29 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-12

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-12.

The automated system gathers resources for each breakout keyword, making it much easier to write blog articles on hot-topics quickly. Use this tool to climb the SEO ladder for free!

Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Radial piston pump

Related Articles – Summarized

Radial Piston Pumps

Moog launches a new size to complete its family of High-Pressure and theRadial Piston Pump.

Each of these types has special characteristics that make it work better in certain cases than the other.

At large, the performance is comparable and the type of the piston pump does not determine the performance of the application rather than the design of the hydraulic circuits.

If you are looking for information on Moog’s medical pump technology, please visit the Medical Pump Systems page.

What They Are And How They Work

There are many different kinds of pumps, from a basic hand pump to vacuum pumps.

Many pumps are identified by what they do, for example, boiler feed pumps, pressure washer pumps, and windshield washer pumps, and the intended application is a useful attribute for narrowing down pumps meant for specific applications.

A basic piston pump is made up of a piston, a chamber, and two valves.

Piston pumps are among the most efficient types of pumps.

A radial piston pump is a type of hydraulic piston pump.

The working pistons extend in a radial direction symmetrically around the shaft, marking the main difference beween them and another piston pump, the axial piston pump, which has axially rotating pistons.

Radial piston pumps arrange a series of pistons radially in a cylindrical block around a rotor hub.

The pistons are positioned radially to the crankshaft and are contained within the pump housing.

The pistons ride within slippers , which in turn ride on the crankshaft.

During the suction stroke, the piston spring moves the piston towards the center of the pump, and grooves within the crankshaft, slipper, and piston ferry oil to the increasing volume within the piston chamber.

Before the pressure stroke, the aforementioned slots close off, preventing back-flow during the pressure stroke.

As the piston is driven radially outward, the pressure within the piston chamber allows the check valve poppet, located within the outlet check valve assembly, to open and the oil is ferried through a hole in the check valve sleeve towards the outlet of the pump.

For pressure control valve equipped models, pressure is maintained through electrical feedback to the pressure control valve, which conveys excess flow through the pump and out from behind the gear to the “Slash oil” regions of the pump, where it can be returned to tank.

As the spool moves the inlet flow to the pump is throttled, reducing the power consumption and amount of fluid that is pressurized.

Radial Piston Pump

The working pistons extend in a radial direction symmetrically around the drive shaft, in contrast to the axial piston pump.

The stroke of each piston is caused by an eccentric drive shaft or an external eccentric tappet.

When filling the workspace of the pumping pistons from “Inside” it is called an inside impinged radial piston pump.

If the workspace is filled from “Outside” it’s called an outside impinged radial piston pump.

The general mode of operation will be explained at the movement of one pumping piston by means of picture 1: The outer ring for bracing of the pumping pistons is in eccentric position to the hollow shaft in the center.

From this point on the piston displaces the previously sucked medium in the pressure channel of the pump.

A disadvantage is the bigger radial dimensions in comparison to the axial piston pump, but it could be compensated with the shorter construction in axial direction.

Post Idea #2: Neustar, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized


Neustar, Inc., is an American technology company that provides real-time information and analytics for the Internet, risk, digital performance, defense, telecommunications, entertainment, and marketing industries, and also provides clearinghouse and directory services to the global communications and Internet industries.

In 2015, Neustar entered into an asset purchase agreement with Transaction Network Services for their caller authentication assets.

In October, Neustar announced that it acquired Verisign’s security services customer contracts.

Neustar’s security business, Neustar Security Services, was excluded from the transaction and remained as a portfolio company of Golden Gate Capital and GIC. Upon its incorporation in 1998, and continuing until 2015, the original business of Neustar was the administration of the North American Numbering Plan, the maintenance of the system of directories and databases that manage the telephone area codes and central office prefixes in North America.

Neustar offers internal and external managed Domain name system services that play a role in directing and managing traffic in the Internet, cloud-based DDoS attack protection and website performance management tools.

Neustar serves as the provider of registry services and manages directories of similar resources, or addresses, that its customers use for access and connectivity.

Neustar previously operated the authoritative directory for U.S. Common Short Codes, part of the short messaging service relied upon by the U.S. wireless industry, and provides solutions used by mobile network operators to enable mobile instant messaging for their end users.

Neustar, Inc. Neustar, Inc. Cla Stock Forecast, Price & News

NeuStar, Inc. is a global information services provider.

The Company’s cloud-based platforms and differentiated data sets offer informative, real-time analytics, which enable clients to make actionable, data-driven decisions.

It provides chief marketing officers a suite of services to plan their media spends, identify and locate desired customers, invest in marketing campaigns, deliver relevant offers and measure the performance of these activities.

Security professionals use the Company’s solutions to maximize Web performance and protect against malicious attacks.

It enables the exchange of essential operating information across multiple carriers to provision and manage services, assisting clients with order processing and routing of customer inquiries.

The Company’s services include marketing services, security services, data services and number portability administration center services.

Post Idea #3: Trend analysis

Related Articles – Summarized

Trend Analysis Definition

Trend analysis is a technique used in technical analysis that attempts to predict future stock price movements based on recently observed trend data.

Trend analysis uses historical data, such as price movements and trade volume, to forecast the long-term direction of market sentiment.

Trend analysis tries to predict a trend, such as a bull market run, and ride that trend until data suggests a trend reversal, such as a bull-to-bear market.

Trend analysis is helpful because moving with trends, and not against them, will lead to profit for an investor.

Trend analysis is the process of looking at current trends in order to predict future ones and is considered a form of comparative analysis.

This can include attempting to determine whether a current market trend, such as gains in a particular market sector, is likely to continue, as well as whether a trend in one market area could result in a trend in another.

Though a trend analysis may involve a large amount of data, there is no guarantee that the results will be correct.

Trend Analysis

Trend analysis is an analysis of the trend of the company by comparing its financial statements to analyze the trend of market or analysis of the future on the basis of results of past performance and it’s an attempt to make the best decisions on the basis of results of the analysis done.

In Finance, Trend Analysis is used for Technical analysis and Accounting analysis of stocks.

If employee expense is taken 18 % of the revenue and considerable changes have not been made in the employees, then for estimated financial statements, employee expense can be taken as 18 %. Internal use of the trend analysis in accounting is one of the most useful management tools for forecasting.

What is the Importance of Trend Analysis? Trend analysis tries to find out a trend lie a bull market run, and make a profit from that trend unless and until data shows a trend reversal can happen, such as a bull to bear market.

The trader makes a good profit by following the trend, and trend analysis is not an easy task.

The trend analysis in accounting can be used by management or the analyst to forecast future financial statements.

Here we discuss how Trend analysis works in Accounting & Technical analysis along with practical examples.

Trend Analysis: What Is It And Why Is It Important?

In most organizations, trend analysis – also known as technical analysis – is used to monitor metrics and their development over time.

Generally, any manager and their team can use trend analysis in their performance management.

Let’s look at an example of performance management through trend analysis.

Trend analysis in project management is best suited for managing personnel who is not engaged in an ongoing delivery process.

Trend analysis allows us to monitor how our performance versus the project costs and benefits planned initially, as well as how we are doing in terms of timing.

Some hedging strategies are based on trend analysis in the sense that finding patterns in commodity price movements allows companies to gain an idea of how the price is likely to evolve over time.

As you can see, trend analysis can play a significant role in the future of a business.

Trend Analysis Formula

The formula for trend analysis can be derived by subtracting the base year amount from the current year amount.

The formula for trend analysis can be derived by dividing the difference between the current year amount and the base year amount by the base year amount.

Percentage Change =. The year 2015 is calculated using the above-given formula.

Trend Analysis Formula – Example #2. Let us take the example of Apple Inc.’s income statement for the year 2018 to illustrate the concept of trend analysis.

Percentage Change =. The year 2017 is calculated using the above-given formula.

Step 3: Now, the formula for trend analysis in terms of change in amount can be derived by subtracting the base year amount from the current year amount, as shown below.

Step 4: On the other hand, the formula for trend analysis in terms of percentage change can be derived by dividing the change in amount by the base year amount, as shown below.

Trend Analysis

Trend analysis calculates the percentage change for one account over a period of time of two years or more.

For each line item, divide the amount in each nonbase year by the amount in the base year and multiply by 100.

The percentages in the other years were calculated by dividing each amount in a particular year by the corresponding amount in the base year and multiply by 100.

The base year trend percentage is always 100.0%. A trend percentage of less than 100.0% means the balance has decreased below the base year level in that particular year.

A trend percentage greater than 100.0% means the balance in that year has increased over the base year.

If the base year is zero or negative, the trend percentage calculated will not be meaningful.

The trend percentages for net income appear to be higher because the base year amount is much smaller than the other balances.

Trend Analysis Definition

The process of analysing data to identify underlying longer-term trends.

Used in Incident and Problem Management, it is also employed as a method of modelling in Capacity Management.

Process Control Charts are key tools in completing this type of analysis.

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It can be used in preparation for the ASQ Certified Six Sigma Black Belt exam or for any number of other certifications, including at private company certifications.

Root Cause Analysis Course Training SlidesTraining your company has just become easier! With this course you will be able to train anyone in your company on the proper techniques for achieving proper resolution of any type of problem, whether it be a transactional process, manufacturing issue, medical procedure, or personnel issue.

What Is Trend Analysis?

Definition: Trend Analysis is a statistical technique that tries to determine future movements of a given variable by analyzing historical trends.

Trend analysis is a technique employed by technical analyst in the financial industry to predict the future movements of a given asset.

They employ historical data to determine the direction of the trend.

The goal of this procedure is to identify attractive investment opportunities that are currently showing an upward trend; and of course, to identify downtrends too, so investors can get out before losing money.

Perhaps one of the disadvantages of trend analysis is that past behavior is not always consistent in the future, in other words, whatever the price of a given security did in the past is not necessary an indication of what it will do in the future because there are a lot of other significant elements that come into play when it comes to determining the value a financial security.

Mr. Nolan is a Financial Analyst at Duck Financial LLC. He is currently analyzing the historical stock data of a company called Black Sea Petroleum LLC. The company’s stock price has been increasing on a daily basis for the last 7 days, by 0.02% a day.

By analyzing the historical behavior of the stock the analyst can gather evidence to issue an opinion and to predict future movements of the stock price.

Post Idea #4: Voice over IP

Related Articles – Summarized

Federal Communications Commission

Some VoIP services may only allow you to call other people using the same service, but others may allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number – including local, long distance, mobile, and international numbers.

While some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone, other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter.

Some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone, while other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter.

Some VoIP providers offer their services for free, normally only for calls to other subscribers to the service.

If your VoIP service requires you to make calls using your computer, the software supplied by your service provider will alert you when you have an incoming call.

In June 2005 the FCC imposed 911 obligations on providers of interconnected VoIP services VoIP services that allow users generally to make calls to and receive calls from the regular telephone network.

The FCC requires interconnected VoIP providers to comply with the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act of 1994 and to contribute to the Universal Service Fund, which supports communications services in high-cost areas and for income-eligible telephone subscribers.

Voice Over IP

Voice over IP has been implemented with proprietary protocols and protocols based on open standards in applications such as VoIP phones, mobile applications, and web-based communications.

It is increasingly common for telecommunications providers to use VoIP telephony over dedicated and public IP networks as a backhaul to connect switching centers and to interconnect with other telephony network providers; this is often referred to as IP backhaul.

Sending faxes over VoIP networks is sometimes referred to as Fax over IP. Transmission of fax documents was problematic in early VoIP implementations, as most voice digitization and compression codecs are optimized for the representation of the human voice and the proper timing of the modem signals cannot be guaranteed in a packet-based, connectionless network.

Government and military organizations use various security measures to protect VoIP traffic, such as voice over secure IP, secure voice over IP, and secure voice over secure IP. The distinction lies in whether encryption is applied in the telephone endpoint or in the network.

Public Secure VoIP is also available with free GNU software and in many popular commercial VoIP programs via libraries, such as ZRTP. Voice over IP protocols and equipment provide caller ID support that is compatible the PSTN. Many VoIP service providers also allow callers to configure custom caller ID information.

A general distinction is usually made between VoIP services that function over managed networks and VoIP services that function over unmanaged networks.

“In the United Arab Emirates, it is illegal to provide or use unauthorized VoIP services, to the extent that web sites of unlicensed VoIP providers have been blocked. However, some VoIPs such as Skype were allowed. In January 2018, internet service providers in UAE blocked all VoIP apps, including Skype, but permitting only 2″government-approved” VoIP apps for a fixed rate of Dh52.50 a month for use on mobile devices, and Dh105 a month to use over a computer connected.

What Is VoIP?

Free VoIP services require all parties to be at their computers to make or receive calls.

Others let you call from a traditional telephone handset, or even a cell phone to any other phone.

For VoIP, you need a broadband Internet connection and an IP phone, or VoIP software on your computer.

You can use a traditional phone, but you will need a VoIP adapter.

Most consumer VoIP services use the Internet for phone calls.

Many small businesses are using VoIP and unified communications on their private networks.

You can integrate your phone and customer relationship management systems to improve your customer service, and much more.

Understanding Voice over Internet Protocol MATTHEW DESANTIS, US-CERT This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using VoIP services, focusing primarily on security issues that may affect those who are new to VoIP. What is VoIP? Voice over Internet Protocol is a form of communication that allows you to make phone calls over a broadband internet connection instead of typical analog telephone lines.

Some VoIP services require a computer or a dedicated VoIP phone, while others allow you to use your landline phone to place VoIP calls through a special adapter.

Like the VoIP adapters mentioned above, dedicated VoIP phones also require a provider and service plan.

Requirements VoIP requires a connection to the Internet through an ISP, a VoIP service to extend the reach to traditional landlines, and VoIP software to actually place calls.

If you are trying to place a VoIP call while other people are using a lot of bandwidth on the same internet connection, the sound quality of your VoIP call or general VoIP availability may be affected.

The FCC has described some of the challenges of VoIP services and has provided tips for VoIP subscribers.

The confidentiality of VoIP conversations themselves has come into question, depending on service type or VoIP configuration.

17+ Best VoIP Providers Of 2022

Key Features: Work from anywhere: Take business calls on your smartphone, tablet or VoIP phone, no matter where you are.

Whether you’re at a desk, on your mobile device, using a headset, or on a conference call, Nextiva offers all of the essential features of a strong VoIP service provider.

It is the best VoIP provider for businesses that want a business phone service with features like call recording, call forwarding, online fax, team messaging, and more at a reasonable price.

CloudTalk is one of the leading VoIP providers for call centers.

Bitrix24 offers a free VoIP service and works with both call centers for outbound and inbound calls and as an internal PBX system.

Leverage multiple call queue management features, including call screening, call barging, call waiting, call conferencing, auto-attendant on-hold music, call forwarding, and voicemail, among others.

JustCall is a decent option if you’re looking for excellent customer service and a feature-packed VoIP service that works great for SMBs. Whether you’re looking to set up a contact center for sales or support, they’ve got a range of features that can help you automate a large chunk of your efforts with 100+ integrations with your favorite business tools, power dialer, call routing, automatic call distribution, IVR, click-to-call and so much more.

Post Idea #5: PrecisionHawk

Related Articles – Summarized


PrecisionHawk is a commercial drone and data company.

PrecisionHawk is a manufacturer of drones and has more recently focused heavily on developing software for aerial data analysis and drone safety systems.

In August 2016, PrecisionHawk became the first U.S. company to receive an FAA exemption to commercially fly drones beyond the operator’s visual line of sight.

PrecisionHawk began drone servicing for enterprise clients, released its Lancaster drone, founded DataMapper, launched LATAS, acquired TerraServer, partnered with drone giant DJI and began manufacturing sensors.

Later in the year, in a bold move PrecisionHawk also announced that Eli Tamanaha, co-founder and former CTO of competitor DroneBase, was joining PrecisionHawk as Vice President of Strategic Initiatives.

In May 2016, PrecisionHawk began selling DJI Matrice platforms in partnership with DJI. The “Smarter Farming Package” is a bundle of a fully assembled DJI Matrice with a 1-year subscription to PrecisionHawk’s DataMapper software program.

The software is for users of DJI drones or the PrecisionHawk Lancaster and ensures quality data tags for accurate mapping and analysis.

Drone Startup, PrecisionHawk, Sued For Breach Of Contract And Unfair And Deceptive Trade Practices

PRNewswire/ – PrecisionHawk, a leading company in the commercial drone services industry, has been sued for nine breaches of contract and for unfair and deceptive trade practices.

PrecisionHawk acquired Terraserver.com and other assets from the plaintiffs in 2015 under an agreement which required PrecisionHawk to use best efforts to generate and pay commissions to the plaintiffs for six years on the sales of commissionable products and services through Terraserver.com and all other PrecisionHawk sales channels.

The commissionable products and services were defined in the agreement to include any and all products and services that utilized satellite data in any manner and also included products and services that utilized terrain data, elevation data, digital terrain models, and digital surface models.

