31 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-13

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Post Idea #1: Element management system

Related Articles – Summarized

Element Management System

The InnoMedia EMS provides a web-based and customizable dashboard interface, allowing the system administrator to have a quick overview of the whole system’s statistical data and to query individual device status and current configuration information.

The InnoMedia Element Management System is a feature-rich, highly scalable, and highly reliable VoIP device network element management system.

The EMS is designed to achieve not only Auto-Provisioning of remote devices, but also reliable Device Management.

As a VoIP device element management system: Provides a network view of device distribution.

The EMS’ device information summary page provides a useful overall summary of device configuration and status without having to access the device’s own GUI. Temporal Analysis of Voice Quality.

Define protocol, format and security method to use… Provisioning Profile can then be assigned to specific Region, Device Type or even single Device.

Master DB used to store static data such as device configuration and system settings.

EMS Domain Specific Tasks The following are examples of the specific tasks that are in the domain of an EMS. Installing the NE Load the tables and parameters to install a new NE. Autodiscover the NE equipment and populate the EMS database.

Check for loss of connectivity between the NE and the EMS. If connection is lost, when it is reestablished, the EMS resynchronizes its database with the current state of the NE. To ensure ongoing operational integrity, the EMS periodically resynchronizes its database with the NE using the autodiscovery mechanism.

EMS Domain-Specific Tasks Following are examples of the specific tasks that are in the domain of an EMS: Fault Isolation Higher-level NML fault-management systems and SML troubleticketing systems provide a first alert and generally point to the source of a problem.

Single screen multivendor cross-domain management- requires the EMS to send over the northbound interface, the information required by an NMS to provide integrated multivendor end-to-end management from a technology and NE-vendor independent human interface; for those functions that are best provided by the EMS interface, a cut-through mechanism enables NMS NOC technicians to open a window on their NMS workstation screen directly into the EMS; this window can be on the screen at the same time as the related NMS screen.

The specific features of the four-function EMS components that are required; different providers of EMS software offer different levels of functionality.

Categories of EMS Software Providers There are several categories of EMS software providers.

EMS selection teams should determine the precise current offerings and planned enhancements for each EMS provider they are considering.

Element Management System

An element management system consists of systems and applications for managing network elements on the network element-management layer of the Telecommunications Management Network model.

As recommended by ITU-T, the element management system’s key functionality is divided into five key areas – fault, configuration, accounting, performance and security.

Northbound, the EMS interfaces to network management systems and or service management systems depending on the deployment scenario.

An element management system manages one or more of a specific type of telecommunications network element.

To support management of the traffic between itself and other NEs, the EMS communicates upward to higher-level network management systems as described in the telecommunications management network layered model.

NMSs provides an integrated system for sharing device information across management applications, automation of device management tasks, visibility into the health and capability of the network, and identification and localization of network trouble.

By using common centralized systems and network-inventory knowledge, an NMS delivers a unique platform of cross-functional management capabilities that reduces network administration overhead. An EMS is a carrier class management solution.

Element Management System, Yang Management, EMS Software

Next generation EMS/NMS worries keeping you awake at night? Next generation EMS/NMS worries keeping you awake at night? NetMan® is an Element Management System that is designed to get your EMS to the market quickly and cost-effectively.

The NetMan platform coupled with Dhyan’s cost competitive services team is the ideal combination that you need to get your EMS to the market quickly and cost effectively.

Dhyan’s NetMan is a world-class EMS that is very flexible and can be easily customized to deliver an EMS that will help you differentiate your device in the market by showcasing its unique features.

Since NetMan has many of the standard EMS functionality prebuilt, by using NetMan to develop your EMS, you can…. significantly lower your EMS development expense.

Since the EMS is a prerequisite for your customer to place a volume order, you cannot afford to miss the…. customer deadline while you are anxious to get your EMS developed.

Dhyan’s professional services team has many years of experience in customizing NetMan and can deliver your EMS on schedule – thereby minimizing the risk of missing the customer deadline.

“After evaluating several companies in the EMS space, we chose to select Dhyan. Your NetMan® software framework delivered on its promise”.

EMS Management Software

EMS management software is an Element Management System is based on SNMP protocol with C/S architecture integrated device management platform.

C-Data EMS management software helps to configure and manage OLT & ONU FTTx products.

Element Management System

NetOutlook EMS supports advanced alarm management by detecting faults, failures and threshold crossing events in real-time.

NetOutlook EMS provides complete configuration capabilities of service parameters, traffic management, SLA assurance and security.

NetOutlook EMS provides a complete infobase of the discovered iConverter NIDs in a tree view as well as geolocated map view.

NetOutlook EMS supports real-time monitoring and historical reporting of SLA-impacting Key Performance Indicators.

Designed to be a standalone management system or part of management suite, NetOutlook EMS supports standard Northbound Interfaces for cross-application integration with existing Billing Support Systems, Operational Support Systems and umbrella applications.

NetOutlook EMS features automated backup and system errors logs.

NetOutlook EMS provides centralized management for iConverter GM3 NIDs and GM4 NIDs.

Residential Property Management

Element has assembled a first-rate team of property management professionals to form its executive team.

With combined property management experience of more than 85 years, this team has a proven track record of attaining optimum results in property performance while exceeding the expectations of our clients with exceptionally high responsive service.

Our property management software of choice is AMSI, which is a web-based property management and accounting software.

Skilled at directing management of condo reversion projects, we recognize the property’s unique position within the market and understand the necessity to swiftly stabilize the property through increased occupancy and income.

LV, as President and Chief Executive Officer of Element National Management, is responsible for targeted growth in emerging or defined markets and oversees the day-to-day activities as well as manages the financial performance of the management company.

Karen has successfully trained and led her group through numerous property transitions as well as coordinating property refinances for the management team, while continuing to produce and review monthly financial reporting to owners and investors.

She has successfully directed management operations for property acquisitions and dispositions.

Post Idea #2: Ice protection system

Related Articles – Summarized

Ice protection systems Providing mission and safety-critical ice protection system solutions Key features Overview Very high efficiency and low thermal losses allows the system to be passively cooled With over 15 years’ experience, Ultra is the market leader in Designs to cater to AC and DC power supplies Can operate as an anti-ice or de-ice system for the Aerospace industry.

We have teamed successfully with heater Very high reliability proven in service Systems for aerodynamic surface de-icing, and engine inlets Precise control of heated surface temperatures – only heat as much as needed Heater mat technology can be shaped and fitted to complex geometries Can be used to detect ice Fast over-current detection protects the structure Fault tolerant designs ultra.

Group developing innovative electro-thermal Ice Protection System solutions mat providers, to provide a complete ice protection system capability.

Our systems are designed to operate in either an anti-icing, de-icing or hybrid mode.

We cater to a range of ice protection requirements; from simple, time/voltage, on-off control through to very complex multi-zone, closed loop feedback control.

Our ice protection systems Tailored to your needs: Interfaces Ultra’s Ice Protection Systems can be tailored to your ice protection and safety case requirements.

Ultra can provide dynamic harness solutions for applications where the heated elements are on moving parts of the structure.

TKS® Ice Protection

Total airframe ice protection across all aerodynamic surfaces.

Seamlessly integrated with your aircraft, our optimal ice protection system design preserves aerodynamic performance and premium appearance.

Fit your aircraft with the most reliable ice protection system on the market.

TKS® guards the surface of your aircraft from freezing by evenly dispersing a freezing point depressant solution across the aircraft frame, preventing the accretion of ice.

The system is designed to be anti-icing but is also capable of de-icing, as TKS® fluid chemically breaks the bond between ice and frame, allowing the system to shed any accumulated ice and prevent any ice build-up thereafter.

TKS 406B is the preferred ice protection fluid for general aviation.

Benefits of TKS® 406B in-flight ice protection fluid Complies to DTD 406-B specifications.

Ice Detection And Protection Systems

Collins Aerospace is a recognized leader in ice detection systems for all-weather aircraft operation.

In conjunction with the FAA and aircraft manufacturers, we have pioneered the development of primary ice detectors.

Collins Aerospace vibrating probe ice detectors are the only systems that are FAA certified for primary ice detection use on commercial transport airplanes.

A version of our magnetostrictive technology is specifically tailored for use in Rotor Ice Protection Systems for helicopters, providing liquid water content information to modulate the ice protection based on the severity of the icing encounter.

These devices are certified primary for automatic control of the RIPS. Our ice detection products offer flexible, robust designs to detect ice in a wide range of icing environments – not only for aircraft but also ground-based applications such as wind turbines and airport weather stations.

Our family of ice detection technologies allows us to optimize the solution for your specific need.

Reduced crew workload. Prolonged life of the aircraft ice protection system, reducing maintenance costs.

Ice Protection System

Aircraft system which prevents the formation of ice on outside surfaces during flight.

In aeronautics, ice protection systems keep atmospheric moisture from accumulating on aircraft surfaces, such as wings, propellers, rotor blades, engine intakes, and environmental control intakes.

An anti-icing, de-icing, or ice protection system either prevents formation of ice, or enables the aircraft to shed the ice before it becomes dangerous.

The rapid change in shape of the boot is designed to break the adhesive force between the ice and the rubber, and allow the ice to be carried away by the air flowing past the wing.

Sometimes called a weeping wing, running wet, or evaporative system, these systems use a deicing fluid-typically based on ethylene glycol or isopropyl alcohol to prevent ice forming and to break up accumulated ice on critical surfaces of an aircraft.

Hybrid systems have also been developed that combine the EMEDS with heating elements, where a heater prevents ice accumulation on the leading edge of the airfoil and the EMED system removes accumulations aft of the heated portion of the airfoil.

The term is not well defined but generally includes three properties: low adhesion between ice and the surface, prevention of ice formation, and a repellent effect on supercooled droplets.

Aircraft Ice Protection Systems

Aircraft and engine ice protection systems are generally of two designs: either they remove ice after it has formed, or they prevent it from forming.

The principal drawback to the de-icing system is that, by default, the aircraft will operate with ice accretions for the majority of the time in icing conditions.

The manufacturer may recommend that the wing thermal ice protection system be selected on when ice accretion has been detected, thus initially bypassing the anti-ice capability.

On the other hand, the same airplane may use a thermal anti-ice system for the protection of the wings, but the manufacturer may recommend that the system not be activated until ice accretion is noted on some representative surface.

Any time a design utilizes an ice detection system as a primary and automatic means of operating the ice protection system, the system becomes a de-ice system.

Once the ice has been removed, the system automatically terminates, and awaits another ice detection trigger before cycling again.

A phenomenon which was thought to be occasionally observed with these systems was known as “Ice bridging”, in which the boot expanded under the ice and stretched it without breaking its structure.

Post Idea #3: Halliburton

Related Articles – Summarized


In 1951, Halliburton first appeared in Europe as Halliburton Italiana SpA, a wholly owned subsidiary in Italy.

In 1976, Halliburton established the Halliburton Energy Institute in Duncan, Oklahoma, to provide an industry forum for disseminating technical information.

In 1989, Halliburton acquired logging and perforating specialist company Gearhart Industries and combined it with its subsidiary Welex to form Halliburton Logging Services.

In the early 1990s, Halliburton was found to be in violation of federal trade barriers in Iraq and Libya, having sold these countries dual-use oil drilling equipment and, through its former subsidiary, Halliburton Logging Services, sending six pulse neutron generators to Libya.

The Wall Street Journal reported in 2001 that a subsidiary of Halliburton Energy Services called Halliburton Products and Services Ltd. opened an office in Tehran.

In 2008, Halliburton agreed to outsource its mission-critical information technology infrastructure to a Dallas/Fort Worth Metroplex data center operated by CyrusOne Networks LLC. On May 14, 2010, President Barack Obama said in an interview with CNN that “You had executives of BP and Transocean and Halliburton falling over each other to point the finger of blame at somebody else” when referring to the congressional hearings held during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

On November 17, 2014, Halliburton and Baker Hughes jointly announced a definitive agreement under which Halliburton will, subject to the conditions set forth in the agreement, acquire Baker Hughes in a stock and cash transaction valued at $34.6 billion.

Halliburton Co. Stock Quote

Halliburton Co. engages in the provision of services and products to the energy industry related to the exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas.

It operates through the following segments: Completion and Production and Drilling and Evaluation.

The Completion and Production segment delivers cementing, stimulation, intervention, pressure control, specialty chemicals, artificial lift and completion services.

The Drilling and Evaluation segment provides field and reservoir modeling, drilling, evaluation and wellbore placement solutions that enable customers to model, measure and optimize their well construction activities.

Richard W. Halliburton

Richard W. Halliburton passed from his family’s lives on Wednesday, March 2, 2022, at the age of 82.

Richard was born Dec. 29, 1939, and grew up in Floresville, Texas.

Although Richard came from humble beginnings, he devoted his life to continuous generosity, teaching, and care of his family.

Affectionately called “Do-Dad” by his two sons, Richard spent his life in constant movement, never ceasing in his pursuits to provide the best life possible for his family.

Richard adored his wife Shirley, the light of his life, whom he always cherished throughout every moment spent together.

He was preceded in death by his parents, Wilbur and Dorothy Halliburton; his daughter, Sharon Halliburton; and his sister-in-law, Jean Halliburton.

Richard is survived by his loving wife, Shirley Halliburton; his two sons, Richard W. Halliburton Jr. and wife Gale and Bryan Halliburton and wife Sandra; his four grandchildren, Sharon, Brandon, Chris, and Derek; siblings Steve Halliburton, Elaine Rust and husband Lloyd, and Jane Halliburton; and numerous extended family members and friends.

History & Facts

Halliburton, in full Halliburton Co., also called New Method Oil Well Cementing Co. or Halliburton Oil Well Cementing Co., American oil-field services, engineering, and construction company that operates worldwide.

In need of additional capital to finance expansion, Halliburton incorporated his company in 1924 and brought in several large petroleum businesses as joint owners.

The following year HOWCO shortened its name to Halliburton Co. to reflect the expanded scope of its operations.

Dick Cheney, who served as U.S. secretary of defense in the administration of George H.W. Bush, became chairman and chief executive of Halliburton Co. in 1995.

Halliburton, principally through its KBR subsidiary, received bigger U.S. government reconstruction contracts than any other company for work in the two countries.

Halliburton received more unwanted attention in connection with the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

On April 20, 2010, a surge of gas tore through a concrete core Halliburton had recently installed in BP’s Deepwater Horizon oil rig off the coast of Louisiana.

Join Halliburton at EGYPS from Feb 14-16 2022 to learn how our digital solutions and engineered technologies can help maximize your asset value.

Halliburton delivers unparalleled performance and solutions to yield the greatest production of your oil and gas assets.

Ly/2YTX5kU to learn how Halliburton can help optimize completion performance, while raising the bar in efficiency and service quality.

Ly/3niVqyPThrough collaborative engineering, automation, and remote operations, Halliburton helps plan, design, and execute the optimal well.

Halliburton will work with Energean to deliver exploration, appraisal, and development wells offshore Israel.

Halliburton worked with Pason Systems to overcome challenging targets from the NOC to improve on-bottom ROP, optimize rig performance and reduce average well delivery time.

Bg/3xTFaav”Our second quarter performance demonstrates that our strategy is working well and Halliburton’s strategic priorities are driving value in this transition year,” commented Jeff Miller, Halliburton chairman, president and CEO. Read the full press release > bit.


Petrobel selects Halliburton to deploy cloud solution for E&P applications.

Halliburton has announced that Petrobel, a joint venture between Eni and the Egyptian General Petroleum Corporation, has awarded a contract to deploy iEnergy Stack, Halliburton’s cloud solution that runs on-premise, to manage petrotechnical software applications.

Post Idea #4: University of Pennsylvania

Related Articles – Summarized

University Of Pennsylvania

…. Professors and students reflect on 50 years of Black studies at Penn.

The Weitzman School of Design, in association with Southeast University and Tongji University, presents a two-part exhibition of China’s shifting design practices over a century in which many of its leading practitioners and scholars were educated at Penn.

No Ocean Between Us. “No Ocean Between Us: Art of Asian Diasporas in Latin America & The Caribbean,1945- Present” is an exhibition at Arthur Ross Gallery that features modern and contemporary art by Latin American and Caribbean artists of Asian descent.

The symposium will occur as an online lecture series on Wednesdays from February 2 to March 23.

Your support ignites change locally and globally, transforming Penn into a powerful engine that advances knowledge for society’s greatest good.

The Penn Compact 2022 motivates community members to innovate, be radically inclusive, and positively impact their local, national, and global communities.

A look at a few of our big picture priorities that improve Penn as we create knowledge to benefit the world.

Careers At Penn

Penn’s innovative schools, centers, and divisions offer a vast array of positions in a broad range of fields.

Penn is the largest private employer in Philadelphia.

Here you can find new opportunities as your career develops-from your first job out of school to your first leadership role, and all points in between.

You can discover new work settings as your goals evolve, and even change professions.

We’re famous for research and education, but did you know Penn also offers positions in areas such as financial management, hospitality, transportation, real estate development, investments, public safety, fundraising, marketing, communications, and information technology?

We are regularly ranked as one of the best places to work in IT, and our Office of Development and Alumni Relations is one of the premier organizations in the industry.

If you have a passion for excellence in education, research, or service to the community, Penn is the right choice for any point in your professional journey.

University Of Pennsylvania

Penn has three claims to being the first university in the United States, according to university archives director Mark Frazier Lloyd: the 1765 founding of the first medical school in America made Penn the first institution to offer both “Undergraduate” and professional education; the 1779 charter made it the first American institution of higher learning to take the name of “University”; and existing colleges were established as seminaries.

The roughly 300-acre The Penn Campus Arboretum at the University of Pennsylvania encompasses the entire University City campus.

UPHS and the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania together comprise Penn Medicine, a clinical and research entity of the University of Pennsylvania.

U.S. News & World Report’s 2020 rankings place Penn 8th among national universities in the United States and Center for World University Rankings’ 2020/2021 survey also ranks Penn as the 8th best University in the world.

In their 2021 edition, Penn was ranked 10th in the nation by QS. In the 2020 edition, Penn was ranked 15th in the world by the QS World University Rankings and in 2019, 17th by the Academic Ranking of World Universities and 12th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings.

Mary Alice Bennett, M.D., Ph.D., and Anna H. Johnson were in 1880 the first women to enroll in a Penn degree-granting program and Bennett was the first woman to receive a degree from Penn, which was a Ph.D. Julian Abele in 1902 was the first African American to graduate from University of Pennsylvania School of Design and was elected as the president of Penn’s Architectural Society.

