26 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-14

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-14.

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Post Idea #1: Loblaw Companies

Related Articles – Summarized

Loblaw Companies Ltd.

Chris stays connected on pat leave Chris Webden had been working at Loblaw for almost a year when he approached his manager about taking paternity leave.

His daughter, Anna, was born in October 2020, and he and his wife intended to split parental leave-something they’d done when their son, Charlie, was born two years prior.

Loblaw Companies

In 1919, Toronto grocers Theodore Pringle Loblaw and J. Milton Cork opened the first Loblaw Groceterias store modelled on a new and radically different retail concept, namely “Self serve”.

In 1953, Loblaw Groceterias acquired majority control of Loblaw Inc., the former American branch of the company with stores in New York State, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, through a purchase of stock from George Weston Limited.

With an ever-increasing array of retail assets, Loblaw Companies Limited was incorporated in 1956 as holding company for Loblaw Groceterias and the recently acquired holdings south of the border.

While George Metcalf remained head of Loblaw Companies Limited, chairman W. Garfield Weston began making changes to senior executive ranks, including the appointment of Leon Weinstein, former head and son of the founders of Power Supermarkets, as president of Loblaw Groceterias Co. Limited from 1968 to 1970.

In spite of attempts to get a handle on operational issues, Loblaws was still perceived as an “Ailing supermarket chain.” Meanwhile, pre-tax profits for Loblaw Companies Limited declined from $45.6 million in 1966 to $18.6 million in 1971, “And then vanished altogether.” By the late 1960s, the company had begun selling assets.

More recently, Loblaw unveiled a number of Joe Fresh permanent and pop-up stores in New York City and surrounding region in what one Loblaw executive described as “Very much a pilot project.” But Mimran, the former co-founder of Club Monaco, spoke less cautiously, envisioning 800 Joe Fresh stores across the United States within five years, with Asia and Europe the next logical international markets to take the brand.

Shoppers Drug Mart and its administration will continue to work as a separate operating division of Loblaw Companies Limited.

Loblaw Companies Stock Forecast, Price & News

Loblaw Companies Limited, a food and pharmacy company, engages in the grocery, pharmacy, health and beauty, apparel, general merchandise, financial services, and wireless mobile products and services businesses in Canada.

It operates in two segments, Retail and Financial Services.

The Retail segment operates corporate and franchise-owned retail food, and associate-owned drug stores.

The Financial Services segment provides credit card and banking services, the PC Optimum program, insurance brokerage services, and telecommunication services.

Loblaw Companies Limited provides its products and services under various brands.

The company was founded in 1919 and is headquartered in Brampton, Canada.

Loblaw Companies Limited is a subsidiary of George Weston Limited.

Loblaw Companies Limited

Loblaw Companies Limited Canada’s food and pharmacy leader, with a network of corporate and independently- operated stores in communities across the country, and employing close to 200,000 Canadians.

Loblaw’s purpose – Live Life Well – supports the needs and well-being of Canadians who make one billion visits each year to the company’s stores.

Loblaw is positioned to meet and exceed those needs in many ways: convenient grocery locations that span the value spectrum from discount to specialty; full-service pharmacies; no-fee banking; affordable fashion and family apparel; and, three of Canada’s top consumer brands in President’s Choice®, Life Brand®, and no name®.

Click the images below to learn more or visit our ‘about us’ section.

Loblaw Companies Limited

Loblaw Companies Limited Canada’s food and pharmacy leader, with a network of corporate and independently- operated stores in communities across the country, and employing close to 200,000 Canadians.

Loblaw’s purpose – Live Life Well – supports the needs and well-being of Canadians who make one billion visits each year to the company’s stores.

Loblaw is positioned to meet and exceed those needs in many ways: convenient grocery locations that span the value spectrum from discount to specialty; full-service pharmacies; no-fee banking; affordable fashion and family apparel; and, three of Canada’s top consumer brands in President’s Choice®, Life Brand®, and no name®.

Click the images below to learn more or visit our ‘about us’ section.

Loblaw Companies Limited

Loblaw Companies Limited Canada’s food and pharmacy leader, with a network of corporate and independently- operated stores in communities across the country, and employing close to 200,000 Canadians.

Loblaw’s purpose – Live Life Well – supports the needs and well-being of Canadians who make one billion visits each year to the company’s stores.

Loblaw is positioned to meet and exceed those needs in many ways: convenient grocery locations that span the value spectrum from discount to specialty; full-service pharmacies; no-fee banking; affordable fashion and family apparel; and, three of Canada’s top consumer brands in President’s Choice®, Life Brand®, and no name®.

Click the images below to learn more or visit our ‘about us’ section.

Ca#Pharmacy teams in Ontario are READY TO DO MORE to expand & expedite critical access to vaccines – including to essential workers.

That’s why finding that next great product is even sweeter when you’re supporting a business like in Beachville, ON. Learn more about our relationship with Jakeman’s here: bit.

LiveLifeWellOn #InternationalWomensDay we celebrate women across our business, like Jehiel Cabrera, and beyond, who continue to challenge norms and break through barriers as we continue our work to contribute to a more equitable society.

Ly/380ApANThank you Loblaw banners and customers for having our back against childhood hunger – raising more than $2 Million for President’s Choice Children’s Charity.

Ly/37Qtb29Did you know you can buy locally grown apples year round? in Clarington, ON supplies our stores w/local apples 90% of the year and we’re close to making that 100%. On #CdnAgDay we celebrate the more than 400 Canadian growers, packers and producers we work with.

Ly/2P5h6QtFrom collecting carts at a local grocery store after school to owning his own franchise, Devon’s inspiring journey has helped pave the way for more diversity and inclusion in the workplace.

We’re proud to carry products from more than 400 Canadian growers, packers and producers, including Jakeman’s Maple Products.

Post Idea #2: Lifemark Health Group

Related Articles – Summarized

Loblaw To Acquire Lifemark Health Group To Expand Shoppers Drug Mart’S Healthcare Services

CNW/ – Loblaw Companies Limited today announced that its wholly owned subsidiary Shoppers Drug Mart has agreed to acquire Lifemark Health Group, a portfolio company of Audax Private Equity, for aggregate cash consideration of $845 million.

“For the past 60 years, Shoppers Drug Mart has played an important role in the health and wellness of Canadians, providing convenient, seamless access to pharmacy and healthcare services in communities nationwide,” said Jeff Leger.

“Shoppers Drug Mart is a well-trusted, iconic Canadian brand, with an extensive local and virtual presence. By joining Shoppers, Lifemark will continue to grow as a national health and wellness network, reaching more Canadians who need access to care and advancing our shared vision to enrich the health of Canadians.”

“The acquisition of Lifemark strengthens our ability to support customers’ wellness, adding new categories of care. As we welcome Peter and the entire Lifemark team, we are creating a powerful combination that will reach more people and provide better health outcomes for more Canadians,” continued Leger.

Retail drug store marketplace and the number one provider of pharmacy products and services, Loblaw offers full-service pharmacies and a range of services like prescriptions, med checks, vaccinations, minor-ailment diagnoses, and nutrition consultations in more than 1,800 locations in 10 provinces and 2 territories, including in Shoppers Drug Mart, PharmaPrix, Loblaw pharmacy, DRUGStore Pharmacy and CENTRESante locations.

Lifemark Health Group is a Canadian leader in community rehabilitation, workplace health and wellness and medical assessment services.

With over 20 years of service excellence, Lifemark Health Group is a comprehensive and trusted health provider with 3 million patient visits annually, and employs over 5,000 highly trained clinicians, medical experts and team members.

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Loblaw To Acquire Lifemark Health Group To Expand Shoppers Drug Mart’S Healthcare Services

The acquisition of Lifemark adds to its growing role as a healthcare service provider, with a network of health and wellness solutions, accessible in-person and digitally.

“For the past 60 years, Shoppers Drug Mart has played an important role in the health and wellness of Canadians, providing convenient, seamless access to pharmacy and healthcare services in communities nationwide,” said Jeff Leger.

“Shoppers Drug Mart is a well-trusted, iconic Canadian brand, with an extensive local and virtual presence. By joining Shoppers, Lifemark will continue to grow as a national health and wellness network, reaching more Canadians who need access to care and advancing our shared vision to enrich the health of Canadians.”

“The acquisition of Lifemark strengthens our ability to support customers’ wellness, adding new categories of care. As we welcome Peter and the entire Lifemark team, we are creating a powerful combination that will reach more people and provide better health outcomes for more Canadians,” continued Leger.

Retail drug store marketplace and the number one provider of pharmacy products and services, Loblaw offers full-service pharmacies and a range of services like prescriptions, med checks, vaccinations, minor-ailment diagnoses, and nutrition consultations in more than 1,800 locations in 10 provinces and 2 territories, including in Shoppers Drug Mart, PharmaPrix, Loblaw pharmacy, DRUGStore Pharmacy and CENTRESante locations.

Lifemark Health Group is a Canadian leader in community rehabilitation, workplace health and wellness and medical assessment services.

With over 20 years of service excellence, Lifemark Health Group is a comprehensive and trusted health provider with 3 million patient visits annually, and employs over 5,000 highly trained clinicians, medical experts and team members.

Post Idea #3: Physical therapy

Related Articles – Summarized

An Overview Of Physical Therapy

Choosing physical therapy has been shown to help you recover quickly and safely, and it can save you money due to decreased overall healthcare costs.

Physical therapy services are provided by physical therapists, who are professionals licensed by the state in which they work.

How do you know if you require the skilled services of a physical therapist? If you have an injury or illness that results in pain, physical impairment, or limited normal movement/loss of function, a physical therapist can help.

Regardless of age, if you have impaired mobility, a physical therapy evaluation may be warranted to offer treatment and a strategy to improve function.

Your physical therapist should work with you to set specific goals, so be prepared to tell your physical therapist exactly what you hope to achieve during therapy.