The plaintiffs allege, among other things, that PrecisionHawk deliberately misclassified sales data, under reported, and under paid commissions, neglected their obligations to market and sell certain commissionable products, and withheld information to conceal their breaches of contract.

“It’s disappointing and frustrating anytime a business fails to follow through on their promises, but even more so with PrecisionHawk as they had an exceptional founding team that I believed in and trusted to follow through on the promises they made. Unfortunately, the founding CEO was replaced within months after our deal and PrecisionHawk is now on its 4th CEO in the last five years.”

We tried for more than 6 months to resolve the issues directly with PrecisionHawk but were unable to reach a resolution which has forced us to file this lawsuit.

“I am hopeful that PrecisionHawk will now dedicate proper time and attention to this matter so that we can reach an amicable resolution and avoid a multiple-year court battle, but we are willing and prepared to go to trial as needed to obtain a fair outcome.”

Post Idea #6: AeroVironment

Related Articles – Summarized

Unmanned Aircraft Systems & Tactical Missile Systems

We stand for freedom, and we stand with our allies and sovereign nations in their right to protect their homelands and their very lives when this fundamental right is threatened.

Our full dedication to supporting the response to 9/11 led us to become the world leader in small unmanned aircraft systems.

This same sense of dedication is our catalyst to deliver next-generation, game-changing capabilities with our Switchblade® loitering missile systems, Group 3 JUMP® 20 VTOL UAS, advanced small UAS, and world-class EOD/CBRN unmanned ground vehicles.

Ukraine and our eastern European allies need these solutions now to win against the Russian military and strategically deter future aggression.

Our conviction and mission to support our warfighters fuel our purpose at AeroVironment.


Ray Morgan led the program in AeroVironment alongside Dr. Paul MacCready and Tim Conver.

Dale Tietz from the Pentagon’s BMDO program transferred the Pathfinder aircraft to NASA for the ERAST Program, where AeroVironment managed its development as a non-weaponized variant.

AeroVironment RQ-20 Puma – a small lightweight, battery powered, hand-launched production UAV that provides aerial observation at line-of-sight ranges up to 6.2 miles.

AeroVironment holds a five-year, $4.7 million IDIQ contract from the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory for the development of advanced propulsion technologies for UAVs.

In 2013, AeroVironment participated in the DARPA TERN program, and received $2 million for Phase 1 and $19 million for Phase 2.

In September 2015 AeroVironment was not selected to move onto Phase 3 of the program.

HAPSMobile develops the Hawk30 solar-powered unmanned aircraft for stratospheric telecommunications, and has a strategic relationship with Loon LLC, a subsidiary of Google’s parent Alphabet Inc. AeroVironment owns Skytower, Inc., which was formed in 2000 to develop the technologies and government approvals to use high altitude UAVs as “Atmospheric satellites”, or high altitude communications relay platforms.

StockNews.Com Lowers AeroVironment To Sell

StockNews.com lowered shares of AeroVironment from a hold rating to a sell rating in a research note issued to investors on Monday.

Two investment analysts have rated the stock with a sell rating, four have given a hold rating and three have assigned a buy rating to the company.

AeroVironment last issued its earnings results on Thursday, March 3rd. The aerospace company reported $0.32 earnings per share for the quarter, topping the Zacks’ consensus estimate of $0.30 by $0.02.

Norges Bank acquired a new position in AeroVironment during the fourth quarter worth about $15,718,000.

AlphaCentric Advisors LLC acquired a new position in AeroVironment during the fourth quarter worth about $930,000.

Wells Fargo & Company MN raised its stake in AeroVironment by 15.6% during the fourth quarter.

Wells Fargo & Company MN now owns 49,458 shares of the aerospace company’s stock worth $3,067,000 after acquiring an additional 6,679 shares in the last quarter.

Tomahawk Robotics Integrates AeroVironment UAS Into Kinesis Ecosystem

PRNewswire/ – Tomahawk Robotics, the leading innovator of common control solutions, has integrated the AeroVironment RQ-11 Ravenã unmanned aircraft system into the Kinesis Ecosystem with AeroVironment’s Crysalis™ on Tomahawk Robotics’ KxM edge processor.

Kinesis allows operators to benefit from the unique advantages of battle-proven fixed-wing platform(s) from AeroVironment while simultaneously controlling any other robot in their arsenal – all within a single application on a single pane of glass.

AeroVironment’s RQ-20 Puma is the next UAS slated for Kinesis integration via Crysalis.

Crysalis, a next-generation integrated hardware and software-based ground control system that enables third-party command and control of compatible AeroVironment UAS and their payloads through Crysalis, provides additional capability to the warfighter.

The collaboration between AeroVironment and Tomahawk Robotics extends the variety of robotic platforms that Marines are able to control via the Radio Agile Integrated Device Program.

Tomahawk Robotics is the leading innovator of common control solutions that transform how humans and unmanned systems work together to make the world more safe and secure.

Designed from the ground up with the user in mind, Kinesis is the only multi-domain, cross-architecture, AI-enabled control system that unlocks intuitive interaction with remote environments from across the room or around the world.

Working At AeroVironment: 90 Reviews

Most days were spent insuring good internal customer service for all needed security functions.

Working with employees and security officers to insure security protocols were adhered to.

AeroVironment’s workplace culture was a cross between Clan and Adhocracy cultures, like a family but also encouraged innovation and creativity.

When I started at AV I only had a basic common sense knowledge of security, however through learning from other employees and online training, my knowledge of Industrial Security has grown exponentially.

The hardest part of the job would have been helping employees understand that security protocols were not there to hinder their performance, but to protect them, the company and national security.

I think I most enjoyed being able to help both internal and external customers with problems or just assist them in everyday security awareness.

Electric Vehicle Charging Products & Services

Webasto Charging Systems located in Monrovia, CA is a pioneer of electric vehicle charging technology.

We produce an ever-evolving lineup of high quality charging systems that enable the safe, easy, and fast charging of passenger vehicles, material handling and ground support equipment.

Our advanced charging systems are the preferred charging solution for top automakers such as Ford, BMW, Chevrolet, Volvo, Lincoln, Fiat, Kia, Mini, Mitsubishi, and many more.

With our high-performance charging stations, professional installation, and comprehensive services, we have the right charging solution for your e-mobility.

A level 2 charger safely delivers AC power to your electric vehicle or plug-in hybrid so you’re always “Fueled up” and ready to go.

Level 2 charging refers to the voltage that the electric vehicle charger uses.

Depending on the amperages, the difference between Level 2 chargers could be significant in charging times.

Post Idea #7: Liquid-crystal polymer

Related Articles – Summarized

Liquid Crystal Polymer

AbstractThe article deals with the liquid crystalline polymers which belong to interdisciplinary science attracting the attention of wide range of researchers in the fields of polymer and material science, solid and soft matter physics, as well as nanotechnology and the electronics industry.

3) The thermotropic liquid crystalline tougheningLiquid crystal polymer.

Toughening epoxy resin by thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer can improve the toughness of epoxy resin and can also ensure that it does not reduce the other mechanical properties and heat-resistance of epoxy resin.

If using thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer by weight of 2%, fracture toughness can be increased by 20%, and with the increase of TLCP content, there is a substantial increase in material toughness, and bending modulus is essentially the same, glass transition temperature is slightly higher.

Comparing with the thermoplastic resin, liquid crystal polymer will receive the same toughening effect under only the amount of 25% to 30% dosage of thermoplastic resin.

Liquid crystal polymers come in a variety of forms from sinterable high temperature to injection moldable compounds.

Chemical structures of monomers used to make liquid crystalline polymer polyesters.

Technical Paper LCP Introduction To Liquid Crystal Polymers ARTICLE INFO. ————- Written by: Kevin J. Bigham, PhD. Zeus Industrial Products, Inc. Keywords and related topics Biocompatible plastics Catheter braiding Catheter construction LCP Monofilament MRI compatibility ABSTRACT ——————————— Liquid crystal polymers present a special category of material which straddles the boundary between an ordinary solid and a liquid.

Liquid crystals, the building blocks of liquid crystal polymers, blur the boundary between properties of an ordinary liquid and a solid.

Not all of these self-organizing molecules within the liquid crystal participate in the ordering thus giving the liquid crystal its unique behavior as neither a solid nor a liquid.

While liquid crystals exhibit unique behavior differing from solids and liquids, they also show myriad character even among themselves and other liquid crystals.

Nematic liquid crystal molecules, for example, maintain their directional orientation but do retain some freedom of movement within the liquid crystal.

Nematic liquid crystal showing orientational order, smectic A liquid crystal form, and smectic C liquid crystal form.

LIQUID CRYSTAL POLYMERS The liquid crystals described heretofore represent the first generation of discovery and subsequent study of these unique molecules for utilitarian purposes.

Liquid Crystal Polymer

Liquid crystal polymer exhibits a highly ordered structure in both the melt and solid states.

LCP can replace such materials as ceramics, metals, composites and other plastics because of its outstanding strength at extreme temperatures and resistance to virtually all chemicals, weathering, radiation and burning.

Although based on polyester chemistry, LCP’s have heat deflection temperatures as high as 610 degrees F at 264 psi when reinforced with glass fiber.

The resin’s high melt flow and fast setup permits it to be molded into large, heavywalled parts as well as thinwalled components.

Its thermal stability permits efficient use of regrind.

Applications of LCP’s include those that require resistance to high temperatures and chemicals.

Liquid-Crystal Polymer

Despite uncrosslinked LCPs, polymeric materials like liquid crystal elastomers and liquid crystal networks can exhibit liquid crystallinity as well.

A high number of LCPs, produced in the 1980s, displayed order in the melt phase analogous to that exhibited by nonpolymeric liquid crystals.

LCPs are categorized by the location of liquid crystal cores.

Main chain LCPs have rigid, rod-like mesogens in the polymer backbones, which indirectly leads to the high melting temperature of this kind of LCPs. To make this kind of polymer easy to process, different methods are applied to lower the transition temperature: Introducing flexible sequences; Introducing bends or kinks; Adding substituent groups to the aromatic mesogens…. [edit].

Latin letters are used to help the classification of LCPs. Mesogens in LCPs can self-organize to form liquid crystal regions in different conditions.

Lyotropic side chain LCPs like alkyl polyoxyethylene surfactants attached to polysiloxane polymers may be applied to personal care products like liquid soap etc.

Above the melting temperature and glass transition temperature and below the clearing point, the thermotropic LCPs will form liquid crystals.

What Are Liquid Crystal Polymers?

At temperatures well above the crystalline melting temperature, semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers become disordered, viscous liquids.

Liquid crystalline polymers, on the other hand, possess molecular orders that are retained in their viscous liquid state.

The term liquid crystal polymer or LCP is used to describe these types of polymer.

Like the traditional semi-crystalline thermoplastic polymers, the glass transition temperature in an LCP is associated with the co-operative movements in the amorphous phase.

The crystalline melting temperature is associated with the melting of the majority of its crystalline phase.

In an LCP the transition from order to disorder occurs at temperatures higher than its crystalline melting temperature.

13 DSC and DTA   DTA – Constant heat flow DSC – Constant ∆T     Finds temperature and heat of phase transitions Does not identify transition type Monotropic – LCs form in cooling process Enantiotropic LCs form in both heating and cooling processes Wang, X.; Zhou, Q. Liquid Crystalline Polymers.

Htm 15 Miscibility Testing      Use well-known model liquid crystals Different mesophases are imiscible Highly viscous – low mixing rates LCP and LC of same mesophase may be inherently incompatible Used for hard to determine mesophases Wang, X.; Zhou, Q. Liquid Crystalline Polymers.

17 Summary    Though high in cost, LCPs have high strength and stability.

LCPs are used in thinwalled parts, chemical equipment, and highstrength fibers.

A combination of characterization techniques are required.


Liquid crystalline polymers are a special type of thermoplastics that exhibit properties between highly ordered solid crystalline materials and amorphous disordered liquids over a well defined temperature range.

These polymers contain rigid rod-like or plate-like repeat units with a high length-to-width ratio, the so called mesogenic groups, that are able to self-assemble into anisotropic liquid crystals (mesophases) upon cooling or under the action of an external field.

2 The extrusion of the liquid or dissolved LC polymers through spinnerets or small nozzles produces highly anisotropic plastic fibers that have very high tenacity and elastic modulus.

The enhanced mechanical properties of LCPs are the result of a more dense packing of the polymer chains in the LC phase due to the parallel alignment of the rigid mesogenic groups which is further enhanced by extrusion, spinning and drawing.

The anisotropic LC structure intermediate between the crystalline solid and disordered liquid state is unique to liquid crystal polymers.

These LC polymers are mainly sold in the form of fibers.

Above Tiso, the polymer loses its LC properties and behaves like an ordinary isotropic polymer melt whereas below its glass tranasition temperature the polymer behaves like acrystalline solid but with anisotropic properties because the anisotropic structure is fully preserved below the Tg..

Post Idea #8: Polyplastics

Related Articles – Summarized

Polyplastics Global Website

LEARN MORE DURAFIDE® PPS DURAFIDE® PPS was launched by Polyplastics as Japan’s first compound production, based on the supply of PPS polymer with linear molecular structure from Kureha Corporation.

LEARN MORE LAPEROS® LCP LAPEROS® LCP is a leading super engineering plastic that has a thinness and fluidity unheard of in typical engineering plastics.

LEARN MORE RENATUS® PET RENATUS® PET is based on the polyethylene terephthalate resin employed in the familiar PET bottle.

RENATUS is created by blending PET resin with glass fibers, dramatically increasing its mechanical strength and heat resistance.

LEARN MORE PLASTRON® LFT PLASTRON® LFT is resin in which reinforcing fibers of the same length are incorporated into resin pellets in the same direction.

As a material it has both rigidity and high impact strength that were unattainable with conventional fiber-reinforced resins, thus enabling the use of thermoplastic resins in place of metals and fiber-reinforced plastics in a broader range of fields.

PLASTRON® LFT long-fiber cellulose-reinforced ther…. Sustainability has also been sought in product development in recent years, and eco-friendly resins …. LEARN MORE CSR. Internal responsibility.


Polyplastics is Asia’s largest manufacturer of engineering resins.

With almost sixty years of experience supplying many of the world’s leading automotive and electronics companies, Polyplastics has become the world’s top producer of POM, and a leading supplier of PBT, PPS and COC..

Regenerated Cellulose Roped Into Long-Fiber Thermoplastic

Japan’s Polyplastics Group has introduced a grade of Plastron LFT long-fiber thermoplastic resin reinforced with specially formulated regenerated cellulose fibers.

Cellulose is a promising material to help reduce CO2 emissions but its insufficient strength is a limiting factor.

Polyplastics has addressed this problem by using regenerated cellulose in the development of LFT resins with a balance of physical properties.

Regenerated cellulose is natural cellulose spun into continuous fibers through wet spinning.

Since cellulose is highly insoluble in solvents, a large portion of regenerated cellulose fibers are manufactured through time-consuming, cumbersome process steps.

To this end, Polyplastics has developed a simpler solvent process for regenerated long-fiber cellulose materials that emits very little CO2.

Further, while long-fiber cellulose-reinforced PP resin has a flexural modulus roughly 3% higher than that of 30% long-glass-fiber-reinforced PP resin, it exhibits higher values for Charpy impact strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength, thus indicating potential for upgraded performance.

Polyplastics Unveils New PLASTRON LFT Made Of Regenerated Cellulose For Lighter Weight And Higher Strength

PRNewswire/ – The Polyplastics Group has announced the introduction of PLASTRON LFT which are made of specially formulated regenerated cellulose fibers.

The eco-friendly PLASTRON LFT provides weight reduction plus mechanical strength, enabling manufacturers to reduce their carbon footprint and meet today’s sustainability needs.

Polyplastics has addressed this problem by using regenerated cellulose in the development of LFT resins with an excellent balance of physical properties.

Regenerated cellulose is natural cellulose spun into continuous fibers through wet spinning.

Since cellulose is highly insoluble in solvents, a large portion of regenerated cellulose fibers is manufactured through long and cumbersome processes.

Polyplastics has developed regenerated long-fiber cellulose materials via a solvent method – a simple manufacturing process that emits very little CO2.

While long-fiber cellulose-reinforced PP resin has a flexural modulus roughly 3% higher than that of 30% glass-reinforced PP resin, it exhibits higher values for Charpy impact strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength, thus indicating potential for upgraded strength.

Polyplastic Manufacturer

The different manufacturers of double-glazed acrylic windows are in most cases associated with a couple of different caravan and camper brands.

Are you the owner of a caravan or camper of one of the brands above? Then you probably need a Polyplastic window, when you have to replace a window in your vehicle.

Willemsen Caravan & Camper Parts B.V. has in most cases the correct windows you need in stock.

Acrylic glazing solutions for your caravan or camper Polyplastic has a great experience in the development and treatment of acrylic for double-glazed windows.

The Polyplastic windows are chemical resistant and stronger than glass.