Penn women’s rugby team is coached, as of 2020, by Adam Dick, a 300-level certified coach with over 15 years of rugby coaching experience including being the first coach of the first women’s rugby team at the University of Arizona and who was a four-year starter at University of Arizona men’s first XV rugby team and Philly women’s player Kate Hallinan.

Three Consolidating State Schools To Become ‘Commonwealth University Of Pennsylvania’

Three consolidating Pennsylvania state universities have a new name as they become a northeastern regional campus for students enrolling this year.

The merging schools – Bloomsburg, Mansfield, and Lock Haven universities – will form Commonwealth University of Pennsylvania, following unanimous approval from the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education Board of Governors on Wednesday.

The new title still needs approval from the Middle States Commission on Higher Education, which handles college and university accreditation.

The merger also includes California, Clarion, and Edinboro universities, which were renamed Pennsylvania Western University.

Each school will retain its identity and reflect the surrounding community, but Commonwealth University of Pennsylvania will help identify the regional campus.

Bloomsburg University President Bashar Hanna, who helped lead rebranding efforts, said each school will retain its mascot.

“We will preserve the founding principles of each campus and continue to provide vibrant, on-campus student experiences while serving as pillars of our three communities,” Hanna said.

Pa.’S College Problems Not Solved By Commonwealth University

State-related universities such as Pitt and Penn State have some of the highest public school tuition in the country.

It has led to things such as layoffs at Indiana University of Pennsylvania and the Frankensteining of six universities into two consolidated learning institutions in an attempt to save money and share burdens.

In 2021, the universities in California, Clarion and Edinboro announced they would take on the new name Pennsylvania Western University, with campuses that identify their old names including PennWest California and PennWest Clarion.

They will be the Commonwealth University of Pennsylvania, but you won’t ever know that.

They will continue to go by Bloomsburg University, Lock Haven University and Mansfield University, using the old logos and colors of each.

Instead of one state organization that tries to manage 14 schools trying to do their own thing, the Commonwealth University becomes a microcosm of it with multiple campuses struggling to maintain their identities.

To get a happily ever after ending, the state system and the Commonwealth University should follow Penn-West’s example and fuse one identity while still serving their local communities.

Indiana University Of Pennsylvania Lowers Undergraduate Tuition

Indiana University of Pa. lowering undergraduate tuition.

Indiana University of Pennsylvania will lower tuition for some in-state undergraduate students, starting this fall.

Annual tuition will drop by about 20% for students who take 15 credits per semester, and undergrads who take 18 credits will save roughly 32% annually, IUP said.

In 2016, the university implemented pricing pilot programs that charged in-state undergraduate tuition at a different rate than the standard in-state rate.

The university determined it was in the best interest of their students to eliminate the pilot program and return to the standard rates.

The board of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education approved the plan at a meeting Wednesday.

State universities merging: New name approved for three Pa. state-owned universities.

University Of Pennsylvania Graduate School Of Education

At Penn GSE, students and faculty enjoy an Ivy League environment that supports both practical knowledge building and high-quality research.

Our alumni are recognized as some of the world’s most influential education leaders, and our distinguished professors are pacesetters in their fields.

“If you are ready to challenge yourself, your preconceived notions, and the field, then Penn GSE is the place for you.”

From research centers to faculty projects and initiatives, Penn GSE has a legacy of innovation in education.

Our wide-ranging work is all aimed at powering opportunities through education.

“I’m a lifelong educator, and I believe education really does transform lives. I see the proof every day in the cutting-edge research of Penn GSE’s faculty, and the exponential impact our alumni are having in schools and communities in Philadelphia and across the world.”

In keeping with Dean Grossman’s vision of access and inclusion, practical knowledge, powerful partnerships, and innovation for impact, Penn GSE is unleashing the power of possibility.

Post Idea #5: Johns Hopkins University

Related Articles – Summarized

Johns Hopkins University

Video footage: A campus bench with golden fall leaves; Masked students and an instructor look at an artifact; A student utilizes a prosthetic arm in the lab; Masked students converse at a table; A masked instructor stands and speaks to students; A student a cappella group performs on stage while masked; Students stretch on yoga mats; Close-up of a researcher in a lab examining plants and taking notes.

U.S. and global COVID-19 tracking maps and related information from Johns Hopkins University.

Ukraine’s resilience, Russia’s miscalculation Published.

Johns Hopkins experts on foreign policy and geopolitics convene for panel discussion of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine and the international response.

SNF Agora Institute launches debate initiative Published.

Johns Hopkins University public health experts offer insights into what will signal that SARS-CoV-2 is moving from pandemic to endemic.

Our nine schools prepare students to excel in today’s world.

Coronavirus Information

All eligible Johns Hopkins University faculty, staff, postdoctoral fellows, and undergraduate and graduate students who will be working or studying at a U.S.-based university campus or worksite will be required to get either the Pfizer or Moderna COVID booster shot by Feb. 1.

Emerging evidence has shown that immunity to COVID wanes over time, particularly against the omicron variant, but that booster shots of either the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine provide significant additional protection.

We believe this step will help prevent disruptions to our plans for an in-person spring semester.

Upload proof of your booster shot to the Vaccine Management System now or as soon as you’ve had your shot.

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center

The New York Times: The C.D.C no longer recommends universal contact tracing.

Almost two years after the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention called for 100,000 contact tracers to contain the coronavirus, the C.D.C. said this week that it no longer recommends universal case investigation and contact tracing.

Johns Hopkins University

The Johns Hopkins University is a private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

The Johns Hopkins University Press, founded in 1878, is the oldest American university press in continuous operation.

Completed construction on the Homewood campus has included a new biomedical engineering building in the Johns Hopkins University Department of Biomedical Engineering, a new library, a new biology wing, an extensive renovation of the flagship Gilman Hall, and the reconstruction of the main university entrance.

The Johns Hopkins entity is structured as two corporations, the university and The Johns Hopkins Health System, formed in 1986.

Over time, applications to Johns Hopkins University have risen steadily; as a result, the selectivity of Johns Hopkins University has also increased.

Early Decision is an option at Johns Hopkins University for students who wish to demonstrate that the university is their first choice.

The Johns Hopkins University Press is the publishing division of the Johns Hopkins University.

The Johns Hopkins University School Of Medicine

“Having people who looked like me as my doctors and as my mentors was a huge influence,” says Ubah Jimale Dimbil, a second year emergency medicine resident at The Johns Hopkins Hospital.

Watch this video to hear some of your colleagues reflect on the importance of diversity in medicine.

JHU Office Of The President

Through his leadership, President Daniels has played a key role in strengthening and expanding Johns Hopkins’ community engagement in Baltimore and beyond; championing individual excellence and access in higher education; nurturing collaboration that spans disciplines and reflects the diversity of ideas, experiences and thought that fuel innovation; and arguing for the indispensable role that universities like ours can and must play in fostering democratic societies.

As President Daniels often says, Johns Hopkins is not only in Baltimore, but truly and proudly of Baltimore, and the success and well-being of Johns Hopkins is inextricably linked to the success and wellbeing of the city we call home.

Under Daniels’ leadership, the university has meaningfully deepened and expanded Johns Hopkins’ commitment to our neighbors and communities in Baltimore through the creation of far-reaching economic, educational and healthcare initiatives in partnership with Baltimore residents and city leaders.

As America’s first research university, Johns Hopkins has defined the modern American institution of higher education for almost a century and a half.

Under President Daniels’ leadership, the university has worked to foster the excellence of our faculty, students and staff and has dramatically increased accessibility for talented students from all backgrounds.

Since 2010, the share of the global population living in democracies has declined from 52% to 32%. President Daniels has strongly advocated for the indispensable role universities play in democracy through the promotion of social mobility, civic education, public trust in facts and expertise, and engagement across difference.

From the 2017 launch of the SNF Agora Institute to the inaugural Democracy Day for incoming students in 2021, he has championed actions and policies aimed at renewing universities’ compact with democracy.

School Of Advanced International Studies

44% work in the private sector, including firms like Deloitte, Google, JPMorgan Chase & Co. and McKinsey & Company.

35% work in the public or multilateral sectors with organizations such as the European Central Bank, Federal Reserve Board, US Department of State, International Monetary Fund, and the United Nations.

16% work in the nonprofit sector with organizations such as the Center for Economic and Policy Research, European Climate Foundation, and National Democratic Institute.

Post Idea #6: Nurse education

Related Articles – Summarized

Nursing Education Center

The latest information on nursing schools, degrees, programs, licensure, and more.

Find the right degree, plan your next career move, or just learn about your education options.

Furthering your education can mean more opportunity, higher salary, and greater flexibility, so find the best option to start or advance your nursing career today.

Educational Requirements To Be A Registered Nurse

Becoming a registered nurse takes study and practical experience.

Let’s take a look at what it takes to become a registered nurse.

There are three main ways to become an RN. You can earn a bachelor’s degree, an associate degree or a diploma in nursing.

Once you’ve received your degree in nursing, the next step is to obtain licensure from your state to become a registered nurse.

In order to do so, you must pass the National Council Licensure Examination Registered Nurse examination before being allowed to join a healthcare facility in a professional capacity.

Becoming a Successful RN. Merely deciding to do a nursing course is no guarantee that you will go on to have a successful nursing career.

Are you interested in becoming a registered nurse? If you want to earn your Associate of Applied Science in Nursing, consider ECPI University for your education.

Nurse Education Today

Nurse Education Today is the leading international journal providing a forum for the publication of high quality original research, review and debate in the discussion of nursing, midwifery and interprofessional health care education, publishing papers which contribute to the advancement of educational theory and pedagogy that support the evidence-based practice for educationalists worldwide.

The journal stimulates and values critical scholarly debate on issues that have strategic relevance for leaders of health care education.

The journal publishes the highest quality scholarly contributions reflecting the diversity of people, health and education systems worldwide, by publishing research that employs rigorous methodology as well as by publishing papers that highlight the theoretical underpinnings of education and systems globally.

The journal will publish papers that show depth, rigour, originality and high standards of presentation, in particular, work that is original, analytical and constructively critical of both previous work and current initiatives.

Original research, systematic and scholarly reviews, and critical papers which will stimulate debate on research, policy, theory or philosophy of nursing and related health care education, and which will meet and develop the journal’s high academic and ethical standards.

The journal employs a double blind peer review process for all submissions and its current Impact Factor is 3.442 making it one of the leading nursing education journals.

Nurse Education

Nurse education consists of the theoretical and practical training provided to nurses with the purpose to prepare them for their duties as nursing care professionals.

Most countries offer nurse education courses that can be relevant to general nursing or to specialized areas including mental health nursing, pediatric nursing and post-operatory nursing.

In November 1955, a World Health Organization study group on the education of nurses met in Brussels and made several recommendations, including that “At least one experimental school of nursing be set up in each country.” In the UK, the first department of Nursing Studies at the University of Edinburgh was established in 1956, with a five-year integrated degree programme introduced in 1960.

Nursing education at the university expanded greatly in 1996 when a new School of Nursing and Midwifery was created by transferring the Manchester College of Midwifery and Nursing into the university’s Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Nursing.

These same nurse leaders also established what would become the National League for Nursing Education and helped in establishing the American Nurses Association.

Pre-registration nurse training and education in the UK is now via a bachelor’s degree or a 2 year pre-registration Master’s degree at level 7, following the phasing-out of the Diploma of Higher Education in Nursing which was previously offered at universities and colleges.

Once a student successfully graduates from the Diploma of Nursing they will be qualified as an EN. Overall, there are alternative pathways available however an RN holds higher qualifications than an EN. There are key similarities of an RN and an EN as they both desire to fulfil their dreams of becoming a nurse and they must be registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Board of Australia, by complying with the Board’s registration standards.

Post Idea #7: Real-time polymerase chain reaction

Related Articles – Summarized

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

A real time PCR assay for the peanut allergen Ara h 2 has been developed with a sensitivity of 10 copies per reaction of the target gene ;.

4.1 IntroductionQuantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method by which the amount of the PCR product can be determined, in real-time, and is very useful for investigating gene expression.

Q-PCR does not rely on any downstream analysis such as electrophoresis or densitometry and is extremely versatile, enabling multiple PCR targets to be assessed simultaneously but can sometimes be a little trickier to set up than “Standard” PCR; however, if you are sufficiently familiar with “Standard” PCR then you are in a good position to successfully undertake Q-PCR.Read full chapter.

Internal standards are not required to quantify the amount of DNA or RNA present in real-time PCR. The ability to quantify the amplified DNA during the exponential phase of the PCR, when none of the reaction components are in limited amounts, results in improved precision in quantification of target sequences.

The TaqMan method of real-time PCR is described in Section 8.4.16.Significant advantages of real-time PCR include its ability to measure DNA concentrations over a large range, its sensitivity, its ability to process multiple samples simultaneously, and its ability to provide immediate information.

3.2.3 Quantitative PCRQuantitative PCR or real-time PCR is an advanced reaction that can amplify and quantify or detect the target DNA simultaneously, thus, providing an advantage of observing the effect of environmental conditions on the microbe.

In these procedures, HSV-infected cultures are exposed to dilutions of antiviral drugs and the viral yield was determined by measuring the HSV DNA levels in culture supernatants using real-time PCR. The 50% inhibitory concentration was reported as the concentration of antiviral drug that reduced the number of HSV-1 DNA copies by 50%. In all of these studies, the ID50 values derived from real-time PCR assays showed good correlation with results obtained from traditional plaque reduction assays.

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments guidelines propose that the abbreviation qPCR be used for quantitative real-time PCR and that RT-qPCR be used for reverse transcription-qPCR. The acronym “RT-PCR” commonly denotes reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and not real-time PCR, but not all authors adhere to this convention.

The polymerase chain reaction is a common method for amplifying DNA; for RNA-based PCR the RNA sample is first reverse-transcribed to complementary DNA with reverse transcriptase.

In order to amplify small amounts of DNA, the same methodology is used as in conventional PCR using a DNA template, at least one pair of specific primers, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, a suitable buffer solution and a thermo-stable DNA polymerase.

This measurement is made after each amplification cycle, and this is the reason why this method is called real time PCR. Quantitative PCR and DNA microarray are modern methodologies for studying gene expression.

If subsequent electrophoresis is required it is only necessary to test those samples that real time PCR has shown to be doubtful and/or to ratify the results for samples that have tested positive for a specific determinant.

Unlike end point PCR, real time PCR allows monitoring of the desired product at any point in the amplification process by measuring fluorescence.

Theoretical analysis of polymerase chain reaction, from which MAK2 was derived, has revealed that amplification efficiency is not constant throughout PCR. While MAK2 quantification provides reliable estimates of target DNA concentration in a sample under normal qPCR conditions, MAK2 does not reliably quantify target concentration for qPCR assays with competimeters.

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments guidelines propose that the abbreviation qPCR be used for quantitative real-time PCR and that RT-qPCR be used for reverse transcription-qPCR. The acronym “RT-PCR” commonly denotes reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and not real-time PCR, but not all authors adhere to this convention.

The polymerase chain reaction is a common method for amplifying DNA; for RNA-based PCR the RNA sample is first reverse-transcribed to complementary DNA with reverse transcriptase.

In order to amplify small amounts of DNA, the same methodology is used as in conventional PCR using a DNA template, at least one pair of specific primers, deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates, a suitable buffer solution and a thermo-stable DNA polymerase.

This measurement is made after each amplification cycle, and this is the reason why this method is called real time PCR. Quantitative PCR and DNA microarray are modern methodologies for studying gene expression.

If subsequent electrophoresis is required it is only necessary to test those samples that real time PCR has shown to be doubtful and/or to ratify the results for samples that have tested positive for a specific determinant.

Unlike end point PCR, real time PCR allows monitoring of the desired product at any point in the amplification process by measuring fluorescence.

Theoretical analysis of polymerase chain reaction, from which MAK2 was derived, has revealed that amplification efficiency is not constant throughout PCR. While MAK2 quantification provides reliable estimates of target DNA concentration in a sample under normal qPCR conditions, MAK2 does not reliably quantify target concentration for qPCR assays with competimeters.

QPCR: Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Iodine and starch generate a unique blue-black coloured complex in this test.

Lecithinase Test: Result, Principle, Procedure, and Reagents Lecithinase Test Lecithinase test can also be called as Naglers reaction.

This is considered as one of the important biochemical tests which helps us to identify the organisms that has its ability to liberate the.

Microdase Test: Result, Principle, Procedure, and Reagents Microdase Test Modified oxidase test is one of the most recommended method for Gram-positive catalase positive cocci.

This test is considered as one of the rapid tests, which helps us to differentiate the species of.

0.Would love your thoughts, please comment.

Polymerase Chain Reaction Fact Sheet

To amplify a segment of DNA using PCR, the sample is first heated so the DNA denatures, or separates into two pieces of single-stranded DNA. Next, an enzyme called “Taq polymerase” synthesizes – builds – two new strands of DNA, using the original strands as templates.

This process results in the duplication of the original DNA, with each of the new molecules containing one old and one new strand of DNA. Then each of these strands can be used to create two new copies, and so on, and so on.

The cycle of denaturing and synthesizing new DNA is repeated as many as 30 or 40 times, leading to more than one billion exact copies of the original DNA segment.

The entire cycling process of PCR is automated and can be completed in just a few hours.

It is directed by a machine called a thermocycler, which is programmed to alter the temperature of the reaction every few minutes to allow DNA denaturing and synthesis.

The 21 Best Images, Videos & Discussions About Real Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

Study suggests saliva swabs may be more suitable for omicron detection A team of scientists from South Africa has recently demonstrated that saliva swabs are more effective than mid-turbinate swabs for the polymerase chain reaction-based detection of omicron variant.

A team of scientists from South Africa has recently demonstrated that saliva swabs are more effective than mid-turbinate swabs for the polymerase chain reaction-based detection of omicron variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.

Considering the study findings, the scientists suggest that currently used diagnostic sampling methods should be reassessed for omicron infections as analyzing nasal or nasopharyngeal samples may lead to a suboptimal diagnosis.

Post Idea #8: Interventional cardiology

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What Is Interventional Cardiology? Doctors, Tests, Procedures And Expert Q&A

“The major difference between interventional cardiology and general cardiology is that interventional cardiologists are trained to perform specific catheter-based treatments for heart disease, whereas general cardiologists are not trained in those procedures,” says Castle Connolly Top Doctor Samin K. Sharma, MD. At the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City, Dr. Sharma serves as director of interventional and clinical cardiology; president of Mount Sinai Heart Network; and Zena and Michael A. Wiener Professor of Medicine.