What will happen? Will therapy hurt? These feelings typically quickly go away once you meet your physical therapist and get working on your rehab goals.

By understanding what your physical therapist can do to help you, you can have realistic expectations about your rehab and a positive outcome with your physical therapy experience.

Physical Therapy

Most U.S. states have physical therapy practice acts that recognize both physical therapists and physical therapist assistants and some jurisdictions also recognize physical therapy technicians or aides.

Each of Canada’s physical therapy schools has transitioned from 3-year Bachelor of Science in Physical Therapy programs that required 2 years of prerequisite university courses to 2-year Master’s of Physical Therapy programs that require prerequisite bachelor’s degrees.

Physical therapist education curricula in the United States culminate in a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree, with some practicing PTs holding a Master of Physical Therapy degree, and some with a Bachelor’s degree.

The Master of Physical Therapy and Master of Science in Physical Therapy degrees are no longer offered, and the entry-level degree is the Doctor of Physical Therapy degree, which typically takes 3 years after completing a bachelor’s degree.

Current training is specifically aimed to enable physical therapists to appropriately recognize and refer non-musculoskeletal diagnoses that may present similarly to those caused by systems not appropriate for physical therapy intervention, which has resulted in direct access to physical therapists in many states.

Some jurisdictions allow physical therapists to employ technicians or aides or therapy assistants to perform designated routine tasks related to physical therapy under the direct supervision of a physical therapist.

Pediatric physical therapy assists in the early detection of health problems and uses a variety of modalities to provide physical therapy for disorders in the pediatric population.

Physical Therapy Exercises, Manual Therapy, Hydrotherapy. How It Works

Physical therapy is care that aims to ease pain and help you function, move, and live better.

These licensed health professionals engage in specific graduate training in physical therapy.

As of 2016, to be eligible to sit for the national exam, you need to graduate from an accredited higher educational institution with a Doctor of Physical Therapy degree.

Physical therapists evaluate your condition and develop a care plan that guides your therapy.

What Does a PT Do? At your first therapy session, your PT will examine and assess your needs.

You may take less or more time to reach those goals than other people in physical therapy.

Where Do You Get PT? PTs sometimes come to your home to guide your therapy.

Physical Therapy Continuing Education

Join Now Select your state to find courses that meet continuing education requirements in your state.

View All Topics The physical therapy courses you want, the CEUs you need – for the life of your career.

The course library is developed and overseen by an experienced team of physical therapists and industry professionals.

Access continuing education courses and content anywhere, on any device, including your phone and tablet.

We offer courses in multiple formats that fit your lifestyle and learning style.

Our content is updated weekly with courses that will give you the skills you need to succeed.

“Excellent job! I love the opportunity to complete great courses online, and as a clinical lead PT, share it with my peers.”

What Is Physical Therapy?

October is National Physical Therapy Month, an annual opportunity to celebrate Physical Therapists and bring awareness to the profession.

While most people know their Physical Therapist can help them with pain management, there are numerous other facets to physical therapy.

In addition to pain relief, physical therapy can help improve mobility and overall functional ability, reduce the use of pain-relieving prescription drugs, help patients avoid surgery and it can also help patients live healthier, more physically-able lives.

“A common misconception is that Physical Therapists only work with injured or ill patients,” said Andrea Bowens, assistant professor of physical therapy.

The American Physical Therapy Association has chosen to spotlight how physical therapy can impact the opioid crisis as this year’s National Physical Therapy Month theme.

Through the utilization of hands-on physical therapy, Physical Therapists can play a role in reducing a patient’s need for opioids and other prescription drugs.

Samford’s Department of Physical Therapy offers a Doctor of Physical Therapy as well as a Fast-track Doctor of Physical Therapy which provides eligible students with the opportunity to earn a Bachelor of Science in exercise science and a Doctor of Physical Therapy in just six years.

Physical Therapy: How It’S Done, What To Expect

The goal of physical therapy is to restore or improve your body’s normal function, including strength, mobility and flexibility.

Your recovery depends on several factors, including the problem you have and whether you follow your physical therapist’s instructions exactly as directed.

There are many variables in a recovery process involving physical therapy.

Chronic conditions, such as arthritis, may require lifelong physical therapy.

Following the physical therapy techniques properly and consistently increases the likelihood of a successful, speedy recovery.

With successful physical therapy, patients usually have improved independence, less pain, and fewer challenges with sports, exercise, and daily activities.

People being treated with sports physical therapy may be able to safely return to competitive sports after a successful recovery.

The 10 Best Physical Therapists Near Me

Bob Schettler’s Massage Hi i have been doing massage for the past 25 years and many clients frequently tell me it’s the best massage they’ve ever received.

Smith Chiropractic Center At Arrowhead Our relaxed friendly atmosphere is dedicated towards providing the best possible patient care.

Our Commitment to You: To create a safe open and caring environment that helps generate the best possible healing period.

Our Massage therapists each have over 10 years experience and specialize in various modalities to suit your desired level of service.

Our licensed and experienced physical therapists provide you with compassionate, comprehensive care for injuries, chronic conditions, post surgical recovery, car accidents and more.

Yosmel serves as an expert in Deep Tissue, Swedish, Sports, Clinical, Prenatal, and Lymphatic Drainage Massages with extended add ons: Aromatherapy and Hot Stone Massages, Stretching and receiving tailored massages.

StayFIT Physical Therapy LLC. We are the back pain specialists! Our staff of 13 physical therapists are trained to work with everything from whiplash, hip and knee pain or surgeries, trouble walking, strained overused muscles or joints, and more! With over 10 years of serving the community, we have seen it all and helped thousands of patients.

Post Idea #4: Coordinate-measuring machine

Related Articles – Summarized

Measurement System Types And Characteristics

Measurement using virtual points and virtual lines and geometrical tolerances are difficult with other measuring machines, but can be measured with a 3D CMM machine.

One of the more critical tools for using a coordinate measuring machine are fixtures for fixing a measurement target in place.

There are roughly two types of software for coordinate measuring machines.

In the case of a contact type coordinate measuring machine, the stylus tip is brought into contact with the object to be measured, and the measurement point is taken.

The element is measured by measuring the minimum number of measurement points specified for each element.

It can be said that measurement using these virtual elements, which is difficult to measure with hand tools such as calipers, is unique to 3D measurement.

Maintenance costs for the measurement environment and measuring equipment can be a burden.

Coordinate Measuring Machine

Coordinate measuring machinesCMMs were developed in the 1950s from the application of virtually friction-free linear bearings for machine slideways.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONSThe data from coordinate measuring machine.

3.3.2 Results and discussionsThe hole straightness was quantified by a coordinate measuring machine.

The machine is a RVA 600, which is a bridge move type and is made by Tokyo Seimitsu Co. Ltd. Specification of the machine is as follows: available space of the measurement; 650×500×300mm3 for X×Y×Z, resolution of the measurement; 1µm, straightness accuracy Es whose unit is µm;.Figure 2.

19.3.1 Data ReductionPhysical objects can be digitized using manual devices, CNC-controlled coordinate measuring machines.

1 INTRODUCTIONGear flanks are measured conventionally with gear measuring machines or coordinate measuring machines.

We try to realize higher measuring speed with scanning measurement and more precision measurement with the lower cost GMM developed than traditional GMMs. New measuring strategy proposed here is to scan whole circumference of a cylindrical gear outline including working flanks, tooth tip, root and bottom profiles without detaching the stylus tip from the gear surface in order to avoid additional movement for tooth indexing.

Coordinate-Measuring Machine

A coordinate measuring machine is a device that measures the geometry of physical objects by sensing discrete points on the surface of the object with a probe.

CMMs typically specify a probe’s position in terms of its displacement from a reference position in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.

The typical 3D “Bridge” CMM allows probe movement along three axes, X, Y and Z, which are orthogonal to each other in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system.

When the probe contacts a particular location on the object, the machine samples the three position sensors, thus measuring the location of one point on the object’s surface, as well as the 3-dimensional vector of the measurement taken.

Because CMM arms imitate the flexibility of a human arm they are also often able to reach the insides of complex parts that could not be probed using a standard three axis machine.

Optical probes and/or laser probes can be used, which change CMMs to measuring microscopes or multi-sensor measuring machines.

ISO 10360-7 Geometrical product specifications – Acceptance and reverification tests for coordinate measuring machines – Part 7: CMMs equipped with imaging probing systems.

Handbook:Complete Guide Coordinate Measuring Machine

To solve such issues and ensure that the accurate measurements for the automotive parts, they should consider investing in coordinate measuring machines.

Simply defined, Coordinate Measuring Machine is a gadget that is used to quantify the physical geometrical attributes of a physical object.

A typical CMM machine can be programmed to perform the measuring tasks repeatedly.

What are the Components of a CMM. Although a coordinate measuring machine has several parts, it is divided into two main parts.

Let’s have a brief look at each type of coordinate measuring machine and what it offers.

Horizontal arm coordinate measuring machine is further divided into two types.

Coordinate measuring machine experts will always be in a position to use the right machine for your requirement.

Post Idea #5: Turquoise Hill Resources

Related Articles – Summarized

Turquoise Hill Resources Ltd. Stock Quote

Turquoise Hill Resources Ltd. engages in the exploration and development of mineral properties.

The company was founded by Robert Martin Friedland on January 25, 1994 and is headquartered in Montreal, Canada.

Turquoise Hill Resources +30.6% pre-market after confirming Rio Tinto’s proposal to acquire the ~49% of the company it does not already own.

For C$34/share in cash; Rio -2.6% pre-market.

The deal price represents a 32% premium to the latest closing price and valuing the Turquoise Hill minority share capital at ~$2.7B. Rio owns 51% of Turquoise Hill, which in turn owns 66% of the huge Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold project in Mongolia, with the remaining 34% held by a state-owned entity.