Order your Polyplastic windows at Willemsen Caravan Windows Do you want to go on holiday soon, but just now one of your windows has broken down? We are ready to help you as quickly as possible with any kind of windows for any kind of leisure vehicle.

Willemsen Caravan & Camper Parts B.V. can provide you with windows of Plastoform, Dometic and Para Press.

Post Idea #9: Pure Storage

Related Articles – Summarized

Definition From WhatIs.Com

Pure Storage is a provider of enterprise data flash storage solutions designed to substitute for electromechanical disk arrays.

Pure Storage is considered to be a key player in the solid-state storage array market and aims to provide a seamless transition from alternate storage methods.

Pure Storage products have been designed to provide companies with “Flash for the price of disk” by using comparable features and pricing.

Incorporated into their end-to-end product suite, Pure Data-Centric Architecture, Pure Storage solutions can help with consolidating applications, simplifying integration, providing real-time data streams, and increasing productivity.

Uses for the Pure Storage suite of products include consolidating data silos, creating a unified platform for sharing analytics, accelerating the continuous integration/continuous delivery pipeline and enabling the automation of multi-cloud environments.

Key products Flasharray is the solution from Pure Storage created to compete with traditional rotating disk arrays.

Pure1 is a cloud-based management platform that gives storage administrators the ability to monitor and manage their Pure Storage arrays remotely through a web browser.

Pure Storage

Initially, Pure Storage developed the software for storage controllers and used generic flash storage hardware.

Pure Storage finished developing its own proprietary flash storage hardware in 2015.

Pure Storage counter-sued, alleging that EMC illegally obtained a Pure Storage appliance for reverse engineering purposes.

In August 2018, Pure Storage made its first acquisition with the purchase of a data deduplication software company called StorReduce, for $25 million.

In September 2020, Pure Storage acquired Portworx, a provider of cloud-native storage and data-management platform based on Kubernetes, for $370 million.

Pure Storage develops flash-based storage for data centers using consumer-grade solid state drives.

In 2015, Pure Storage introduced a flash memory appliance built on Pure Storage’s own proprietary hardware.

Post Idea #10: Array data structure

Related Articles – Summarized

Practice Problems on ArraysRecent articles on Arrays.

An array is a collection of items stored at contiguous memory locations.

The idea is to store multiple items of the same type together.

This makes it easier to calculate the position of each element by simply adding an offset to a base value, i.e., the memory location of the first element of the array.

The above image can be looked as a top-level view of a staircase where you are at the base of the staircase.

Each element can be uniquely identified by their index in the array.

Data Structures And Algorithms

Most of the data structures make use of arrays to implement their algorithms.

Insert operation is to insert one or more data elements into an array.

Here, we see a practical implementation of insertion operation, where we add data at the end of the array .

Deletion refers to removing an existing element from the array and re-organizing all elements of an array.

Consider LA is a linear array with N elements and K is a positive integer such that K<=N. Following is the algorithm to delete an element available at the Kth position of LA. 1.

Consider LA is a linear array with N elements and K is a positive integer such that K<=N. Following is the algorithm to find an element with a value of ITEM using sequential search.

Consider LA is a linear array with N elements and K is a positive integer such that K<=N. Following is the algorithm to update an element available at the Kth position of LA. 1.

Array Data Structures

Is a data structure defined with keyword DIM. An array data structure is like a multiple-occurrence data structure, except that the index is explicitly specified, as with arrays.

Is an array data structure with one subfield identified as the search or sort key.

The array data structure is indexed by and followed by the specification of the key subfield.

An array data structure can be sorted using the SORTA operation code.

You can find the element of an array data structure with the maximum or minimum value for one of the subfields by using the %MAXARR or %MINARR built-in functions.

If the ORDERS data structure array has subfields ID and PRICE, you could sort the data structure using the ID subfield as a key, and then you could sort the data structure using the PRICE subfield as a key.

Consider array data structure FAMILIES with scalar subfields NAME and NUM CHILDREN, and an array subfield CHILDREN. DCL-DS families QUALIFIED DIM(10); name VARCHAR(25); num children INT(10); DCL-DS children DIM(5); name VARCHAR(25); age INT(10); END-DS; END-DS; To use the FAMILIES data structure as an array data structure keyed by NAME, specify FAMILIES(*).

Arrays In Data Structure

You have seen so far that data structure uses some algorithms and need storage for storing values.

For storing these values, programmers must need to have the fundamental data type’s names such as char, int, float & double.

As you know, these particular data types are beneficial for declaring variables, constants or a return type for a function; they are in control by the fact that, these types can store only a specific form of value at a time.

For processing such a large amount of data, programmers need powerful data types that would facilitate efficient storage, accessing and dealing with such data items.

The array is a fixed-size sequenced collection of variables belonging to the same data types.

So if the total run of each player is getting stored in separate variables, using arrays you can bring them all into one array having single name like: plrscore ;.

Arrays are particularly helpful for making a collection of input data which arrive in random order.

A Guide To Create Arrays In Data Structure

An array is a type of data structure used to store homogeneous data in contiguous memory locations.

Let’s imagine if P[L] is the name of the array where ‘P’ is the variable name, and ‘L’ is the length of the array, i.e. the number of elements present in the array.

Thus Array can be defined as a derived data structure to store homogeneous data of primitive datatype at contiguous memory locations.

Array indices start from 0 to N-1 in case of single dimension array where n represents the number of elements in an array.

Indexes of an array start from 0 till -1.0, which indicates the first element of the array and -1 indicates the last element of the array.

Arrays are a unique way to structure the stored data such that it can be easily accessed and can be queried to fetch the value at a particular number using the index value.

Here we discuss the basic concept of creating and accessing Array elements in Data Structure and properties.

Array In Data Structure: What Is, Arrays Operations [Examples]

An array is a data structure for storing more than one data item that has a similar data type.

In Python, arrays are different from lists; lists can have array items of data types, whereas arrays can only have items of the same data type.

The array module of Python has separate functions for performing array operations.

200 Array Operations in C++. Unlike Python, in C++ you have to program the logic yourself for performing the insert, delete, search update and traverse operations on C++ arrays.

Enter the size of the array 5 Enter Elements in the array 1 2 3 4 5 Elements in the array 1 2 3 4 5 Modify Element in Array:-.

Array Elements are:- 1 2 3 4 5 Summary: An array is a data structure for storing multiple data items that have a similar data type.

Identifier, data type, array length, elements, and index are the major parts of an array.


The array marks defines the marks of the student in 10 different subjects where each subject marks are located at a particular subscript in the array i.e. marks denotes the marks in first subject, marks denotes the marks in 2nd subject and so on.

Elements of the array are stored at contiguous memory locations where the first element is stored at the smallest memory location.

Elements of the array can be randomly accessed since we can calculate the address of each element of the array with the given base address and the size of data element.

In order to illustrate the importance of array, we have created two programs, one is without using array and other involves the use of array to store marks.

Advantages of Array Array provides the single name for the group of variables of the same type therefore, it is easy to remember the name of all the elements of an array.

Traversing an array is a very simple process, we just need to increment the base address of the array in order to visit each element one by one.

As we have mentioned earlier that, the name of the array represents the starting address or the address of the first element of the array.

Post Idea #11: Computer data storage

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Data Storage?

Instead of manually entering data into a computer, users can instruct the computer to pull data from storage devices.

Today, organizations and users require data storage to meet today’s high-level computational needs like big data projects, artificial intelligence, machine learning and the internet of things.

The other side of requiring huge data storage amounts is protecting against data loss due to disaster, failure or fraud.

To avoid data loss, organizations can also employ data storage as backup solutions.

How data storage worksIn simple terms, modern computers, or terminals, connect to storage devices either directly or through a network.

Users instruct computers to access data from and store data to these storage devices.

At a fundamental level, there are two foundations to data storage: the form in which data takes and the devices data is recorded and stored on.

What Is A Computer Data Storage Device?

The first classification of computer data storage is between volatile and non-volatile storage.

Non-volatile storage is storage that maintains the data even when there is no electricity powering the device.

Computer data storage devices are also classified by their distance from the processor, or CPU. The closest storage is memory, or RAM. This is the only kind of data storage that directly accesses the CPU. Memory includes processor registers and the processor cache, but these are included on the memory module.

Because data flows from memory to a storage device, it’s considered secondary storage.

For most personal computers, secondary storage is the main data storage device.

Tertiary storage is computer data storage that uses removable media, such as a tape drive, and it uses a robot to retrieve the data.

Because personal computers rarely use tertiary storage, the storage drive is the main, and frequently, only non-volatile data storage device on the computer.

Computer Data Storage

Computer data storage is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

As the RAM types used for primary storage are volatile, a computer containing only such storage would not have a source to read instructions from, in order to start the computer.

Recently, primary storage and secondary storage in some uses refer to what was historically called, respectively, secondary storage and tertiary storage.

Secondary storage differs from primary storage in that it is not directly accessible by the CPU. The computer usually uses its input/output channels to access secondary storage and transfer the desired data to primary storage.

Modern computer systems typically have two orders of magnitude more secondary storage than primary storage because secondary storage is less expensive.

Typically, it involves a robotic mechanism which will mount and dismount removable mass storage media into a storage device according to the system’s demands; such data are often copied to secondary storage before use.

Off-line storage is a computer data storage on a medium or a device that is not under the control of a processing unit.

What Units Of Measurement Are Used For Data Storage?

The smallest unit of measurement used for measuring data is a bit.

A byte, or eight bits, is used as the fundamental unit of measurement for data.

Since most files contain thousands of bytes, file sizes are often measured in kilobytes.

Larger files, such as images, videos, and audio files, contain millions of bytes and therefore are measured in megabytes.

Modern storage devices can store thousands of these files, which is why storage capacity is typically measured in gigabytes or even terabytes.

Larger units of measurement are usually reserved for measuring the sum of multiple storage devices or the capacity of large data storage networks.

Below is a list of all the standard units of measurement used for data storage, from the smallest to the largest.

Post Idea #12: Competition law

Related Articles – Summarized

Competition Law

Competition law is the field of law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

The two largest and most influential systems of competition regulation are United States antitrust law and European Union competition law.

Modern competition law has historically evolved on a national level to promote and maintain fair competition in markets principally within the territorial boundaries of nation-states.

With the Great Depression of 1929 competition law disappeared from Europe and was revived following the Second World War when the United Kingdom and Germany, following pressure from the United States, became the first European countries to adopt fully fledged competition laws.

The Treaty of Rome established the enactment of competition law as one of the main aims of the EEC through the “Institution of a system ensuring that competition in the common market is not distorted”.

The history of competition law in India dates back to the 1960s when the first competition law, namely the Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act was enacted in 1969.

81 of the 111 countries had adopted their competition laws in the past 20 years, signaling the spread of competition law following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the expansion of the European Union.

Competition Law

The EU rules will cease to have effect within the UK from 1 January 2021 but UK businesses with cross-border activities within the EU will still be subject to EU competition law in respect of those activities, as well as domestic competition law in the EU member states.

Both UK and EU competition law prohibit agreements, arrangements and concerted business practices which appreciably prevent, restrict or distort competition, or where this is the intended result, and which affect or may affect trade within the UK or the EU respectively.

Anti-competitive restrictions in agreements may be automatically void and unenforceable, and may lead to the entire agreement being unenforceable;.

An agreement which would otherwise be caught by Chapter 1 or Article 101 may be assumed to be harmless where the parties to it are not actual or potential competitors, or they have market shares sufficiently low that there can be no real effect on competition or trade within the UK or between EU member states.

Agreements which are deemed to restrict by object, in particular, cartel behaviour, will almost always be found to infringe the competition rules regardless of market shares.

There are block exemptions available for vertical agreements, technology transfer agreements and research and development agreements.

An agreement may also be individually exempted on the grounds that the restrictions of competition are outweighed by its beneficial effects.

Competition Law Legal Definition Of Competition Law

The turning point came in 1711 with the establishment of the basic standard for judging close cases, “The rule of reason.” Courts asked whether the goal of a contract was a general restraint of competition or particularly limited in time and geography.

Historians would later dispute what its precise aims had been, but clearly the lawmakers intended for the courts to play the leading role in promoting competition and attacking monopolization: Judges would make decisions as cases arose, slowly developing a body of opinions that would replace the confusing precedents of state courts.

The Court only began strongly supporting the use of the law in the late 1890s, starting with cases against railroad cartels.

Wrote for the court, “Many people believe that possession of unchallenged economic power deadens initiative, discourages thrift and depresses energy; that Immunity from competition is a narcotic, and rivalry is a stimulant, to industrial progress; that the spur of constant stress is necessary to counteract an inevitable disposition to let well enough alone.” The standard that emerged from this decision applied a two-part test for determining illegal monopolization: The defendant must possess monopoly power in a relevant market; and must have improperly used exclusionary acts to gain or protect that power.

U.S. Supreme Court decisions had also undermined the law by allowing businesses to transfer stock purchases into assets before the government filed a complaint.

Once again proving that antitrust law never remains static, the late 1980s and early 1990s brought more changes in enforcement, economic analysis, and court doctrine.

The Court rejected the idea that this was enough to create a legal rule that equipment competition precluded any finding of monopoly power in the parts and services industry.

INTRODUCTION TO COMPETITION LAW H k k j r h ; i zf r L i / k k Zv k ; k sx Fair Competition For Greater Good Competition Commission of India Preface The Competition Commission of India has been established under the Competition Act, 20021 to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition, to promote and sustain competition in Indian markets, to protect the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in markets, in India, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

As a measure to promote competition advocacy, that is, to disseminate the message of competition law, promote competition culture and competition compliance, the Commission has proposed to maintain a panel of “Competition Resource Persons”, to organise competition advocacy programmes for groups of stakeholders to supplement its own efforts on competition advocacy.

The purpose of the Competition Act, as stated in its preamble is: “An Act to provide, keeping in view of the economic development of the country, for the establishment of a Commission to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition, to promote and sustain competition in markets, to protect the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in markets, in India, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.” The new system emphasizes the role of market and supplemented by regulation, aims to create a favourable business environment in the country.

The Competition Act, 2002 The Competition Act, 2002, as amended by the Competition Act, 2007, follows the philosophy of modern competition laws.

Objectives of the Competition Act The objective of the Act is to prevent practices having adverse effect on competition, to promote and sustain competition in markets, to protect the interests of consumers and to ensure freedom of trade carried on by other participants in markets, in India, and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.

d. Practice:17 includes any practice relating to the carrying on of any trade by a person or an enterprise Substantive Provisions of the Act The Act focuses on the following four areas: Anti-competitive Agreement Abuse of Dominance Regulation of Combinations Competition Advocacy and Reference Anti-competitive agreements and abuse of dominance are considered as potential impediments to free and fair competition in the markets and penalty is imposed wherever the Commission concludes that the enterprise has/ had indulged in anticompetitive practices resulting in appreciable adverse effect on competition.

Section 49 of the Indian Competition Act enjoins the Commission to take suitable measures to for the promotion of competition culture and impart training for competition awareness.

What Is Competition Law? A Guide I The Lawyer Portal

Competition law in the United Kingdom includes both domestic and EU legislation which is intended to prevent anti-competitive behaviour in the market.

The Fair Trading Act 1973 is the piece of UK legislation that extended UK competition law to control monopolies, mergers and takeovers, restrictive trade agreements and resale prices.

Competition law often makes up part of a European Union law module which is compulsory during your degree or more specifically, competition law can be taught itself as an optional module in your final year studies.

Competition Law is known as antitrust law in the US. In the US, antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulate the conduct to promote competition for the benefit of consumers.

One of the main differences between US antitrust and UK and EU competition law policies is that the EU has an administrative system for enforcement which penalises companies via fines.

What Does a Competition Lawyer Do? A competition lawyer can carry out many different roles in their career.

If you have particularly enjoyed European Union law or competition law at university or even if you are not a law student but have an interest in economics and politics, then a career in competition law might be right up your street.

Notes, Case Laws And Study Material

Competition Law is a law that promotes or seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies.

It helps us get a better view and perspective on the country’s economy.

Any business, regardless of its legal status, size, and sector, needs to be aware of competition law.

Legal Bites has compiled the best online study material on Competition Law.

The 4 modules of this course familiarize readers with the Competition Act, 2002 and a variety of other topics such as predatory pricing and Anti-Competitive Agreements.

With our well-researched and in-depth articles, you can get a better understanding of the law as well as the rules and regulations that drive our country’s economic development.

Appreciable Adverse Effect of the Competition in the Market.

Competition Law Definition And Meaning

In a statement, it said it was ‘naturally disappointed’ with the result and insists that it did not breach competition law.

You can’t make discounts compulsory as this could breach competition law.

So we need to change the system with much tougher competition law to make it easier for new firms to challenge the insiders.

I’ve heard a federated group of general practices have been stopped from coming together because of the threat of competition law.

Solicitors are also concerned that the rules could be a breach of competition law.