Interventional cardiologists are cardiology subspecialists who are trained to place stents in clogged arteries to allow blood to flow properly and reduce risk of stroke or heart attack, as well as to repair holes in the heart or place special devices in the heart to help it function properly.

Using cutting-edge technology and the newest techniques and complex advancements in this field of medicine – such as cardiac catheterization, transcatheter aortic valve replacement, and mitral valve replacement and repairs – interventional cardiologists perform delicate life-saving and life-enhancing procedures to treat patients with heart disease, valve defects, or structural abnormalities.

Interventional cardiology treats the cardiovascular system, which includes the four chambers of the heart, the heart valves, and the arteries, including the coronary arteries.

Pediatric interventional cardiologists focus primarily on congenital heart conditions, abnormalities in the structure of the heart and/or coronary arteries that are present at birth.

Hemodynamic cardiac filters and hemodynamic support procedures: These devices and procedures are related to blood flow in the heart.

Using tiny incisions, an interventional cardiologist inserts a catheter into an artery in the patient’s arm or groin, threads it up to the narrowed or blocked part of the artery, and places the stent, increasing blood flow to the heart and reducing the risk of heart attack.

What Is An Interventional Cardiologist?

An interventional cardiologist specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions and diseases of the heart and blood vessels using nonsurgical, catheter-based procedures and specialized imaging techniques.

Interventional cardiologists treat coronary artery disease, heart valve disorders, and congenital heart disease, among other heart problems.

An interventional cardiologist may also be known by the following names: cardiologist, cardiac doctor, cardiovascular disease doctor, and heart doctor.

Who should see an interventional cardiologist? Your primary care doctor can often take care of your general heart health and manage many conditions and risk factors for heart disease, such as high cholesterol and high blood pressure.

You may be referred to an interventional cardiologist if your primary care doctor finds or suspects a serious heart or blood vessel problem, such as blockage of a coronary artery.

Finding a qualified and experienced interventional cardiologist for early treatment or preventive care is an effective way to reduce the risk of permanent heart damage, disability, and fatal complications.

Once you are in the emergency room, an emergency room doctor will diagnose your symptoms and request a cardiologist or interventional cardiologist examination if there is a possibility you are having a heart problem that requires specialized procedures.

What Is Interventional Cardiology?

Interventional cardiology is a field of cardiology wherein catheters are used for diagnosis and treatment of heart diseases.

The catheter used in interventional cardiology is a long, tubular, flexible instrument inserted through blood vessels in the radial artery in the arm, the femoral artery in the groin, or neck, and threaded to the heart.

Some procedures in interventional cardiology include cardiac catheterization, coronary angioplasty, balloon valvuloplasty, coronary thrombectomy, and cardiac ablation.

Through cardiac catheterization, an interventional cardiologist can assess the severity and extent of heart problems through analysis of the location and size of plaque deposits, assessment of the heart muscles and valves, collection of blood samples, and checking of blood flow and blood pressures in heart chambers.

More often than not, interventional cardiology procedures are less invasive, take a shorter period of time to perform, and do not require general anesthesia.

Interventional cardiology procedures are generally successful in many cases, but there are risks and possible complications associated with these procedures.

In angioplasty, the risks include coronary artery damage, heart attack, stroke, kidney damage, and heart rhythm problems, whereas possible complications include bleeding, blood clotting, and restenosis.

Interventional Cardiac Consultants – ICC

Treating the heart requires more than expertise in cardiology.

It takes commitment to be the best, to pioneer new treatments, discover new procedures, and develop new technologies.

Your ICC physicians combine all of these and more in a welcoming, family atmosphere to provide high-quality, cost-effective, patient-centered care.

The physicians and staff at ICC are proud of their reputations and commitment to excellence.

Let us show you what’s really possible for you and your heart.

Interventional Cardiology

Interventional cardiology is a branch of cardiology that deals specifically with the catheter based treatment of structural heart diseases.

Reas Gruentzig is considered the father of interventional cardiology after the development of angioplasty by interventional radiologist Charles Dotter.

The main advantages of using the interventional cardiology or radiology approach are the avoidance of the scars and pain, and long post-operative recovery.

Interventional cardiology procedure of primary angioplasty is now the gold standard of care for an acute myocardial infarction.

Percutaneous valve replacement An alternative to open heart surgery, percutaneous valve replacement is the replacement of a heart valve using percutaneous methods.

Some interventional cardiology procedures are performed in conjunction with a cardiothoracic surgeon.

In the US and Canada, interventional cardiology requires a minimum of seven years of post-graduate medical education and up to 9 years of post-graduate medical education for those wanting to perform advanced structural heart procedures.

Post Idea #9: Bracco Diagnostics Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

Bracco Diagnostics Inc.

Bracco Diagnostics Inc., the U.S.-based subsidiary of Bracco Imaging SpA, and part of the Bracco Group, is a leader in innovative contrast imaging agents in the U.S. BDI, established in 1994, with headquarters and research offices in Monroe Township, NJ, offers a product and solution portfolio for all key diagnostic imaging modalities: X-Ray Imaging, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound, and Nuclear Medicine through radioactive tracers.

The diagnostic imaging offer is completed by several medical devices and advanced administration systems for contrast imaging products in the fields of radiology.

Committed to You.TMOur specialized Research and Development and technological innovation teams are targeted at developing high-quality processes and products that are safe, effective, and increasingly in tune with the needs of patients and physicians.

Customer Education and Awareness Bracco Diagnostics Inc. is committed to providing a wide array of training and educational tools to the diagnostic community centered on topics of practical interest and utility.

Ultimately, Bracco Diagnostics Inc. strives to improve patients’ lives through the advanced education of imaging professionals.

Our educational portfolio is robust and offers cutting-edge training to diagnostic imaging professionals.

Bracco Reimbursement

Disclaimers The information provided is general reimbursement information for Bracco products.

Although we supply this information based on our current knowledge, it is always the provider’s responsibility to determine and submit appropriate codes, charges, modifiers and bills for services that were rendered.

This coding and reimbursement information is subject to change without notice.

Payers or their local branches may have their own coding and reimbursement requirements and policies.

Before filing any claims, providers should verify current requirements and policies with the payer.

The AMA does not directly or indirectly practice medicine or dispense medical services.

The AMA assumes no liability for data contained or not contained herein.

Cardiac PET™

Indications and Usage:CARDIOGEN-82® is a closed system used to produce rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection for intravenous administration.

Rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection is a radioactive diagnostic agent indicated for Positron Emission Tomography imaging of the myocardium under rest or pharmacologic stress conditions to evaluate regional myocardial perfusion in adult patients with suspected or existing coronary artery disease.

Use only additive-free 0.9%Sodium Chloride Injection USP to elute the generator.

Immediately stop the patient infusion and permanently discontinue the use of the affected CARDIOGEN-82® generator if the incorrect solution is used to elute the generator.

Excess radiation exposure occurs when the levels of Sr 82 or Sr 85 in the rubidium Rb 82 chloride injection exceed limits.

Strictly adhere to the generator eluate testing protocol.

Stop using the generator if it reaches any of its Expiration Limits.

Maia Pharmaceuticals, Inc. appeals from a judgment of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey that Maia’s sincalide product infringes U.S. Patent 6,803,046, owned by Bracco Diagnostics, Inc. J.A. 1-8.

DISCUSSION Maia argues that we should vacate the district court’s construction of the terms buffer, surfactant/solubilizer, and surfactant, adopt Maia’s proposed constructions for the terms, and remand to the district court for further proceedings.

As support for Maia’s narrower construction, it states that the only disclosed surfactant effect in the specification Case: 20-1387 Document: 54 BRACCO DIAGNOSTICS INC. Page: 19 Filed: 12/17/2020 v. MAIA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 19 is the reduction of interfacial tension at the air/liquid or liquid/solid interface rather than any increase in interfacial tension.

With regard to Maia’s argument that the specification discloses Case: 20-1387 20 Document: 54 BRACCO DIAGNOSTICS INC. Page: 20 Filed: 12/17/2020 v. MAIA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. several statements and examples that surfactants reduce interfacial tension at the air/liquid or liquid/solid interface, Bracco responds that language referring to one preferred embodiment of a surfactant, does not so limit all surfactants.

Bracco points out that several of Maia’s dictionaries reject Maia’s narrow construction of “Surfactant” in favor of defining it as “Usually” effecting other properties and other interfaces.

Lastly, Bracco asserts that Maia’s construction does not take into account evidence that a person of skill would consider a surfactant to have other effects Case: 20-1387 Document: 54 BRACCO DIAGNOSTICS INC. Page: 21 Filed: 12/17/2020 v. MAIA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. 21 including inhibition in aggregation, improvement in solubility, and reduction of adsorption.

None of Maia’s Case: 20-1387 22 Document: 54 BRACCO DIAGNOSTICS INC. Page: 22 Filed: 12/17/2020 v. MAIA PHARMACEUTICALS, INC. references indicates that the patentee intended to limit the claim scope in the manner that it asserts.

Post Idea #10: Bracco S.p.A.

Related Articles – Summarized

Bracco Imaging Spa

We are committed to helping you find the right answers to your questions and concerns.

This website is not intended to give investment advice, promote the use of Bracco Imaging products or provide information on which to base medical treatment.

If you are experiencing a medical emergency, please consult your health care provider.

Please choose one of the three options below to contact us and we will respond to your enquiry as quickly as possible.

If you have any questions regarding any Bracco Imaging product, Professional Services, orders or pharmacovigiliance, you can find specific contacts and information selecting the page “Contacts” of your country.


The Bracco Group is an Italian multinational active in the healthcare sector with more than 3,300 employees worldwide, which operates in a variety of business areas.

On January 12, 2015, Diana Bracco was “Prosecuted on charges of tax evasion and embezzlement, crimes allegedly committed as chairman of the board of the pharmaceutical group Bracco Spa.” In October 2016, she was given a two year suspended sentence for tax fraud and embezzlement.

The company founded by Elio Bracco was established in 1927 in Milan with the name Società Italiana Prodotti E Merck, to produce, package and sell the chemical products of the German company E. Merck.

In 1994 Bracco acquired Squibb Diagnostic, a company in the Bristol Myers Squibb group in the United States, which is still Bracco Imaging’s largest market today.

1995 saw the integration of the three research centres in Milan, Geneva and Princeton: Milan focuses on the research and development of contrast agents for radiology and magnetic resonance, Bracco Research Geneva on ultrasound and Bracco Research USA Princeton on magnetic resonance and nuclear medicine.

In 2001, the Bracco Group acquired ACIST Medical Systems, a US company based in Eden Prairie, Minnesota, a suburb of Minneapolis, active in advanced contrast-agent management and injection systems.

Since 2002 Bracco has had a direct presence in China with Bracco Sine Pharmaceutical Corp. Ltd. in Shanghai.

Post Idea #11: Contrast agent

Related Articles – Summarized

METHODS OF CATEGORIZING CONTRAST REACTIONS There are two useful ways to approach contrast reactions.

Moderate Reactions which require treatment but are not immediately life-threatening Tachycardia/bradycardia Hypertension Pronounced cutaneous reaction Hypotension Bronchospasm, wheezing Dyspnea Laryngeal edema Pulmonary edema Treatment: Prompt treatment with close observation Severe Life-threatening with more severe signs or symptoms including: Laryngeal edema Clinically manifest arrhythmias Profound hypotension Convulsions Unresponsiveness Cardiopulmonary arrest Treatment: Immediate treatment.

4 Delayed Contrast Reactions Delayed contrast reactions can occur anywhere from 3 hours to 7 days following the administration of contrast.

Cutaneous reactions are the most frequent form of delayed contrast reaction with a reported incidence of 0.59%. Cutaneous reactions vary in size and presentation but are usually pruritic.

Delayed cutaneous reactions are more common in patients who have had a previous contrast reaction and in those who have been treated within the past 2 years, or are currently being treated with interleukin-2.

As with anaphylactic reactions, certain risk factors make patients more susceptible to iodinated contrast reactions: 1.

Allergic asthma Drug allergies Food allergies Prior reactions to contrast Treatment of Anaphylactoid Reactions Anaphylactoid reactions usually occur soon after contrast is administered.

Contrast Agents

The most widely used UCA in Europe is Sonovue, whilst Optison and Luminity are more frequently used in the US. These contrast agents are administered intravenously and can be given as a bolus or as a continuous infusion.

The contrast agents come in their separate constituents and Sonovue®, for example, is ‘made up’ by mixing saline with a dry powder to make a suspension of the contrast agent.

‘Making up’ the contrast agent when needed takes no more than 2-3 minutes and the steps are illustrated in the diagram below.

The vial is then agitated / shaken for 30-60s to mix the contents effectively and the contrast suspension is then ready to be drawn up into a syringe ready for intravenous injection.

A continuous infusion can also be used to produce a steady concentration of contrast within the heart and Bracco, manufacturers of Sonovue®, offer a specific Vueject® pump designed to administer an intravenous infusion.

The syringe of contrast agent is placed in the pump, as shown below, and this syringe is then constantly rotated to agitate the mixture.

The rate at which the contrast is infused obviously determines how long the contrast lasts before it is used up.

Contrast Agent

A contrast agent is a substance used to increase the contrast of structures or fluids within the body in medical imaging.

In MRIs, contrast agents shorten the relaxation times of nuclei within body tissues in order to alter the contrast in the image.

Several types of contrast agent are in use in medical imaging and they can roughly be classified based on the imaging modalities where they are used.

For radiography, which is based on X-rays, iodine and barium are the most common types of contrast agent.

Gadolinium is used in magnetic resonance imaging as an MRI contrast agent.

This causes water around the contrast agent to relax quickly, enhancing the quality of the MRI scan.

Microbubbles are used as contrast agents for sonographic examination, specifically echocardiograms, for the detection of a cardiac shunt.

What Is A Contrast Agent?

A contrast agent is a substance which is used in a medical imaging study to make it easier to see the internal structures of the body.

One of the most common types of contrast agent is an ingested agent like barium sulfate, which is taken by mouth for studies of the gastrointestinal tract.

Contrast agents may also be inserted through the rectum or inhaled for very rare imaging studies.

Generally, a radiologist decides on what type of contrast should be used, although the patient record will be consulted to check for any potential allergic risks.

The contrast may be given to the patient right before the study, or he or she may be given some additional time to ensure the agent reaches the desired destination; once the contrast agent has suffused the area of interest, the radiologist takes images of the site for later analysis.

The use of a contrast agent is generally very safe for the patient, as most radiologists want to avoid harmful reactions.

If an imaging study with contrast is ordered, ask the radiologist about common side effects, and alert him or her if you begin to feel unwell.


Contrast agents are responsible for gathering security relevant data from an application, analyzing that data, and reporting findings to Contrast when necessary.

In specific situations, a Contrast agent can also take actions within an application to prevent exploitation or enable a security defense.

A Contrast agent gathers security relevant information using a variety of security instrumentation techniques, including code scanning, library scanning, instrumenting an application, configuration file scanning, and other techniques.

Any security instrumentation technique that gathers information is a sensor.

The analysis engine watches these traces for patterns of behavior that represent a violation of the Contrast rules.

If the analysis engine sees that data flow without the proper defenses, it recognizes that trace to match the Contrast rule for SQL injection reports it to Contrast.

The vast majority of the analysis is done locally in the agent, which enables Contrast’s scalability and performance.

Radiology Reference Article

MRI contrast agents have become an indispensable part of contemporary magnetic resonance imaging.

Although MRI was initially hoped to provide a means of making definitive diagnoses without administering contrast media, it has been found that the addition of contrast agents in many cases improves sensitivity and/or specificity.

Paul Lauterbur and his associates were the first to demonstrate the feasibility of using paramagnetic contrast agents to improve tissue discrimination on MRI 1.

Contrast agents can be grouped in many different ways.

One way is to consider them according to the compartments in which they distribute.

Contrast Agents In Radiology

The ratio between r1 and r2 determines if the contrast agent is more suitable for T1 or T2. A CM with a positive r1/r2 ratio is more suitable for T1-weithted imaging and with a positive r2/r1 ratio more effective for T2-weithted imaging [ ]. In general, T1 agents lead to a signal enhancement and T2 to a signal loss.

Gadopentetate dimeglumine was the first MR contrast agent available but now several new agents with, e.g., higher relaxivity are available on the market with different imaging properties [ , ]. The currently available agents are classified as shown in the next section of this chapter.

The first MR contrast agent, gadopentetate dimeglumine, entered clinical trials of MRI brain studies [ , ] and was initially marketed in parts of Europe and Asia in 1998 and later on in the USA. Additional six Gd-based contrast agents were developed and are now routinely used in many countries.

This compound is also a relatively small Gd-chelate, but has a much stronger affinity for HSA than Gd-BOPTA and Gd-EOB-DOTA [ ]. The majority of the injected compound binds to HSA non-covalently [ ]; depending on the administered dose and type of serum albumin, the unbound fraction behaves as the a conventional ECF compound [ ]. This “Hermaphrodite” is defined as belonging to the group of intravascular contrast agents in spite of the fact that unbound fraction of this compound extravasates into the nonvascular space like any other small-molecular contrast agent.

Historically, parental iron oxide particles have been used as contrast agents for a long time [ ]. These colloid-based nanoparticles are produced with a core size of 50-180 nm as superparamagnetic or small particle of iron oxide, with a core size of 10-50 nm as ultrasmall SPIO or even less than 10 nm as very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particle contrast agents.

SPIO and USPIO are a different class of MR contrast agent that leads to hypointense contrast enhancement of the cells of interest after proper labeling [ ]. Ferumoxides are the only pharmaceutical-grade MR contrast agent that has been used for clinical cell tracking.

Four distinct future advantages of in vivo contrast agents can be defined: higher concentration, protein interaction, intracellular uptake in vivo, and intravascular characteristics although not exclusively found like ultrasound agents.

Post Idea #12: Solid-state relay

Related Articles – Summarized

Overview Of Solid-State Relays

Control of SSRs. ON/OFF control is a form of control where a heater is turned ON or OFF by turning an SSR ON or OFF in response to voltage output signals from a Temperature Controller.

The same kind of control is also possible with an electromagnetic relay but if control where the heater is turned ON and OFF at intervals of a few seconds over a period of several years, then an SSR must be used.