Rio Tinto CEO Jakob Stausholm said the deal would enable the company “To work directly with the government of Mongolia to move the Oyu Tolgoi project forward with a simpler and more efficient ownership and governance structure.”

The deal will need support from a majority of Turquoise Hill’s minority shareholders.

“Robust copper prices and the recent agreement with the Mongolian government, which greenlit the underground development, may limit pushback from Turquoise Hill shareholders.”

Rio and Turquoise Hill have endured a contentious relationship around funding the cost of developing Oyu Tolgoi, but negotiations with Mongolia’s government recently resulted in a deal to allow the project’s delayed underground expansion to move forward.

Rio Tinto Offers $2.7 Billion For Remaining Stake In Turquoise Hill

Rio Tinto RIO -2.46% PLC offered to pay roughly $2.7 billion to buy out minority shareholders in Canada’s Turquoise Hill TRQ 32.17% Resources Ltd., which controls a giant copper-mining operation in Mongolia, a bet on copper being in high demand.

Rio Tinto Chief Executive Jakob Stausholm said a takeover of Turquoise Hill would strengthen the company’s copper portfolio.

Turquoise Hill controls Oyu Tolgoi, a gold-copper mining operation in Mongolia’s Gobi desert that Rio Tinto expects will be the fourth-largest copper mine in the world by 2030.

Rio Tinto has an almost 34% indirect interest in the mine through its stake in Turquoise Hill, which is listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange.

Rio Tinto on Monday said it would pay other Turquoise Hill investors 34 Canadian dollars, equivalent to about 26.68 U.S. dollars, in cash for each share.

Rio Tinto, Turquoise Hill and Mongolia’s government recently renegotiated agreements to advance a late and overbudget underground expansion of the mine.

Rio Tinto said it wants to work constructively with Turquoise Hill directors to seal the deal.

Rio Tinto Makes Offer To Take Turquoise Hill Resources Private

MONTREAL – Turquoise Hill Resources Ltd. says Rio Tinto International Holdings Ltd. has made an offer buy the 49 per cent stake in the company it does not already own and to take it private.

The proposal values the minority stake in company at about $3.4 billion.

Under the offer, Rio Tinto, which already owns a 51 per cent stake in the company, would pay $34 per share for the roughly 99 million shares held by Turquoise Hill’s minority shareholders.

Shares in the company closed at $25.68 on the Toronto Stock Exchange on Friday.

Turquoise Hill owns a 66 per cent stake in the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold mine in Mongolia.

Erdenes Oyu Tolgoi LLC, a Mongolian state-owned entity, holds the remaining 34 per cent interest.

The company says its board of directors is establishing a special committee of independent directors to review and consider the proposal.

Rio Tinto Makes $2.7 Billion Bid For Remaining Stake In Turquoise Hill

Rio Tinto PLC said Monday that it has made a nonbinding proposal to acquire the remaining 49% shareholding in Turquoise Hill Resources Ltd., the holding company of the Oyu Tolgoi copper-gold project in Mongolia.

The mining group said the offer is for 34 Canadian dollars in cash a Turquoise Hill share, representing a 32% premium to the latest closing price and valuing the Turquoise Hill minority share capital at around $2.7 billion.

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Turquoise Hill Resources Stock Price, News & Info

TRQ earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2021.

TRQ earnings call for the period ending July 30, 2021.

The copper, gold, and silver miner had a great first quarter, but all the news in its earnings update wasn’t good.

TRQ earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2020.

TRQ earnings call for the period ending June 30, 2020.

TRQ earnings call for the period ending September 30, 2019.

TRQ earnings call for the period ending June 30, 2019.

Thinking About Buying Stock In Turquoise Hill Resources, Mullen Automotive, Frontier Group, Adaptimmune Therapeutics, Or Nokia?

PRNewswire/ – InvestorsObserver issues critical PriceWatch Alerts for TRQ, MULN, ULCC, ADAP, and NOK. To see how InvestorsObserver’s proprietary scoring system rates these stocks, view the InvestorsObserver’s PriceWatch Alert by selecting the corresponding link.

InvestorsObserver’s PriceWatch Alerts are based on our proprietary scoring methodology.

Each stock is evaluated based on short-term technical, long-term technical and fundamental factors.

Each of those scores is then combined into an overall score that determines a stock’s overall suitability for investment.

InvestorsObserver provides patented technology to some of the biggest names on Wall Street and creates world-class investing tools for the self-directed investor on Main Street.

We have a wide range of tools to help investors make smarter decisions when investing in stocks or options.

Post Idea #6: Oyu Tolgoi

Related Articles – Summarized

Oyu Tolgoi

We will use leading underground mining technology known as block caving to mine the ore body.

Block caving is technically complex, but it is also one of the safest and most cost-effective methods of mining ore from deep below the ground as it uses the force of gravity.

Put simply, a void is created under the ore body, which then collapses gradually under its own weight.

The ore passes through ‘funnels’ in the rock, known as draw points.

At Oyu Tolgoi, we are using technology to build a connected mine and keep our people safe.

We are installing a wireless network to connect our people and equipment underground with the teams on the surface.

The team in Mongolia are supported by the Rio Tinto Underground Mining Centre, which connects our caving experts in the Brisbane hub with our operations team at Oyu Tolgoi.

Oyu Tolgoi Mine

The Oyu Tolgoi mine is a combined open pit and underground mining project in Khanbogd sum within the south Gobi Desert, approximately 235 kilometres east of the Ömnögovi Province capital Dalanzadgad. The site was discovered in 2001 and is being developed as a joint venture between Turquoise Hill Resources with 66% ownership and the Government of Mongolia with 34%. The mine began construction as of 2010 and shipped its first batch of copper on 9 July 2013.

By 2003 there were 18 exploration drill rigs on the property employing approximately 200 people, and Oyu Tolgoi was the “Biggest mining exploration project in the world.” In January 2013 Oyu Tolgoi started producing concentrate from the mine.

The Oyu Tolgoi mine is in the South Gobi Desert of Mongolia, 80 kilometres north of Mongolia’s border with the People’s Republic of China, where the mined copper is expected to be shipped.

Initially the mine will process 70,000 tonnes of rock per day, ramping up to 85,000 tonnes from both the open pit and the underground mine.

As of 2010, the estimated cost of bringing the Oyu Tolgoi mine into production was US$4.6 billion, making it the largest project in Mongolian history; however, by 2013 costs had ballooned to $10 billion, which caused some concern for the Government of Mongolia, which borrows its 34 percent share of investment from the foreign investors with interest.

In early 2010 global mining company Rio Tinto owned 22.4% of Oyu Tolgoi owner Ivanhoe Mines, and gave both technical assistance and financial support to the project.

Oyu Tolgoi mine is located in one of the driest areas in Mongolia.

Mongolia is concerned about Rio Tinto’s management of the Oyu Tolgoi copper and gold mine in the Gobi desert in the southern part of the country, a government official told CNBC. “We have concerns about the transparency and we also have concerns whether this mine is being operated efficiently,” Solongoo Bayarsaikhan, deputy chief of the Mongolian government’s cabinet secretariat, said Friday on CNBC’s “Squawk Box Asia.”.

Last December, Rio Tinto pushed the timeline back and said “Sustainable production” was expected to commence in October 2022.

On Friday, Rio Tinto again delayed that forecast and said sustainable production will happen “No earlier than January 2023.”.

The Independent Consulting Group’s report, commissioned by Rio Tinto’s partners on the project, concluded that poor management was the main reason the mine’s underground expansion was running almost two years late and $1.45 billion over budget, the Financial Times reported.

Rio Tinto reportedly challenged the findings of the report in a letter to Mongolia’s justice minister and said the review did not fully recognize the full impact of weaker-than-expected conditions that forced the mine to be redesigned.

“We asked Rio Tinto to explain the discrepancies between the independent review report and Rio Tinto’s position,” Bayarsaikhan told CNBC on Friday.

“Rio Tinto didn’t provide sufficient responses.”

Major Mines & Projects

Tolgoi copper-gold deposits currently comprise, from north to south: Hugo North – The Hugo Dummett Deposit north of approximately 4766300 N. Hugo South – The Hugo Dummett Deposit south the 110 Fault.

The east-striking 110° Fault for the projections of the major faults in the area of the Hugo Dummett deposits), delineates the gold- and copper-rich zone hosted in augite basalt and quartz?monzodiorite of the Hugo North deposit from the more southerly, goldpoor, ignimbrite- and augite basalt-hosted mineralization at Hugo South.

The highest-grade copper mineralization in the Hugo North deposit is related to a zone of intensely stockworked to sheeted quartz veins known as the QV90 zone, so named because >90% of the rock has >15% quartz veining.

The rhyolite dykes tend to strike west to west-northwest in the deposit core and north-east when emplaced along major faults.

The Heruga deposit is the most southerly of the currently known deposits at Oyu Tolgoi.

The deposit is a copper-gold-molybdenum porphyry deposit and is zoned with a molybdenum-rich carapace at higher elevations overlying gold-rich mineralization at depth.

The deposit is transected by a series of north-northeast trending vertical fault structures that step down 200 m to 300 m at a time to the west and have divided the deposit into at least two structural blocks.

Oyu Tolgoi

We are always proud of our women miners – the critical players to the successful development of Oyu Tolgoi.

Here, we are introducing our drilling team made up of the most female drillers not only in Mongolia but also in Asia..

Rio Tinto Oyu Tolgoi May Suffer From Russian Fuel Disruption

Rio is developing a $6.93 billion underground expansion of the Gobi Desert-based mine, which has been plagued by delays and costs overruns.

Relations between Rio Tinto and the Central Asian nation hit a low in August, when an independent review rejected the mining giant’s explanation for the project’s delays and climbing costs.

After several talks and the personal intervention of the company’s chief executive Jakob Stausholm, Rio and Mongolia inked an agreement ending the long-running dispute in January.