Show more…. Browse alphabetically.

Post Idea #13: Competition and Markets Authority

Related Articles – Summarized

Competition And Markets Authority

The Competition and Markets Authority is the competition regulator in United Kingdom.

The CMA launched in shadow form on 1 October 2013 and began operating fully on 1 April 2014, when it assumed many of the functions of the previously existing Competition Commission and Office of Fair Trading, which were abolished.

On 15 March 2012 the UK Government’s Department for Business, Innovation and Skills announced proposals for strengthening competition in the UK by merging the Office of Fair Trading and the Competition Commission to create a new single Competition and Markets Authority.

On 26 July 2017, Andrea Coscelli was appointed chief executive officer of the Competition and Markets Authority.

Extending competition frontiers – by using the markets regime to improve the way competition works, in particular within the regulated sectors.

Developing integrated performance – through ensuring that all staff are brought together from different professional backgrounds to form effective multi-disciplinary teams and provide a trusted competition adviser across government.

The UK Competition Commission ruled several times against MyFerryLink, an English passenger and ferry freight company, preventing its operations from Dover despite the French competition authority authorising cross-channel activity.

What Is The Competition And Markets Authority?

The Competitions and Markets Authority is an independent department of the UK government.

Its primary focus is to ensure that competition and markets work in favour of consumers.

The CMA’s goals include enforcement, consumer protection and ensuring that all UK business is conducted fairly and legally to the highest standards.

The CMA was brought about through the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act of 2013 and aims to prevent large companies from exploiting consumers with tactics such as inflated pricing.

The UK Competition Network forum acts as an intermediary between the CMA and all the UK sector regulators with competition law powers.

The main goal of the UKCN forum is to encourage stronger competition across the economy for the benefit of consumers and to prevent anti-competitive behaviours in regulated industries.

Competition And Markets Authority Definition

Sanctions Authority means the Norwegian State, the United Nations, the European Union, the member states of the European Union, the United States of America and any authority acting on behalf of any of them in connection with Sanctions Laws;.

Public authority means any housing authority or any officer who is in charge of any department or branch of the government of the city or state relating to health, fire, building regulations, or other activities concerning structures in the city.

Insurance Regulatory Authority means, with respect to any Insurance Subsidiary, the insurance department or similar Governmental Authority charged with regulating insurance companies or insurance holding companies, in its jurisdiction of domicile and, to the extent that it has regulatory authority over such Insurance Subsidiary, in each other jurisdiction in which such Insurance Subsidiary conducts business or is licensed to conduct business.

Applicable Insurance Regulatory Authority means, when used with respect to any Regulated Insurance Company, the insurance department or similar administrative authority or agency located in each state in which such Regulated Insurance Company is domiciled or to the extent asserting regulatory jurisdiction over such Regulated Insurance Company, the insurance department, authority or agency in each state in which such Regulated Insurance Company is licensed, and shall include any Federal insurance regulatory department, authority or agency that may be created and that asserts regulatory jurisdiction over such Regulated Insurance Company.

Standards Authority means NERC, and the NERC regional entities with governance over PJM and NYISO, any successor thereof, or any other agency with authority over the Parties regarding standards or criteria to either Party relating to the reliability of Transmission Systems.

Securities Authority means the Ontario Securities Commission and any other applicable securities commissions or securities regulatory authority of a province or territory of Canada.

Financial Conduct Authority means the registering authority for societies registered under the Co-operative and Community Benefit Societies Act 2014 and the Credit Unions Act 1979 set up in terms of the Financial Services Act 2012 or its successor body.

Competition & Markets Authority

The organisation supports flexible working and is advanced in terms of its embrace of IT. There is a long hours culture.

It seeks to be respectful to its workers, friendly, diverse and treat people equally but cannot guarantee it.

Typical day at work was busy yet extremely quiet and dull.

Workloads are unreasonably high, you are expected to work overtime to do all of your work, otherwise getting very negative reviews from management during 121’s. I would not recommend to work for this company, to be honest I would rather suggest to run from it.

Questions and answersPeople have asked 4 questions about working at Competition & Markets Authority.

See the answers, explore popular topics and discover unique insights from Competition & Markets Authority employees.

Interview insightsInsights from 7 Indeed users who have interviewed with Competition & Markets Authority within the last 5 years.

Post Idea #14: Spectrum analyzer

Related Articles – Summarized

Spectrum Analyzers

The electronic instrument, used for analyzing waves in frequency domain is called spectrum analyzer.

We can classify the spectrum analyzers into the following two types.

Now, let us discuss about these two spectrum analyzers one by one.

The spectrum analyzer, used for analyzing the signals are of AF range is called filter bank spectrum analyzer, or real time spectrum analyzer because it shows any variations in all input frequencies.

The working of filter bank spectrum analyzer is mentioned below.

The spectrum analyzer, used for analyzing the signals are of RF range is called superheterodyne spectrum analyzer.

We can choose a particular spectrum analyzer based on the frequency range of the signal that is to be analyzed.

Spectrum Analyzers

Managing interference in an increasingly wireless world requires a magic touch with spectrum efficiency.

Spectral constraints translate to cumbersome testing.

Cut through the complexity with powerful hardware and software that help you overcome interference challenges.

Learn how to maximize spectrum efficiency and overcome today’s challenges.

Get more functionality out of your existing hardware today by complementing it with the right accessories to improve productivity and the right Keysight PathWave design and test automation software to accelerate your product development.

FEATURED RESOURCES. Want help or have questions?

Spectrum Analyzer

To the casual observer, a spectrum analyzer looks like an oscilloscope and some lab instruments can function either as an oscilloscope or a spectrum analyzer.

Today, there are three basic types of analyzer: the swept-tuned spectrum analyzer, the vector signal analyzer, and the real-time spectrum analyzer.

Spectrum analyzer types are distinguished by the methods used to obtain the spectrum of a signal.

In a sense, any spectrum analyzer that has vector signal analyzer capability is a realtime analyzer.

A normal swept spectrum analyzer would produce max peak, min peak displays for example but a realtime spectrum analyzer is able to plot all calculated FFT’s over a given period of time with the added colour-coding which represents how often a signal appears.

This image shows the difference between how a spectrum is displayed in a normal swept spectrum view and using a “Persistence” view on a realtime spectrum analyzer.

To increase the sensitivity of the spectrum analyzer a preamplifier with lower noise figure may be connected at the input of the spectrum analyzer.

Free, Interactive, Education.

The spectrum analyzer above gives us a graph of all the frequencies that are present in a sound recording at a given time.

The darker areas are those where the frequencies have very low intensities, and the orange and yellow areas represent frequencies that have high intensities in the sound.

You can toggle between a linear or logarithmic frequency scale by ticking or unticking the logarithmic frequency checkbox.

In many ways, this demo is similar to the Virtual Oscilloscope demo, but there is a crucial and very important difference.

In the oscilloscope demo, the plot shows the displacement of an audio signal versus the time, which is called the time-domain signal.

The frequency spectrum is generated by applying a Fourier transform to the time-domain signal.

The demo above allows you to select a number of preset audio files, such as whale/dolphin clicks, police sirens, bird songs, whistling, musical instruments and even an old 56k dial-up modem.

A Blog About Radio & Wireless Technology

A Spectrum Analyzer is an instrument that allows you to measure, analyze and visualize RF signals.

Applications for spectrum analyzers include manufacturing, education and amateur radio among other things.

As a bonus when connected to a Windows, Linux or Mac computer the analyzer can display advanced high resolution graphics, including Power Meter and Spectrum Analyzer real time charts, historical charts.

Spectrum Analyzers are invaluable tools for anyone working with Radio Frequency signals.

What is the difference between a Spectrum Analyzer and a Signal Analyzer?

Different form factors – from the TinySA to the larger benchtop spectrum analyzers like the Siglent SSA3021X-TG. As well, prices for spectrum analyzers are decreasing rapidly.

Spectrum Analyzers are invaluable tools for working with Radio Frequency Technology.

What Is Spectrum Analyzer? Block Diagram, Working And Applications Of Spectrum Analyzer

Definition: An instrument that is used for the analysis of the frequency spectrum of the input signal is known as a spectrum analyzer.

A spectrum analyzer is considered as a device that is used for the analysis of the amplitude of the signal with respect to frequency.

The crucial difference between the oscilloscope and spectrum analyzer is that an oscilloscope corresponds to the time-domain representation of the input signal.

While the spectrum analyzer is used to show the frequency domain representation of the RF signals.

RF Input Attenuator: This block serves as the first unit of the spectrum analyzer and is basically used to provide an optimum level signal as the input to the system.

Detector: Basically analyzer uses a detector so that the IF signal from the IF filter gets converted into baseband or video signal.

We have already discussed that the spectrum analyzer displays the signal and noise component on the screen.

Edu/4514l/manual/app b.pdf 1 Introduction This document contains some general information about spectrum analyzers, and some specific information about the spectrum analyzers you have available in the lab, namely: Tektronix 2712 HP 8590 and the HP 8592 Remember that the spectrum analyzers User’s Guides are also located in the lab.

2 Signal Acquisition in a Spectrum Analyzer Most spectrum analyzers are heterodyne1 spectrum analyzers.

A better solution is suggested by a simple property of Fourier transforms: recall that if we multiply a signal by a sinusoid, the spectrum of the signal is shifted in frequency by an amount equal to the frequency of the sinusoid.

1 Heterodyne is derived from a Greek word meaning mixing different frequencies That is, Fourier 1 1 x(t ) cos(2πf 0 t ) Transform X + X 2 2 Now instead of a bank of narrow filters, we shall have one narrow filter centered at a fixed frequency, say fI, and we shall scan the signal spectrum across this filter by multiplying x(t) by a sinusoid of varying frequency f0.

In an ordinary AM or FM radio, when you tune the receiver you are selecting this frequency so that the desired signal will pass through the filter; in a spectrum analyzer, this frequency is automatically scanned over a range, which must be selected so that the frequency component X(f) is shifted to fI and passed by the filter.

If we want to view the frequency content of x(t) from f1 to f2 , then we must select f0 to scan from f1 + fI to f2 + fI. x(t) Multiplier X Fixed Bandpass Filter ~ cos(2pi f0 t) Figure 1: Frequency Mixing, or Heterodyning Of course, much more signal conditioning is going on inside the spectrum analyzer than is indicated in Figure 1; but the frequency mixing is the fundamental step.

Most scanning spectrum analyzers are multiple conversion analyzers – they have multiple intermediate frequency stages, at successively lower frequencies.

Post Idea #15: Vancouver International Airport

Related Articles – Summarized

Vancouver International Airport

Vancouver International Airport is a Transport Canada designated international airport located on Sea Island in Richmond, British Columbia.

Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island, and is managed by Vancouver Airport Authority, a not-for-profit organization.

In 2019, Craig Richmond, President and CEO of the Vancouver Airport Authority, said that the recent growth of Seattle-Tacoma International Airport in the United States could challenge Vancouver’s status as a trans-Pacific hub.

Vancouver Airport has its own TTY telephone number for incoming inquiries about airport operations and within the terminal there are also 23 public telephone equipped with TTY at both stand up and seated positions.

Being the only major airport in Western Canada with the ability to receive large-body planes, Vancouver International Airport accommodated 34 of these flights amounting to a total of 8,500 passengers.

Vancouver International Airport Emergency Services Team is the primary fire services at the airport.

On March 13, 2016, A Boeing 777 aircraft operating Emirates Flight 229 from Dubai International Airport to Seattle-Tacoma International Airport missed the approach at Seattle due to strong winds.

Vancouver Airport Map

Terminal Layout; US Arrivals/ Departures; Getting Around, and Terminal Details: The passenger terminal complex at Vancouver Airport includes 3 passenger terminals: International & Domestic Terminals and the South Terminal used for small carriers & accessible via shuttles.

Domestic & International terminals are connected on level 2 at their unsecured areas, housing: Fairmont Hotel, US check-in; US & International Arrivals, International check-in, & walkway to Canada Line, and Canada check-in.

From Vancouver to Domestic /International terminals: take the Canada Line, an elevated people mover, to the ‘Canada Line Station’, located across from the parking garage, with walkways to US & International and Domestic departures on Level 2.- From Vancouver to the float plane facility or South Terminal: take the Canada Line from Vancouver to the Bridgeport Station & transfer to the C-92 bus which stops in front of both facilities.

Passenger Pickup: After International /U.S. arrivals procedures, passenger will enter the International Reception Lounge – there, follow exit sign & proceed through the glass door to International Arrivals area on level 2, where your party will await you.

Level 1 is the Airport Service Plaza, Level 2 is the Arrivals level and houses baggage carousels 1-6, Level 3 is the departure level – divided ino International check-in in the center, USA check-in at east end and Canada check-in at west end.

Level 3, the Departure level, is divided between Domestic departures, US Departures & all other international departures: International check-in area leads to security check and to international gates.

Foot shopping center with worldwide brand names opened in July 2015.The South Terminal, and the public Seaplane Facility on Fraser River, are located on Airport South.

Vancouver International Airport

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Terminal Procedures are only available for airports in several countries with more being added all the time.

If you are looking for a specific country’s charts, please send an email to support(at)airportguide.com stating the country name.

Navigation Aids near YVR Navigational Aid distances from the airport are listed in Nautical Miles.

Cheap Flights To Vancouver Airport From $56 In 2022

Cons: “For an hour long flight, it seemed like enough time to serve more than just 4 choices; 1 beer, 1 wine, juice or water. I’ve been on flights that were 45 minutes and served an entire meal. Of course, what they do is still great and I am very grateful.”

Cons: “The flight was delayed 6hrs 30 mins and changed departure gate twice. At no point was there a gate change announcement overhead (there were gate change announcements made for flights to Bermuda, Boston and San Francisco). During the boarding process many people stood and went in before their group was called, one agent noticed it and told the agent checking the boarding passes”all of these people are group A?” To which the other agent replied: “no, but I can’t do anything about it”.

Cons: “Seats are too cramp, but all airlines seem to be like this now. Food options were very limited on our flights which were a letdown. Only snacks available for 5-6 hour flights, no meals like advertised in the pamphlets.”

Cons: “5+ hours and just some bagged snacks. Had to wait forever for soda. Screen was difficult to work – touch wasn’t working. Much smaller program selection than flights 6 days ago from RSW to LAX via ATL.”.

Cons: “Charging customers for meals on a transatlantic flight is a terrible way to nickel and dime your customers for the most basic provisions. Not all travellers carry accepted credit cards, including the woman sitting beside me. Because it is so common for airlines to provide food on longer flights, many travellers assume their WestJet flight will the same and arrive unprepared. I normally love WestJet for their customer service, but these flight attendants talked down to customers with legitimate questions. I am choosing another airline for my next international flight, although reluctantly so – I hope to see some changes from WestJet for a more comfortable flight.”

Pros: “First flight got cancelled. Mind you it was a 830am flight so I left to the airport at 5am. The moved me to 10am flight, then I get to the gate and get notified that I was put on the 1145 flight. The longest day for me in a long time for travel.”

Pros: “Direct flight from my hometown of Palm Springs Ca to Vancouver Canada”.

Complete Guide To Vancouver International Airport

The Vancouver International Airport is located on Sea Island in Richmond, about 12 km from downtown Vancouver and about 30 minutes south from the city center.

Here’s a complete guide to everything you need to know about the airport.

Getting to or from the Vancouver International Airport from downtown Vancouver is about a 20-minute car ride and not much more by public transport thanks to the Canada Line, a monorail-type train that is part of Vancouver’s efficient and reasonably priced public transportation system.

Public transit: The Canada Line has made getting to and from the Vancouver International Airport by public transportation easy and affordable.

This rapid rail service connects Metro Vancouver’s busiest north-south corridor, linking downtown to Richmond and Vancouver International Airport.

Taxis: Taxis servicing the Vancouver International Airport follow a set-rate fare zone system for reliable pricing.

Taxi fares to the airport are based on the meter and from downtown Vancouver, including from the cruise ship terminal, are about $35. Courtesy shuttle: The Vancouver International Airport offers complimentary transit between the airport and many local hotels.

Post Idea #16: Encryption software

Related Articles – Summarized

The Best Encryption Software For 2022

If your needs involve sharing secrets with others, you may want to consider using an email encryption tool instead of, or in addition to, a local encryption utility.

Whole-disk encryption is an effective line of defense for a single device, but it doesn’t help when you need to share encrypted data.

Of course, the VPN’s encryption doesn’t just magically rub off on files you share.

Encrypted data in the cloud has a much bigger attack surface than encrypted data on your own PC. Which is better? It really depends on how you plan to use encryption.

Some encryption products avoid this problem by encrypting the file in place, literally overwriting it on disk with an encrypted version.

The U.S. government has settled on Advanced Encryption Standard as a standard, and all the products gathered here support AES. Even those that support other algorithms tend to recommend using AES. If you’re an encryption expert, you may prefer another algorithm, Blowfish, perhaps, or the Soviet government’s GOST. For the average user AES is just fine.