With cycle control, output voltage is turned ON/OFF at a fixed interval of 0.2 s. Control is performed in response to current output from a Temperature Controller in the range 4 to 20 mA. The basic principle used for optimum cycle control is zero cross control, which determines the ON/OFF status each half cycle.

With conventional zero cross control the output remains ON continuously for a specific period of time, whereas with optimum cycle control, the ON/OFF status is determined each cycle to improve output accuracy.

With cycle control, inrush current flows five times every second.

With phase control, output is changed every half-cycle in response to current output signals in the range 4 to 20 mA from a Temperature Controller.

There are models for control of DC loads, which have just one power MOS FET. There is no varistor in the G3VM MOS FET relay for signalling.

Solid State Relay Basics & Working Principle

What is a solid state relay(SSR)? A solid state relay is a non-contact switch fully composed of solid state electrical-element, which can drive high-current load with a small control signal.

Solid state relay has such following advantages over electromagnetic relays: high reliability, no contact, no spark, long life, fast switching speed, strong anti-interference ability, and small size.

AC SSRs use zero-crossing triggering technology, thus effectively reducing the voltage rise rate dv/dt and current rise rate di/dt on the line, making SSR minimal interference to the power supply in the long-term working.

Solid state relay working principleHow does a solid state relay work? Solid state relays can be divided into AC SSR and DC SSR according to applications.

Now take AC solid state relay as example to explain SSR working principle.

As Figure 1 show, it is a AC SSR working principle diagram and the parts form its main body.

Want to buy a solid state relay? ATO.com offers you single phase solid state relays, load current ranging from 10A, 25A to 120A, and 3 phase solid state relays, including 10A, 40A,…, 80A, 100A etc.

Construction & Operation

Difference between SSR & EMR. The operation of SSR and EMR or contact relay is same while the main different between SSR and EMR is that there are no mechanical parts and contacts in SSR relay.

Other different between Solid State Relay and Electromagnetic relay are that there is no surge and noise during the operation of SSR. There is a chance of leakage current about few μA to mA in SSR relay while the value of leak current is Zero in EMR. At the other hand, SSR switch OFF AC loads at the point of 0 load current which leads to eliminate the noise, contact bounce and electrical arcing in case of inductive load as compared to EMR relays.

The output terminals of SSR relay switches on and off depending on the control input.

Unlike EMR relay, an SSR relay cannot switch both AC & DC signal using the same terminals.

The operation for zero switching relay is achieved by a circuit known as zero crossing circuit, which detects the zero crossing and activates the TRIAC. Peak Switching SSR Relay.

These types of SSR relay switches on when the output AC voltage hits its next peak after applying the required input control voltage.

In communication lines, photocoupler SSR relay are used to eliminate relay driving current flowing through it.

Solid-State Relay

A solid state relay is an electronic switching device that switches on or off when an external voltage is applied across its control terminals.

The relay may be designed to switch either AC or DC loads.

Users of solid-state relays must take into consideration an SSR’s inability to withstand a large momentary overload the way an electromechanical relay can, as well as their higher “On” resistance.

The substrate diodes are alternately reverse biased to block current when the relay is off.

Most of the relative advantages of solid state relays over electromechanical relays are common to all solid-state devices when compared to electromechanical devices.

An electromechanical relay has the low ohmic resistance of the associated mechanical switch when activated, and the exceedingly high resistance of the air gap and insulating materials when open.

Tendency to fail “Shorted” on their outputs, while electromechanical relay contacts tend to fail “Open”.

Post Idea #13: Micronization

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Micronization?

Summary: Particle size reduction is achieved through the use of fluid energy jet mills.

The material is drawn into a confined, circular chamber by way of pressurized nitrogen gas or compressed air.

The powder gets suspended in a high velocity fluid stream in the milling chamber.

The mill operates on the principle of impact and attrition due to the high velocity collisions between particles suspended within the nitrogen gas or compressed air stream, causing them to break down into smaller particles.

Centrifugal force causes large, heavy particles to separate from smaller and lighter particles.

The smaller particles are carried in the fluid stream towards the center of the milling chamber, where they are discharged into a collection bag.

Larger particles remain in the milling chamber where they recirculate, causing them to breakdown.


Micronization is the process of reducing the average diameter of a solid material’s particles.

The term micronization usually refers to the reduction of average particle diameters to the micrometer range, but can also describe further reduction to the nanometer scale.

Traditional micronization techniques are based on friction to reduce particle size.

In the case of grinding, the solid particles are formed when the grinding units of the device rub against each other while particles of the solid are trapped in between.

Methods like crushing and cutting are also used for reducing particle diameter, but produce more rough particles compared to the two previous techniques.

These methods use supercritical fluids to induce a state of supersaturation, which leads to precipitation of individual particles.

The supercritical fluid methods result in finer control over particle diameters, distribution of particle size and consistency of morphology.

What Is Micronization?- Overview Of Micronization Process

The term micronization means the process of reducing the size of particles.

In pharmaceutical companies, micronization is fone to reduce the average diameter of the solid material particles.

Depending upon the concentration of the ingredient needed and its solubility, the particles are micronized and the procedure of the same is called micronization.

The micronization process helps in the quick absorption of active particles in transdermal drugs.

The micronization process is used in making food-related ingredients, active chemical ingredients and much more.

Micronization of APIs is useful in making topical as well as oral drugs, including semi-solid medications, creams, gels, and more.

To summarize, micronization is a process through which companies reduce the average particle size in order to increase their bioavailability and solubility.

Micronization: A Method Of Improving The Bioavailability Of Poorly Soluble Drugs

For poorly soluble drugs, the digestive absorption depends on their rate of dissolution.

Decreasing the particle size of these drugs improves their rate of dissolution.

Fine grinding mills are use to micronize powders: either jar mills or fluid energy mills.

Theses processes were applied to griseofulvin, progesterone, spironolactone and diosmin.

For each drug, micronization improved their digestive absorption, and consequently their bioavailability and clinical efficacy.

API Micronization: Precision And Experience Matter

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Using Micronization To Reduce API Particle Size

Micronization is most often used to describe processes that reduce particle size by using fluid energy, such as a jet mill, rather than by mechanical means.

Jet milling does not use mechanical components, but instead uses pressurized gas to create high particle velocity and high-energy impact between particles.

Micronization using spiral jet milling has been a poorly understood “Black box” process, but process understanding is growing as pharmaceutical companies work together with equipment manufacturers, said Gianola.

The desired particle size depends on the solid-dosage requirements, notes Brian List, sales and marketing manager at the Jet Pulverizer Company, with typical API particle sizes in the 2-5 micrometer range.

The minimum particle size that can be obtained using a jet mill depends on the inner friability of the material, explains List.

In an agitator bead mill, grinding beads and agitating elements are used to reduce the API particle size through impact, and shear.

For a particular formulation, the process parameters and the material of construction of the bead mill must be optimized so that there is enough force generated for micronization but not excess force that might change the particles’ aspect ratio or lead to preventable risk of contamination, explained Smith.

Micronization & Jet Milling

Manufacture APIs within a 1-10 micron average particle size.

Stability, flowability, dissolution rate and bioavailability are critical performance parameters impacted by particle size distribution.

Micronization through jet milling is a core strength of Lonza with unparalleled expertise, track record and capacity in place to meet these challenges.

Micronization is an established technology and manufacturing technique for producing APIs within a 1-10 micron average particle size.

We utilize proprietary jet milling technology to effectively meet specific particle size distribution targets across the full range of compound properties.

Generate API particles within a tight particle size distribution for proper delivery to the lungs.

How do micronization & jet milling technologies work? Your next contract development and manufacturing organization.

Post Idea #14: Assisted reproductive technology

Related Articles – Summarized

Assisted Reproductive Technology

All treatments of fertility in which handling of both egg and embryo is done are included in “Assisted reproductive techniques.” In these techniques, eggs from woman’s ovaries are surgically removed and combined in vitro with sperm and embryo is ultimatly returned to the uterine cavity.

Prevention and Management of Preterm Parturition Assisted Reproductive TechnologiesPreterm birth is more common in pregnancies conceived after ovulation induction and ART, including IVF and gamete and zygote intrafallopian transfer, frozen embryo transfer, and donor embryo transfer.

III. Assisted Reproductive TechnologiesThe fertilization of a human egg outside of the body, the culturing of the embryo(s) in the laboratory, and the subsequent transfer of embryo(s) to the uterus has resulted in the birth of tens of thousands of children worldwide.

Assisted Reproductive TechnologiesThe fertilization of human oocytes outside of the body, the culturing of the embryo(s) in the laboratory, and the subsequent transfer of embryo(s) to the uterus has resulted in the birth of tens of thousands of children worldwide.

ART process usually starts with ovarian stimulation followed by egg retrieval, fertilization, in vitro embryo culture and ultimately embryo transfer.

The neuroendocrine impact of ART on the offspring includes slight elevations of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, as well as increased circulating triglyceride concentrations, in children born after ART, especially in those with rapid catch-up growth in weight during early childhood.

Questions remain to be answered regarding the future reproductive capacity of children born after ART, as well as their cardiovascular risk in later adult life.

Assisted Reproductive Technology Techniques

Assisted reproductive technologies, by the American Center for Disease Control definition, are any fertility-related treatments in which eggs or embryos are manipulated.

PGT can be performed with polar bodies or an isolated blastomere of a cleavage-stage embryo, usually from a day 3 embryo.

A few randomized controlled trials comparing elective single-embryo transfer of euploid embryos determined by PGT-A versus morphology grade-based selection of embryos found non-inferior or improved pregnancy rates amongst the PGT-A group.

The American Society of Reproductive Medicine developed a standardized protocol for embryo transfer based on a task force that evaluated survey responses regarding individual practices amongst Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology medical directors.

Current ASRM guidelines recommend single embryo transfer in patients with a favorable prognosis, considering a maximum of two and three blastocyst embryos transferred at once in the 38 to 40 and 41 to 42 age group, respectively.

15.Glujovsky D, Farquhar C, Quinteiro Retamar AM, Alvarez Sedo CR, Blake D. Cleavage stage versus blastocyst stage embryo transfer in assisted reproductive technology.

30.Eskandar MA, Abou-Setta AM, El-Amin M, Almushait MA, Sobande AA. Removal of cervical mucus prior to embryo transfer improves pregnancy rates in women undergoing assisted reproduction.

Egg Retrieval Egg retrieval is usually accomplished by transvaginal ultrasound aspiration, a minor surgical procedure that can be performed in the physician’s office or an outpatient center.

Usually 65% to 75% of mature eggs will fertilize after insemination or ICSI. Lower rates may occur if the sperm and/or egg quality are poor.

Two days after the egg retrieval, the fertilized egg has divided to become a 2- to 4-cell embryo.

Small glass tube through which the sperm is injected into the egg Larger tube that holds the egg still Figure 5.

13 DONOR SPERM, EGGS, AND EMBRYOS IVF may be performed with a couple’s own eggs and sperm or with donor eggs and sperm, or both.

The procedure in which eggs are obtained by inserting a needle into the ovarian follicle and removing the fluid and the egg by suction.

The egg’s outer layer that a sperm must penetrate in order to fertilize the egg.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies

Assisted Reproductive Technologies are all treatments which include the handling of eggs and sperm and/or embryos.

Some examples of ART are in vitro fertilization, gamete intrafallopian transfer, pronuclear stage tubal transfer, tubal embryo transfer, and zygote intrafallopian transfer.

Assisted Reproductive Technology: Definition, Types, And Ethics

According to the CDC, approximately 1.9% of all U.S. infants are born using ART. While the technology can be successful, it can also be expensive.

In this article, we will discuss some of the different types of ART, including their success rates, benefits, risks, costs, and the ethics of the technology.

Some people may also refer to ART as fertility treatment or medically assisted reproduction.

There are several types of ART procedures that involve different techniques and reproductive cells.

The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology states that IVF-ET accounts for 99% of ART procedures.

There are no simple answers on the ethical issues of ART. The American Society for Reproductive Medicine has a collection of ethics documents available here.

Many types of ART are available to treat infertility.

Assisted Reproductive Technology

ART mainly belongs to the field of reproductive endocrinology and infertility.

ART may also be used in surrogacy arrangements, although not all surrogacy arrangements involve ART. The existence of sterility will not always require ART to be the first option to consider, as there are occasions when its cause is a mild disorder that can be solved with more conventional treatments or with behaviors based on promoting health and reproductive habits.

In the US, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention defines ART to include “All fertility treatments in which both eggs and sperm are handled. In general, ART procedures involve surgically removing eggs from a woman’s ovaries, combining them with sperm in the laboratory, and returning them to the woman’s body or donating them to another woman.” According to CDC, “They do not include treatments in which only sperm are handled or procedures in which a woman takes medicine only to stimulate egg production without the intention of having eggs retrieved.”

Current data indicate little or no increased risk for postpartum depression among women who use ART. Usage of assisted reproductive technology including ovarian stimulation and in vitro fertilization have been associated with an increased overall risk of childhood cancer in the offspring, which may be caused by the same original disease or condition that caused the infertility or subfertility in the mother or father.

In theory, ART can solve almost all reproductive problems, except for severe pathology or the absence of a uterus, using specific gamete or embryo donation techniques.

In 2017, the steering council of France’s Agency of Biomedicine established an age limit of 43 for women using ART. 10 countries have no age limit for ART. These include Austria, Hungary, Italy and Poland.

The Government of India has notified the Surrogacy Act 2021 and the Assisted Reproductive Technology Act 2021 to regulate the practice of ART. Prior to that, the National Guidelines for Accreditation, Supervision and Regulation of ART Clinics in India published by the Ministry for Health and Family Welfare, Government of India in the year 2005 was governing the field.

Post Idea #15: Sputtering

Related Articles – Summarized

Definition Of Sputtering By The Free Dictionary

Let us have a look into that room,’ he added, lifting the sputtering.

Rose could not make out what it was, and her curiosity was greatly excited, for Phebe was writing with a sputtering.

These, with a small bottle of ink and a rusty pen, made up Phebe’s outfit, and it was little wonder that she did not “Get on” in spite of the patient persistence that dried the desponding tears and drove along the sputtering.

“I am not going to guess, at five o’clock in the morning, with my brains frying and sputtering.

In my head.A circle of fire hemmed the Victoria in; the crackling of the dry wood mingled with the hissing and sputtering.

By this time Ambrosch had come to his senses and was sputtering.

He was white as chalk, the candle he held in his shaking hand was sputtering.

What Is Sputtering? Magnetron Sputtering?

Several different methods of physical vapor deposition are widely used in sputter coaters, including ion beam and ion-assisted sputtering, reactive sputtering in an Oxygen gas environment, gas flow and magnetron sputtering.

Magnetron sputtering deposition uses magnets behind the negative cathode to trap electrons over the negatively charged target material so they are not free to bombard the substrate, allowing for faster deposition rates.

Co-Sputtering is where two or more target materials are sputtered at once in the vacuum chamber and is often used with Reactive Magnetron Sputtering to produce thin films that are compounds such as alloys or composites.

As with DC Magnetron Sputtering, RF Magnetron sputtering coaters increases the growth of the thin film by increasing the percentage of target atoms which become ionized.

HIPIMS or High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering is a newly evolving sputtering technique which also uses a high current voltage spike to greatly increase the ionization of the sputtering target.

RF Sputtering can be used for the coating of dielectric or insulative materials that can take on a charge that results in arcing in the vacuum chamber with convention DC Sputtering.

RF Sputtering deposition rates are slower than DC Sputtering rates and have higher power costs and so is usually used on smaller substrates to be coated.


The heat spike sputtering often increases nonlinearly with energy, and can for small cluster ions lead to dramatic sputtering yields per cluster of the order of 10,000.

If in an AB alloy the component A is sputtered preferentially, the surface of the solid will, during prolonged bombardment, become enriched in the B component, thereby increasing the probability that B is sputtered such that the composition of the sputtered material will ultimately return to AB. The term electronic sputtering can mean either sputtering induced by energetic electrons, or sputtering due to very high-energy or highly charged heavy ions that lose energy to the solid, mostly by electronic stopping power, where the electronic excitations cause sputtering.

Electronic sputtering produces high sputtering yields from insulators, as the electronic excitations that cause sputtering are not immediately quenched, as they would be in a conductor.

This sputtering process is characterized by a strong dependence of the observed sputtering yields on the charge state of the impinging ion and can already take place at ion impact energies well below the physical sputtering threshold.

Sputtering can also play a role in reactive-ion etching, a plasma process carried out with chemically active ions and radicals, for which the sputtering yield may be enhanced significantly compared to pure physical sputtering.

Sputtering observed to occur below the threshold energy of physical sputtering is also often called chemical sputtering.

The hydrogen-induced sputtering of carbon-based materials observed at low temperatures has been explained by H ions entering between C-C bonds and thus breaking them, a mechanism dubbed swift chemical sputtering.

What Is Sputtering?

WHAT IS SPUTTERING? Sputtering is a technique used to deposit thin films of a material onto a surface.

MAGNETRON SPUTTERING The “Diode sputtering” example given above has proven to be a useful technique in the deposition of thin films when the cathode is covered with source material.

MODULAR MAGNET ARRAY – MAGNETRON SPUTTER SOURCE A modular magnet array is a special magnetron sputtering source feature developed by AJA International, Inc. in 1991 to allow the end user to convert the specific magnetic field of the source to a variety of configurations.

“Magnetic material mode” to help the magnetic field saturate and overcome the shunting effect of magnetic target materials allowing the magnetron sputter deposition of high permeability targets such as Fe. CONFOCAL SPUTTERING A confocal sputtering system configuration is when multiple magnetron sputtering sources are arranged in a specific circular pattern and are aimed at a common focal point.

IN-SITU TILT SOURCES IN A CONFOCAL SPUTTERING SYSTEM In powerful R&D sputtering systems with the maximum level of flexibility, end users like to have the ability to operate at different “Working distances”.

DIRECT SPUTTERING A direct sputtering system configuration is when the substrate is positioned or moving directly in front of and parallel to the magnetron sputtering source targets.

AJA – THE CUTTING EDGE IN SPUTTERING TECHNOLOGY. By focusing on high quality, innovative design, product flexibility, customer support and affordability, AJA International, Inc. is the undisputed leader in R&D sputtering equipment.

V Target Plasma Substrates Anode Sputtering gas Generating and Controlling the Plasma Ions can be generated by the collision of neutral atoms with high energy electrons.

