited the investment in April 2019, ahead of the company’s initial public offering.

In May 2019, Beyond Meat went public and trades on the United States Nasdaq exchange under the symbol BYND. It is the first plant-based meat analogue company to go public.

In June 2018, Beyond Meat opened its second production facility in Columbia, Missouri, resulting in a three-fold increase of the company’s manufacturing space.

In Europe, Beyond Meat has two facilities in the Netherlands: a co-manufacturing facility in Zoeterwoude owned and operated by Dutch company Zandbergen, and an owned facility in Enschede.

Is Beyond Meat Healthy? And Is It Healthier Than Meat?

Beyond Meat has come under fire for its ‘processed’ ingredients – but how does it compare to its meat counterparts?

Plant-based meat critics have previously slammed Beyond Meat over it’s ‘proccessed’ ingredients list – but is Beyond Meat healthy? And is it healthier than meat?

A new study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, says swapping from animal meat to vegan Beyond Meat can offer health benefits.

Researchers found healthy participants experienced improvements in myriad health markets when swapping their protein from animal to plant-based meat.

The SWAP-MEAT Study was funded by an unrestricted gift from Beyond Meat.

Beyond Meat had no involvement in designing or conducting the study and did not participate in data analysis.

Beyond Meat says all of its products are free-from cholesterol, antibiotics and hormones.

What Are The Bad Ingredients In Beyond Meat?

CONTINUE READING BELOW. Does beyond meat have bad ingredients?

Beyond Meat doesn’t use soy, so hexane isn’t an issue.

With Beyond Meat, Brown has worked to find these five elements in plants and use them to perfectly replicate the texture, taste, and experience of eating meat.

They are generally higher in sodium than regular meat products and not always made with pure plant-based ingredients.

The American Heart Association advises that eating more plant protein instead of meat may improve heart health.

Plant-based meats may also have less zinc and other minerals than regular meat.

Does beyond meat have MSG? Perhaps the only GMO-free ingredients are the “Herbs, flours, oils and proteins” leaving ingredients like maltodextrin free to be made from GMO corn? Unfortunately, yeast extract always contains processed free glutamic acid – also known as MSG, or mono-sodium glutamate.

Beyond Meat Is Beyond Unhealthy

You may have heard about that new Beyond Meat Burger.

Processed soy is particularly bad. Whereas fermented, organic soy in small amounts does not pose serious health risks, eating soy protein isolate will definitely take its toll on the body.

“Soy protein isolate is not something you can make in your own kitchen. Production takes place in industrial factories where a slurry of soy beans is first mixed with an alkaline solution to remove fiber, then precipitated and separated using an acid wash and, finally, neutralized in an alkaline solution.”

Then the oil enters the refining phase, in which the oil is washed with sodium hydroxide, a.k.a. lye.

So promoting the omega-3 content in canola oil is redundant – the omega-3s in canola oil do not contain the beneficial EPA and DHA. Caramel Color.

Consider the gas, the emissions, the resources used for this Los Angeles based fake meat product to reach someone in Michigan, Louisiana or Washington, DC. Soy and canola are two of America’s largest scale mono-crops.

Do not buy man-made food-like products like Beyond Meat.

Post Idea #16: Polyolefin

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Polyolefin-based composites are developed to address the demand for higher load-bearing materials that are required for engineering applications which cannot be satisfied by polyolefins alone.

In addition to the base polyolefin matrix, polyolefin composites contain at least one nonpolymeric additive which acts as a reinforcement.

In medical applications, high-performance polyolefin nonwoven webs have replaced many traditional materials.

To accommodate the various aspects of the polyolefin textiles industry, classification has been dealt with in terms of the structure/chemical nomenclature of the polymer, the fibre processing technology or the application of the textile material.

Amorphous poly-α-olefin is used as a raw material in hot-melt adhesives in film and foil applications, e.g., industrial foils, multilayer films, cling films, greenhouse foils, polyolefin compounds, and master batches and adhesive layer in protective foils.

They can be categorized on the basis of their monomeric unit and chain structure as ethylene-based polyolefins, propylene-based polyolefins, higher polyolefins, and polyolefin elastomers.

Linear chains of ethylene-based polyolefins are mostly obtained at low pressure using transitions metals as catalysts, whereas branched chains of different crystallinity levels and densities are produced at high pressure with oxygen or peroxide initiators [2,3]. Propylene-based polyolefins and higher polyolefins are produced using transition metal catalysts resulting in stereospecific and linear chain structures.