If you want to share a file with someone and your encryption tool doesn’t support PKI, there are other options for sharing.

Best Encryption Software Of 2022: Free, Paid And Business Tools And Services

Encryption software has become increasingly important when it comes to protecting your files and folders.

Microsoft OneDrive may not be the first option that comes to people’s minds when they think of encryption software, but what a lot of people don’t realize is that it comes with its own secure and encrypted file storage area in the form of the Personal Vault.

There are also cloud storage capabilities thrown into the mix – the software will automatically protect files saved on services such as Google Drive and Dropbox.

Secure IT 2000 from Cypherix is a file encryption program that also compresses your files.

Concealer is a file encryption program specifically for Apple Mac computers.

Rather than encrypt all files on your harddrive, instead it provides an encrypted area for you to drag files into – which means you need to ensure you delete the original copy so as to avoid having both encrypted and non-encrypted versions on your harddrive.

Renee File Protector is another piece of file encryption software for Windows, but this one allows you to have different passwords for different files or folders, effectively creating multiple security levels.

14 Reliable Tools For 2022

From select files to your entire system, and some of its features are groundbreaking.

Just remember to delete the originals if you are copying them from elsewhere on your system.

Secondly, you can conceal an entire existing drive, partition, or storage device, protecting all the files already within it, including the operating system.

Thirdly, and quite a unique approach, is to encrypt your system at the operating system level.

You might be wondering, with all these options, especially involving operating systems and partitions, what happens if something goes wrong and you can’t access your files? VeraCrypt encourages all users to create a rescue disk before they begin the process.

Another unique feature allows you to create a hidden volume and operating system within an existing encrypted volume.

There’s no cloud storage integration and no in-built method of sharing encrypted files.

18 Best Encryption Software For 2022

IBM Security Guardium Data Encryption performs encryption and decryption operations with a minimal performance impact.

NordLocker is a relatively new encryption tool but it was developed by a cybersecurity heavyweight, NordVPN. It provides 256-bit AES encryption, which is enough to secure most data, but where it shines is the inclusion of 4096-bit encryption.

If you need an on-premises encryption solution, its location-based file encryption and application-based encryption make it a worthy option.

Endpoint encryption encompasses full disk encryption, cloud data encryption, policy enforcement integration, and encryption of messages from Apple iOS and Android.

Trend Micro Endpoint Encryption provides full disk encryption, folder and file encryption, and removable media encryption.

Encryption software scrambles readable data using algorithms in encryption keys and turns it into an encoded piece of information.

Here’s a quick view of the best encryption software products on the market.

8 Best Encryption Software For 2022

If you are serious about protecting your data, then you need to know about the best encryption software available today.

Let’s take a look at some of the best encryption software available today.

For Windows desktop software security, you won’t find better encryption software that CryptoExpert.

Boxcryptor is another one of the best encryption software available today.

What Boxcryptor does that other encryption software services don’t do is they provide cloud-focused encryption software for 30 of the most popular cloud services around.

Rounding out our list of the best encryption software available today is CryptoForge.

The best encryption software can help protect information stored, received, and sent.

The Most Popular Free Encryption Software Tools

Whether it’s personal or work-related, our data is always at risk of falling into the wrong hands, all the more reason to choose the best free encryption software.

So which are the encryption tools? We’ve put together this list of free encryption software to choose from.

We carefully curated and put together some of the best free encryption software tools you can use to keep your most valuable data safe and secure.

It’s a free data encryption software tool you can use to prevent data breaches and data exfiltration from your hard disk.

“However, as an encryption technology built into Microsoft, it’s been a target for researchers looking for flaws in popular tools used by people. That’s why a researcher was able to find a new and relatively simple way that Windows BitLocker encryption keys can be sniffed in less secure configurations as they travel from Trusted Platform Modules during boot.”

Looking to encrypt your data stored on devices featuring macOS and Mac hardware? FileVault 2 is a free encryption software tool we recommend checking out.

Similar to 7-Zip, AxCrypt is an open source file encryption tool offering both a free solution and a premium version for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS. It features AES-256 file encryption and can efficiently encrypt one file, an entire folder or a group of files with a simple right-click.

Best 12 Free File Encryption Software For Windows Or Mac

Especially for some large companies and high-ranking workers in the office, looking for a good and practical file encryption software for computer is not so easy because the file encryption software market is flooded with innumerable similar encryption products from which you can hardly determine which to use.

Don’t worry for we have sorted out the top 12 best file encryption software for you in this article, which can save your time and energy of finding out the most suitable file encryption software for Windows and Mac computer.

The following is a general introduction and review on these 12 free file encryption software.

Gihosoft File Encryption is one of the best file encryption software for PC. With which you can lock files and folder, create virtual disk to password protect files, make dummy files to confuse others, upload files to cloud.

AxCrypt is also an excellent free file encryption software for Windows 10/8/7 we strongly recommend for you.

Those listed above are the top 12 best file encryption software that we have carefully selected for you from a wide range of similar products.

We hope that you will consider them practical, and you can share these 12 best free file encryption software with your friends and family members who may be in need now.

Post Idea #17: Radon mitigation

Related Articles – Summarized

National Radon Program Services

A radon mitigation system is any system or steps designed to reduce radon concentrations in the indoor air of a building.

The EPA recommends that you take action to reduce your home’s indoor radon levels if your radon test result is 4 pCi/L or higher.

In these situations a combination of radon reduction techniques may be needed to reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L. There are several methods that a contractor can use to lower radon levels in your home.

Some techniques prevent radon from entering your home while others reduce radon levels after it has entered.

Sealing does two things, it limits the flow of radon into your home and it reduces the loss of conditioned air, thereby making other radon reduction techniques more effective and cost-efficient.

The EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently.

To find out more about federal and state programs, or about how community groups have developed local projects to fix radon problems, owners and residents can contact your state radon office.

Radon Mitigation – Radon.Com

If you have performed only a single test, the US EPA recommends a follow-up test before fixing your home.

Radon levels fluctuate naturally and it is important to know if the initial test was an accurate assessment of your home’s average radon level or whether the high levels could have been caused by unusual weather.

If your first test has a result between 4 and 8 pCi/L, you have the choice of testing again.

If the results of your first test are higher than 8 pCi/L, then it is recommended that you test again using another short-term test device.

If you chose a long-term device for your second test, the EPA recommends fixing your home if the follow-up result is 4.0 pCi/L or higher.

If the results of your follow-up test with a short-term test are still 4.0 pCi/L or higher, you are urged to consider fixing your home.

If your follow-up test results are below the 4.0 pCi/L EPA action level, you should test again sometime in the future because your initial test has shown that your house has the potential to produce high radon levels at times.

How Do You Mitigate Radon Gas?

If you’ve tested your home for radon and found high levels of radon gas in your house, you probably have questions.

Is radon dangerous? What are radon mitigation systems? How much will installation cost? Can I fix radon levels myself or does it require a professional?

At Radon Abatement Services, we have 20 years of experience installing radon mitigation systems and lowering radon levels in homes, schools and other buildings.

Radon mitigation is a process to reduce or remove radon gas levels from a building.

Correctly installed radon mitigation systems remove the radon gas from under the foundation of a structure before it can come in.

While the exact type of radon mitigation system you’ll need may depend on the structure of your home, certain techniques are used for almost every type of radon mitigation procedure.

See our gallery of unobtrusive radon mitigation systems for examples of how we work to mitigate radon in a variety of spaces.


A radon mitigation system is any system or steps designed to reduce radon concentrations in the indoor air of a building.

In these situations a combination of radon reduction techniques may be needed to reduce radon levels to below 4 pCi/L. There are several methods that a contractor can use to lower radon levels in your home.

National Radon Proficiency Program – Find nationally certified radon measurement and mitigation professionals in your area.

National Radon Safety Board – Find nationally certified radon measurement and mitigation professionals in your area.

Below are a number of topics that the NC Radon Program recommends addressing with whomever you hire to conduct your mitigation.

Proof of current Certification for Radon Mitigation with either National Radon Proficiency Program or NRSB? Proof of liability insurance and having all necessary licenses to satisfy local requirements?

Will any more testing be needed after a radon mitigation system has been installed?

Radon Mitigation & Radon Testing WI & MN

The basic concept of radon mitigation is to reduce the levels of radon gas within a structure.

There are a few approaches to radon mitigation, but one approach far surpasses the others in terms of overall cost, effectiveness, and addressing the radon issue before it enters the structure in the first place.

Sub-slab depressurization is an extremely common way of installing a radon mitigation system.

Interestingly enough, because the fan is constantly running and radon fans remove a lot of moisture from beneath the slab, the radon mitigation system will dry out the sub-soil and create cracks and crevices in the sub-slab material that will drastically help in drawing the radon from areas further away from the collection point.

Radon mitigation systems in general, but particularly sub-slab depressurization systems, are many times used as moisture reduction systems because they help reduce moisture before it enters into the home as well.

Because radon gas always finds the path of least resistance, many times radon will fill the open voids of the drainage system because the soil around it is so tightly compact.

To hear more about the dangers of radon gas exposure, to test your home, or to ask more questions about what type of radon mitigation system is right for your home, contact our courteous and certified staff today.

Radon Mitigation

Radon mitigation is any process used to reduce radon gas concentrations in the breathing zones of occupied buildings, or radon from water supplies.

Radon in the air is considered to be a larger health threat than radon in domestic water so the US Environmental Protection Agency recommendation is to not test for radon in water unless a radon in air test is above the action level.

Because high levels of radon have been found in every state of the United States, testing for radon and installing radon mitigation systems has become a specialized industry since the 1980s.

According to the EPA’s “A Citizen’s Guide to Radon”, the method to reduce radon “Primarily used is a vent pipe system and fan, which pulls radon from beneath the house and vents it to the outside”, which is also called sub-slab depressurization, soil suction, or active soil depressurization.

“EPA generally recommends methods which prevent the entry of radon. Soil suction, for example, prevents radon from entering your home by drawing the radon from below the home and venting it through a pipe, or pipes, to the air above the home where it is quickly diluted” and “EPA does not recommend the use of sealing alone to reduce radon because, by itself, sealing has not been shown to lower radon levels significantly or consistently” according to the EPA’s “Consumer’s Guide to Radon Reduction: How to fix your home”.

For crawlspaces, the EPA states, “An effective method to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes involves covering the earth floor with a high-density plastic sheet. A vent pipe and fan are used to draw the radon from under the sheet and vent it to the outdoors. This form of soil suction is called submembrane suction, and when properly applied is the most effective way to reduce radon levels in crawlspace homes.”

Factors that are likely to aggravate indoor humidity problems from mechanical ventilation-based radon installations are as follows and an expert radon mitigator/building scientist will check for and correct any and all of the following when he or she performs radon mitigation procedures: Air conditioner duct leaks located outside the breathing zone, such as in the attic.

Radon Gas Remediation: The Best Radon Mitigation Systems

What is radon gas? Radon gas is a colorless, odorless radioactive gas that’s produced by decaying uranium.

Radon gas is present in nearly all soils, and very low levels of radon gas are found in the air we breathe every day.

Radon gas moves from the soil into a home directly through pores in concrete and gaps in walls and floors.

Learn more about radon gas and why it is so dangerous.

The best way to deal with radon gas is to suction it out of the lowest level and dump it outside or pressurize your lowest level so it never enters your home in the first place.

If the soil under your home isn’t permeable, you may have to install a block-wall suction system that removes radon gas from all the hollow spaces in the blocks.

Active suction systems reduce radon gas concentrations by 50% to 99%, while passive suction systems reduce concentrations by only 30% to 70%. However, if your radon gas concentrations are at the low end of the scale, a passive system may work just fine.

Post Idea #18: Steven A. Cohen

Related Articles – Summarized

Steve Cohen

In December 2009, Cohen and his brother Donald T. Cohen were sued by Steven’s ex-wife Patricia Cohen for racketeering and insider trading charges.

Writing for a three-judge panel, Circuit Judge Pierre N. Leval said Patricia Cohen had made a “Plausible” allegation that Steven Cohen had concealed the $5.5 million during negotiations on a separation agreement in 1989, which preceded the divorce.

Cohen settled his civil case with regulators in January 2016; the agreement with the SEC prohibited Cohen from managing outside money until 2018.

Cohen “Escaped criminal indictment himself despite being the living, breathing heart of S.A.C. Capital,” but Dr. Sidney Gilman, the star prosecution witness against Martoma, testified that FBI agents told him that Cohen was the investigation’s ultimate target.

Cohen was criticized by Barstool Sports founder Dave Portnoy for his role, to which Cohen responded that he was just “Trying to make a living” via Twitter; Cohen’s behavior in this exchange was subsequently criticized by former New York sports icon Boomer Esiason, who said Cohen’s comment “Actually makes me sick to my stomach.” When asked by a New York Mets fan on Twitter, Cohen denied that his involvement with the short squeeze would have an effect on his willingness to spend money on the team, namely in the ongoing free agent signing period.

Cohen deactivated his Twitter account on the evening of January 29, 2021, purportedly an action taken by Cohen himself.

Cohen is on the board of the MoMa and LA MOCA. In April 2016, Cohen announced the creation and a commitment of $275 million to the Cohen Veterans Network.

The Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic At The University Of Pennsylvania

The Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic at the University of Pennsylvania provides high-quality mental health care for veterans, service members, and their families at no cost.

We serve veteran and military communities across Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.

We use telehealth to bring Penn Medicine’s world-class treatment and exceptional patient care to the entire tristate region.

Our clinic specializes in personalized, evidence-based mental health care that is proven to result in long-term outcomes.

We offer early morning and evening hours, transportation assistance, and telehealth to help veterans, service members, and military families easily access the care they deserve.

See what our clients are saying or share your feedback.

Facts, Childhood, Family Life & Achievements

Steven A. Cohen is an American hedge fund manager best known as the founder of the hedge fund company Point72 Asset Management and S.A.C. Capital Advisors.

Towards the late 2000s, the Securities and Exchange Commission began investigating company’s top level employees with Steven being the main target.

In the early 1990s, Steven A. Cohen gathered funds to open his own hedge fund company named S.A.C. Capital Advisors.

The company began in 1992, and started trading with $25 million in the beginning and eventually became world’s most profitable hedge fund company.

In 2006, a Canadian pharmaceutical company named Biovail claimed that SAC was manipulating reports on the pharma company in order to bring their stock prices down.

SEC had been investigating Steven’s company for quite some time before 2012 and had run investigations on several employees of SAC, to varying results.

Owing to the charges of insider trading on the owner Steven, the company was restricted from using external investors for two years after its genesis.

Bio, Net Worth, Salary Age, Height, Weight, Wiki, Health, Facts And Family

Steve a Cohen is a famous American art collector, billionaire, hedge fund manager, and philanthropist.

Well, how well do you know about Steven A. Cohen? If not much, we have compiled all you need to know about Steven A. Cohen’s net worth in 2021, his age, height, weight, wife, kids, biography and complete details about his life.

How old is Steven A. Cohen in 2021 and what is his height and weight? Well, Steven A. Cohen’s age is 65 years old as of today’s date 2nd August 2021 having been born on 11 June 1956.

The S.E.C. later brought a lawsuit against Cohen, alleging his failure to supervise Martina and Michael Steinberg, a superior employee and confidant of Cohen.

Cohen has been successful in his career, and he was inducted into the institutional inventor’s Alphas hedge funds manager hall of fame in 2008.

He has achieved a lot in his career, and He has created the Cohen veterans network, whose goal is to establish mental health canters for experts and their families throughout the U.S.Net Worth, Salary & Earnings of Steven A. Cohen in 2021.

Steve A Cohen is a Hedge Fund manager who has been very successful.

Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic

The Steven A. Cohen Military Family Clinic at Endeavors, San Antonio provide in-person and virtual high-quality, accessible, and integrated mental health care to Veterans, regardless of role while in uniform, discharge status, or combat experience, active duty service members, and military families.

Receive services addressing depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, sleep problems, adolescent behavioral issues, relationship and family stress, etc.

Services at the Cohen Clinics at Endeavors are provided by credentialed staff trained to work specifically with the military population.

Veterans, active duty service members, military families, and community partners are invited to take advantage of financial and employment workshops, caregiver and military informed care trainings, marriage management, couples cooking classes, women Veterans groups, Yoga, Tai Chi, and more.

Topics in these groups include conquering anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, art therapy, and anger management, and are specially designed for Veterans, active duty service members, and military families who are looking to build new friendships, gain a renewed sense of community, strengthen bonds with others through shared experiences, and learn new solutions that will assist them in handling challenges.

Very friendly atmosphere, family oriented, would recommend 2 military families in need of counseling/therapy.

For a military clinic it is run efficient like something out of the private sector.

Steve Cohen

While Cohen himself was never charged, the firm pled guilty to trafficking in nonpublic information and was forced to return investor capital and pay $1.8 billion in fines.