The interaction of the ions and the target are determined by the velocity and energy of the ions.

The Glow Discharge Aston Dark Space Substrate Low energy electrons and high energy ions Anode Dark Space Anode Cathode Cathode Glow Large field strength Many collisions with the cathode leads to high intensity glow Cathode Dark Space Electrons have too much energy No light emission due to mismatch of electron energies to ionization levels Faraday Dark Space Negative Glow Due to reduced density, electric field strength becomes weak Electrons have the right energy to cause excitation Electron energy is reduced from the collisions in the negative glow region Positive Glow Main plasma region Uniform field strength Equal number of electrons and ions Plasma Pressures Unless there are enough collisions, the plasma will quickly die.

< 5 eV : Adsorption or reflection 5 - 10 eV : Surface damage and migration 10 - 3 keV : Sputtering > 10 keV : Ion implantation How Ions Sputter Atoms When ions collide with surface atoms on the target, the energy transfer can knock some of these atoms off the surface.

The energies required for sputtering are much higher than lattice bonding or vibrational energies, therefore sputtering collisions can be considered elastic.

Sputter Yield Number of sputtered atoms S= Number of incident ions S depends on – type of target atom – binding energy of target atoms – relative mass of ions and atoms – incident ion energy – angle of incidence of ions S E ~1000 ions S S can range from 0.1 to 10 60-70 0 90 Angular and Energy Distribution of Ejected Atoms Sputtered atoms have relatively small energies, typically between 2 – 7 eV. The number distribution as a function of energy is Boltzmann like.

Dependence – Low ion energies, isotropic flux, better step coverage Dependence – Target High ion energies, higher directionality, poor step coverage Deposition Sputtered atoms from the target make their way on to the substrate through diffusion.

Sputtering Deposition Method

Due to the collision of high-energy ions with the target material atoms, momentum transfer occurs between them.

These ions, called incident ions, cause a series of collision cascades on the surface of the target.

If the ion energy at the time of reaching the target surface is greater than the bonding energy between the atoms of the target material, the collided atom separates from the target material.

Approximately one percent of the ions that hit the surface of the target material have a ballistic impact and return to the substrate, causing Resputtering.

The average number of atoms separated from the surface of the target material by the collision of each ion is called the Sputter Yield.

The angle at which the ions strike the surface of the target material.

If the structure of the target material is crystalline, the orientation of the crystal axis relative to the surface is also an important factor in the sputtering yield.

Post Idea #16: Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd.

Related Articles – Summarized


Mitsui Mining Company, Limited is one of the oldest components of the vast Mitsui zaibatsu, or conglomerate, the mining of coal having played an important role at Mitsui since the last quarter of the 19th century.

Mitsui is still the largest coal-mining company in Japan, though the organization’s overall size was much reduced in 1950 by the forced spin-off of its metal mines into a separate company, Mitsui Mining & Smelting Company, and by the relative insignificance of coal in Japan’s current energy strategy.

To counteract the effects of its exhausted mines and shrinking customer base, Mitsui Mining, like many other Japanese suppliers of raw materials, has developed an impressive array of alternative products, many of them high-tech.

At the same time, Mitsui began mining limited quantities of nonferrous metals like zinc, copper, and lead, as well as gold and silver.

So critical was the mining of coal and metals to Japan’s rapid industrialization that Mitsui and the other great zaibatsu were able to erect their immense business empires on a foundation of mining profits, as well as on the control of raw materials at their source.

In 1892 Mitsui, recognizing the great importance of its mining interests, gathered most of them together into Mitsui Mining Company, which would remain one of the zaibatsu’s three pillars of business for many years to come.

Among the Mitsui companies targeted for dissolution was MM, which in 1950 was split into two new firms, Mitsui Mining Company, Limited and Mitsui Mining & Smelting, Co., Ltd. The latter was given all of Mitsui’s non-coal mining interests, while the former remained Japan’s leading producer of coal and related products.

Mitsui Mining & Smelting Stock Forecast, Price & News

Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., Ltd. engages in the manufacture and sale of functional materials, electronic materials, and automotive parts.

It operates through the following segments: Engineered Materials, Metals, Automotive Parts and Components, and Affiliates Coordination.

The Engineered Materials segment offers battery materials, exhaust gas purification catalysts, functional powders, copper foil, and ceramic products.

The Automotive Parts and Components segment handles the manufacture and sale of door locks for automobiles.

The Affiliates Coordination segment covers die cast, powder metallurgy, copper, and pearlite products.

The company was founded in September 1874 and is headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

Why Mitsui Mining Is Excited For Next-Gen Battery Storage

Enter Mitsui Mining & Smelting Co., a supplier of lithium manganese oxide and nickel-lithium, which are both materials found in cathodes, a component of any battery.

The Tokyo-based company says it’s gearing up to be a major supplier of next-generation battery materials.

In November, Mitsui Mining said that it aims to commercialize an electrolyte made with lithium sulfide for solid-state lithium-ion batteries as early as 2020.

“Our goal is to supply all materials for the battery and we want to have them ready for the market in a few years.”

Doing away with liquid for the electrolyte in next-generation batteries widens the variety of ingredients that can go into a battery, Mitsui Mining’s Yasuda said, adding that the company is in the process of developing a silicon-based material for anodes.

“This destroys the structure and integrity of a battery cell, reducing battery life,” he said.

Liquid electrolytes used in batteries are susceptible to freezing in cold weather and can dissolve under heat, meaning next-generation batteries of the solid variety would be able to better withstand extreme temperatures, according to Hitohiko Ide, manager of Mitsui Mining’s battery materials project team.

Magna Mining Signs MoU With Mitsui For Canadian Mine

Mitsui intends to buy a stake of 10% to 12.5% in the Shakespeare Mine for a cash consideration of $8m-$10m. Magna Mining has signed a memorandum of understanding with Mitsui for a proposed joint venture arrangement for the Shakespeare mine in Canada.

The MoU allows the two firms to discuss the potential for Mitsui to purchase a stake between 10% and 12.5% in the Shakespeare Ni-Cu-PGM Mine for cash consideration ranging from $8m to $10m. The non-binding MoU is restricted to a 2,590ha area of the over-18,000ha Shakespeare Project.

Magna Mining said that the MoU covers the existing Shakespeare deposit, the proposed location of the Shakespeare open pit mine, mill, tailings storage facility and the adjacent claims.

In connection with the transaction, Magna Mining will sign a JV agreement with Mitsui to develop the Shakespeare Mine.

“Magna Mining CEO Jason Jessup said:”This MoU is the beginning of what we hope will be a long-term partnership between Magna Mining and Mitsui, the objective of which is to create the next nickel producer in the world-class nickel mining region of Sudbury, Ontario.

Each JV partner will have the offtake right for the products, including nickel, copper and/or other by-products from the Shakespeare Mine pro-rata to their ownership percentage in the JV. Magna will continue to own a 100% stake in the remainder of the Shakespeare Project and regional exploration targets such as the P-4 Discovery.

Each of the JV participant will retain the offtake right in the produced products, including nickel, copper and/or other by-products, from the Shakespeare Mine located 70km south west of Sudbury.

Post Idea #17: 3-V Biosciences, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

3-V Biosciences, Inc., Jobs & Salary For Foreign Workers

3-V Biosciences, Inc. has not filed any LCA for H1B visa or LC for green card from fiscal year 2019 to 2021.

Above table reports Labor Condition Application(LCA) for H1B visa and Labor Certification(LC) for green card filed by 3-V Biosciences, Inc. The data only indicates the number of applications filed by 3-V Biosciences, Inc. It does not mean that 3-V Biosciences, Inc. actually got the visa and hired the workers.

Usually, only LCA for new employment needs H1B Visa quota if it is not cap-exempt.

3-V Biosciences, Inc. has not filed any labor petitions for foreign workers from fiscal year 2019 to 2021.

3-V Biosciences had applied for LCA for H1B visa or LC for green card before 2012.

Be sure to contact their HR department or hiring managers for their updated work visa policy.

Department of Labor(DOL) typically certifies more than 3 times the number of foreign work requests than the number of H1B visas issued by USCIS. So there is no one to one relationship between the number of workers certified by the DOL and the number of H1B work visas issued by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services.

Post Idea #18: Syneos Health

Related Articles – Summarized

Syneos Health

Syneos Health is a biopharmaceutical solutions management consulting firm making waves in the healthcare and life sciences consulting space.

Today, we’re uncovering the inner workings of Syneos Health to uncover key insights related to Syneos Health careers, culture, salary, interviews, and more.

Syneos Health was formed out of a merger between InVentiv Health Incorporated and INC Research in 2018.

Syneos Health careers involve exciting strategy, growth, and restructuring work, reflecting its three distinct businesses: Contract Research Organization, Contract Commercial Organization, and Syneos Health Consulting.

Other Syneos Health exit opportunities include the opportunity to work within clinical research companies, and many alumni of Syneos Health have moved into higher-level management and leadership positions in the broader life sciences industry.

The Syneos Health Employee Resource Group is built and led by the companies’ employees, integrating diverse sub-groups within the firm to ensure employee representation to leadership as well as provide support resources.

Now that you know more about the culture at Syneos Health, it’s time to think about Syneos Health interviews.

Syneos Health

A career with Syneos Health® Commercial Solutions delivers unmatched autonomy and agility in this dynamic Life Science industry.

You’ll stay at the forefront of your field whether your talents lie in sales, medical affairs, healthcare communications, consulting or commercial operations and leadership.

You’ll take on and solve the industry’s toughest challenges as part of the only fully integrated biopharmaceutical accelerator.

The spirit of partnership is critical at Syneos Health.

Here, you’ll put your clients first and do what’s best to improve the lives of patients and their families.

Teaming with some of the most accomplished professionals in the industry, you’ll contribute to important work with significant global impact.

Syneos Health

Syneos Health is a NASDAQ listed American multinational contract research organization based in Morrisville, North Carolina.

The company specializes in helping companies with late-stage clinical trials.

In January 2018 INC Research acquired inVentiv Health, the parent company of a subsidiary, Syneos, and the resulting company was named Syneos Health.

Syneos Health Reports Fourth Quarter And Full Year 2021

3 million for the trailing twelve months, year-over-year growth of 25.6% and a book-to-bill ratio of 1.15x…Year-over-year ending backlog growth: Including reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses, 2.9% in Clinical Solutions and 20.9% in Deployment Solutions as of December 31, 2021.Excluding reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses, 15.4% in Clinical Solutions and 25.8% in Deployment Solutions as of December 31, 2021…GAAP net income of $76.0 million decreased 17.3% from $91.9 million in the fourth quarter of 2020.Adjusted EBITDA of $237.0 million increased 21.6% year-over-year.

We expect reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses as a percentage of revenue to remain lower relative to pre-pandemic levels and adjusted our ending backlog accordingly, impacting both our reported net new business awards and backlog growth in the fourth quarter.

Except for historical information, all of the statements, expectations, and assumptions contained in this press release are forward-looking statements as that term is defined in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, including the future impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, financial results and financial condition, anticipated financial results for the full year 2022, trends in reimbursable out-of-pocket expenses, benefits of recent acquisitions and plans for capital deployment.

Three Months Ended December 31, Year Ended December 31, 2021 20202021 2020 Revenue $ $ $ $ Costs and operating expenses: Direct costs Selling, general, and administrative expenses Restructuring and other costs Depreciation Amortization Total operating expenses Income from operations Total other expense, net: Interest expense, net Loss on extinguishment of debt Other expense, net ) ) ) )Total other expense, net Income before provision for income taxes Income tax expense ) Net income $ $ $ $ Earnings per share: Basic $ $ $ $ Diluted $ $ $ $ Weighted average common shares outstanding: Basic Diluted Syneos Health, Inc. and SubsidiariesConsolidated Balance Sheets(in thousands, except par value).

Three Months EndedDecember 31, Year EndedDecember 31, 2021 2020 2021 2020 EBITDA and adjusted EBITDA: Net income, as reported$ $ $ $ Interest expense, net Income tax expense ) Depreciation Amortization EBITDA Restructuring and other costs Transaction and integration-related expenses Share-based compensation Other expense, net ) ) ) )Loss on extinguishment of debt Adjusted EBITDA$ $ $ $ Syneos Health, Inc. and SubsidiariesReconciliation of GAAP to Non-GAAP Measures(in thousands, except per share data)(Unaudited).

Three Months EndedDecember 31, Year EndedDecember 31, 2021 2020 2021 2020 Adjusted net income: Net income, as reported $ $ $ $ Amortization Restructuring and other costs Transaction and integration-related expenses Share-based compensation Other expense, net ) ) ) )Loss on extinguishment of debt Income tax adjustment to normalized rate ) ) ) )Adjusted net income $ $ $ $ Diluted weighted average common shares outstanding Adjusted diluted earnings per share $ $ $ $ Represents the amortization of intangible assets associated with acquired backlog, customer relationships, trade names and trademarks, intellectual property, patient communities, and acquired technologies.

Income tax expense is calculated and the adjustments are tax-affected at an approximate effective rate of 23.5%, which represents the Company’s estimated full year non-GAAP effective tax rate.

Cancer treatments have been transformed by immunotherapy advances, but not all patients respond positively.

Explore an AI-based digital diagnostic pathology platform with that helps with selecting patients likely to find success: bit.

Ly/3HG6cag #SyneosHealthWe appreciate your concern about iPLEDGE. While Syneos Health doesn’t maintain the iPLEDGE system or contact center, we are doing what we can to help the responsible parties with a resolution.

Syneos Health is a people-powered business, and over the course of the pandemic, our leaders have shared the importance of our Total Self culture and how supporting health and wellbeing is our top priority.

Read about the latest in health and well-being from Syneos Health in the book.

While bringing therapies to patients unites us, we are encouraged to pursue our various passions and to fully be our Total Self.

Ly/37KnUcl📰NEWS: Syneos Health and announce a partnership to provide regulatory-grade data and analytics-driven solutions to advance drug development and improve patient outcomes.

Post Idea #19: Sausage casing

Related Articles – Summarized

Sausage Casings 101: A Guide To Choosing The Right Casing

Sausage casings are an essential part of making sausage.

Natural sausage casings are made from the submucosa of the small intestine, a layer of the intestine that consists of naturally occurring collagen.

Sheep casings are the most tender of the natural casings.

The smaller diameter of sheep casings makes the perfect for making small link sausages like breakfast sausage and hot dogs, to snack sticks.

These casings are ideal for dry and semi-dry sausages like Salami, Liverwurst, Bologna, or Summer sausage.

Collagen casings are processed, edible casings produced from the collagen in cow or pig hides, bones, and tendons.

Fibrous casings are inedible casings made from a form of cellulose material that peels away easily when cooked.

Bulk & Wholesale Sausage Casing

Sausage casings are essential for any butcher shop, meat department, supermarket, or specialty shop that sells jerky, sausage, or other meats.

Use these products when making homemade Italian sausages, bratwursts, sausage links, or jerky.

You can even find a flavored sausage casing to give your meats a smoked taste without using an actual smoker.

Our selection of products includes collagen casings, which require no preparation, natural hog casings, which are ideal for making sausage the traditional way, and mahogany casings, which have string ties for hanging up your meats.

If you’re looking for sausage casings for your meat prep needs, you’ve come to the right place.

All of the natural, edible sausage casings we carry are properly packaged in zipper-sealed vacuum bags for maximum freshness and easy storage.

If you offer house-made salami at your establishment, you can use these sausage castings for cured meats.

7 Types Of Sausage Casings

Anyone who wants to make sausages at home needs to understand a bit about casings and which types you need for different situations.

Smoked collagen casings are a bit stronger than many of the other kinds of casings, and they are therefore a great option for wieners, hot dogs, and snack sticks.

A popular choice for many of the traditional sausages, hog casings are used because they – like many natural casings – have an excellent “Snap” to them.

All natural sausage casings come preserved in either a saline solution or packed in salt.

There are a few different kinds of beef casing, which is another natural sausage casing option.

Hot dogs, snack sticks, and breakfast sausages are often made with sheep casing, but any small sausage can use it.

If you want to make your own sausages, it’s important to learn about the different casings and how they should be used.

Understanding Sausage Casings: Which Ones Can You Eat?

The only sausage casings not eaten are certain collagen casings, cellulose and plastic casings.

There are two main types of sausage casing’s used for different kinds of sausage.

The reason for casings is to make cooking and eating the sausage meat easier.

Amazon has great sausage casings to choose from, check out the best ones here.

Only remove sausage fibrous casings like you would see on most summer sausages.

Typical sausage casings are clear so you can see bits of fat and spices inside the sausage.

These casings are meant to be peeled back as you cut slices from the sausage.

Sausage Casing

Sausage casing, also known as sausage skin or simply casing, is the material that encloses the filling of a sausage.

The material is then shaped via a continuous extrusion process – producing a single sausage casing of indefinite length – which is then cut into desired lengths, usually while the extrusion process continues.

Natural casing sausages are distinguishable from collagen or cellulose casings because of their irregularity, although high quality sheep and lamb casings can be almost indistinguishable from a collagen casing as they have no noticeable imperfections.

The main difference is in the way they are twisted and linked which impacts the appearance of the final product and makes it easy to differentiate a hot dog using natural sheep or lamb casing vs collagen casing.

Sheep and lamb and hog casings are available “Tubed” where each strand is put on a plastic tube which allows the sausage maker to easily place the casing on the stuffing horn, in recent years these tubes have been modified so they break open along a seam and the operator can pull them out at the back of the horn allowing greater efficiency; these are referred to in the industry as “Zip tubes”, due to the zipper like nature of the seam.

Sheep and lamb and hog are also available in a net, commonly referred to as net pack, these are available salted or in brine and they are primarily used by medium to large sausage makers who do not want to pay the additional cost for the tubed casing and don’t have automatic sausage stuffing and linking machines.

Most collagen casings are edible, but a special form of thicker collagen casings is used for salamis and large caliber sausages where the casing is usually peeled off the sausage by the consumer.

Post Idea #20: RPM International Inc

Related Articles – Summarized

World Leader In Specialty Coatings

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RPM International Inc. Expected To Announce Quarterly Sales Of $1.41 Billion

Equities research analysts expect RPM International Inc. to announce sales of $1.41 billion for the current quarter, Zacks reports.

Two analysts have provided estimates for RPM International’s earnings, with the lowest sales estimate coming in at $1.40 billion and the highest estimate coming in at $1.42 billion.