A polyolefin is a type of polymer with the general formulan where R is an alkyl group.

The name of each polyolefin indicates the olefin from which it is prepared; for example, polyethylene is derived from ethylene, and polymethylpentene is derived from 4-methyl-1-pentene.

Most polyolefin are made by treating the monomer with metal-containing catalysts.

Thermoplastic polyolefins low-density polyethylene, linear low-density polyethylene, very-low-density polyethylene, ultra-low-density polyethylene, medium-density polyethylene, polypropylene, polymethylpentene, polybutene-1; ethylene-octene copolymers, stereo-block PP, olefin block copolymers, propylene-butane copolymers; Polyolefin elastomers polyisobutylene, poly(a-olefin)s, ethylene propylene rubber, ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber.

Polyolefin properties range from liquidlike to rigid solids, and are primarily determined by their molecular weight and degree of crystallinity.

Polyolefin degrees of crystallinity range from 0% to 60% or higher.

Polyolefin surfaces are not effectively joined together by solvent welding because they have excellent chemical resistance and are unaffected by common solvents.

What Are Polyolefins?

Strong oxidizing agents eventually cause embitterment.

Polyethylenes are classified according to the relative degree of branching in their molecular structures, which can be controlled with selective catalysts.

Low Density Polyethylene – has more extensive branching, resulting in a less compact molecular structure.

High Density Polyethylene – has minimal branching, which makes it more rigid and less permeable.

Polypropylene – is similar to polyethylene, but each unit of the chain has a methyl pendant group attached.

It is slightly more susceptible than polyethylene to strong oxidizing agents.

PPCO is autoclavable, and offers much of the high temperature performance of polypropylene.

Properties Of Polyolefins

Typically, the higher the density of the polymer the higher the degree of crystallinity and the stiffer and harder the polymer.

HDPE has a much lower degree of branching than LDPE which results in a much higher degree of crystallinity typically in the range of 70% to 80% depending on molecular weight and thermal history.

HDPE is mainly used for applications where high strength, rigidity and/or high chemical resistance are required.

The flexible alkyl branches of the alpha-olefins lower the packing density, and crystallinity which, in turn, results in high toughness and elasticity but very low tensile strength.

Polypropylene has a lower density than most of the polyethylenes and a significantly higher melting temperature which makes it more suitable for higher temperature applications such as retortable plastic products.

The lower molecular weight grades are viscous liquids or sticky solids, and the high molecular grades are rubbery materials.

The low molecular grades are viscous oily liquids, the mid-range are sticky products, and the high molecular grades are elastic rubbery materials.

Chemical Compound

Polyolefin, any of a class of synthetic resins prepared by the polymerization of olefins.

Olefins are hydrocarbons whose molecules contain a pair of carbon atoms linked together by a double bond.

These two compounds are “Lower olefins”-that is, olefins whose molecules contain only one pair of carbon atoms.

“Higher olefins,” containing two or more pairs of carbon atoms per molecule, include butene and methylpentene.

All of these olefins are made into polymers, but by far the most important are polyethylene and polypropylene.

The lower olefins are commonly represented by the chemical formula CH2=CHR, with R representing hydrogen in the case of ethylene and a pendant methyl group in the case of propylene.

Under the influence of chemical catalysts, and usually under the application of heat and pressure, the double bond is opened, and one of the two resultant single bonds is used to link one molecule to another.

Definition From Corrosionpedia

Polyolefin is a type of polymer that consists of simple olefins.

Polyolefin is comprised solely of hydrogen and carbon.

Polyolefin is one of the most abundant polymers in use today.

The applications for polyolefin are many, including consumer products such as toys and consumer storage tubs, and industrial electronics and containers.

There are two major types of polyolefin: polypropylene and polyethylene.

The two most important groups under the polyolefin family are polypropylene and polyethylene.

Polyethylene is an polyolefin that is translucent, which is good for applications where exposure to light is not desirable.

Top Types Of Polyolefins: The Most Common Kind Of Plastics

If you look around the room you’re sitting in at this very moment, chances are good a large portion of plastic items in it are polyolefins – polymerized versions of basic olefins.

The most common type of thermoplastics, polyolefins are also the some of the most widely used type of plastic.

Through polymerization processes, the olefins become high-molecular weight hydrocarbons – polyolefins.