Mongolia, which owns 34% of Oyu Tolgoi, is bordered on the north by Russia and on the south and east by China.

This leaves Rio limited options to secure supplies for the project, 66%-owned by Canada’s Turquoise Hill Resources, in which Rio has a 50.8% stake.

Amid Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, some of the world’s best-known brands – from Apple to Disney and Ikea – have abruptly left the country, with many other companies and governments stopping the acquisition of Russian products.

Rio knows it must deal with the issue in a way that both lets it comply with Western sanctions against Moscow and doesn’t tarnish its reputation further.

Oyu Tolgoi Operations Go From Strength To Strength Despite Top Level Rumblings

Despite the current issues regarding the Oyu Tolgoi copper-gold mine and mining project between the Mongolian Government and Rio Tinto, which manages the operation, the mine continues to run very successfully both in terms of current open pit production and the ongoing underground project expansion, despite COVID-19 challenges.

Oyu Tolgoi LLC is jointly owned by the government of Mongolia, which has 34% ownership, and Turquoise Hill Resources, which owns 66%. Rio Tinto owns 50.8% of Turquoise Hill Resources and manages the operation on behalf of the owners.

Oyu Tolgoi LLC recently stated: “All of Oyu Tolgoi’s achievements are the result of the hard work and dedication of our employees. We wouldn’t be able to build a mine that can compete with the best in the world without the young people who are carrying the giant construction on their backs in difficult conditions.”

In its Q4 2020 operations review, Rio Tinto said mined copper production from the open pit was 2% higher than in 2019, reflective of the anticipated move to higher grade areas of the open pit, primarily due to accelerated mine development and production phasing.

At peak production, Oyu Tolgoi is expected to operate in the first quartile of the copper cash cost curve and by 2030 is expected to be the fourth largest copper mine in the world.

Back to the outstanding high level issues, on 4 January 2021, the Government of Mongolia advised Rio Tinto that they were dissatisfied with the results of the definitive estimate and the funding implications for the sharing of economic benefits between the shareholders of Oyu Tolgoi.

Rio Tinto states: “The Government has also stressed the importance of achieving a comprehensive solution which addresses the social issues of importance to Mongolia, such as water usage and the corporate tax payments which have been referred to International Arbitration. We have been engaging with the Government and Turquoise Hill Resources to address these recent challenges within the scope of Parliament Resolution 92, and remain open to improving the Underground Development and Financing Plan to deliver even greater benefits from Oyu Tolgoi to all stakeholders.”

Post Idea #7: Database management system

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Database Management System?

A database management system is essentially nothing more than a computerized data-keeping system.

Users of the system are given facilities to perform several kinds of operations on such a system for either manipulation of the data in the database or the management of the database structure itself.

Database Management Systems are categorized according to their data structures or types.

Table A table is a logical structure made up of rows and columns.

The order of the columns is the order specified when the table was created by the database administrator.

A table is named with a high-level qualifier of the owner’s user ID followed by the table name, for example TEST.DEPT or PROD.DEPT. There are three types of tables:A base table that is created and holds persistent data.

A results table that is returned when you query tables.

Components, Types & Advantages

A database management system is a computer program designed to manage a large amount of structured data, and run operations on the desired data requested by the users.

In this article, we bring you an introduction to the Database Management System along with its types and functions.

A software package which can be used to manipulate, validate and retrieve this database is called a Database Management System.

Object-oriented Database – the information is represented as objects, with different types of relationships possible between two or more objects.

Data Manipulation Languages – This is a programming language used to insert or modify the data present in a database These are of two types: SQL and DDL. Structured Query Language – A programming language generally used for the relational database management system, which comprises tables.

What are the components of the database management system?Q.4.

What are the types of the database management system?

Database Management System

Database management system is software that is used to manage the database.

The database is a collection of inter-related data which is used to retrieve, insert and delete the data efficiently.

Database Management System Database management system is a software which is used to manage the database.

DBMS provides an interface to perform various operations like database creation, storing data in it, updating data, creating a table in the database and a lot more.

Advantages of DBMS Controls database redundancy: It can control data redundancy because it stores all the data in one single database file and that recorded data is placed in the database.

Complexity: Database system creates additional complexity and requirements.

Higher impact of failure: Failure is highly impacted the database because in most of the organization, all the data stored in a single database and if the database is damaged due to electric failure or database corruption then the data may be lost forever.

What Is Database Management Systems?

Database Management Systems are software systems used to store, retrieve, and run queries on data.

A DBMS serves as an interface between an end-user and a database, allowing users to create, read, update, and delete data in the database.

DBMS manage the data, the database engine, and the database schema, allowing for data to be manipulated or extracted by users and other programs.

DBMS optimizes the organization of data by following a database schema design technique called normalization, which splits a large table into smaller tables when any of its attributes have redundancy in values.

Database management systems can be classified based on a variety of criteria such as the data model, the database distribution, or user numbers.

This type of DBMS synchronizes data periodically and ensures that any change to data is universally updated in the database.

Relational database management systems are the most popular data model because of its user-friendly interface.

What Is DBMS? Application, Types & Example

History of DBMS Here, are the important landmarks from the history: 1960 – Charles Bachman designed first DBMS system.

1990s- Incorporation of object-orientation in relational DBMS. 1991- Microsoft ships MS access, a personal DBMS and that displaces all other personal DBMS products.

DBMS vs. Flat File DBMS Flat File Management System Multi-user access It does not support multi-user access Design to fulfill the need for small and large businesses It is only limited to smaller DBMS system.

In the long term Total Cost of Ownership is cheap It’s cheaper Easy to implement complicated transactions No support for complicated transactions Users of DBMS. Following are the various category of users of DBMS. Component Name Task Application Programmers The Application programmers write programs in various programming languages to interact with databases.

Advantages of DBMS DBMS offers a variety of techniques to store & retrieve data.

End-Users, Application Programmers, and Database Administrators are they type of users who access a DBMS. DBMS is widely used in Banking, Airlines, Telecommunication, Finance and other industries.

The main Four DBMS types are 1) Hierarchical 2) Network 3) Relational 4) Object-Oriented DBMS. DBMS serves as an efficient handler to balance the needs of multiple applications using the same data.

DBMS: Database Management Systems Explained – BMC Software

A database management system is a software tool that enables users to manage a database easily.

Most modern DBMS support handling multiple database workloads from a centralized DBMS software, even in a distributed database scenario.

The optimization Engine allows the DBMS to provide insights into the performance of the database in terms of optimizing the database itself and queries.

Etc. Types of database management systems.

MongoDB, Azure Cosmos DB are some prominent examples of DoDBMS. Columnar database management systems.

DBMS enables users to change the physical schema of a database without changing the logical schema that governs database relationships.

DBMS provides a single interface to carry out all the management and monitoring tasks, thus simplifying the workload of database administrators.

Best Database Management Systems

Rated best value for moneyArangoDBArangoDBArangoDB is a cloud-based multi-model database management software that helps create queries for graphs, documents and key values in one SQL-like query language.

Database Compare SuiteDatabase Compare SuiteSupporting 16+ database platforms, Database Compare Suite allows you to easily compare two different database environments, no matter if it is a homogeneous or heterogeneous comparison.

Database management systems, also known as DBMSs, are software programs that act as a connecting point between databases and the various users and applications that need to access them.

As businesses’ data capabilities and needs have grown over the past 40 years, the database management system has taken on many different forms.

Relational database management systems connect disparate data using tables with columns and rows.

In contrast to the rigid tables of rDBMSs, semi-structured database management systems offer more flexibility.

In the age of the internet where data takes many forms, semi-structured database management systems have become increasingly important, as they enable applications to communicate with one another with ease and without loss of information.

Post Idea #8: Hydro-Québec

Related Articles – Summarized


Au cours des derniers mois, nos équipes ont déployé des efforts soutenus pour continuer vous offrir une alimentation en électricité fiable et vous accompagner durant cette période particulièrement exigeante pour vous et vos proches.

Sensibles au fait que certains de nos clients pourraient vivre des difficultés financières, nous vous invitons, si vous êtes dans cette situation, conclure dès maintenant une entente de paiement en ligne, dans votre Espace client, ou par téléphone.

Vous pourrez ainsi continuer de bénéficier de la suspension des frais d’administration.

Veuillez noter que depuis le 1er octobre 2020, nous avons recommencé appliquer des frais d’administration aux factures impayées.

Informez-vous sur les mesures de prévention que nous avons mises en place.

Nous restons également en contact étroit avec nos partenaires et nos fournisseurs qui nous procurent des biens et services ou qui travaillent dans l’une ou l’autre de nos installations.

Ainsi, nous continuerons de vous informer en cette période où les préoccupations sont nombreuses.

Hydro-Québec Should Freeze Rates, Consumer And Business Groups Say

Hydro made profits of $3.5 billion in 2021, the groups note.

A trio of business and consumers’ rights organizations are calling upon Hydro-Québec to freeze its rates for electricity rather than link increases to inflation.

The Canadian Federation of Independent Business, Option consommateurs and the Association québécoise des consommateurs industriels d’électricité say they want the Legault government to call on the Energy Board to ensure customers do not pay more than is necessary after Hydro-Québec announced its rates would be linked to inflation in 2023.

In January 2022, the inflation rate in Canada passed five per cent for the first time since September 1991, according to Statistics Canada.

The three groups note that Hydro-Québec recorded profits of $3.5 billion in 2021.

Option consommateurs director Christian Corbeil contends when it removed the Energy Board’s power to fix electricity rates and left their determination instead to the vagaries of the market, the Legault government exposed consumers to price shocks while allowing the Crown corporation to make unreasonable profits.

According to the CFIB, the average increase in Hydro-Québec for a small store will be about $200, while the average increase for the entirety of the commercial sector stands at $518. On Sunday, Quebec Liberal Leader Dominique Anglade proposed to temporarily lift the collection of provincial sales tax on Hydro bills of more than $4,000 and pledged a freeze on electricity rates.