RPM International reported sales of $1.27 billion in the same quarter last year, which would indicate a positive year-over-year growth rate of 11%. The firm is scheduled to announce its next earnings results on Wednesday, April 6th. According to Zacks, analysts expect that RPM International will report full year sales of $6.63 billion for the current fiscal year, with estimates ranging from $6.60 billion to $6.69 billion.

Zacks’ sales averages are a mean average based on a survey of analysts that that provide coverage for RPM International.

Evercore ISI raised shares of RPM International from an “In-line” rating to an “Outperform” rating and set a $105.00 target price for the company in a report on Tuesday, December 7th. Royal Bank of Canada upped their price objective on RPM International from $87.00 to $94.00 and gave the company a “Sector perform” rating in a research note on Monday, January 10th. Bank of America downgraded RPM International from a “Neutral” rating to an “Underperform” rating in a research note on Thursday, January 6th. They noted that the move was a valuation call.

In a research note on Wednesday, November 24th. Finally, JPMorgan Chase & Co. raised RPM International from an “Underweight” rating to a “Neutral” rating and upped their price objective for the company from $85.00 to $100.00 in a research note on Thursday, January 6th. One investment analyst has rated the stock with a sell rating, five have issued a hold rating and four have given a buy rating to the company’s stock.

This represents a $1.60 dividend on an annualized basis and a yield of 2.03%. The ex-dividend date of this dividend was Thursday, January 13th. RPM International’s dividend payout ratio is presently 45.85%. RPM International Company Profile.

RPM International Inc. owns subsidiaries that are world leaders in specialty coatings, sealants, building materials and related services across three segments.

RPM s industrial products include roofing systems, sealants, corrosion control coatings, flooring coatings and other construction chemicals.

RPM’s consumer products are used by professionals and do-it-yourselfers for home maintenance and improvement and by hobbyists.

RPM s specialty products include industrial cleaners, colorants, exterior finishes, specialty OEM coatings, edible coatings, restoration services equipment and specialty glazes for the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Specialty segment companies include Day-Glo, Dryvit, RPM Wood Finishes, Mantrose-Haeuser, Legend Brands, Kop-Coat and TCI. Additional details can be found at www.

RPMinc.com and by following RPM on Twitter at www.

Post Idea #21: Digital transformation

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Digital Transformation? Why Is It Important

Making call centers and in-store service desks run more efficiently with digital technology is of course great.

Real transformation comes when you look at all available technologies and consider how adapting your business to them can give customers a better experience.

Social media wasn’t invented to take the place of call centers, but it’s become an additional channel to offer better customer service.

Adapting your service offerings to embrace social media is another good example of a digital transformation.

Why stop there? As we mentioned earlier, digital transformation encourages businesses to reconsider everything, including traditional ideas of teams and departments.

That doesn’t necessarily mean tapping your service reps to run marketing campaigns, but it can mean knocking down walls between departments.

Your social media presence can encompass service and marketing, tied together by a digital platform that captures customer information, creates personalized journeys, and routes customer queries to your service agents.

Digital Transformation

Digital transformation is the adoption of digital technology by a company.

Digitization is the process of converting analog information into digital form using an analog-to-digital converter, such as in an image scanner or for digital audio recordings.

Digital transformation is broader than just the digitization of existing processes.

Digital transformation entails considering how products, processes and organisations can be changed through the use of new, digital technologies.

Adopting digital technology can bring benefits to a business, however some company cultures can struggle with the changes required by digital transformation.

Half of these companies anticipate an increase in the usage of digital technologies in the future, with a greater proportion being companies that have previously used digital technology.

A lack of digital infrastructure was viewed as a key barrier to investment by 16% of EU businesses, compared to 5% in the US. In a survey conducted in 2021, 89% of African banks polled claimed that the COVID-19 pandemic has hastened the digital transformation of their internal operations.

Digital Business Transformation Defined

Digital transformation is a key component of an overall business transformation strategy, and while not the only factor, it’s critical to the success or failure of any transformation effort.

Digital transformation involves integrating digital technologies and solutions into every area of a business.

Digital solutions also help to augment the workforce and can lead to business process and business model transformation.

Despite the terms often being used interchangeably, digital transformation is a subset of business transformation – it builds a connected, technological framework that underpins and supports process changes.

Business model transformation: Business process transformation focuses on workflows and task-related areas of the business whereas business model transformation aims at the foundational building blocks of how value is delivered in a specific industry.

Studies from thought leaders like McKinsey and Harvard Business Review have shown us that up to 70% of business and digital transformation initiatives do not succeed.

Consider these four early steps as you progress on your digital transformation journey, and speak to your software vendor to help you get started with crafting a transformation strategy and road map and learning which solutions are best for your unique business needs.

Digital transformation is the process of replacing traditional business processes with digital technologies, to improve, advance or streamline ways of working.

Put simply: digital transformation is the redesigning of business for the digital age.

Digital transformation dramatically improves how companies serve customers.

Since the term was first coined in 2012, digital transformation has become a universal phenomenon where businesses use data, devices, and software to update how they operate, manufacture, and market products and services.

Digital transformation initiatives often begin as singular projects to improve services, by analyzing data to understand customer preferences and improve their experiences.

Once a business has made the decision to undergo digital transformation, the scale and scope of the initiative creates opportunities to create new SaaS solutions that support the digital operations and workflow.

Although the term digital transformation came into common usage in 2012/2013, the ideas behind digital products, services, and media have been part of the business vocabulary since the internet reached mass adoption in the late 1990s.

Digital Transformation: Roadmap, Technologies & Practices

Digital transformation is the process of integrating digital technologies into all aspects of a business to meet the market and changing business requirements.

The objective of the DX is leveraging data and technologies that turn data into insights to deliver better services and operational excellence.

As the volume of data businesses must secure increases and we hear different data breach stories that cost companies millions, the demand for cybersecurity technologies will continue to grow.

Test data management solutions enable organizations to use realistic data while securing private information using technologies such as synthetic data generation.

Pharma companies: Digital technologies that enable them to collect and share data for research purposes and facilitate personalized care.

How did pandemic affect digital transformation efforts of companies?

If you are ready to start you DX journey, you can check our data-driven and comprehensive list of digital transformation consultant companies.

Digital Transformation

Deloitte Consulting LLP’s digital transformation practice has advised clients in the technology sector as well as those in the industrial sector as they enter and compete in new markets.

Our work includes defining customer-first strategies, building new business and operating models, and launching the critical capabilities required to swiftly drive scale-all to achieve optimal results from limited resource pools.

The Keys To A Successful Digital Transformation

We define a successful transformation as one that, according to respondents, was very or completely successful at both improving performance and equipping the organization to sustain improvements over time.

At organizations with fewer than 100 employees, respondents are 2.7 times more likely to report a successful digital transformation than are those from organizations with more than 50,000 employees.

Respondents are 1.5 times more likely to report a successful digital transformation when this practice is in place.

The survey asked which of the following roles were engaged by the organization to support the execution of the digital transformation: initiative leaders, integrator roles, leaders of the program-management or transformation office, technology-innovation managers, chief digital officers, and coaches.

The first key is adopting digital tools to make information more accessible across the organization, which more than doubles the likelihood of a successful transformation.

Communicating frequently via traditional and digital methods As we have seen in traditional change efforts, clear communication is critical during a digital transformation.

In a digital context, companies must get more creative in the channels they are using to enable the new, quicker ways of working and the speedier mind-set and behavior changes that a digital transformation requires.

Post Idea #22: High-strength low-alloy steel

Related Articles – Summarized

Asminternational.org High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels Introduction and Overview High-strength low-alloy steels, or microalloyed steels, are designed to provide better mechanical properties and/or greater resistance to atmospheric corrosion than conventional carbon steels.

The chemical composition of a specific HSLA steel may vary for different product thicknesses to meet mechanical property requirements.

These steels are not considered alloy steels, even though their desired properties are achieved by the use of small alloy additions.

Asminternational.org 194 / Carbon and Alloy Steels of minimum mechanical properties, with the specific alloy content left to the discretion of the steel producer.

HSLA steels can be divided into six categories: Weathering steels, which contain small amounts of alloying elements such as copper and phosphorus for improved atmospheric corrosion resistance and solid-solution strengthening.

Asminternational.org High-Strength Low-Alloy Steels / 197 ratio of HSLA steels compared with conventional low-carbon steels.

Effects of Microalloying Additions Emphasis in this section is placed on microalloyed ferrite-pearlite steels, which use additions of alloying elements such as niobium and vanadium to increase strength of hot-rolled steel without increasing carbon and/or manganese contents.

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

To examine the corrosion resistance of high strength low alloy steel, the electrochemical tests are carried out.

Reproduced from Yilbas B, Toor I-u-H, Malik J, Patel F. Laser treatment of high strength low alloy steel and electrochemical response of the surface.

All these results suggest a stable and more protective film is formed on laser treated sample surface, which means that laser treatment has a positive effect on the corrosion properties of the high strength low alloy steel.

To match the tensile strength and toughness of the parent steel, the filler metals need to be more highly alloyed and therefore will have a higher carbon equivalent CEv, perhaps as high as 0.6 CEv if matching for instance the tensile strength of a 700 MPa yield steel with an E11018-G electrode.

Abstract:Compared with high strength alloy steels, low to intermediate strength carbon steels are more resistant to hydrogen embrittlement.

One aspect of HSLA steel that is different from alloy steels is that HSLA steel is microalloyed, and they depend of that specific alloying composition to give the steel the added strength that the designers are looking for.

EN 1993-1-1 covers the design of steel structures fabricated of steel material conforming to the four steel grades listed in Table 11.1.Read full chapter.

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

It is formable, weldable, and more economical than alloy steel.

Steel used in automobile bodies, this AHSS allows you to fabricate high-strength parts using thinner material than you could with other types of steel.

Hardness: Rockwell C20.Specifications Met: ASTM A514.Heat treated for enhanced hardness and strength, A514 alloy steel is suitable for structural applications and supporting heavy loads.

Specifications Met: ASTM A572.Combining strength with weldability and formability, A572 alloy steel is an economical choice for structural components, such as channels, beams, and framing.

Also known as weathering steel, this high-strength steel develops a thin layer of rust over time in outdoor environments that protects the inner steel from corrosion.

With a yield strength of 50,000 psi, it’s stronger than common low-carbon steels such as A36.

Steel meets ASTM standards for corrosion resistance and strength.

High Strength Low Alloy Steel

In contrast with alloy steels, HSLA steels achieved higher strength with a much lower alloy content.

Lower carbon content and lower alloying content leads to increased ductility, toughness, and weldability compared with grades achieving their strength from only solid solution strengthening like CMn steels or from alloying like AISI/SAE 4130.

HSLA steels increase strength primarily by micro-alloying elements contributing to fine carbide precipitation, substitutional and interstitial strengthening, and grain-size refinement.

HSLA steels are found in many body-in-white and underbody structural applications where strength is needed for increased in-service loads.

HSLA steels have a microstructure that is mostly precipitation-strengthened ferrite, with the amount of other constituents like pearlite and bainite being a function of the targeted strength level.

Some of the specifications describing uncoated cold rolled high strength low alloy steel are included below, with the grades typically listed in order of increasing minimum yield strength and ductility.

Spot Weld Strength Improvement by PWHT. “This article summarizes a paper entitled,”High Strength Steel Spot Weld Strength Improvement through in situ.

High-Strength Low-Alloy Steel

High-strength low-alloy steel is a type of alloy steel that provides better mechanical properties or greater resistance to corrosion than carbon steel.

HSLA steel cross-sections and structures are usually 20 to 30% lighter than a carbon steel with the same strength.

Military armour plate is mostly made from alloy steels, although some civilian armour against small arms is now made from HSLA steels with extreme low temperature quenching.

Pearlite-reduced steels: Low carbon content steels which lead to little or no pearlite, but rather a very fine grain ferrite matrix.

Acicular ferrite steels: These steels are characterized by a very fine high strength acicular ferrite structure, a very low carbon content, and good hardenability.

A common type of micro-alloyed steel is improved-formability HSLA. It has a yield strength up to 80,000 psi but costs only 24% more than A36 steel maintains standards for HSLA steel grades because they are often used in automotive applications.

Controlled rolling is a method of refining grains of steel by introducing large amount of nucleation sites for ferrite in austenite matrix by rolling with temperature control, therefore increasing the strength of steel.

Post Idea #23: United Parcel Service

Related Articles – Summarized

United Parcel Service

UPS offers air shipping on an overnight or two-day basis and delivers to post office boxes through UPS SurePost, a subsidiary that passes on packages to the United States Postal Service for last mile delivery.

UPS became one of the only companies in the United States to offer common carrier service.

The common carrier service was applied in cities where UPS could use the service without the authority of the ICC and state commerce commissions.

In 1953, UPS resumed air service called UPS Blue Label Air with two-day service to major cities along the East Coast and West Coast.

In 2005, UPS offered non-stop delivery service between Guangzhou and the United States.

On October 3, 2005, UPS completed the purchase of Lynx Express, one of the largest independent parcel carriers in the United Kingdom, for £55.5 million after receiving approval for the transaction from the European Commission.

Major competitors in the United States include the United States Postal Service and FedEx, along with regional carriers such as OnTrac, and LSO. In addition to these domestic carriers, UPS competes with a variety of international operators, including SF Express, Canada Post, TransForce, Deutsche Post, Royal Mail, Japan Post Service, and many other regional carriers, national postal services and air cargo handlers.

United Parcel Service, Inc. Shares Acquired By Miracle Mile Advisors LLC

Miracle Mile Advisors LLC increased its position in United Parcel Service, Inc. by 2.3% in the fourth quarter, according to its most recent 13F filing with the SEC. The firm owned 49,050 shares of the transportation company’s stock after purchasing an additional 1,081 shares during the period.

Miracle Mile Advisors LLC’s holdings in United Parcel Service were worth $10,513,000 at the end of the most recent reporting period.

Geode Capital Management LLC lifted its position in shares of United Parcel Service by 2.7% during the third quarter.

Geode Capital Management LLC now owns 11,175,249 shares of the transportation company’s stock worth $2,029,020,000 after purchasing an additional 295,726 shares in the last quarter.

Janus Henderson Group PLC now owns 8,459,757 shares of the transportation company’s stock worth $1,540,515,000 after purchasing an additional 219,836 shares during the last quarter.

Finally, Franklin Resources Inc. lifted its stake in shares of United Parcel Service by 0.9% during the 3rd quarter.

Franklin Resources Inc. now owns 6,342,644 shares of the transportation company’s stock worth $1,155,001,000 after buying an additional 54,938 shares during the last quarter.

United Parcel Service Inc. Quarterly Performance Is 1.20%: Here Is The Surprise Factor – Invest Chronicle

United Parcel Service Inc. had a pretty favorable run when it comes to the market performance.

United Parcel Service Inc. full year performance was 23.88%. Price records that include history of low and high prices in the period of 52 weeks can tell a lot about the stock’s existing status and the future performance.

Presently, United Parcel Service Inc. shares are logging -11.36% during the 52-week period from high price, and 30.68% higher than the lowest price point for the same timeframe.

When it comes to the year-to-date metrics, the United Parcel Service Inc. recorded performance in the market was -3.34%, having the revenues showcasing 1.20% on a quarterly basis in comparison with the same period year before.

During the last month, 17 analysts gave the United Parcel Service Inc. a BUY rating, 2 of the polled analysts branded the stock as an OVERWEIGHT, 11 analysts were recommending to HOLD this stock, 1 of them gave the stock UNDERWEIGHT rating, and 1 of the polled analysts provided SELL rating.

In a similar fashion, United Parcel Service Inc. posted a movement of +6.93% for the period of last 100 days, recording 2,910,435 in trading volumes.

Raw Stochastic average of United Parcel Service Inc. in the period of last 50 days is set at 35.24%. The result represents improvement in oppose to Raw Stochastic average for the period of the last 20 days, recording 33.83%. In the last 20 days, the company’s Stochastic %K was 25.03% and its Stochastic %D was recorded 20.17%. If we look into the earlier routines of United Parcel Service Inc., multiple moving trends are noted.

UPS Locations Near You

Our UPS locations will help make our customers’ visit simple and convenient for their shipping needs.

UPS Customer Centers are ideal to easily create new shipments with the use of our self-service kiosks.

UPS Authorized Service Centers are available for customers to create a new shipment, purchase packaging and shipping supplies, and drop off pre-packaged pre-labeled shipments.

These locations bring flexibility and convenience for our customers.

UPS Alliance Shipping Partners offer full-service shipping services.

UPS Access Point® locations are very convenient for customers looking for a quick and simple stop in any neighborhood.

UPS Access Point® lockers are great for customers that need flexible weekend and evening hours.

United Parcel Service, Inc. operates as a logistics and package delivery company providing supply chain management services.

The company operates through the following segments: U.S. Domestic Package, International Package, and Supply Chain and Freight.

The U.S. Domestic Package segment offers a full spectrum of U.S. domestic guaranteed ground and air.

The International Package segment includes small package operations in Europe, Asia-Pacific, Canada and Latin America, Indian sub-continent, and the Middle East and Africa.

The Supply Chain and Freight segment offers transportation, distribution, and international trade and brokerage services.

Track UPS Parcel & Shipment Delivery

While UPS is renowned for its multinational parcel delivery and logistics, it does not specialize in parcel tracking.

While the universal Ship24 parcel tracking API will give you updates instantly on any change in a package’s status, if you believe your parcel or package is delayed, then contacting UPS directly will be necessary.

Equally, sellers are also reassured that their product will arrive on time and in good condition when sending parcels with UPS. It also benefits both parties as you can track a UPS parcel using the UPS parcel tracking number from dispatch to delivery.

On Ship24’s powerful multicarrier tracking platform, you never need to switch how or where you track your UPS parcels because Ship24 will continue to deliver updates whether your parcel is handled by another courier as part of its delivery or not.

This means no matter what variables exist during the delivery of a UPS package, you can be assured that you can continue tracking your UPS package from dispatch to delivery.

This is especially difficult in America when you have major competition from other big players such as FedEx and USPS. Although choosing between couriers might be a difficult decision, the good news is, tracking your parcel isn’t! By using the universal Ship24 tracking tool, you can keep track of up to 10 parcels at a time, no matter who their parcel is sent with.

Whether to track a single parcel or to set up an integrated universal tracking API or webhook for your business, Ship24 can provide the best universal tracking solutions to meet your needs.

Post Idea #24: Electrochemistry

Related Articles – Summarized


A galvanic cell whose electrodes are zinc and copper submerged in zinc sulfate and copper sulfate, respectively, is known as a Daniell cell.