It’s the most common type of plastic, showing up everywhere from plastic bags and bottles to insulation for electrical cables and water pipes.

Of course, polymer testing plays an essential role in the research, development and marketing of anything made from plastics like polyolefins.

Polyolefins can be problematic in the laboratory, so high-temperature GPC is the testing method of choice when evaluating the molecular weight of any polyolefin.

With high-temperature GPC, we can analyze some of the most common and useful types of plastics in the world – polyolefins.

Post Idea #17: Thermoplastic elastomer

Related Articles – Summarized

Thermoplastic Elastomer

The good processability of these thermoplastic elastomers has promoted their use with carbon-based nanomaterials [66-69]. However, other thermoplastic elastomers such as polyvinyl acetate or SBS, has also been used [70-73].Read full chapter.

Thermoplastic elastomers are defined by ASTM D 1566 as “a family of rubber-like materials that, unlike conventional vulcanized rubber, can be processed and recycled like thermoplastic materials”.

The term thermoplastic elastomer has developed into the accepted generic name for materials as defined in the previous paragraph.

Archaic terms for TPEs include “elastoplastic”, thermoplastic rubber, thermoplastic vulcanizate,’ and impact modified plastic.

While most TPEs do not have typical thermoplastic physical properties, such as high load deflection, they are made into finished articles by typical thermoplastic processing equipment and techniques.

Since TPEs are processed into rubber parts on conventional thermoplastic processing equipment, the plastics industry has also claimed them.

Has a place within a class of copolymers or a physical blend of polymers which are comprised of the materials with both elastomeric and thermoplastic properties, that is the reason they are otherwise called thermoplastic rubbers.

What Is TPE?

Thermoplastic elastomers are defined in the ASTM D1566 standard as “a group of rubber-like materials that, unlike vulcanized conventional rubber materials, can be processed and recycled like thermoplastic materials.” Thermoplastic Elastomers do not require curing or vulcanization during processing and can be processed with traditional thermoplastic techniques such as injection molding, extrusion, and blow molding.

TPE materials can be processed and recycled like thermoplastics but they have similar properties and performance to thermoset rubber materials.

Separately, thermoplastic/elastomer blends are formed by mixing elastomer and thermoplastic structure in a molten state.

All TPE varieties contain two or more polymeric phases, one hard and the other soft.

Thermoplastic vulcanizates are formed with homogeneous dispersion of crosslinked rubber parts in the thermoplastic phase through dynamic vulcanization.

Dynamic vulcanization entails the formation of these structures within small rubber particles dispersed in a non-crosslinked thermoplastic matrix.

Thermoplastic polyolefins are raw materials obtained by the mixing of uncrosslinked amorphous rubbers and semi-crystalline polyolefin thermoplastics in a molten state.

Thermoplastic Elastomers: Types, Uses, Properties & Processing Of TPEs Material

Introduced commercially in the 1960s, ThermoPlastic Elastomer is a polymer material with the characteristics of thermoset vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic.

Elastomeric alloys are blends of elastomers and thermoplastics that can be processed using thermoplastic processing methods.

Thermoplastic Copolyester Elastomer Thermoplastic polyester elastomers are a type of block linear copolymers containing a hard-crystalline segment and a soft amorphous segment.

Thermoplastic Polyamide Elastomer Thermoplastic polyamide elastomer is a newly developed class of alternating block copolymer elastomers.

The properties of thermoplastic polyamide elastomers depend strongly on the type of polyamide block, the type of polyether block and the length and number of blocks.

Bio-based thermoplastic elastomers are a type of thermoplastic elastomer materials prepared from biomass monomers, whose resources are very sustainable because their monomers are derived from organisms in nature.

This allows for the use of a highly productive thermoplastic processing equipment while processing thermoplastic elastomer.

What Is A Thermoplastic Elastomer?

TPEs are safe to use, particularly at room temperature, and can be found in food contact applications like spoons for babies, as well as healthcare applications such as dental guards.

TPEs have a wide range of advantages, relating to their production, material properties, recyclability and applications.

The material properties of TPEs ensure excellent flexural fatigue resistance, good electrical properties, strong tear and abrasion resistance, high impact strength and elongation, a low specific gravity, excellent resistance to weathering and chemicals, and low compression set.

TPEs are being used for a wide range of applications due to their versatility and properties.