Calls To Freeze Hydro-Quebec Electricity Rates As Inflation Skyrockets

Three organizations are joining forces to call for a freeze on Hydro-Quebec’s electricity rates after the public utility company announced it would raise them this year and in 2023 in line with inflation.

The Canadian Federation of Independent Business, Option consommateurs and the Association québécoise des consommateurs industriels d’électricité want the Quebec government to appeal to the Régie de l’énergie to ensure that consumers do not pay more than necessary to Hydro-Quebec.

In January 2022, inflation in Canada exceeded five per cent for the first time since September 1991, according to Statistics Canada.

The three organizations point out that Hydro-Quebec earned $3.5 billion in profits in 2021.

Christian Corbeil, director of Option consommateurs, says that by removing the Régie de l’énergie’s power to set Hydro-Quebec’s rates annually and instead subject them to the vagaries of the economy, the government is exposing consumers to rate shocks while allowing the Crown corporation to make unreasonable profits.

François Vincent, CFIB vice-president for Quebec, adds that small and medium-sized businesses are recovering from waves of economic restraint and are now being hit hard by high inflation, so Hydro-Quebec should not be able to take even more from them.

CFIB has calculated that the average rate increase for a small convenience store would be close to $200, and for the commercial sector as a whole, the average additional bill would be $518. On Sunday, Quebec Liberal Party Leader Dominique Anglade proposed temporarily lifting the QST on electricity bills up to $4,000 and promised a rate freeze should her government be elected.

Hydro-Québec Could Lose More Than $500M If Power Export Line Through Maine Is Dropped

A new Hydro-Québec report says the utility could lose more than $500 million if its power export project to Massachusetts is abandoned.

All construction for the project, known as the New England Clean Energy Corridor, has been on hold since 59 per cent of Maine residents voted against it in a referendum last November.

The planned project would carry some 1,200 megawatts of electricity over a new 336-kilometre high-voltage transmission line between Thetford Mines, Que., and Lewiston, Maine.

Some people in Maine protested against the fact that the project requires cutting down 1,000 trees, even though most of those trees had already been cleared when the project got underway in 2020.

Now, the parent company of Hydro-Québec’s U.S. partner, Central Maine Power, is challenging the constitutionality of the referendum in the Maine Supreme Court.

In its 2021 annual report, the Quebec Crown corporation disclosed it could lose $536 million if the project is dropped.

Hydro-Québec also had to write off $46 million in 2019 following the failure of its first project to export power to the U.S. through New Hampshire, which had the same objectives.

Hydro-Québec At Risk Of $536M Charge On Maine Line

Hydro-Québec says it could be forced to take a financial charge of more than a half-billion dollars if it is unable to complete its transmission line project in Maine.

The 336-kilometre project that would cross Quebec and the American state to bring electricity to Massachusetts was rejected by 59 per cent of Maine voters in a referendum last November.

The future of the project is in the hands of the Supreme Court of Maine, which will have to determine if the referendum result is unconstitutional, as claimed by Hydro-Québec and its partners.

If the project is abandoned, Hydro-Québec estimates that it will have to record a charge of $536 million in its results, according to its annual report.

“Hydro-Québec remains convinced of the value, merits and importance of the NECEC project,” says spokeswoman Caroline Des Rosiers.

“Given the ongoing legal proceedings, there is no indication that the project will be abandoned and Hydro-Québec remains very confident about its completion.”

It also recorded a charge of $46 million for the abandonment of the Northern Pass line project, which was to carry electricity from Quebec to Massachusetts, via New Hampshire.


In the same year, the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission granted Hydro-Québec a licence to sell wholesale electricity at market prices, enabling Hydro-Québec to expand its market.

Legislation passed in 2000 commits the generation division, Hydro-Québec Production, to provide the distribution division, Hydro-Québec Distribution, a yearly heritage pool of up to 165 TWh of energy plus ancillary services-including an extra 13.9 TWh for losses and a guaranteed peak capacity of 34,342 MW -at a set price of 2.79¢ per kWh.

On December 31, 2013, Hydro-Québec Production owned and operated 61 hydro plants-including 12 of over a 1,000 MW capacity- 26 major reservoirs.

This feature of the Quebec network allowed Hydro-Québec to remain unscathed during the Northeast Blackout of August 14, 2003, with the exception of 5 hydro plants on the Ottawa River radially connected to the Ontario grid at the time.

Hydro-Québec Distribution buys most of its power from the 165-TWh heritage pool provided by Hydro-Québec Production at 2.79¢/kWh.

After the strong rejection of the Suroît project and its subsequent cancellation in November 2004, Hydro-Québec, under the leadership of its new CEO Thierry Vandal, reaffirmed Hydro-Québec’s commitment towards energy efficiency, hydropower and development of alternative energy.

On March 11, 2010, Vermont’s two largest utilities, Green Mountain Power and Central Vermont Public Service, entered into a tentative 26-year deal with Hydro-Québec to purchase up to 225 MW of hydro power from 2012 to 2038.


Hydro-Québec is among the world’s largest hydropower producers.

Hydro Québec generates more than 99% of its electricity from water, a source of clean renewable energy.

Our hydropower system is vast, with over 60 hydroelectric generating stations connected to a robust grid with close to 260,000 km of transmission and distribution lines.

Fifteen interties link our system to Québec’s neighboring markets in Canada and the United States.

Québec hydropower can be part of the solution to the major challenges facing North America by reducing GHG emissions and ensuring a secure supply of electricity in support of the clean energy transition.

The company’s ongoing focus on sustainability has earned it the top spot in Corporate Knight’s ranking of Canada’s Best 50 Corporate Citizens.

Hydro-Québec has consistently ranked among Canada’s five best corporate citizens over the past four years.

Post Idea #9: Freight rate

Related Articles – Summarized

Freight Rates

Shipping freight rates vary depending on which carrier you choose.

There are several factors that should be considered when calculating freight rates.

When calculating your shipping freight rates, providing a detailed list from the above factors will help you get a more accurate estimate.

Is your shipment time sensitive? Then selecting expedited shipping services during the quote process helps keep your freight a priority even during delays.

If you are unsure of specifics or have questions, call 800.716.7608 to speak with one of FreightCenter’s expert freight agents.

Our many years of experience working in the freight industry have resulted in strong relationships with the industry’s top carriers.

Use our easy freight quote tool to compare rates or call 800.716.7608 to speak directly with an agent today.

Freight Shipping Calculator: Estimate Freight Rates & Cost

When you estimate freight costs for international shipments, remember there may be a change in currency and added costs in duties and taxes.

The simplest way to save on freight shipping is to open an account with FedEx.

Combine shipments using the FedEx Freight box.

Check in with your freight sales representative at least once a year to negotiate your freight rates.

The discount applies to eligible FedEx Freight Priority and FedEx Freight Economy shipments within the contiguous U.S., shipments between the U.S. and Canada, and also includes shipments to Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico for the U.S. portion of the move.

Rates are subject to the General Rate Increase, and all accessorial charges in the FedEx Freight 100 Rules Tariff will apply.

Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Canada and Mexico are not covered by FedEx Freight box rates.

Current Freight Rates

DAT’s February 15th Trendlines Report shows current national van rate averages are at $3.13 per mile, a $.03 increase from the January average.

According to DAT, the highest average van rates are in the West at $3.22 per mile.

The lowest average van rates are in the Southwest at $2.78 per mile.

Reefer freight rates are averaging $3.57 per mile, down $.02 from the January average.

Reefer rates are highest in the Midwest, averaging $4.03 per mile, and the lowest rates are in the Southeast, with an average of $3.08 per mile.

National average flatbed rates are currently averaging $3.16 per mile, $.04 higher than the January average.

The Midwest has the highest average flatbed rates at $3.48 per mile; the lowest rates are in the West, with an average of $2.92 per mile.

Freightos Baltic International Container Index

It is the leading international Freight Rate Index, in cooperation with the Baltic Exchange, providing market rates for 40′ containers.

While Freightos includes door-to-door rates for both air and ocean, the Freightos Baltic Index currently only provides 40′ container indices for ocean freight.

Prices used in the index are rolling short term Freight All Kind spot tariffs and related surcharges between carriers, freight forwarders and high-volume shippers.

A freight rate index collects pricing information from multiple carriers, shippers or forwarders at regular intervals to calculate a benchmark or market rate for freight for any given shipping lane and provide visibility into freight rates for interested parties.

The FBX is the only daily freight rate index and is also the only freight index that is IOSCO compliant and regulated by the EU. The Shanghai Containerized Freight Index was created by the Chinese government in 2005 and is operated by the Shanghai Shipping Exchange.

Our Ocean Freight Rate Index makes it easy to monitor ocean freight benchmark performance relative to the industry.

Usage of container freight index data is permitted but requires attribution of the data to the Freightos Baltic Index.

Get Shipping Rates By State

Freightquote by C.H. Robinson works with the most reputable less than truckload carriers in the industry.

We negotiate with these trusted carriers to secure highly competitive freight shipping rates.

Find real time shipping rates for every state-to-state combination based on origin and destination.

Use the interactive map below or use the drop-downs to the left.

Compare shipping rates, and take advantage of reliable, best freight shipping.

All shipping rates are estimated and are based on recent customer shipping activity.

Freight shipping rates are subject to change without notice.

Freight Rates: Full Truckload Rates & LTL Freight Shipping Quotes

Aside from offering our customers the best freight rates, FRC Logistics is also proud to give you the following benefits and so much more! See for yourself why FRC Logistics is one of the fastest, and dependable freight trucking companies in North America.

Providing highly competitive freight shipping rates and trucking quotes nationwide.

We have an excellent and very knowledgeable staff of freight trucking experts! We are here to guide you through every phase of the freight shipping process to make your experience hassle free!

Freight Rate Central’s web-based freight rate quotation system gives our customers fast, detailed quotations they know they can depend on.