A cell diagram can be used to trace the path of the electrons in the electrochemical cell.

During operation of electrochemical cells, chemical energy is transformed into electrical energy and is expressed mathematically as the product of the cell’s emf and the electric charge transferred through the external circuit.

Where Ecell is the cell potential measured in volts and Ctrans is the cell current integrated over time and measured in coulombs; Ctrans can also be determined by multiplying the total number of electrons transferred times Faraday’s constant.

As shown in the previous section, the change in Gibbs free energy for an electrochemical cell can be related to the cell potential.

A concentration cell is an electrochemical cell where the two electrodes are the same material, the electrolytes on the two half-cells involve the same ions, but the electrolyte concentration differs between the two half-cells.

The cell is connected to an electrical power supply, allowing electrons to migrate from the power supply to the electrolytic cell.

Meaning, Important Terms, Electrolysis, Redox Reaction

The galvanic cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy i.e, electricity can be obtained with the help of redox reaction.

For example- Daniell cell is a galvanic cell in which zinc and copper are used for a redox reaction to take place.

Standard electrode potential: Standard electrode potential is defined as the electrode potential of an electrode relative to standard hydrogen electrode under standard conditions.

In the electrolysis of molten sodium chloride, sodium chloride is melted, two electrodes are inserted into the melt, and an electric current is passed through the molten salt.

The relationship between the quantity of electric charge passed through an electrolyte and the amount of substance deposited at the electrodes was given by Faraday in 1834, in the form of the law of electrolysis.

A galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell, used to supply electrical current by making the transfer of electrons through a redox reaction.

In this cell redox reaction is not spontaneous, and electrical energy required to initiate the reaction.

Electrochemistry Basics

A redox reaction is a reaction that involves a change in oxidation state of one or more elements.

Voltaic cells are electrochemical cells that contain a spontaneous reaction, and always have a positive voltage.

A double vertical line ce is used to separate the anode half reaction from the cathode half reaction.

Cell potential is different for each voltaic cell; its value depends upon the concentrations of specific reactants and products as well as temperature of the reaction.

For standard cell potential, temperature of the reaction is assumed to be 25o Celsius, the concentration of the reactants and products is 1 M, and reaction occurs at 1 atm pressure.

Since standard potentials are given in the form of standard reduction potential for each half-reaction, to calculate the standard cell potential, the substance is being oxidized must be identified; then the standard reduction potential of the oxidation reaction is subtracted from the standard reduction potential of the reducing reaction.

Redox reaction: Shorthand for reduction-oxidation reaction.

ScienceDirect Topics

On electrode surfaces, the oxidation and reduction half-reactions are separated in space, usually occurring at different electrodes immersed in solution in a single cell or in separate cell compartments.

Each cell has two electrodes, conductors through which electrons enter or leave the cell.

There are two types of electrochemical cells: voltaic cell and electrolytic cell.

An electrolytic cell uses electrical energy from outside the cell to cause a redox reaction to occur.

Electrical current is carried in the external circuit of a cell by electrons and within a cell by ions.

Standard electrode potentials can be used to predict what the electrode reactions and the cell potential will be for any specific electrochemical cell.

The most widely used storage cell is the lead storage cell.

Flv Electrical energy chemical energy Corrosion, electroplating Luigi Galvani was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna.

Electrode Reactions Reduction – LUMO + HOMO electrode solution LUMO – HOMO + electrode solution Electrochemical reactions are all adiabatic Oxidation the donor level and the acceptor level must at the same energy state Faraday’s law F = 96,485 C/mol Michael Faraday Michael Faraday, FRS was an English chemist and physicist who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

High cycle efficiency Low cost per cycle compared to batteries Electrochemical Currents Faradaic current Double-layer Charging current Faraday’s law N = Q/nF Rate = dN/dt = i/nF Classic Physics C = q/E Double-layer charging current iDL = CDLAv Total current I = iDL + iF Electrode Reactions Osurf O’surf O’bulk electrode Oads electron transfer chemical mass transfer Rads Rsurf R’surf Double layer Mass-transfer control Kinetic control R’bulk Walther Nernst Walther Hermann Nernst was a German physical chemist and physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry.

In chemistry, transition state theory is a conception of chemical reactions or other processes involving rearrangement of matter as proceeding through a continuous change or “Transition state” in the relative positions and potential energies of the constituent atoms and molecules.

Arrhenius Equation k Ae k nFA kf O + ne R kb vnet ia vb kbCR nFA ic ia v f vb k f CO kbCR nFA i nFA k f CO kbC R Butler – Volmer Equation John Alfred Valentine Butler John Alfred Valentine Butler was the British physical chemist who was the first to connect the kinetic electrochemistry built up in the second half of the twentieth century with the thermodynamic electrochemistry that dominated the first half.

Max Volmer Max Volmer was a German physical chemist, who made important contributions in electrochemistry, in particular on electrode kinetics.

Adsorption Free Energy From the adsorption coefficient , the adsorption free energy was determined, using Fc64, -53 2 KJ/mol Fc32, -50 1 KJ/mol Fc8, -47 1 KJ/mol DGio i exp RT The adsorption free energy of +, where bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine and L are various dipyridyl groups including 4,4′-bipyridine, trans-1,2-bis(4pyridyl)ethylene, 1,3-bis(4-pyridyl)propane, or 1,2-bis(4pyridyl)ethane, all of which have a pendant pyridyl group through which adsorption takes place.

College Of Science

From energy storage and generation to nanoscale 3D battery architectures to the transport of drugs through human skin, Henry White’s research is pioneering and highly imaginative within the field of electrochemistry.

White maintained a strong research group funded by the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation, the Department of Energy, and the Department of Defense while serving for six years as Chair of the Department of Chemistry, then five years as Dean of the College of Science.

“Electrochemistry is a fascinating area of science, and a very diverse area, comprising many fundamental research topics in chemistry, materials science, physics, and engineering. It is also extremely relevant in providing potential solutions to many problems that society faces, especially in providing means for developing sustainable energy sources. I’ve been very fortunate during my career to have had the necessary funding and resources to work on very basic science questions in this area. And I’ve been even more fortunate to be able to work with incredibly talented students and postdocs at the University of Utah, many who have continued to work on electrochemical problems in both industry and academics.”

White trains his students and postdocs on how to be a researcher, to ask innovative questions, and to be relentlessly rigorous in their approach.

After training with White for years, Professor Ren affirms that “Henry’s research approach is very unique. In addition to solving scientific problems elegantly, he is especially great at asking fundamental scientific questions. He is also highly innovative and very good at exploring new directions in electrochemistry. I was greatly influenced by my postdoc training with him.”

Henry White’s research is often cited by other researchers and is foundational in the fields of electrochemistry and analytical chemistry.

White’s research has been recognized in major awards from the Society of Electroanalytical Chemistry, the Royal Society of Chemistry, the ACS Division of Analytical Chemistry, and the Electrochemical Society.

Electrochemical Reactions

Oxidation-reduction reactions should occur when they convert the stronger of a pair of oxidizing agents and the stronger of a pair of reducing agents into a weaker oxidizing agent and a weaker reducing agent.

The reaction in Practice Problem 1 has some of the characteristic features of oxidation-reduction reactions.

Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions From the Sign of Eo. The magnitude of the cell potential is a measure of the driving force behind a reaction.

Reactions for which Eo is positive therefore have equilibrium constants that favor the products of the reaction.

The previous section introduced the following rule: Oxidation-reduction reactions that have a positive overall cell potential are spontaneous.

In 1889 Hermann Walther Nernst showed that the potential for an electrochemical reaction is described by the following equation.

In the Nernst equation, E is the cell potential at some moment in time, Eo is the cell potential when the reaction is at standard-state conditions, R is the ideal gas constant in units of joules per mole, T is the temperature in kelvin, n is the number of moles of electrons transferred in the balanced equation for the reaction, F is the charge on a mole of electrons, and Qc is the reaction quotient at that moment in time.

Post Idea #25: Production line

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Production Line?

A production line is a factory configuration that features a series of manufacturing steps.

Batch Production vs Mass ProductionProduction lines are used both in batch production and mass production.

Batch production involves moving a set of items through each step together as a batch.

A bakery may process 1200 donuts a step at a time moving the donuts together from workstation to workstation.

The production line may be reconfigured for a batch of cookies.

Mass production executes every step in the manufacturing process concurrently.

If cars are produced in a 28-step process the production line may have a single car at each step at all times.

Car Factory Simulation On Steam

Production line is the new car factory management/simulation/tycoon game that pushes your organisational and entrepreneurship skills to the limit.

Can you build the ultimate optimised, free-flowing car production line whilst beating the competition and still turn a profit?

A modern car factory is a near perfect example of efficiency, process-management and flow.

Making a handful of built-to-order cars and breaking even is one thing…but competing with the big multinationals and churning out thousands of cars for the mass market is a whole new ballgame.

To win market share from the big companies you are going to need planning, an appreciation of future technology, a careful eye on your bottom line, and an ability to design a factory layout that makes use of every square meter, and cuts production costs per car to the absolute minimum.

Production line is the new car factory management/simulation/tycoon game from Positech Games, the developers of Democracy & Gratuitous Space Battles, and publishers of Big Pharma.

At the start, your factory will be small and the individual slots on your production line will carry out large complex tasks.

Definition Of Production Line By The Free Dictionary

Production line n. a factory system in which parts or components of the end product are transported by a conveyor through a number of different sites at each of which a manual or machine operation is performed on them without interrupting the flow of production.

Production line – mechanical system in a factory whereby an article is conveyed through sites at which successive operations are performed on it.

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection.

Management Online

The production line is a complex of machines stacked together and controlled so that they function as an integrated whole.

The number of positions in the production line depends on the needs and technical specification of product.

Each manufactured product must go through the specified step in the production process, within a specified time, and employees must perform all actions assigned to his/her position.

The end result of a production line can be result of: processing, handling, transport, packaging, etc.

Construction of the production line is dependent on the amount of produced parts.

Small batch production – craft work produced, few similar products.

Continuous production – e.g. petroleum refining, production of paper, steel etc.

Production Line On GOG.Com

Production line is the new car factory management/simulation/tycoon game that pushes your organisational and entrepreneurship skills to the limit.

Can you build the ultimate optimised, free-flowing car production line whilst beating the competition and still turn a profit?

Making a handful of built-to-order cars and breaking even is one thing…but competing with the big multinationals and churning out thousands of cars for the mass market is a whole new ballgame.

To win market share from the big companies you are going to need planning, an appreciation of future technology, a careful eye on your bottom line, and an ability to design a factory layout that makes use of every square meter, and cuts production costs per car to the absolute minimum.

Production line is the new car factory management/simulation/tycoon game from Positech Games, the developers of Democracy & Gratuitous Space Battles, and publishers of Big Pharma.

The key to understanding production line is the division of labor and the merits of purpose-built machinery.

At the start, your factory will be small and the individual slots on your production line will carry out large complex tasks.

Post Idea #26: Metal detector

Related Articles – Summarized

Metal Detectors / Outdoor Power Tools: Patio, Lawn & Garden

Our team of experts has selected the best metal detectors out of hundreds of models.

Based on our research, we’ve narrowed down the list to models from Minelab, Bounty Hunter, BARSKA, and Garrett.

We named Minelab as the Best of the Best in our Best Metal Detectors category because of its superior quality and great consumer experience.

We chose the Bounty Hunter as our Best Bang for the Buck because of its overall quality and value.

Read our full review for our pros, cons, and bottom line on each of the models we chose for our top five.

Metal Detectors For Hobby & Security From Top Brands

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Metal Detector

Metal finders’ more accurate term is: Metal Detectors, as the metal detector’s main function is to detect the presence of metal objects including buried metal targets such as gold treasures, bronze statues, archaeological artifacts made of different metal types.

The most common type of metal detector is a hand-held metal detector or coil-based detectors using oval-shaped disks with built-in copper coils.

These metal detectors first invented and manufactured commercially in United States of America by Fisher Labs in the 1930s; other companies like Garrett established and developed the metal detectors in terms of technology and features in the following decades to reach the current form of metal detector that is in common use by hobbyists, treasure hunters or gold prospectors.

Bell’s metal detector worked, but the metal coil springs of James Garfield’s bed threw the detector off, and the search for the bullet failed.

Despite the fact that the first metal detector failed to save the 20th President of the United States, Alexander Graham Bell’s system was a viable metal detector, and it served as the blueprint for all subsequent metal detectors.

Search systems in Fisher’s metal detectors include multiple search technologies that rely on electromagnetic technology including VLF , Pulse Induction and other derived technologies for detection of metal using a special features for metal discrimination through signal based Target ID or acoustic output based on metal type.

The company produces a wide range of metal detector models with various features, including metal detectors for kids, coin shooting detectors for amateurs, and even gold prospectors metal detectors.

Post Idea #27: Radians Custom Molded Earplugs

Related Articles – Summarized

Radians Custom Molded Earplugs And Accessories

Radians Custom Molded Earplugs are an easy, do-it-yourself kit, molds in 10 minutes.

Made in the USA. NRR 26 dB. Radians Custom Molded Earplugs are an easy, do-it-yourself kit, molds in 10 minutes.

Do-It-Yourself Custom Molded Ear Plugs

Part No: CEP001-T CEP001-R CEP001-B CEP001-O CEP001-PColor: Choose Colora) Pinkb) Tanc) Oranged) Rede) Blue Radians custom molded ear plug kit provides you with everything you need to complete an easy do-it-yourself process that produces true custom molded ear plugs in about 10 minutes.

Now you can get full custom molded earplugs without waiting for them to come back from the lab, and at a fraction of the price.

These one-step do-it-yourself custom molded earplugs are an excellent choice for anyone who needs to wear hearing protection but hates the hassle and waste of conventional disposable plugs.

Radians brand are just less expensive than Ahead ACME plugs.

In addition to use in the workplace, these great plugs have dozens of everyday applications including shooting, sporting events, construction, lawn care, assembly lines, farming, auto races, swimming, flying, drummers, band practice and much more! And they are safe enough to use for your children with ear tubes.

Made in the USA. Available in 4 colors and with the option of a lanyard, these great plugs are a terrific option to conventional lab-made custom plugs.

They are not as finished and they are not as effective as the custom plugs we make in our earmold labs, but the difference in price makes these single step do-it-yourself custom plugs an excellent choice.

GUNS Magazine Radians Custom Molded Earplugs

I’ve used this product for years, it’s one of my long-time favorites and yet I’ve never written about them – until now.

The Radians Custom Molded Earplugs are similar to the product you can have done professionally at a hearing aid office or many major gun/outdoor consumer shows, but you do it at home and at a much nicer price.

The kit includes some gooey, putty-like kid stuff you knead together then jam – gently, gently – into your ear until it hardens in about 10 minutes.

Once you – slowly, slowly, to avoid sucking out your eardrums – peel them out, you have a set of custom-molded 26dB NRR earplugs that will last for years.

The putty comes in six different colors and with some careful planning and execution, I’ve even made custom earbuds though it’s not officially recommended.

Pro tip: Use a red permanent marker, tape or paint to designate the right ear, as in “Red Roy?” Best of all, you can pick up the kit for $10 to $15. MSRP: $10-$15.Radians.com.

Post Idea #28: Credit freeze

Related Articles – Summarized

Freeze My Credit

A credit freeze, also known as a security freeze, is the best way to help prevent new accounts from being opened in your name.

It’s absolutely free to freeze and unfreeze your credit, and it won’t affect your credit score.

How To Freeze Your Credit For Free

Having a freeze in place won’t affect your credit scores, but it will prevent your credit report from being accessed to calculate scores unless you first lift the freeze.

Since checking your credit report and credit scores are typically the first steps in processing any credit application, freezing your credit at the national credit bureaus can help stop unauthorized credit accounts from being opened.

A credit freeze has no effect on your ability to qualify for loans or credit cards, but a freeze can prevent a creditor’s evaluation of your credit application.

Unless you thaw your credit before you submit a loan application, the lender cannot use your credit report or credit score to gauge your qualifications as a borrower.

If a credit freeze is something you’d like to apply to your credit reports and scores, learn how to request one at the Experian’s Security Freeze Center.

Credit Lock: An additional protection or alternative to a security freeze is to lock your Experian credit file.

Check If a Minor has a Credit Report: See if your child has a credit file that has potentially been compromised with a free check.

What To Know About Credit Freezes And Fraud Alerts

Credit freezes and fraud alerts can protect you from identity theft or prevent further misuse of your personal information if it was stolen.

Who can place one: Anyone who suspects fraud can place a fraud alert on their credit report.

When you place a fraud alert on your credit report, you can get a free copy of your credit report from each of the three credit bureaus.

The credit bureau you contact must tell the other two to place a fraud alert on your credit report.

When you place an extended fraud alert on your credit report, you can get a free copy of your credit report from each of the three credit bureaus twice within one year from when you place the alert, which means you could review your credit report six times in a year.

The credit bureau you contact must tell the other two to place an extended fraud alert on your credit report.

The credit bureau you contact must tell the other two to place an active duty fraud alert on your credit report.

Freeze Or Unfreeze Your Credit

When does placing a security freeze make sense for you?

When you want to prevent access to your Equifax credit report for the purposes of opening credit in your name.

How To Freeze Your Credit At All 3 Bureaus-For Free

Regardless of whether you choose to freeze online, by mail, or by phone, be careful with passwords and PINs! You must preserve passwords and PINs carefully in order to avoid a truly monumental waste of time when you need to unfreeze your credit, which happens from time to time.

For you, it might be a mortgage, a job application, or a new credit card-many of American life’s major events require a credit check.

I have a file cabinet with a hanging folder labeled “Credit Freezes” containing the original printouts from the online sessions in which I froze my credit, stapled into separate bunches for each of the three credit bureaus.

My passwords and PINs are documented on those pages.

This made temporarily unfreezing credit a breeze for me.

How To Freeze Your Credit

Once a credit freeze is in place, it secures your credit file until you lift the freeze.

Go to the credit bureau website and use the PIN or password you used to freeze your credit to unfreeze your credit.

Parents and guardians can freeze the credit of a child under 16.If you request a freeze for your child, the credit bureau must create a credit file for the child, then freeze it.

In addition to supplying the information required for an adult credit freeze, you’ll also need the child’s birth certificate and proof that you have standing to freeze the child’s credit.

How does a credit freeze affect credit monitoring services?