TPEs are commonly found being used in the automotive industry and for domestic appliances, as well as for roofing materials, medical applications, and even shoe soles.

The ease of processing into film, sheets or tubing also makes TPEs an attractive material for medical use, while their chemical inertness is another plus for medical grade applications.

With different types of TPE offering lightly different properties at a range of prices, commercial TPEs are replacing other materials such as conventional rubber.

Thermoplastic Elastomer

Thermoplastic elastomers, sometimes referred to as thermoplastic rubbers, are a class of copolymers or a physical mix of polymers that consist of materials with both thermoplastic and elastomeric properties.

Thermoplastic elastomers show advantages typical of both rubbery materials and plastic materials.

The benefit of using thermoplastic elastomers is the ability to stretch to moderate elongations and return to its near original shape creating a longer life and better physical range than other materials.

Styrenic block copolymers, TPS. Thermoplastic polyolefinelastomers, TPO. Thermoplastic Vulcanizates, TPV. Thermoplastic polyurethanes, TPU. Thermoplastic copolyester, TPC. Thermoplastic polyamides, TPA. Not classified thermoplastic elastomers, TPZ. Examples of TPE materials that come from block copolymers group are amongst others CAWITON, THERMOLAST K, THERMOLAST M, Arnitel, Hytrel, Dryflex, Mediprene, Kraton, Pibiflex, Sofprene, and Laprene.

TPE became a commercial reality when thermoplastic polyurethane polymers became available in the 1950s.

Thermoplastic olefins are increasingly used as a roofing material.

Owing to their unrivaled abilities in two-component injection molding to various thermoplastic substrates, engineered TPS materials also cover a broad range of technical applications ranging from automotive market to consumer and medical products.

Post Idea #18: Leak detection

Related Articles – Summarized

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ScienceDirect Topics

Mass spectroscopy leak sensors employ helium as the gas target [131, 132]. These systems have proven to be extremely sensitive, reaching a leak flow detection range of 10− 11 mbar·l/s, which is suitable for quality control of critical components such as, for example, vehicle airbags or cardiac pacemaker cases.

A QEPAS sensor designed for leak detection and using SF6 as the leak tracer gas has been realized.

Starting from a QEPAS sensor’s NEC of 3 ppb at 1 s integration time and considering a N2 gas carrier flow of 0.67 mbar·l/s, the minimum detectable leak was estimated in ~ 4.5 10− 7 mbar·l/s, which can be decreased to ~ 4.5 10− 9 mbar·l/s if pure SF6 is used as leak test gas.

Observation of the rate of rise of pressure in a system when it is valved off can be used to determine the presence of a leak if the rate of rise is known when the system is leak free.

If ether, CCI4, or acetone is painted over the suspected leak area, the color of the discharge will change when the vapor of one of these compounds leaks into the system.

The spark coil can only be used to indicate rather large leaks where the system pressure is in the range of 10−3 to 10 Torr.An ionization gauge may be used to detect much smaller leaks.

The published data in Europe’s pipeline incident reports show that the majority of leaks are determined by methods other than the engineering leak detection system [2,3]. However, leak detection systems can still be useful in picking up some leaks and may still be worth implementation from risk management perspective.

Top 10 Best Water Leak Detectors Of 2022

What is the best water leak detector?How do water leak detectors work?Water leak damage can.

Water Leak Detector Starter Kit by LeakSMART. The Water Leak Detector Starter Kit by LeakSMART is our top pick because it’s easy to install and responds almost instantly to the first sign of water.

Flume is our pick for the best smart water leak detector because it monitors and controls water sources, including irrigation systems, with 24/7 intelligent leak detection technology.

Honeywell Lyric Wi-Fi Water Leak & Freeze Detector is our top pick for Wi-Fi water leak detector because it connects directly to standard home Wi-Fi and doesn’t require a hub.

Govee Water sensor is our top pick for an emergency water leak detection sensor because of its sensitive water probes and wireless water alarm.

Water leak detectors FAQWhat is a water leak detector?A water leak detector is a system of sensors, valves and a central hub.

How much does a water leak detector cost?Water leak detector prices vary, but the average cost for a system is about $135. You can find water leak detectors as cheap as $10 or $20 or spend thousands on professional-grade equipment.


Our article presents the leak types, their sizes and various leak detection techniques.

The basic functions of leak detection are the localization and size measurement of leaks in sealed products and systems For majority of examples, a leak test procedure is a quality control step to assure a device integrity, and is one-time nondestructive test.