Freight Rate Central provides freight shipping and trucking services to clients who need a fleet of trucks, clients who need just a partial truckload, and clients with specialized heavy haul, outsized, wide load, refrigeration and other needs.

Trucking Services You Can Depend On. Freight Rate central aims to provide the best service in the industry, not only through high tech services like our automated freight rate and quoting system and live freight tracking, but through helpful and friendly personal service.

Leave the details to our professionals! Book Your Freight with Freight Rate Central.

Freight Rate

Networks, of roads and train tracks which once carried freight from coastal and inland waterway ports to destinations which were not accessible by means of marine transportation, greatly expanded making freight transportation from port to port overland more efficient and more affordable than the marine transportation of freight.

When determining which mode of transportation will be used to deliver the freight to its destination there are many things which need to be taken into consideration which will all have an effect on the freight rate.

Transportation of freight by Rail, Water, or air craft all have their own regulations which take into account Federal, State, and Local regulations as well as safety concerns which contribute to the rate at which freight is transported.

In the United States freight forwarders are licensed by the FMC as Ocean Transportation Intermediaries and are only designated freight forwarders for export shipments.

Most of the freight shipped within the United States travels by truck or railcar, but many of the people and businesses shipping freight do not have enough of a good to fill a whole truck or rail car every time they need something shipped.

Consolidators, customs brokers, freight forwarders, and NVOCC’s can be a factor in determining freight rate because of their experience, business relationships, and the volume at which they operate.

In the commercial trucking industry, many shippers tender loads to freight brokers whose job it is to find qualified carriers to move the freight at an acceptable price for all parties.

Post Idea #10: Kidney stone

Related Articles – Summarized

Symptoms And Causes

Diet, excess body weight, some medical conditions, and certain supplements and medications are among the many causes of kidney stones.

Passing kidney stones can be quite painful, but the stones usually cause no permanent damage if they’re recognized in a timely fashion.

A kidney stone usually will not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureters – the tubes connecting the kidneys and the bladder.

Knowing the type of kidney stone you have helps determine its cause, and may give clues on how to reduce your risk of getting more kidney stones.

Most kidney stones are calcium stones, usually in the form of calcium oxalate.

These stones can grow quickly and become quite large, sometimes with few symptoms or little warning.

These stones form in people with a hereditary disorder called cystinuria that causes the kidneys to excrete too much of a specific amino acid.

Definition & Facts For Kidney Stones

Kidney stones are hard, pebble-like pieces of material that form in one or both of your kidneys when high levels of certain minerals are in your urine.

Kidney stones rarely cause permanent damage if treated by a health care professional.

Calcium stones, including calcium oxalate stones and calcium phosphate stones, are the most common types of kidney stones.

Calcium oxalate stones are more common than calcium phosphate stones.

Men are more likely to develop kidney stones than women.

You are more likely to develop kidney stones if you have certain conditions, including.

Complications of kidney stones are rare if you seek treatment from a health care professional before problems occur.

Kidney Stone: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, And More

The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stones.

Symptoms of kidney stones may not occur until the stone begins to move down the ureters.

In the case of a small kidney stone, you may not have any pain or symptoms as the stone passes through your urinary tract.

After a kidney stone has formed, you may experience spasms as your kidneys try to push out the stone.

The amount of time that it takes to pass a kidney stone can vary depending on the size of the stone.

If you’ve had a kidney stone or you’re at risk for a kidney stone, speak with your doctor and discuss the best methods of prevention.

If you have recurrent kidney stones, you should talk to your doctor, even if your symptoms resolve without treatment.

What Causes Kidney Stones

Kidney stones have been identified in Egyptian mummies.

The lifetime risk of kidney stones among adults in the US is approximately 9%, and it appears that global warming may be increasing that risk.

Anyone who is prone to kidney stones should pay attention to good hydration.

The American Urological Association guideline for medical management of kidney stones recommends that patients who form kidney stones should aim to drink more than 2.5 liters of fluid per day.

Calcium stones are the most common type of kidney stones, and can be either calcium oxalate or calcium phosphate.

Calcium phosphate stones are less common than calcium oxalate stones.

Thiazide diuretics such as hydrochlorothiazide can help the kidney absorb more calcium, leaving less of it in the urine where it can form stones.

Kidney Stone Disease

Drinking fluoridated tap water may increase the risk of kidney stone formation by a similar mechanism, though further epidemiologic studies are warranted to determine whether fluoride in drinking water is associated with an increased incidence of kidney stones.

Otherwise a noncontrast helical CT scan with 5 millimeters sections is the diagnostic method to use to detect kidney stones and confirm the diagnosis of kidney stone disease.

A high fluid intake may reduce the likelihood of kidney stone recurrence or may increase the time between stone development without unwanted effects.

Up to 98% of small stones (less than 5 mm in diameter) may pass spontaneously through urination within four weeks of the onset of symptoms, but for larger stones (5 to 10 mm in diameter), the rate of spontaneous passage decreases to less than 53%. Initial stone location also influences the likelihood of spontaneous stone passage.

It is currently used in the treatment of uncomplicated stones located in the kidney and upper ureter, provided the aggregate stone burden is less than 20 mm and the anatomy of the involved kidney is normal.

Some 80-85% of simple renal calculi can be effectively treated with ESWL. A number of factors can influence its efficacy, including chemical composition of the stone, presence of anomalous renal anatomy and the specific location of the stone within the kidney, presence of hydronephrosis, body mass index, and distance of the stone from the surface of the skin.

Stent placement can be useful for saving a kidney at risk for postrenal acute kidney failure due to the increased hydrostatic pressure, swelling and infection caused by an obstructing stone.

Post Idea #11: Cook Group

Related Articles – Summarized

Cook Group

We are a family of ethical and entrepreneurial companies that exists to empower people and communities to reach their full potential.

In 1963, Bill and Gayle Cook created a small company that manufactured three simple medical devices used to treat patients in less invasive ways than common surgical techniques of the time.

That small company grew into Cook Medical, with global reach and products for treating conditions in almost every system of the body and area of the hospital.

Along the way, this entrepreneurial family branched out into other areas of business – to explore new types of medical treatment; to support their passions, like historic preservation; and to support their growing group of employees and the communities where they live.

Cook Group was created to provide support and oversight to the Cook companies, which remain family owned.

Cook is a family company founded in 1963 and has grown into a global, multicultural organization.

We were founded on core values of mutual respect, acting with integrity, and deeply committing to the quality of products and services we provide for patients and customers.

Cook Groups: The Best Five Paid Cook Groups

Arrow Alerts is a private reselling community dedicated to assisting participants in making money by reselling limited-edition products, shoes, streetwear, and much more.

They have an arsenal of information on the best low key drops around.

Partners at Arrow Alerts are the best in the community.

They allow you access to the best proxies, servers, and tools to help you make a profit reselling.

With this, they are also backed with a 24/7 staff support team, available for you to ask and enquire whenever you need it.

Live Updates of Available Deals, Flips, Freebies, and Low Key Cops.- 30+ Discord commands to utilize for your botting needs including variant finder, bot downloads, bot price checking, stocks price checking twitter, etc- 24/7 Support Team to Help You Cop Anytime, Anywhere.

Whether you are botting or going manual our toolbox will give you all the necessary features you need to cop.

Careers Center

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What Is A Cook Group? Sneaker Cook Groups Explained

Put simply, a sneaker cook group is a community where sneakerheads come to get advice and tools to make buying limited edition shoes and apparel easier.

A sneaker cook group will advise you how to set up the bot to have the biggest chances of success.

A cook group lets you take part in collective buys, which give a group of people an exclusive right to get a set number of copies.

Are Paid Cook Groups Worth It? In many ways, free cook groups offer the same features as paid ones: you get release monitors, early links, and the community to chat with.

Many of the better sneaker bots have their own Discord cook groups.

The difference between private cook groups and bot cook groups is scope: bot groups focus on setup instructions, bot changes, announcements – things like that.

Like sneaker bots, private cook groups are often sold out.

Medical Devices For Minimally Invasive Procedures

Choose your Region Asia-Pacific Australia China Europe India Japan South Korea Featured products Your patients rely on you to provide the best treatment possible, and you can rely on our broad range of MedSurg and Vascular products to make that possible.

View our US product catalog or learn more about these featured products that physicians come back to again and again.

Cook Group

Cook Group Incorporated is an American privately held company based in Bloomington, Indiana, and primarily involved in manufacturing of medical devices.

The flagship company, Cook Incorporated, part of the medical division, was founded in 1963 in a spare bedroom in Bloomington.

The first products of Cook Incorporated included catheters, needles, and wire guides.

Today, the company manufactures more than 16,000 products across 10 hospital service lines, and serves 135 countries.

Other companies include also the manufacturers K-Tube and Cook Polymer Technology.

Cook owns CFC Properties, a property development company that owns residential and commercial properties in Bloomington as well as Fountain Square Mall and Grant Street Inn.

Cook also restored and owns the French Lick Resort, which includes the historic West Baden Springs Hotel and the French Lick Springs Hotel.

Post Idea #12: Frozen dessert

Related Articles – Summarized

33 Simple Frozen Desserts

Cooling off couldn’t be easier with these simple frozen desserts, from creamy confections to fruity ice pops.

A sugar cone and brickle crust, fresh peaches and ice cream-you can’t go wrong! Top with hot caramel for a delectable frozen treat.

It’s easy to stir mini marshmallows, mini chocolate chips and crushed sandwich cookies into coffee ice cream to create this irresistible frozen dessert.

I enjoy these frozen yogurt pops because they double as a healthy snack and a cool, creamy sweet treat.

These sweet frozen treats are simple to prepare and guaranteed to bring out the kid in anyone.

We planted strawberries a few years ago and these tangy-sweet frozen yogurt pops are my very favorite treats to make with them! The options are endless.