Steve Cohen graduated from the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School of Business in 1978 with a degree in Economics.

In 1999, Cohen suggested that SAC regularly traded 20 million shares per day.

After the company released positive earnings a month later, its share value grew by 32%. At the beginning of 2012, Cohen made a $26.7 billion bet on Ardea Biosciences.

In the week prior, Cohen had not only liquidated SAC Capital’s nearly $750 million positions in Elan and Wyeth but shorted the stocks.

The SEC alleged that Martoma had received information about the Elan and Wyeth clinical trials before the details were released to the public and used that information to advise Cohen to sell out of the position.

In addition to $1.8 billion in penalties, the settlement included terms that barred Cohen from managing the assets of other investors.

Post Idea #19: Point72 Asset Management

Related Articles – Summarized

Training The Next Generation Of Investors

We’re training the next generation of Point72 investors.

Our Academy offers undergrads and early-career professionals a path toward a successful career as a Point72 Analyst.

The Point72 Academy Investment Analyst Summer Internship is an eight-week program during which you will be trained by Academy staff, coached by investment professionals, and mentored by Academy graduates.

Point72 Academy Investment Analyst Winternship is a four-week training program for students interested in exploring a career in investing.

Through the Point72 Academy Investment Analyst Program for Experienced Professionals, we hire people from various industries and train them as investment analysts.

We look for individuals across a wide range of disciplines and professional experience to join our paid, full-time training program, where our seasoned Point72 Academy instructors will teach you the foundational skills needed to become an effective idea generator on an investment team.

The Point72 Academy Investment Analyst Program for Recent Graduates is a paid ten-month training program designed to introduce you to the buy-side and prepare you for a career as an analyst at Point72.

Point72 Asset Management

Point72 Asset Management, L.P., is an American hedge fund.

SAC Capital Advisors was founded in 1992 and converted its investment operations to the Point72 Asset Management family office in 2014.

In August 2014, founder Steven Cohen replaced many of the management personnel who had operated SAC. Among the changes, he named a new president of Point72, Douglas D. Haynes, and a new chief operating officer, former IBM executive Timothy Shaughnessy.

In January 2021, along with Ken Griffin’s Citadel Securities, Point72 contributed $750 million to a $2.75 billion emergency bailout of Melvin Capital, a hedge fund that had incurred deep losses in the GameStop short squeeze; Melvin Capital is run by Gabe Plotkin, a former protégé of Steven Cohen and one of the managers of SAC whose trades were investigated by the SEC. In the first half of 2021, Point72 was reported to have lost $500 million on its investment in Melvin Capital.

The firm’s long/short investment divisions are Point72 Asset Management and EverPoint Asset Management.

Matthew Granade, the head of Point72’s Market Intelligence unit and a former co-head of research at Bridgewater Associates, is the Managing Partner at Point72 Ventures.

The New York Times reported that Point72 President Douglas D. Haynes who was hired as managing director for human capital and then became President resigned in March 2018 “Amid [a] gender bias lawsuit” and was replaced as president by Cohen.

Point72 Asset Management, L.P. 13F Annual Report

As of 9th August 2021, Point72 Asset Management, L.P.’s top holding is 148,544 shares of currently worth over $511 million and making up 2.6% of the portfolio value.

Relative to the number of outstanding shares of Amazon.com, Point72 Asset Management, L.P. owns more than approximately 0.1% of the company.

Currently, Point72 Asset Management, L.P.’s portfolio is worth at least $20 billion.

According to the last 13-F report filed with the SEC, Jason Colombo serves as the Authorized Person at Point72 Asset Management, L.P. Recent trades.

In the most recent 13F filing, Point72 Asset Management, L.P. revealed that it had opened a new position in and bought 2,087,923 shares worth $510 million.

Point72 Asset Management, L.P.’s portfolio is diversified across 13 sectors.

The complete list of Point72 Asset Management, L.P. trades based on 13F SEC filings.

Point72 Asset Management Review

Point72 Asset Management, L.P. is an investment firm that only serves one particular client type – investment funds.

The firm currently manages about 17 funds, or pooled investment vehicles, according to its Form ADV. As for minimum account size requirements, Point72 minimums range from $25,000 to $25 million.

Point72 specializes in portfolio management services for pooled investment funds.

Point72 says in its brochure that it aims to achieve each fund’s investment objective by focusing on long/short equity, systemic and global macro investment strategies.

The firm may also expand into cryptocurrencies: Published reports in May 2021 said Point72 was poised to make a major investment in crypto with both long/short strategies on the hedge fund side and investments with its venture capital unit, Point72 Ventures.

Point72 doesn’t specify an exact fee schedule for its investment funds, but the firm says annual rates typically range up to 2.85%. What to Watch Out For.

You can set up an account with Point72 by visiting any of the firm’s offices, or by contacting an advisor over the phone.

Billionaire investor Steve Cohen’s Point72 Asset Management is pulling out the $750 million it invested in Melvin Capital Management, Bloomberg News reported on Saturday.

Point72 will soon start redeeming the money in portions over time, the report said, citing people familiar with the matter.

Both Melvin Capital, founded by Gabe Plotkin, and Point72 declined to comment.

Point72 has another investment in Melvin, with that pool of money remaining untouched, according to the report.

Melvin Capital, the hedge fund at the center of the GameStop trading frenzy, lost 49% on its investments during the first three months of 2021.

Hedge fund managers Cohen and Kenneth Griffin had stepped in to aid Plotkin in January last year with Griffin’s Citadel and Cohen’s Point72 adding $2.75 billion to the firm.

Steve Cohen’S Point72 To Redeem $750 Million From Melvin Capital

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comMarch 12 – Billionaire investor Steve Cohen’s Point72 Asset Management is pulling out the $750 million it invested in Melvin Capital Management, Bloomberg News reported on Saturday.

Point72 will soon start redeeming the money in portions over time, the report said, citing people familiar with the matter.

Both Melvin Capital, founded by Gabe Plotkin, and Point72 declined to comment.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comPoint72 has another investment in Melvin, with that pool of money remaining untouched, according to the report.

Melvin Capital, the hedge fund at the center of the GameStop trading frenzy, lost 49% on its investments during the first three months of 2021.

Hedge fund managers Cohen and Kenneth Griffin had stepped in to aid Plotkin in January last year with Griffin’s Citadel LLC and Cohen’s Point72 adding $2.75 billion to the firm.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.com.

Jaimi Goodfriend, Head of Investment Professional Development, spoke with Business Insider about teaching MDs, PhDs, and therapeutics professionals how to apply their experience to financial markets in preparation for an analyst role at Point72.

Our Head of Investment Professional Development, Jaimi Goodfriend, sat down with Business Insider to share what she looks for in college graduates aiming for a spot in the Point72 Academy.

Applications are open for the Point72 Academy Experienced Associate Program.

Me/3mGrNFqLaura Sterner, our Head of Capital Development and Investor Relations, sat down with to talk about her career development, being an approachable mentor to women at our Firm, and Point72’s track record of innovation.

If you are collaborative, driven, and curious, there is no better place to start your career than Point72.

Applications for our Point72 Academy 2021 Summer Internship are closing soon.

Applications are now open for our Point72 Academy Summer 2021 Internship in New York.

Post Idea #20: Hydraulic fracturing

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Hydraulic Fracturing?

Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as “Fracking,” is an oil and gas well development process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into a bedrock formation via the well.

This process is intended to create new fractures in the rock as well as increase the size, extent, and connectivity of existing fractures.

Hydraulic fracturing is a well-stimulation technique used commonly in low-permeability rocks like tight sandstone, shale, and some coal beds to increase oil and/or gas flow to a well from petroleum-bearing rock formations.

A similar technique is used to create improved permeability in underground geothermal reservoirs.

Hydraulic Fracturing & Health

Hydraulic fracturing is one part of a broader process known as unconventional natural gas development, which refers to all operations associated with fracked wells, from well construction to the transport of gas and oil off the site.

Does hydraulic fracturing pose health risks to the people living near drilling sites?

Although research is underway, few studies to date have provided conclusive evidence about how unconventional natural gas development affects the health of nearby communities.

Most of what is known about the health risks from unconventional natural gas development comes from studies of workers at these sites.

Currently, three hydraulic fracturing-specific health risks have been identified, in addition to risks, such as accidents, that are often associated with industrial occupations involving the use of heavy equipment.

Exposure to chemical spills: Accidental chemical spills may expose workers to compounds used in the hydraulic fracturing process, presenting a variety of health risks.

NIEHS provides funding for research and community outreach, to investigate and address potential health impacts related to hydraulic fracturing.

Hydraulic Fracturing

Increases in seismic activity following hydraulic fracturing along dormant or previously unknown faults are sometimes caused by the deep-injection disposal of hydraulic fracturing flowback, and produced formation brine.

In contrast with large-scale hydraulic fracturing used in low-permeability formations, small hydraulic fracturing treatments are commonly used in high-permeability formations to remedy “Skin damage”, a low-permeability zone that sometimes forms at the rock-borehole interface.

Starting in 1973, massive hydraulic fracturing was used in thousands of gas wells in the San Juan Basin, Denver Basin, the Piceance Basin, and the Green River Basin, and in other hard rock formations of the western US. Other tight sandstone wells in the US made economically viable by massive hydraulic fracturing were in the Clinton-Medina Sandstone, and Cotton Valley Sandstone.

Hydraulic fracturing of shales goes back at least to 1965, when some operators in the Big Sandy gas field of eastern Kentucky and southern West Virginia started hydraulically fracturing the Ohio Shale and Cleveland Shale, using relatively small fracs.

By monitoring the temperature of the well, engineers can determine how much hydraulic fracturing fluid different parts of the well use as well as how much natural gas or oil they collect, during hydraulic fracturing operation and when the well is producing.

In December 2016 the United States Environmental Protection Agency issued the “Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States.” The EPA found scientific evidence that hydraulic fracturing activities can impact drinking water resources.

In 2019, hydraulic fracturing was banned in UK. The European Union has adopted a recommendation for minimum principles for using high-volume hydraulic fracturing.

Hydraulic Fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing jobs are carried out at well sites using heavy equipment including truck-mounted pumps, blenders, fluid tanks, and proppant tanks.

In the pad stage, fracturing fluid is injected into the well to break down the formation and create a pad. During the slurry stage, the fracturing fluid is mixed with sand/proppant in a blender and the mixture is injected into the pad/fracture.

This chapter presents a brief description of hydraulic fracturing treatments covering formation fracturing pressure, fracture geometry, productivity of fractured wells, hydraulic fracturing design, and post-frac evaluation.

During hydraulic fracturing treatments, the fluid experiences wide variations in shear and temperature.

In this chapter, first fundamental experimental modeling in hydraulic fracturing is presented, which provides an understanding of the principles of hydraulic fracturing propagation pattern.

Hydraulic fracturing is the preferred stimulation for unconventional reservoirs, using fracturing fluid, propping material and pressure to create or restore small fractures in a geological formation and thereby to stimulate hydrocarbon production from oil or gas wells.

The chemicals used, and waste generated, by hydraulic fracturing operations are referred to as “Product.” Characteristics of the products used can have serious detrimental effects on the surface and subsurface environments.

How Hydraulic Fracturing Works

Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a drilling method used to extract petroleum or natural gas from deep in the Earth.

Some resources extracted through fracking are called “Tight oil” or “Tight gas,” because these pockets of fossil fuels are tightly trapped in hard shale rock formations.

A handful of other nations are investing in hydraulic fracturing to extract petroleum and natural gas.

Fracking is used to extract natural gas from the Montney shale formation in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada.

Fracking is used to extract natural gas from the Sichuan basin in China.

Fracking is used to extract natural gas from the Marcellus shale formation in the northern Appalachian Basin, extending through the states of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, and Virginia.

One of the first places hydraulic fracturing technology was used was the Barnett shale formation in northern Texas.

Hydraulic Fracturing: The Process

Why is Hydraulic Fracturing Used? Experts believe 60 to 80 percent of all wells drilled in the United States in the next ten years will require hydraulic fracturing to remain operating.

Hydraulic fracturing is also used to extend the life of older wells in mature oil and gas fields.

How is Hydraulic Fracturing Done?* The placement of hydraulic fracturing treatments underground is sequenced to meet the particular needs of the formation.

Each oil and gas zone is different and requires a hydraulic fracturing design tailored to the particular conditions of the formation.

Certain predictable characteristics or physical properties regarding the path of least resistance have been recognized since hydraulic fracturing was first conducted in the oilfield in 1947.

The results from our extensive fracture mapping database show that hydraulic fractures are better confined vertically than conventional wisdom or models predict.

Even in areas with the largest measured vertical fracture growth, such as the Marcellus, the tops of the hydraulic fractures are still thousands of feet below the deepest aquifers suitable for drinking water.

Hydraulic Fracturing And Water Quality: USGS Information And Resources

View a complete list of USGS water-quality data resources.

USGS Water Science Centers are located in each state.

Hydraulic fracturing is a process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure into a bedrock formation via a well.

The links below focus on USGS activities to study and monitor potential impacts from hydraulic fracturing in oil and gas development on water quality.

The list below includes recent USGS reports and journal articles listed in the USGS Publications Warehouse.

Hydraulic fracturing water use variability in the United States and potential environmental implications.

Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations.

Post Idea #21: Range Resources

Related Articles – Summarized

Range Resources Corporation

INTERACTIVE AIR MONITORING. Range continues to incorporate leading sustainability practices and engineering solutions.

This commitment has pushed us to be a leader in emissions and public health transparency.

Through community outreach efforts, we heard from Washington County residents and voluntarily launched the Ambient Air Monitoring Program at an active Marcellus shale well site.

This program is hosting a full, interactive data set, which is being updated regularly.

LEARN MORERESOURCE CENTER. We are committed to communicating updates and best practices with our landowners and community members.

Our Resource Center provides information on key topics like our air monitoring, water quality, operational best practices, and relevant research.

Range Resources Corp. Stock Quote

Range Resources Corp. engages in the exploration, development and acquisition of natural gas and oil properties in the Appalachian and Midcontinent regions.

The company was founded in 1976 and is headquartered in Fort Worth, TX..

Range Resources

Range Resources Corporation is a petroleum and natural gas exploration and production company headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas.

The company also changed its name to Range Resources Corporation.

“According to a letter from the company to a complainant dated January 14, 2011,”On November 10, 2010, you voluntarily supplied Range Resources with lab results from both your dog and horse veterinarians.

The company said the move could help its $4.2 million defamation lawsuit against a Parker County couple who alleged in a $6.5 million lawsuit that Range contaminated their drinking water.

In 2011, as part of an effort to reassure the public of its activities, the company started a campaign, “My Range Resources” which depict “Ordinary people… who have benefited from allowing drilling on their land”.

According to Elwin Green of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Range Resources stands out because most gas companies generally prefer to keep a low profile, preferring to “Tout their successes to Wall Street, but not to Main Street”.

According to Myers, “a quick review of the state Department of Environmental Protection records suggests that the truth is more complicated than the ads suggest…the folks at Range define good stewardship in a slightly different manner than is customary.” Reg Henry of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette thought “The whole promotion was skin crawling… but now I read MyRangeResources and I think: How cute is that for a gas drilling company? It makes me think of my daughter’s My Little Pony when she was a mite”.

Range Resources – CSR Report

In the face of adversity, the Range team executed our objectives while providing the world with the critical natural gas and natural gas liquids to power our modern lives.

Protecting our employees and focusing on their wellbeing enabled the Range team to focus our efforts on accomplishing some remarkable feats in 2020.

We strongly believe that increased access to natural gas and natural gas liquids will help support a higher standard of living for other countries, especially emerging economies.

Range Resources’ commitment to achieving sustainable performance remains steadfast.

Incorporating feedback from our stakeholders and striving to do the right thing has always been part of the culture at Range.

We are proud of the fact that, throughout our sustainability journey, Range has pioneered industry best practices across ESG topics, particularly as it relates to our environmental transparency.

More recently, Range entered into a pilot program with Project Canary, utilizing the Canary X continuous monitoring technology, and committed to participate in the TrustWell™ certification process that seeks to certify the Company’s responsibly sourced natural gas.

Owner Relations

Your 2021 tax statements are now only available on EnergyLink.

RANGE RESOURCES CORPORATION.You will need your owner number and recent payment information to complete registration.

For Support please contact EnergyLink Support Team at www.

No portion of this program may be duplicated without the expressed written consent of Oildex.

This software is for the internal use of our customers only and may not be distributed outside of the company which owns the use license.

Pennsylvania Oil & Gas Producer Profile

Range Resources Appalachia Llc is currently ranked #3 in the state of Pennsylvania based on a total production of 971,674,391 barrel of oil equivalent reported during the month of 12-01-2021.

The company has an estimated daily production of 11,630 BBLs oil and 11,630 MCF of gas, coming from 1,392 actively producing wells in the state.

There are 58 permits filed with the state that Range Resources Appalachia Llc can drill in the future.