LEAK SIZES AND MEASUREMENTS OF LEAK RATES The shapes of leaks are very different, unknown and non-uniform.

Since the cost of leak detection increases in inverse proportion to a leak rate, it follows that testing for unnecessary small leaks causes unnecessary rise of production costs.

LEAK DETECTION METHODES A few leak detection techniques are known.

HELIUM MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK DETECTION Helium leak detection systems work as follows: He is introduced to a test part that is connected to the leak detector.

The mentioned leak test techniques are the main methods for establishing whether leaks exist and for locating where they are.

Depending on the type of material or joining fault, the following leak types are differentiated: Leaks in detachable connections: Flanges, ground mating surfaces, covers Leaks in permanent connections: Solder and welding seams, glued joints Leaks due to porosity: particularly following mechanical deformation or thermal processing of polycrystalline materials and cast components Thermal leaks: opening up at extreme temperature loading , above all at solder joints Apparent leaks: leaks: quantities of gas will be liberated from hollows and cavities inside cast parts, blind holes and joints.

4: Usage options for a vacuum leak detector based on the vacuum method and based on the positive pressure method 10 Vacuum method Positive pressure method = Vacuum inside specimen = Pressurized test gas inside specimen a: Enclosure test c: Enclosure test b: Spray technique d: Sniffer technique Fundamentals of Leak Detection 4 Leak detection methods without leak detector The most sensible differentiation between the test methods used is the differentiation as to whether or not special leak detection equipment is used.

5.2.3 Calibrating leak detectors; calibration leaks The calibration of a leak detector is to be understood as the adjustment of the display at a leak detector, to which a calibration leak is attached.

10: Examples for the composition of calibration leaks a Calibration leak without gas supply TL4, TL6 b Calibration leak for sniffer and vacuum applications TL4-6 c capillary calibration leak TL7 d Permeation calibration leak TL8, TL9 e Refrigerant calibration leak 19 Fundamentals of Leak Detection Fig.

11: Calibration leak for sniffing method with pressure regulator 20 Fundamentals of Leak Detection 5.2.4 Leak detectors with quadrupole mass spectrometer 5.2.5 Leak detectors with 180° sector field mass spectrometer Leak detectors with quadrupole mass spectrometers are mostly build to detect masses greater than helium4.

SLD = S R , He = pumping speed of the roughing pump built into the leak detector for helium in l/s at the branching point SAP = SAP, He = pumping speed of the auxiliary pump for helium in l/s at the branching point Example for usage of a leak detector with partial flow principle Vacuum reservoir with leak Vch = 150 l Helium leak rate qL(He) = 3 10-1 mbar l/s Helium leak detector SLD(He) = 8 l/s Branching point Auxiliary pump 17 l/s SAP(He) = 60 m3/h ~ At the branching point, the helium flow qL which is discharged from the vacuum reservoir is divided into a helium flow qL, display towards the leak detector and a helium flow qAP towards the auxiliary pump.

Helium flow towards leak detector: The leak rate qL, display which is displayed by the leak detector equals the product of the true leak rate qL and the partial flow ratio ! The calculation shows = SLD/(SLD + SAP) ~-/(8 l/s + 17 l/s) = 0.32 and qL, display = qL· = 0.32 = 9.6 10-2 mbar·l/s Conclusion: The leak detector shows a leak rate which is smaller than the true leak rate by a factor of 1/ = 1/0.32 ~ – 3.1! Response time = 3 = 3 Vch/Seff = 3 Vch/(SLD + SAP) ~-/( 8 l/s + 17 l/s) = 18 s Fig.

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Leak Detection

Pipeline leak detection is used to determine if and in some cases where a leak has occurred in systems which contain liquids and gases.

Methods of detection include hydrostatic testing, infrared, and laser technology after pipeline erection and leak detection during service.

The primary purpose of leak detection systems is to help pipeline controllers to detect and localize leaks.

Accuracy: Some LDS are able to calculate leak flow and leak location.

LDS should allow for detection of leaks for both conditions to provide leak detection during the entire operating time of the pipeline.

Optimal detection distance varies and is influenced by camera lens size, resolution, field of view, thermal detection range and sensitivity, leak size, and other factors.

The substances to be measured come into contact with the cable when a leak occurs, changing the temperature of the cable and changing the reflection of the laser beam pulse, signalling a leak.

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