These bite-sized frozen treats will cool you down during the dog days of summer.

Frozen Dessert Crossword Clue, Crossword Solver

Search millions of clues to find answers to crossword puzzle clues.

Wordplays has answers to Quick puzzles, General Knowledge puzzles, Cryptic Crossword Puzzles, and Variety puzzles.

The Crossword Solver find answers to clues found in the New York Times Crossword, USA Today Crossword, LA Times Crossword, Daily Celebrity Crossword, The Guardian, the Daily Mirror, Coffee Break puzzles, Telegraph crosswords and many other popular crossword puzzles.

Frozen Dessert

Frozen dessert is a dessert made by freezing liquids, semi-solids, and sometimes even solids.

They may be based on flavored water, on fruit purées, on milk and cream, on custard, on mousse, and others.

It is sometimes sold as ice-cream in South Asia and other countries.

In Canada and elsewhere, the term is often used on imitations of ice cream which do not satisfy its legal definition.

In India some company brands like Hindustan Unilever sell frozen dessert made from vegetable oils rather than pure milk.

Per Indian regulations, ice cream which is made from milk solids, but contains non-dairy fat is categorized and labelled as frozen dessert.

Post Idea #13: Ben & Jerry’s

Related Articles – Summarized


A lonely boy named Danny Garrison befriends Ben, the rat leader of the swarm of rats trained by Willard Stiles.

Ben becomes the boy’s best friend, protecting him from bullying and keeping his spirits up in the face of a heart condition.

Things gradually take a downward turn as Ben’s swarm becomes violent, resulting in several deaths.

By what name was Ben officially released in India in English?

Ben Affleck & Jennifer Lopez Hold Hands In Gran Canaria Where She’S Filming ‘The Mother’

Tourist alert! J.Lo enjoyed a day off from shooting ‘The Mother’ as she explored Gran Canaria, Spain with beau Ben Affleck.

Ben Affleck, 49, touched down in Europe to visit his leading lady Jennifer Lopez, 52.

The Boston native and Latina beauty were spotted holding hands as they explored Gran Canaria, Spain on Sunday, March 13, where she’s currently shooting Netflix project The Mother.

Ben and J.Lo looked like total tourists as they walked around the Plaza de Santa Ana on an afternoon date.

Ben sported a black-and-white raglan baseball style t-shirt with the number 99 on the back along with black jeans and sneakers.

Although Ben’s face isn’t seen in the clip, it was clearly Ben who was snuggled up in bed with his rekindled ex as they shared a laugh.

Ben then returned to Italy after the epic Dolce & Gabbana showcase in August, where the pair spent several days taking in the sights of Venice.

Former SAS Soldier Tells Court He Watched Ben Roberts-Smith Kill Unarmed Disabled Afghan Man

In further evidence before the federal court about an SAS mission on a compound called Whiskey 108, the soldier, anonymised before the court as Person 24, said he saw Roberts-Smith throw the man to the ground and “Immediately put a machine gun burst into his back”.

Person 24, a former SAS soldier and veteran of several tours of Afghanistan, was subpoenaed by three newspapers to give evidence in Roberts-Smith’s defamation trial.

Person 24 told the court the slain man – whose identity has not been revealed in court – might have been a “Medium-value target potentially” as an “IED facilitator”.

Person 24 is the third soldier to give similar – though not identical – evidence that they saw an Australian soldier shoot an Afghan man at Whiskey 108, with two saying they believed it to be Roberts-Smith.

A soldier anonymised before the court as Person 41 previously told the court he was also standing guard outside the compound when he saw Roberts-Smith “Frog-marching” an Afghan man “By the scruff of his neck”.

Person 14 said the soldier who shot the man was wearing a distinctive new camouflage paint, worn by only one SAS patrol in action that day, the five-man team of which Roberts-Smith was a member.

Person 24 told the court on Monday he phoned Person 14 after Person 14’s first day in the witness box “to see how he was going”, though said they didn’t discuss his evidence.

Anna Ben Is Excited For Janhvi Kapoor Starrer Mili: ‘I Know She Will Be Brilliant In The Film’

Janhvi Kapoor will soon be seen in Mili, the Hindi remake of Anna Ben’s Malayalam film Helen.

“I am very excited for Mili because Mathukutty has directed the film in Hindi as well,” Anna said.

Talking about Janhvi, the Helen actor said, “I have heard all wonderful things about her and how the movie has turned out, from the people on the sets. I know she will be brilliant in the film, can’t wait to watch her.”

Anna Ben won the Kerala State Film Award for her performance in Helen.

Janhvi Kapoor wrapped up survival thriller Mili, also starring Manoj Pahwa and Sunny Kaushal, in 2021.

Sharing photos from the sets of Mili, the actor expressed how it was a special project because it is her first film with her father Boney Kapoor.

She wrote on Instagram, “My first film with papa, of whom I’ve only heard stories of all my life as a producer. But after working with you, and it feels so cool to say that!! I finally know what everyone means when they say you give your heart and soul to each film you take up.”

Definition Of Ben By The Free Dictionary

Ben Scots n. The inner room or parlor of a house with two rooms.

Ben n. an inner room in a house or cottage.

Any of several Asiatic trees of the genus Moringa, esp M. oleifera of Arabia and India, whose seeds yield oil of ben, used in manufacturing perfumes and cosmetics, lubricating delicate machinery, etc: family Moringaceae.

Ben n. Scot and Irish a mountain peak: Ben Lomond.

Based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection.

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Ben is a 1972 American drama-thriller film directed by Phil Karlson and starring Lee Montgomery, Joseph Campanella, and Arthur O’Connell.

The film follows a lonely boy named Danny Garrison who befriends Willard’s former pet rat named Ben.

American singer Michael Jackson performs the theme song of the film, also titled Ben.

A lonely boy named Danny Garrison befriends Ben, the leader of the colony of rats trained by the late Willard Stiles.

The film’s theme song “Ben” is performed by Lee Montgomery in the film and by Michael Jackson during the final scene and ending credits.

Later included as the title track on Jackson’s second solo album, Ben, it won a Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song and was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Original Song.

Stars out of 4, and stated, “Ben succeeds as a horror show because it contains the requisite number of rat attacks with the camera holding on victims covered with perhaps two dozen, clinging, scratching, and biting rodents. Omigod, he’s covered with rats. Eeeech! But Ben goes beyond mere thrills into the realm of solid drama because of the superb performance of Lee Harcourt Montgomery as Danny Garrison who befriends Ben, the leader of the rat pack terrorizing the city.” Kevin Thomas of the Los Angeles Times wrote that the film “Is equally scary and diverting as Willard while being more serious and ambitious.”

Post Idea #14: Polyphenylene sulfide

Related Articles – Summarized

Poly-Phenylene Sulphide

Because of its high melt temperature, PPS can continuously be used around 190°C. It is also resistant to hydrolysis at high temperatures to acid, alkaline, organic solvents, which is better than other high-modulus fibers.

Triangle cross-section PPS fibers are produced and can be used for high-efficiency filtration.

Carbon fiber has been widely used as a reinforcement of PPS due to its excellent comprehensive performance.

Linear PPS polymer is said to offer significant cost and performance benefits over branched PPS and to overcome the weak points of branched PPS. PPS materials offer the broadest resistance to chemicals of any advanced engineering plastic [15,18].

The tensile strength properties, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, and other properties of PPS related to one another decrease with increasing temperature in general, but they depend on the volume fraction of fibers as shown in Fig.

Fatigue resistance of 40% glass-reinforced Fortron® PPS. Fatigue resistance of 65% glass-reinforced Fortron® PPS.Ticona Engineering polymers, “Designing with Fortron Polyphenylene Sulfide” design manual.

The heat resistance, chemical resistance, and resistance to hydrolysis of PPS fiber makes it suitable for many liquid filtration applications, particularly where hot and/or corrosive liquids are filtered.

Polyphenylene Sulfide Plastic: Properties & Applications

Let’s discuss all the properties of PPS in detailCrystal Structure and Physical Properties PPS is a semi-crystalline polymer.

Electrical Properties PPS has excellent electrical insulation properties.

Mechanical Properties PPS has high strength, high rigidity and low degradation characteristics even in high temperature conditions.

One of the main reasons for adding nanofillers to PPS is to improve its mechanical properties to meet the increasingly high demand of certain applications.

Further, different additives are used to alter PPS properties.

Processing Conditions for PPS. PPS resins are typically used for injection molding, extrusion blow molding, and extrusion applications.

Polyphenylene Sulfide can be processed at temperatures in the range of 300 to 350°C. The processing of PPS can be hampered at times due to its high melting point.

Polyphenylene Sulfide

Polyphenylene sulfide is a semicrystalline material.

It offers an excellent balance of properties, including high temperature resistance, chemical resistance, flowability, dimensional stability and electrical characteristics.

PPS must be filled with fibers and fillers to overcome its inherent brittleness.

Because of its low viscosity, PPS can be molded with high loading of fillers and reinforcements.

These fillers and reinforcements will make a difference in the strength, surface properties, dimensional stability, electrical properties and overall cost.

Because of its inherent flame retardancy, PPS is ideal for high temperature electrical applications.

Polyphenylene Sulfide

Polyphenylene sulfide is an organic polymer consisting of aromatic rings linked by sulfides.

PPS is the precursor to a conductive polymer of the semi-flexible rod polymer family.

Polyphenylene sulfide is an engineering plastic, commonly used today as a high-performance thermoplastic.

Maximum service temperature is 218 °C. PPS has not been found to dissolve in any solvent at temperatures below approximately 200 °C. An easy way to identify the compound is by the metallic sound it makes when struck.

PPS is one of the most important high temperature thermoplastic polymers because it exhibits a number of desirable properties.

The Federal Trade Commission definition for sulfur fiber is “A manufactured fiber in which the fiber-forming substance is a long chain synthetic polysulfide in which at least 85% of the sulfide linkages are attached directly to two aromatic rings.”