Post Idea #22: Vinyl composition tile

Related Articles – Summarized

Armstrong Flooring Commercial

Vous vous trouvez actuellement sur le site United States d’Armstrong Flooring.

Si vous désirez connaître la disponibilité des produits et obtenir des renseignements en fonction de votre emplacement, il serait préférable que vous consultiez notre site Canada.

No thanks, I’d prefer to continue browsing on United States.

Product Catalog – VCT – Congoleum.Com

Congoleum has been an industry leader for over 50 years in producing high-quality, high-performing commercial vinyl composition tile.

X 12 in tiles composed of 80% limestone so it’s very durable.

Our VCT performs beautifully under the highest traffic, highest maintenance conditions.

Whether in neutrals, pastels or saturated vibrant colors, our VCT is fashionable, tough and inexpensive.

Composition Tile

Composition tiles provide economic value and a multitude of patterns and quality options to optimize performance across a number of high traffic installation areas.

From the original vinyl composition tile, to vinyl enhanced tile and solid vinyl tile, composite tiles are budget friendly and withstand heavy foot and rolling traffic.

US-made and low-emitting, composite tile contributes to the safety and health of every space.

Vinyl Composition Tile

Vinyl composition tile is a finished flooring material used primarily in commercial and institutional applications.

In installation the floor tiles or sheet flooring are applied to a smooth, leveled sub-floor using a specially formulated vinyl adhesive or tile mastic that remains pliable.

Modern vinyl floor tile is frequently chosen for high-traffic areas because of its low cost, durability, and ease of maintenance.

Polyvinyl chloride based floor coverings, commonly known as vinyls made its big splash when a vinyl composition tile was displayed at the Century of Progress Exposition in Chicago.

Luxury vinyl tile is an industry term, not a standard, for vinyl that realistically mimics the appearance of natural materials with an added layer to improve wear and performance.

Sometimes the term “Luxury vinyl tile” is reserved for products that mimic stone and ceramic, whereas the term “Luxury vinyl plank” is used for products that mimic wood.

Vinyl tiles manufactured in the 20th century frequently contain asbestos fibers, which are today referred to as Vinyl-Asbestos Tiles.

Post Idea #23: Mannington Mills Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

A Notable Family Business From Salem

Fourth-generation member Carolyn Campbell Brown chairs the five-member family council, which was created in 2014.

As family council chair, she also serves on Mannington’s board.

The family council’s role is to preserve the family’s business legacy, promote cohesiveness, foster communication and awareness, and support the “Patient capital” provided by the shareholder base.

Its governance has strengthened and engaged the family owners in the business through its thoughtful and decisive actions in the past five years.

A formal family employment policy was implemented, which outlined stringent education, work experience, age and other requirements for lineal family members; established need requirements for the business; and set internship guidelines for the wider family.

The family council communicates frequently with the family assembly.

It also produces a quarterly family newsletter, “Campbell Connection,” which includes messages from Keith and Carolyn, key new product developments, updates on family members’ activities and news from the board.

Post Idea #24: Screw conveyor

Related Articles – Summarized

Screw Conveyor Corporation

Founded in 1932, Screw Conveyor Corporation is a leading manufacturer of bulk material handling equipment.

The experience and knowledge of the five original founders produced a very successful business venture.

Today, the legacy continues to grow under family leadership.

Screw Conveyors

To an existing screw conveyor or keep it running like new.

Screws with a thicker edge offer longer service life for abrasive materials.

Support the end of the shaft and help the screw rotate.

Are oil impregnated and are often used in agricultural applications.

Are oil impregnated and offer longer life for abrasive materials.

For technical drawings and 3-D models, click on a part number.

ISC Manufacturing

Shafted screw conveyors are used in thousands of industrial applications every day for efficiently conveying a variety of bulk materials.

A shafted screw conveyor’s main function is to transfer bulk materials from one process to another.

Shafted screw conveyors are very cost-effective and require minimal maintenance to operate.

Screw Conveyor Manufacturers

The definitive history of screw conveyors begins all the way back in the 3rd century BC. It was then that the ancient Greek scientist and mathematician Archimedes created what came to be known as Archimedes’ screw or screw pump.

A combination of different conveyor types is known as a conveyor system.

Spiral conveyors are any screw conveyor that uses an enclosed spiral screw.

Of all the conveyor systems, screw conveyors cost the least to purchase and maintain.

ConsiderationsWhen designing or recommending a screw conveyor, manufacturers must consider: the application, the type of material to be moved, material load volume, projected frequency of use and whether there are any other necessary processes for the conveyor to perform.

To best suit your needs, screw conveyor manufacturers may customize your conveyor in a number of ways.

CEMA, or the Conveyor Equipment Manufacturers Association, is a trade organization that puts out guidelines and standards for the fabrication of safe, efficient and intelligently designed conveyor systems.

Screw Conveyors

Screw conveyors are an economical way to transfer flowable bulk materials such as grains, powders, sand, pellets, flakes and dusts in a dust-tight enclosure across horizontal, inclined or vertical spans.

Weldments, fit and finish exceed industry standards.

Tight tolerances and clearances can be achieved with our Trough-Tite Screw™.

Screw conveyors are shop-assembled and test run to ensure they.

Operation of each conveyor is video-documented and archived for.

The finished conveyors are mounted on skids with bracing or.

Carefully crated for maximum protection during transit.

Material Handling Equipment Supplier

SCP is a full service screw conveyor company with an extensive inventory of screw conveyor parts available for immediate shipment.

Browse the categories below to find the parts you need to keep your screw conveyor up and running.

We even have entire screw conveyors in a kit available for purchase with everything you need to build a screw conveyor to suite you bulk material handling and processing needs.

Screw Conveyor

A screw conveyor or auger conveyor is a mechanism that uses a rotating helical screw blade, called a “Flighting”, usually within a tube, to move liquid or granular materials.

The rotating part of the conveyor is sometimes called simply an auger.

A grain auger may be powered by an electric motor; a tractor, through the power take-off; or sometimes an internal combustion engine mounted on the auger.

Pakosh went on to design and build a first prototype auger in 1945, and 8 years later start selling tens of thousands under the ‘Versatile’ name, making it the standard for modern grain augers.

A specialized form of grain auger is used to transfer grain into a seed drill and is usually quite a lot smaller in both length and diameter than the augers used to transfer grain to or from a truck, grain cart or bin.

Grain augers with a small diameter, regardless of the use they are put to, are often called “Pencil augers”.

Various other applications of the screw or auger conveyor include its use in snowblowers, to move snow towards an impeller, where it is thrown into the discharge chute.

Post Idea #25: Carl Zeiss AG

Related Articles – Summarized

ZEISS International, Optical And Optoelectronic Technology

ZEISS – an internationally leading technology enterprise operating in the fields of optics and optoelectronics.

ZEISS solutions contribute to world optics development and technological progress.

With our passion for excellence, we create value for our customers and inspire the world to see in new ways.

Carl Zeiss AG

Carl Zeiss AG, branded as ZEISS, is a German manufacturer of optical systems and optoelectronics, founded in Jena, Germany in 1846 by optician Carl Zeiss.

Carl Zeiss AG is the holding of all subsidiaries within Zeiss Group, of which Carl Zeiss Meditec AG is the only one that is traded at the stock market.

In 1928 Hensoldt AG was acquired by Carl Zeiss and has produced the Zeiss binoculars and riflescopes since 1964, occasionally resulting in twin products being offered under both the Hensoldt and Zeiss brand names.

In 1973, the Western Carl Zeiss AG entered into a licensing agreement with the Japanese camera company Yashica to produce a series of high-quality 35 mm film cameras and lenses bearing the Contax and Zeiss brand names.

Following German reunification, VEB Zeiss Jena – reckoned as one of the few East German firms that was even potentially able to compete on a global basis – became Zeiss Jena GmbH, which became Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena GmbH in 1990.

In 1991, Jenoptik Carl Zeiss Jena was split in two, with Carl Zeiss AG taking over the company’s divisions for microscopy and other precision optics and moving its microscopy and planetarium divisions back to Jena.

Zeiss has manufactured coordinate measuring machines since 1919, offering very basic manually operated CMMs. In 1973, Zeiss introduced the UMM 500, using a Zeiss sensor system and Hewlett-Packard computer.

Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Stock Quote

Carl Zeiss Meditec AG engages in the development, manufacture and marketing of medical devices.

It operates through the Ophthalmic Devices and Microsurgery business segments.

The Ophthalmic Devices segment includes intraocular lenses, surgical visualization solutions and medical laser and diagnostic systems.

The Microsurgery segment offers surgical microscopes and visualization solutions for neuro, ear, nose, and throat surgery, as well as the activities in the field of intraoperative radiotherapy.

The company was founded on October 4, 1995 and is headquartered in Jena, Germany.

Short Interest In Carl Zeiss Meditec AG Grows By 1,300.0%

Carl Zeiss Meditec AG was the recipient of a large increase in short interest in the month of February.

As of February 28th, there was short interest totalling 5,600 shares, an increase of 1,300.0% from the February 13th total of 400 shares.

AlphaValue raised shares of Carl Zeiss Meditec to a “Reduce” rating in a research report on Monday, February 7th. HSBC raised shares of Carl Zeiss Meditec from a “Reduce” rating to a “Hold” rating in a research report on Thursday, December 16th. They noted that the move was a valuation call.

One research analyst has rated the stock with a sell rating, three have assigned a hold rating and one has issued a buy rating to the stock.

10,502 shares of the stock traded hands, compared to its average volume of 5,004.

Carl Zeiss Meditec has a 52-week low of $139.07 and a 52-week high of $235.50.

Carl Zeiss Meditec AG engages in the development, manufacture and marketing of medical devices.

Carl Zeiss Foundation

The Carl Zeiss Foundation is the sole shareholder of Carl Zeiss AG and SCHOTT AG. Its main function is to ensure the long-term future of the two foundation companies based on a pioneering spirit and responsible corporate governance, as well as the promotion of science.

The Carl Zeiss Foundation is one of the oldest company-affiliated foundations in Germany.

Its main function is to ensure the long-term future of the two foundation companies and the promotion of science.

With the dividends of Carl Zeiss AG and SCHOTT AG, the Carl Zeiss Foundation provides funding for research and teaching in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

Funding is awarded to projects and individuals in Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate, and Thuringia – the federal states in which the foundation and the foundation companies are registered.

The Carl Zeiss Foundation was founded in 1889 in Jena, Germany, by physicist and entrepreneur Ernst Abbe with support from the founder of SCHOTT, Otto Schott.

The primary goal of the foundation is to permanently safeguard the ZEISS and SCHOTT companies.

Carl Zeiss AG SWOT & PESTLE Analysis

Carl Zeiss AG is a German company that manufactures optical systems and optoelectronics.

Carl Zeiss AG is the holding of all subsidiaries within Zeiss Group.

On purchase the Carl Zeiss AG SWOT & PESTLE Analysis PDF report will reach you within minutes.

The company aims to significantly expand its offer in the field of industrial measurement technology and quality assurance with leading solutions for surface measurement and digitalization through the acquisition of GOM. The acquisition of SAXONIA Systems AG in March 2020, a specialist for customized software solutions, is also expected to realize digital projects of strategic significance in the whole ZEISS Group.

Carl Zeiss sustanibility report FY2019 – www.

Carl Zeiss SWOT and PESTLE analysis has been conducted by Shalmali Chakraborty and reviewed by senior analysts from Barakaat Consulting.

Copyright of Carl Zeiss SWOT and PESTLE Analysis is the property of Barakaat Consulting.

About Us

Optical technologies are the very basis of our business with the majority of our products and services being provided to the photonics market.

Our key target markets primarily include the semiconductor equipment industry, automotive and mechanical engineering, medical technology, traffic, aviation and aerospace as well as the security and defense technology industries.

In addition to several major sites in Germany Jenoptik is represented in Europe, in the USA, and Asia-Pacific.

JENOPTIK AG is listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and included in the SDax and TecDax indices.

Our locations at Altenstadt Our locations at Augsburg Our locations at Berlin Our locations at Dresden Our locations at Essen Our locations at Jena Our locations at Monheim am Rhein Our locations at Triptis Our locations at Villingen-Schwenningen Our locations at Wedel Locations worldwide Locations Africa.

Our locations at Bangalore Our locations at Kuala Lumpur Our locations at Lane Cove Our locations at Nes Ziona Our locations at Pyeongtaek City Our locations at Shanghai Our locations at Singapore Our locations at Yokohama.

Post Idea #26: Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH

Related Articles – Summarized

LED Information Base

OSRAM assumes neither warranty, nor guarantee nor any other liability of any kind for the contents and correctness of the provided data.

The data has been generated with highest diligence but may in reality not represent the complete possible variation range of all component parameters.

In certain cases a deviation between the real optical, thermal, electrical behaviour and the characteristics which are encoded in the provided data could occur.

OSRAM assumes no liability of any kind for the loss of data or any other damage resulting from the usage of the provided data.

The user agrees to this disclaimer and user agreement with the download or usage of the provided files.

OSRAM OS Corona Update

Ab 26.01.22 können Sie als Mitarbeiter/in oder Geschäftspartner/in mit entsprechendem Ausweis den Standort betreten, ohne einen 3G-Nachweis vorzulegen, wenn Sie sich vorab als vollständig Geimpfte/r oder Genesene/r registrieren lassen.

Ohne Registrierung müssen Sie wie gehabt weiterhin bei jedem Standortzutritt dem Werkschutz einen Nachweis für den 3G-Status vorlegen.

Dort identifizieren Sie sich mit Ihrem Mitarbeiter- oder Geschäftspartnerausweis am Ausweisleser.

Ein/e Mitarbeiter/in prüft Ihren Status als vollständig Geimpfte/n oder Genesene/n und trägt die Gültigkeitsdauer im Zutrittskontrollsystem ein.

Bitte nutzen Sie den Registrierungszeitraum, damit Sie trotz Inbetriebnahme der neuen Lösung für den 3G-Komfortzutritt den Standort jederzeit betreten können und helfen Sie, Wartezeiten und Verzögerungen zu vermeiden.

Die Verpflichtung zur Selbstauskunft ist von der neuen 3G-Zutrittslösung unberührt.

Osram Opto Semiconductors GmbH

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH of Regensburg, Germany, a wholly owned subsidiary of Osram GmbH, is the world’s second largest manufacturer of optoelectronic semiconductors after Nichia and followed third place by Cree Inc. One of the main products of the company are light-emitting diodes, other products are high power laser diodes, infrared components and optical sensors.

As the world’s second largest manufacturer of optoelectronic semiconductors for the illumination, sensing and visualization sectors, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors GmbH combines semiconductors, converter materials, and packages under one roof.

The semiconductor products of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors include high-power LEDs in the visible range, high-performance infrared LEDs, high-quality optoelectronic detectors, and high-power semiconductor lasers.

In 2009, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors presented “Orbeos”, the first OLED light source for premium quality functional lighting, developed by the company.

OSRAM Opto Semiconductors is taking a dual approach to display and projection technology with its LEDs and lasers.

In December 2010, scientists at OSRAM Opto Semiconductors, received the distinguished Beckurts Prize for their pioneering work in researching direct green semiconductor laser.

In addition to offering semiconductor components themselves, OSRAM Opto Semiconductors provides support for system solutions[buzzword.

Post Idea #27: Electrical equipment in hazardous areas

Related Articles – Summarized

Periodic inspection – Periodic inspections are inspections of all equipment carried out on a routine basis.

Sample inspection – Sample inspections are inspections of a proportion of the installed electrical equipment.

There are three grades of inspection identified: ƒ Visual inspection – A visual inspection is an inspection which identifies, without the use of access equipment or tools, those defects, e.g. missing bolts, which are apparent to the eye.

Hazardous Areas Conference 2007 – IDC Technologies 7 ƒ Close inspection – A close inspection is an inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a visual inspection and, in addition, identifies those defects, e.g. loose bolts, which will become apparent only when access equipment, e.g. steps and tools are used.

ƒ Detailed Inspection – A detailed inspection is an inspection which encompasses those aspects covered by a close inspection and, in addition, identifies those defects, e.g. loose terminations, which only become apparent when the enclosure is opened up, or by the use of tools and test equipment.

Proposed EEHA inspection template Every organisation or individual that performs EEHA inspections will have a different approach to carry site inspections.

The inspection requirements for flameproof equipment are provided in AS/NZS 2381.2:2006 Table A1. There are similar inspection requirements for increased safety equipment which are provided in AS/NZS 2381.6:1993 Table B1 and the inspection checks for intrinsic safety are listed in AS/NZS 2381.7:1989 Table C1. Each method of explosion protection requires specific checks.

Aspx October 2013 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Areas O ne hundred years ago, on Oct. 14, 1913, the Senghenydd Colliery in Glamorgan, South Wales, exploded, resulting in 439 fatalities.

The Senghenydd explosion was one of the events that led to a recognition of the potential hazard of sparks from electrical equipment igniting a flammable vapor, dust, or mist cloud.