You can think of a credit freeze and credit monitoring services as a double layer of protection.

If you have a credit freeze and are considering adding a credit monitoring service, you will likely have to contact each credit bureau to lift the freeze.

How To Freeze Your Credit At The 3 Major Credit Bureaus

Here’s how to freeze your credit with each of the three major consumer credit bureaus.

To freeze your credit, which is different from locking your credit, contact each of the three major consumer credit bureaus – Equifax, Experian and TransUnion – and request a credit freeze.

Here’s how to place a credit freeze at each of the three bureaus.

To freeze your credit at Experian, you can visit their online Freeze Center.

Pros and cons of freezing your credit Pros A credit freeze helps reduce your risk of identity theft, since potential new lenders can’t access your credit reports while the freeze is in place.

Cons You have to contact each credit bureau where you’ve frozen your credit to lift the freeze if you want to apply for a credit card, mortgage or other financial product that requires a credit check.

It can delay your applications for jobs, cellphone service or any other situation that requires a credit check, since you have to lift the freeze each time and it can take a few days for your credit freeze to thaw.

Post Idea #29: Identity theft

Related Articles – Summarized

Identity Theft

Identity theft and identity fraud are terms used to refer to all types of crime in which someone wrongfully obtains and uses another person’s personal data in some way that involves fraud or deception, typically for economic gain.

Report identity theft to the FTC. Go to IdentityTheft.

Gov will create your Identity Theft Report and personal recovery plan.

Go to your local police office with: A copy of your FTC Identity Theft Report.

The Department of Justice prosecutes cases of identity theft and fraud under a variety of federal statutes.

Schemes to commit identity theft or fraud may also involve violations of other statutes such as identification fraud, credit card fraud, computer fraud, mail fraud, wire fraud, or financial institution fraud.

Federal prosecutors work with federal investigative agencies such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the United States Secret Service, and the United States Postal Inspection Service to prosecute identity theft and fraud cases.

Credit Freezes Protect Your Identity, Better Than Credit Monitoring |Betty Lin-Fisher

The best way that I have described credit freezes versus credit monitoring is this way: A credit freeze will lock or freeze scammers out of getting new credit in your name, while a credit monitoring service will tell you that a scammer has attempted to steal your credit or has already done it.

So paying for a credit monitoring service – especially without a credit freeze – is not a wise move.

I’ve signed up for free credit monitoring before, including right after the breach and didn’t find it very useful since I had the credit freezes and knew I was protected.

The free monitoring as part of the settlement also offers monitoring of minor children’s credit.

Processes and changes in state laws have made it easier because a credit freeze is not asking the credit bureau to run a credit report on your child but identifying a Social Security number belongs to a minor child and asking the bureau to freeze it, Velasquez said.

One caveat, Velasquez said, is parents need to keep track of the credit freezes and especially when children get close to turning 18 or if they are going to college and will be seeking loans for financial aid, they will need to thaw their credit.

This article originally appeared on Akron Beacon Journal: Credit freezes protect your identity, better than credit monitoring |Betty Lin-Fisher.

Identity Theft — FBI

Identity theft occurs when someone uses your identity in a crime or fraudulent act.

Learn more about identity theft from the Federal Trade Commission.

Justin Edward Zadorozny, a resident of Knoxville, Tennessee, has been indicted in Erie on charges of wire fraud and aggravated identity theft.

Damarco Antonio Smith of Norfolk received 124 months in prison for possessing at least nine illegal firearms, committing credit union fraud, and identity theft.

Jean-Richard Audate, a Jamaica, New York resident who allegedly ran a grandparent scam, has been indicted in Rhode Island on fraud and aggravated identity theft charges.

Geoffrey Mark Hays Talsma of Portage, Michigan, pleaded guilty to charges of mail fraud and aggravated identity theft.

Daryol Richmond, a Kern Valley State Prison inmate, pleaded guilty to conspiracy and aggravated identity theft charges.

Identity Theft

Determining the link between data breaches and identity theft is challenging, primarily because identity theft victims often do not know how their personal information was obtained.

A later unpublished study by Carnegie Mellon University noted that “Most often, the causes of identity theft is not known”, but reported that someone else concluded that “The probability of becoming a victim to identity theft as a result of a data breach is … around only 2%”. For example, in one of the largest data breaches which affected over four million records, it resulted in only about 1,800 instances of identity theft, according to the company whose systems were breached.

One of the major identity theft categories is tax identity theft.

These services purport to help protect the individual from identity theft or help detect that identity theft has occurred in exchange for a monthly or annual membership fee or premium.

Sweden has had relatively few problems with identity theft because only Swedish identity documents were accepted for identity verification.

The increase in crimes of identity theft led to the drafting of the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act.

In 2009, Indiana created an Identity Theft Unit within their Office of Attorney General to educate and assist consumers in avoiding and recovering from identity theft as well as assist law enforcement in investigating and prosecuting identity theft crimes.

Identity Theft: What Is Is And How To Prevent It

Identity theft is the fastest-growing crime in America for the very obvious reason that most of us have made our most valuable personal information – name, address, social security number, driver’s license, credit card number, etc.

“We all have lax security practices that put us at risk, many of which seem innocuous or make us think, ‘This will never happen to me,’ ” said Brianna Jensen, identity theft expert at ASecureLife.com.”Sharing too much personal information online and on social media, for example.

The ITRC has identified the following as the most common identity theft methods in the first three quarters of 2018:Hacking, skimming and phishing information off the internet – 37%.Unauthorized Access – 29.6%.Employee Error/Negligence – 12.4%.Accidental Email/Internet Exposure – 10.1%.Insider Theft – 3.5%.Physical Theft – 5.3%.Subcontractor/Third Party – 7.0%.Data on the Move – 2.5%.How Identity Theft Occurs.

Mail Theft – Identity thieves often thrive on plucking vital information from your mailbox.

Senior ID Theft – Typically, ID theft schemes will target seniors, who are in frequent contact with medical professionals or caregivers who have access to personal information or financial documents.

If you report the identity theft by telephone, the FTC will collect details of your situation, but won’t provide you with an ID theft report or recovery plan.

Learn how to replace your vital identification documents after identity theft.

Post Idea #30: Credit report monitoring

Related Articles – Summarized

Free Credit Monitoring

Credit monitoring keeps a daily watch on your credit report for any changes that can be linked to fraudulent activity.

Credit monitoring can help you spot inaccuracies in your credit report that could be the result of identity theft and negatively affect your score.

Such negative impacts to your credit could lead to higher interest rates and even a credit card or loan rejection.

Monitoring your credit can help you better prepare for any planned big purchases and avoid surprises when you go to apply.

You can check your credit yourself once a year by requesting a copy of your Experian credit report from AnnualCreditReport.com.

Experian credit monitoring checks your Experian credit report daily for you and alerts you when there are any changes.

Credit monitoring will not affect your credit scores because you won’t incur hard inquiries.

To determine which credit monitoring services are the best, CNBC Select analyzed and compared 12 services that offer a variety of free and premium plans that provide different levels of credit protection based on the features mentioned above.

Best free credit monitoring servicesBest paid credit monitoring servicesBest free credit monitoring services.

As an added tool, you can use the credit score simulator to check the potential effect that certain actions, such as paying off debt or closing a credit card, may have on your credit score.

In addition to credit monitoring, you can take advantage of Experian Boost™, which lets you add positive payments for phone and utility bills to your Experian credit file, potentially increasing your credit score.

If you want daily triple-bureau credit monitoring and monthly credit score and credit report tracking, you should opt for the mid-tier PrivacyGuard® Credit Protection, which costs $19.99 per month.

Number of credit bureaus monitored: Services that monitor credit reports from more than one credit bureau were ranked higher since it’s rare for free services to monitor several reports.

Number of credit bureaus monitored: Services that monitored credit reports from all three credit bureaus, Experian, Equifax and TransUnion, were ranked higher because they offer more holistic coverage.

The 5 Best Credit Monitoring Services Of 2022

Credit monitoring services allow you to access your credit reports on a regular basis.

What Does Credit Monitoring Typically Include? Each credit monitoring service will have its own features, but you can generally expect to get access to at least one credit report and credit score, credit monitoring, and account alerts.

How Much Does Credit Monitoring Cost? While basic credit monitoring services are available for free, those services typically only include access to a single credit report and account monitoring.

If you want access to all three credit reports and hands-on assistance if your identity is compromised, you’ll likely need to pay for a credit monitoring service.

Should You Pay for Credit Monitoring? Free services may be sufficient if you only have a few accounts and credit cards, and don’t have too many assets at risk.

As you progress and use multiple credit cards, build up your retirement savings, get employee stock options, and start a family, you may need a more robust credit monitoring and identity protection service.

The biggest factor in determining if an agency was included on this list was the frequency of credit report monitoring and access to all three credit reports.

Credit Monitoring Services

A credit monitoring service acts as both a personal assistant and watchdog when it comes to your credit.

TransUnion’s credit report monitoring service gives you frequent access to your credit history, so you can check your credit report as often as you like.

Credit score monitoring services can help prevent identity theft.

Most victims don’t realize they’ve been compromised until they review their credit report or credit card statements, and it may be too late.

Using a credit monitoring service can help alleviate the headaches that come with trying to restore your identity after it’s been stolen.

Credit monitoring helps you to act immediately whenever anything suspicious occurs.

Credit monitoring won’t prevent you from being targeted by identity thieves, but it can certainly help mitigate the damage.

Credit Karma

It looks like we’re having some trouble accessing your Credit Karma account.

We’re working hard at getting everything back up and running, so check back soon to access your free credit scores, full credit report and more.

3-Bureau Credit Monitoring And Credit Reports

Third parties use many different types of credit scores and are likely to use a different type of credit score to assess your creditworthiness.

You’ll know if key changes occur to your Equifax, Experian and TransUnion credit files, because we’ll be monitoring all three and provide you with alerts.

Your annual 3-bureau VantageScores and 3-bureau credit report will give you an in depth way to assess your credit.

Your credit scores and reports can change frequently.

You’ll be able to check both your VantageScore credit score and Equifax credit report anywhere, anytime, to see changes that may have occurred.

Feel more secure knowing your Equifax credit report is locked down from being accessed for the purposes of extending credit.

Locking your Equifax credit report will not prevent access to your credit report at any other credit reporting agency.

Credit Report Monitoring

Credit report monitoring or company tracking is the monitoring of one’s credit history in order to detect any suspicious activity or changes.

Credit monitoring can help detect credit related fraud and identity theft.

In the United States, whenever obtaining one’s credit history, or credit monitoring, such services are typically available either as single-bureau service, or three-bureau service.

The reports can be obtained from Annualcreditreport website, from an account with each bureau, from credit monitoring websites or apps, and from credit repair organizations.

In Canada, credit monitoring is provided by Equifax and TransUnion, Canada’s two major credit bureaus.

In addition to a free credit report and score, Equifax have a premium credit reporting service called Equifax Complete Premier, which lets you see your updated credit report and credit score daily, with alerts and ID protection tools.

Companies providing credit monitoring will typically alert the consumer to important activity such as credit inquiries, public records, delinquencies, negative information, employment changes, new accounts and other changes to one’s credit history.

Post Idea #31: Postherpetic neuralgia

Related Articles – Summarized

Postherpetic Neuralgia

Postherpetic neuralgia is the most common complication of shingles.

The risk of postherpetic neuralgia increases with age, primarily affecting people older than 60.

For most people, postherpetic neuralgia improves over time.

The signs and symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia are generally limited to the area of your skin where the shingles outbreak first occurred – most commonly in a band around your trunk, usually on one side of your body.

Your risk of developing postherpetic neuralgia is lessened if you begin taking antiviral medications within 72 hours of developing the shingles rash.

Postherpetic neuralgia occurs if your nerve fibers are damaged during an outbreak of shingles.

The CDC says two doses of Shingrix is more than 90 percent effective in preventing shingles and postherpetic neuralgia.

Postherpetic Neuralgia

PHN occurs in a subset of the population suffering from an episode of acute HZ. A meta-analysis of the risk factors for the development of PHN published in 2016 noted that approximately 13% of patients older than or equal to 50 years of age with HZ would go on to develop PHN. The incidence increases with advancing age, which underscores the importance of immunocompetence, as a decrease in cell-mediated immunity is likely already present in those with HZ. Well-established risk factors for an acute HZ episode progressing to PHN include age, severe immunosuppression, the presence of a prodromal phase, severe pain during zoster outbreak, allodynia, ophthalmic involvement, and diabetes mellitus.

One study compared the difference in epidermal axon densities between patients who suffered from PHN and those who had a self-limited occurrence of HZ. Those afflicted with PHN had, in most instances, far fewer axons in the relevant dermatomes than non-sufferers.

PCR is exquisitely sensitive for the detection of VZV DNA. Small-scale studies suggest that magnetic resonance imaging may hold promise for not only diagnosing challenging cases of PHN but also differentiating between PHN and HZ. Further studies are warranted.

One double-blind study in 1999 showed that an intravenous lidocaine infusion provided clinically significant short-term pain reduction in sufferers of PHN. In general, small studies and case reports have established that novel therapies may be useful in certain PHN sufferers when combined with other adjuncts.

The recent development of the dorsal root ganglion stimulator to treat focal dermatomal neuropathic pain conditions is theoretically promising for PHN. One study originating from China in 2008 suggests that CT-guided radiofrequency ablation of the dorsal root ganglion may result in a significant reduction in symptomatology and sometimes complete resolution of PHN. However, the sample size was small, the technique may cause a pneumothorax, and repeat studies are lacking.

The mainstay of prevention is the vaccination against HZV. A large double-blind study published in the NEJM in 2005 showed that vaccination in the elderly reduced the incidence of HZ by 51% and PHN by 66%. Moreover, even among those who developed PHN, the burden of illness was reduced by approximately 61%. It must be noted that the immune-boosting effect of the vaccination is not long-lasting, and interval re-vaccination is necessary to maintain its efficacy.

Preventative vaccination of at-risk populations may ultimately prove to be the safest and most efficacious approach in addressing the significant morbidity associated with PHN. The other approach is to attempt to prevent the progression of HZ to PHN, with the understanding that the severity of an HZ episode is a risk factor for PHN. Unfortunately, the available evidence supporting this technique is by no means robust, and existing investigatory studies are suboptimally designed for the endpoint in question.

Postherpetic Neuralgia: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention

Postherpetic neuralgia can last for weeks, months, or in some people, years after the shingles rash goes away.

Some 10 to 18% of people who get shingles will develop postherpetic neuralgia.

Severity of your shingles: If you have a severe rash, you have a greater chance of PHN. Painful, itchy or tingly feeling before shingles rash: If you had these symptoms in an area of skin a few days before your shingles rash broke out, you are at higher risk of PHN. Waiting to see your healthcare provider after shingles rash: If you wait longer than three days after your rash appeared – missing the window to receive antiviral drugs – you have an increased chance of PHN. Symptoms and Causes What causes postherpetic neuralgia?

Postherpetic neuralgia results from damage to nerve fibers during shingles infection.

A certain percentage of people who get shingles develop PHN. What are the symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia?

Postherpetic neuralgia is usually diagnosed based on your symptoms, history of having shingles and physical exam.

If your shingles outbreak is not caught early, your healthcare providers has many options to manage your postherpetic neuralgia symptoms.

Post-Herpetic Neuralgia

Post-herpetic neuralgia is a lasting pain in the areas of your skin where you had shingles.

Around one in five people with shingles will get post-herpetic neuralgia.

Many people with post-herpetic neuralgia make a full recovery within a year.

The main symptom of post-herpetic neuralgia is intermittent or continuous nerve pain in an area of your skin previously affected by shingles.

Some medicines used to treat depression also work for nerve pain and are sometimes used for post-herpetic neuralgia.

It’s not clear why some people with shingles develop post-herpetic neuralgia, but increasing age, pain during the early stage of shingles and severe pain throughout an episode of shingles are all associated with an increased risk of the condition.

If shingles is treated early with antiviral medicine the risk of complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia is reduced.

Postherpetic Neuralgia Diagnosis & Treatment

Postherpetic neuralgia is a neuropathic pain syndrome that occurs following an outbreak of varicella zoster virus, or “Shingles.” This is the same virus that causes chicken pox.

Once reactivated, the virus travels along nerve fibers, causing pain.

Not everyone who’s had a reactivation of the virus develops postherpetic neuralgia.

Postherpetic neuralgia is a common complication of shingles in older adults.

The greater your age when the virus reactivates, the greater the chance you’ll develop postherpetic neuralgia.

In most people, the pain of postherpetic neuralgia lessens over time.

In the meantime-especially if symptoms are addressed early-treatments for postherpetic neuralgia can ease nerve-related pain.

Postherpetic Neuralgia

Introduction: Although there is some variability, about 10% of those with zoster will have persisting pain 1 month after the rash.

The main risk factor for postherpetic neuralgia is increasing age; it is uncommon in people aged <50 years, but develops in 20% of people aged 60 to 65 years who have had acute herpes zoster, and in >30% of those people aged >80 years.

Up to 2% of people with acute herpes zoster may continue to have postherpetic pain for 5 years or more.

Methods and outcomes: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of interventions aimed at preventing herpes zoster and subsequent postherpetic neuralgia? What are the effects of interventions during an acute attack of herpes zoster aimed at preventing postherpetic neuralgia? What are the effects of interventions to relieve established postherpetic neuralgia after the rash has healed? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009.

Results: We found 41 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria.

We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.

Conclusions: In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: corticosteroids, capsaicin, dextromethorphan, dressings, gabapentin, herpes zoster vaccine, oral antiviral agents, oral opioid analgesics, lidocaine, topical antiviral agents, and tricyclic antidepressants.

Postherpetic Neuralgia

Postherpetic neuralgia is neuropathic pain that occurs due to damage to a peripheral nerve caused by the reactivation of the varicella zoster virus.

With resolution of the herpes zoster eruption, pain that continues for three months or more is defined as postherpetic neuralgia.

A combination of these factors could contribute to the neuropathic pain state of postherpetic neuralgia.

The pain from postherpetic neuralgia can be very severe and requires immediate treatment.

Multiple oral medications have demonstrated efficacy in relieving postherpetic neuralgia pain.

Tricyclic antidepressants, such as nortriptyline or desipramine, are effective in reducing postherpetic neuralgia pain but are limited by their numerous side effects.

The anticonvulsant medications pregabalin and gabapentin also effectively relieve postherpetic neuralgia pain.

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