While a thorough discussion of electrical safety in a hazardous area is beyond the scope of the Beacon, there are some important things that you can do to maintain the integrity of p Monument to the victims of the Senghenydd disaster.

Electrical equipment in areas that are classified as hazardous.

What Can You Do? Understand the hazardous areas and electrical classification in your plant.

Invite your plant’s electrical classification experts to give a safety meeting describing the hazardous areas in your plant.

Look for damaged wiring or electrical connections, damaged electrical boxes, problems with gaskets and seals, inadequate air purge for an enclosure, and missing bolts on electrical enclosures.

Ignition energies of typical gases 4.1.1 Electrical equipment and items of associated electrical equipment An intrinsically safe circuit consists of at least one item of electrical equipment and one item of associated equipment.

Electrical equipment may only be connected to circuits without intrinsic safety via associated equipment.

Intrinsically safe electrical equipment and intrinsically safe parts of associated equipment are classed according to EN 60079-11 in safety levels “Ia”, “Ib”, and “Ic”.

Circuit with electrical isolation: Isolator 4.1.3 Simple electrical equipment Simple electrical equipment does not require approval; however, it must be assigned to a temperature class and conform with any other applicable requirements of EN 60 079-11.

Never work alone; Never receive an intentional shock; Only work on, operate or adjust equipment if you are authorized; Do not work on energized equipment unless absolutely necessary; Keep loose tools, metal parts and liquids from the electrical equipment.

Working near electrical equipment When work must be performed in the immediate vicinity of electrical equipment, check with the technician responsible for the maintenance of the equipment so you can avoid any potential hazard of which you may not be immediately aware.

Authorized personnel only Because of the danger of fire, damage to equipment and injury to personnel, only authorized persons shall do maintenance work on electrical equipment.

Electrical Equipment In Hazardous Areas

The simplest is to minimize the amount of electrical equipment installed in a hazardous location, either by keeping the equipment out of the area altogether, or by making the area less hazardous.

Different countries have approached the standardization and testing of equipment for hazardous areas in different ways.

Unlike ATEX which uses numbers to define the safety “Category” of equipment, namely, the IEC continued to utilise the method used for defining the safe levels of intrinsic safety namely “a” for zone 0, “b” for zone 1 and “c” for zone 2 and apply this Equipment Level of Protection to all equipment for use in hazardous areas since 2009.

Equipment marked as suitable for Group IIC is also suitable for IIB and IIA. Equipment marked as suitable for IIB is also suitable for IIA but NOT for IIC. If equipment is marked, for example, Ex e II T4 then it is suitable for all subgroups IIA, IIB and IIC. A list must be drawn up of every explosive material that is on the refinery/chemical complex and included in the site plan of the classified areas.

IEC/EN 60079-7 Zone 2 or Zone 1 Motors, lighting, junction boxes Oil Filled o Equipment components are completely submerged in oil IEC/EN 60079-6 Zone 2 or Zone 1 switchgear Sand/Powder/Quartz Filled q Equipment components are completely covered with a layer of Sand, powder or quartz IEC/EN 60079-5 Zone 2 or Zone 1 Electronics, telephones, chokes Encapsulated m Equipment components of the equipment are usually encased in a resin type material IEC/EN 60079-18 Zone 1 or Zone 0 Electronics Pressurised/purged p Equipment is pressurised to a positive pressure relative to the surrounding atmosphere with air or an inert gas, thus the surrounding ignitable atmosphere can not come in contact with energized parts of the apparatus.

All equipment certified for use in hazardous areas must be labelled to show the type and level of protection applied.

Industrial electrical equipment for hazardous area has to conform to appropriate parts of standard: IEC-60079 for gas hazards, and IEC-61241 for dust hazards.

SAFETY ALERT Safety Alert No. 395 Contact: David Nedorostek September 28, 2020 Phone: 787-1029 Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations Increase Risk of Fire BSEE offshore inspectors have noted a developing trend of safety issues related to improperly installed and maintained electrical equipment in hazardous locations1 on offshore facilities.

Identified safety issues related to electrical equipment include, but not limited to: o Fixed or temporary electrical equipment not suitable for the hazardous location, as rated by API RP 14F or 14FZ; o Electrical wiring not properly terminated nor color coded and, in some cases, not properly locked out; o Corrosion of electrical equipment components that can potentially compromise the material rating for the designated hazardous area rating; o Explosion-proof enclosures that have become corroded.

In some cases, these enclosures are missing bolts, which can compromise the integrity of the enclosure to contain an explosion; o Incorrectly rated electrical equipment to include non-rated portable electrical tools, nonexplosion-proof rated lighting, etc.

Used in hazardous areas; o Inadequately maintained electrical equipment in hazardous locations, such as damaged packing glands and seals, broken conduit, missing nameplates, mismatched color-coding, and exposed wiring; o Poorly maintained files or records for certifying electrical equipment use in a hazardous location.

Instances of incorrectly rated electrical equipment installed and/or used in hazardous locations on newer facilities have also been noted.

O If an operator follows guidance provided in API RP 505, ensure all electrical equipment installed in a hazardous location is designed in accordance with API RP 14FZ and is marked as such to display rated class, zone, AEx2 marking, protection technique, gas group and temperature code; 2 The AEx marking validates that electrical equipment as being tested for suitability and performance by a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory to performance safety standards.

BSEE only recognizes and accepts NRTL’s listed electrical equipment in hazardous locations.

Electrical Equipment In Hazardous Locations

Specifiers often make conservative, costly, errors when specifying electrical equipment for hazardous locations.

Electrical equipment designed for use in hazardous locations can be five to 15 times more expensive than unclassified electrical equipment, depending on the type.

Classified electrical equipment is equipment designed to be used in a specific hazardous location without presenting an ignition hazard.

“Intrinsically safe” electrical equipment is designed to limit the electrical energy flowing into the device so that in the event of a fault, the energy released is not sufficient to ignite a hazardous atmosphere.

The legislated requirements concerning electrical installations in hazardous locations are contained in the Canadian Electrical Code, which is Canada’s model code document.

NFPA 497 “Recommended Practice for the Classification of Flammable Liquids, Gases or Vapors and of Hazardous Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas” and NFPA 499 “Recommended Practice for the Classification of Combustible Dusts and of Hazardous Locations for Electrical Installations in Chemical Process Areas” address the classification of areas containing flammable liquids and those containing combustible dusts, respectively.

Figures contained in the Canadian Electrical Code show that the hazardous location surrounding an indoor vapour source extends to a height of 1.5 metres above the source and is a Zone 1 area where adequate ventilation is not provided.

Protection Of Electrical Equipment In Hazardous Areas

Pharmaceutical production facilities often have areas where solvents are used, and specialty chemical plants often have hazardous areas.

Flour mills, bakeries, sugar processors, timber processors, coal handling plant, paper mills and processors of metals such as aluminium and magnesium, for example, can all have areas where dust-laden atmospheres are potentially explosive, so it can be seen that the full spectrum of production and process plants that can contain hazardous areas is extremely broad. Regulations, gas groups and zones.

Specifiers of apparatus for hazardous areas need to know the likelihood of the explosive gas-air mixture being present, so three zones of risk are defined within the hazardous area.

The last of the popular protection methods for Zone 1 hazardous areas is over-pressurisation of the apparatus enclosure using clean air or an inert purge gas.

If the purge gas is to be clean air, this may have to be piped from some considerable distance away, and there is a need to install the pumping system outside the hazardous area, plus protected pipework must be run through the hazardous area to the apparatus.

Having outlined the alternative methods for protecting electrical apparatus in hazardous areas, it has to be pointed out that it is not always a case of using one or another in isolation; in some circumstances it is beneficial to combine methods to optimise the protection of an overall system.

“Nigel Picket, a Design Engineer at Servomex and an expert on intrinsic safety, comments:”Here in Europe we have the ATEX Directive, which includes specific requirements for apparatus sited in hazardous areas.

Post Idea #28: Cancun International Airport

Related Articles – Summarized

Official Cancun Airport Information Website

Cancun International Airport is one of the busiest airports in the Caribbean and the point of entry to the “Mundo Maya”.

Every year millions of people visit Cancun and the Riviera Maya and the number of visitors is expected to increase rapidly thanks to the new mega-resorts already in construction all over the area.

Major international airlines as well as charter airlines have direct or connecting flights to the airport every day.

Now more than ever Cancun Airport International is easy accessible from almost every major city in the world.

With first class shops, restaurants and services, Cancun Airport is one of the easiest most convenient airports to fly to/from in Mexico.

Just one year after Cancun opened its doors to travelers from all over the world, flights at the Cancun International Airport have increased from an average of 39 flights per day to 470 flights per day.

International flights to Cancun are available from 42 cities in the United States as well as Germany, France, United Kingdom, Portugal, Russia, Poland, Turkey, Bogota, Costa Rica, Panama, and Peru.

Official Cancun International Airport Information, Transportation, Arrivals & Departures

We refrain from providing any information on procedures at the Cancun Airport.

Cancun International Airport has 4 active terminals.

Terminal 1 of the Cancun International Airport has 7gates, which receive charter airline flights.

Terminal 2 of the Cancun International Airport has 22 gates.

Terminal 3 of the Cancun International Airport has 21 gates.

This terminal is the most recent since its inauguration was in 2017, making Cancun the first airport with four terminals in Mexico.

Yes, Cancun Airport is an International Airport and is regulated by international laws.

Arrivals, Departures, Transportation And Travel Info

Specific buses can take you to Cancun Downtown from most airport terminals.

These buses do not make stops but travel straight forward to Cancun Downtown.

If you are trying to reach Cancun Hotel Zone, consider getting to Downtown first and then take a bus to the hotel zone, or using private transportation instead. Private transportation gets directly to the doors of your accommodation.

Cancún International Airport

Cancun International Airport is located in Cancún, Quintana Roo, on the Caribbean coast of Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula.

It is Latin America’s third and Mexico’s second busiest airport, after Mexico City International Airport.

The airport has been expanding as it has become the second busiest point of entry by air to the country, after Mexico City International Airport.

The airport has four terminals, all of which are currently in use.

Terminal 1 has 7 gates: 1 through 7A. After suffering damage by Hurricane Wilma, it was temporarily closed for remodeling in order to accommodate charter airlines operating into the airport.

Terminal 2 at the Cancún Airport has 22 gates: A1 through A11 and B12 through B22. Most domestic airlines depart from here, along with all international flights to Central and South America and a few long-haul flights to Europe.

This made Cancún International the first airport in Mexico to have four terminals.

Cancun Airport Your Guide To Arriving And Departing This Airport

Cancun Airport is the gateway to Cancun and the Riviera Maya.

Cancun International Airport is the second busiest airport in Mexico.

The first is Cancun Airport transportation and how to get to and from the airport.

Cancun Airport transportation to and from the airport.

Tips for taking the bus from the Cancun Airport Purchasing your tickets at the airport is best.

Frequently asked questions about the Cancun Airport What hotels are close to the Cancun Airport?

There are not really any other good options close to the Cancun Airport unless you want to stay in the center of Cancun and that is about 15 more minutes away and an expensive taxi ride.

Important Tips Travelers Must Know When Arriving At The Cancun International Airport

Despite the rest of the world shutting down, not only has Cancun airport stayed wide open the entire time, but they’ve actually surpassed passenger numbers from 2019, breaking arrival records for incoming tourists.

This article breaks down simply what you’ll need to know about arriving at the Cancun International Airport in 2022, no matter if you’re a first-time visitor or a seasoned pro.

Tourists arriving at Cancun airport never have to show any proof of negative tests or vaccination, simply because Mexico does not have any entry requirements.

Regardless if this is your first visit to the Cancun Airport or you’ve come many times before, you’re going to want to pre-book your transportation from the airport to the hotel before your arrival.

What you should know about departing from the Cancun airport.

Once your vacation is done and it’s time to go back home, here is what you need to know about departing the Cancun Airport.

All international tourists are supposed to visit the Visitax site prior to arriving at the airport and pay the 224 pesos tax per person online.

Tulum’S New International Airport Is Set To Open In 2023

Tulum is set to open its brand new airport in 2023, according to the President of Mexico, Andrés Manuel López Obrador.

According to the President, 1800 hectares have been set aside to begin construction on the airport and he anticipates the site to break ground soon.

Located near Coba, the airport is set to host an International terminal with hopes that American crowds and beyond can find themselves relaxing in the town much quicker than in previous years.

It is expected that the new airport will also function as a station on the new Maya Train system.

Tulum will reap the benefits of Cancun-based tourists visiting their fast-growing town, and Cancun will also enjoy the reverse.

With both projects set to be completed in 2023, Tulum will be anticipating further growth.

Those hoping to visit Tulum in the near future will still need to use the Cancun International Airport.

Post Idea #29: Bicycle brake

Related Articles – Summarized

Bike/Bicycle Brakes, Levers & Pads

Shop the best prices from top brands on new bike brake parts for your road, mountain, electric, or city ride’s DIY overhaul, upgrade, or installation.

New pads, cables, rotors, and everything else you need.

Bicycle Brake

Most bicycle brake systems consist of three main components: a mechanism for the rider to apply the brakes, such as brake levers or pedals; a mechanism for transmitting that signal, such as Bowden cables, hydraulic hoses, rods, or the bicycle chain; and the brake mechanism itself, a caliper or drum, to press two or more surfaces together in order to convert, via friction, kinetic energy of the bike and rider into thermal energy to be dissipated.

In the United States, the coaster brake was the most commonly fitted brake throughout the first half of the 20th century, often comprising the only braking system on the bicycle.

The spoon brake, or plunger brake was probably the first type of bicycle brake and precedes the pneumatic tyre.

The caliper brake is a class of cable-actuated brake in which the brake mounts to a single point above the wheel, theoretically allowing the arms to auto-centre on the rim.

The cable from the brake lever pulls upwards on the straddle cable, causing the brake arms to rotate up and inward thus squeezing the rim between the brake pads.

The mechanical advantage of the brake lever must be matched to the brake it is connected to in order for the rider to have sufficient leverage and travel to actuate the brake.

In Belgium, Australia, Germany, the UK, France, Poland, Japan, Denmark, Sweden and Finland, it is illegal to ride a bicycle without brakes on a public road. A braking system has been fitted to selected bicycle models whereby a single lever operates first the rear brake then the front brake and it is claimed this reduces the risk of some braking-related accidents including going over the handlebars.

Bicycle Brakes And Brake Parts

“Every year bikes change, styles and trends evolve, old bikes are in need of repairs and new bikes are waiting for that personal touch. We provide the means to keep your bike on the road and fun to ride!”.

“Jagwire is the number-one cable and housing brand in the world. You’ll find Jagwire cables and housings on Giant, Specialized, Felt, Trek, BMC, Cannondale, Norco, Scott, Globe, KHS, Bianchi, Ridley and hundreds more international brands. Jagwire invites you to take your bike beyond ordinary in a blaze of light, color and texture with our family of integrated control system products. From a rainbow of cable housings and brake pads to stylish shifter mounts, Jagwire helps you transform your ride into a rolling gallery of self-expression.”

See all Full Speed Ahead. Driven by the vision of becoming a worldwide known manufacturer of bicycle components, DT Swiss expanded its product range over the years.

Surly is a leading manufacturer of bicycle frames, and was one of the first Fat Bike manufacturers.

“Park Tool has been manufacturing bicycle specific tools since 1963. Based out of St. Paul Minnesota, we are the world’s largest bicycle tool manufacturer. A long-term dedication to quality, innovation, and customer service has made Park Tool the first choice of professional and home bicycle mechanics around the world.”

“W-T-P have always taken a lot of pride in ourselves and in building bikes that are capable of taking everything a rider throws at them. We are constantly at the forefront of developing and manufacturing materials that will with stand hard and furious riding and our designs are made to combat common breaks and bends.”

“Ritchey bicycle components have been raced to victory in some of the biggest cycling competitions in the world including the UCI World Championships, the Tour de France and the Olympics and it all began in a simple garage in Menlo Park, California with Tom Ritchey.'”.

Different Types Of Bike Brakes Explained

This primer on the different types of bike brakes will help you know where to look if yours are malfunctioning, and how to describe their components when you communicate issues for a mechanic to address.

Brakes are operated by the rider applying pressure to either brake levers on the handlebars or drum brakes connected to the bike pedals.

Rim brakes are the lightest option because they require no additional braking surface to be added to the bike.

The advantage of drum brakes is that they are more reliable than rim brakes in rain and dirt, especially when they are internal.

Drum brakes are heavier than rim and disc brakes and have a more complex working system.

Mechanical disc brakes are nearly identical to traditional rim brakes in the first two pieces of the braking system: a squeeze of the hand lever transmits the signal through cables.

The kinds of brakes cyclists choose tend to be based on budget, the types of bike they own, the kind of riding they want to do and the level of maintenance required to keep riding smoothly, safely and squeak-free.

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