Linear, high-molecular-weight PPS that is capable of being extruded into film and melt spun into fiber was invented by Robert W. Campbell.

Polyphenylene Sulfide

PPS is produced by reaction of sodium sulphide and dichlorobenzene in a polar solvent such as N-methylpyrrolidone and at higher temperature.

Linear PPS. The MW of this polymer is nearly double as compared to regular PPS. The increased molecular chain length results in high tenacity, elongation and impact strength.

Cured PPS. Obtained from heating of regular PPS in the presence of air.

Branched PPS. Has higher MW than regular PPS. The backbone of the extended molecule has extended polymer chin branched from it.

PPS has high strength, high rigidity and low degradation characteristics even in high temperature conditions.

One of the main reasons for adding nanofillers to PPS is to improve its mechanical properties to meet the increasingly high demand of certain applications.

UNINKO modified PPS compounds series includes glass/mineral/carbon/stainless steel fiber reinforced grade, flame retardant grade, anti-static grade, ESD protection grade, electrically/thermally conductive grade, wear resistant grade, UV resistant grade, EMI shielding grade, etc broad range, with excellent performances, and widely used in the automotive and consumer electronics, mechanical engineering, home appliances and other industries, etc.

A Robust Polymer With Multiple Applications

To produce moulding grades, PPS is cured around the melting point of the polymer in the presence of a small amount of air.

One of the main reasons for adding nanofillers to PPS is to improve its mechanical properties to meet the increasingly high demand of certain applications.

Popular Applications of PPS. The excellent properties of PPS with its ease of production and moderate cost makes it one of the most suitable choices for various applications where cost and high performance are essential.

PPS applications in automotive include fuel injection systems, coolant systems, water pump impellers, thermostat holder, electric brakes, switches, bulb housing and so on.

The key trend influencing PPS growth in electrical / electronic applications is substitution of other lower temperature polymers.

PPS has been replacing metal alloys, thermosets, and many other thermoplastics in mechanical engineering applications.

As processing techniques advance and scale develops, it is likely that PPS would become the material of choice many industrial, automotive, and electrical applications.

PPS Polyphenylene Sulfide 3D Filament

PPS is completely insoluble in any known solvent under 200°C. PPS is used in some of the most demanding applications in Auto, Chemical Processing, Oil & Gas, and Electronics.

Print industrial-grade parts using our PPS and more with the new Gearbox™ HT2 High-Temp 3D Printer.

Each printer is set up differently, as well as varied printed part geometries.

Expect some trial time to understand how this filament works with your specific printer and in the context of your specific application.

Parts printed with PPS must be annealed after printing to ramp-up the crystallinity in the resin.

Full annealing generally requires 2-4 hours of heating at 130°C. The following process for annealing your ThermaX™ PPS parts will help assure ideal performance.

Turn off oven heat and allow the printed part to cool to room temperature.

Post Idea #15: Parboiled rice

Related Articles – Summarized

Everything You Need To Know About Parboiled Rice

You might be familiar with classic rice varieties like white rice, brown rice or even more fragrant options like basmati or jasmine, but there’s still one highly underestimated rice we think everyone deserves to know about – parboiled rice.

If you’ve never tried it, parboiled rice, sometimes also called converted rice, gets its name from partially boiling the rice within its husk, not because it’s precooked.

This rice is a great happy medium between different varieties because it offers a more subtle flavor than white rice as well as more of the original vitamins and minerals found in rice grains without the nutty flavor of whole grain brown rice.

While brown rice has a chewier texture, parboiled rice is firmer, but not as mild and delicate as white rice.

To make traditional extra long grain parboiled rice, you’ll need 2 cups of water for every 1 cup of rice.

Parboiled rice can technically be used anywhere that other rice varieties can, but we’ve put together different recipe ideas based on grain length so you can make amazing rice dishes every time!

As the long grains cook up fluffy and separate, they are perfect for adding into rice salads, rice pilafs, fried rice or oven-baked casseroles like a Green Bean Rice Casserole for a holiday event or tasty weeknight dinner side.

Parboiled Rice: Are There Health Benefits? Pros And Cons, Nutrition Information, And More

One question remains: is parboiled rice good for you? Let’s examine the potential health benefits and risks of eating parboiled rice.

Compared to white rice, parboiled rice has fewer calories, fewer carbohydrates, more fiber, and more protein.

Let’s take a look at some of the health benefits of parboiled rice.

Studies suggest that, in comparison to both white rice and brown rice, parboiled rice has a lower impact on blood sugar levels, making it a safer choice for people with diabetes than other rices.

This may be especially true if you refrigerate leftover parboiled rice and then eat the leftovers, as storing parboiled rice in cold temperatures may further reduce the impact it has on your blood sugar levels.

Although parboiled rice is healthier than white rice, it is not the healthiest grain on the market, and there are a number of healthier alternatives to parboiled rice you can choose from to mix up your diet.

Rinsing your rice in clean water and cooking your rice thoroughly can help remove some of the arsenic from your rice.

4 Ways To Cook Parboiled Rice

XTo cook parboiled rice on the stove, start by soaking your rice in water for 30 minutes before straining it.

Bring water and a pinch of salt to a boil in a pot.

The water should measure 2 parts to every 1 part of rice.

Once the water has boiled, add the rice, cover it with a lid, and simmer everything for 15 to 25 minutes.

When the rice is done, turn off the heat and fluff it with a fork before serving.

For more tips on cooking parboiled rice, like how to cook rice in the microwave, keep scrolling!

Did this summary help you? Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 243,411 times.

Parboiled Rice: Nutrition, Benefits, And Downsides

Here’s how 5.5 ounces of unenriched, cooked, parboiled rice compare to the same amount of unenriched, cooked, white and brown rice.

5 gramsProtein5 grams4 grams4 gramsThiamine10% of the RDI3% of the RDI23% of the RDINiacin23% of the RDI 4% of the RDI25% of the RDIVitamin B614% of the RDI9% of the RDI11% of the RDIFolate1% of the RDI1% of the RDI3.5% of the RDIVitamin E0% of the RDI0% of the RDI1.8% of the RDIIron2% of the RDI2% of the RDI5% of the RDIMagnesium3% of the RDI5% of the RDI14% of the RDIZinc5% of the RDI7% of the RDI10% of the RDI. Notably, parboiled rice has significantly more thiamine and niacin than white rice.

Parboiled rice is higher in B vitamins compared to unenriched, regular white rice.

In a 1-month study in rats with diabetes, parboiled rice was found to contain 127% more phenolic compounds than white rice.

In another study in people with type 2 diabetes, eating about 1 1/4 cups of cooked parboiled rice after an overnight fast increased blood sugar 30% less than eating the same amount of regular white rice.

Besides its lower nutritional content compared to brown rice, other potential downsides of parboiled rice are taste and texture differences, as well as a slightly longer cooking time than regular white rice.

Still, though parboiled rice is healthier than regular white rice, brown rice remains the most nutritious option.

Parboiled Rice

Parboiled rice is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk.

Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamin, from the bran to the endosperm, hence parboiled white rice is mostly nutritionally similar to brown rice.

The starches in parboiled rice become gelatinized, then retrograded after cooling.

The parboiled rice kernels should be translucent when wholly gelatinized.

Parboiled rice takes less time to cook and is firmer and less sticky.

In North America parboiled rice is often partially or fully precooked before sale.

In older methods, clean paddy rice was soaked in cold water for 36-38 hours to give it a moisture content of 30-35%, after which the rice was put in parboiling equipment with fresh cold water and boiled until it began to split.

Parboiled Rice: Benefits, Advantages, Disadvantages

The basmati rice and non-basmati rice varieties are both converted into parboiled rice.

The parboiled rice reverses to gelatinize the starch in the parboiled rice.

Parboiled rice contains prebiotic starch resistivity, which is good for human health as the parboiled rice kernels are glasser and harder in texture.

Advantages Of Parboiled Rice Parboiled rice is hard in texture that is not easily breakable, and the rice is firm in texture compared to regular rice varieties.

The loss of nutrients is less in the parboiled rice as the additive minerals and nutrients are completely packed in the rice grains.

Disadvantages Of Parboiled Rice The parboiled rice is darker in colour.

The raw paddy rice is processed to make the rice parboiled or fortified.

What Is Parboiled Rice?

Parboiled rice is a type of rice, often white rice, which has been partially cooked during the milling process and then packaged for sale for use in homes and restaurants.

Though parboiled rice is often confused with instant rice, the processes by which they are prepared are quite different and parboiled rice can often require longer cooking times to properly prepare, rather than shorter cooking times.

Once this process for manufacturing parboiled rice became popular, it was discovered that it also increased the nutritional benefits of the rice.

Some people use the term parboiled rice interchangeably with instant rice, but this is inaccurate and they are two different processes.

Instant rice is cooked in hot water just as rice is prepared in home and restaurant kitchens, then dehydrated.

The instant rice is then “Cooked” simply by rehydrating the rice for several minutes, and is then ready to serve.

Parboiled rice is not actually cooked during the process and can take longer to cook during preparation.

Post Idea #16: Parboiling

Related Articles – Summarized

What Does Parboil Mean?

Parboiling is a method of partially cooking food in boiling water.

Parboiling is different from blanching in that after parboiling, you rinse the food under cold water, to stop it from cooking, then cook it further when other ingredients are ready, or you store it for later use.

Most recipes call for parboiling to ensure that the ingredients that take longer to cook will be soft or completely done when a recipe calls for a lot of ingredients.

Parboiling reduces the total cooking time for many potato preparations.

When you parboil the carrots ahead of time, before tossing them into the stir-fry with the other ingredients, this normally hard vegetable is far more likely to be cooked through and tender after you finish cooking the dish.

First, fill a pot with enough water to cover the ingredient you intend to parboil.

The length of cooking time will depend on the food item and the method of cooking you will be using later.

What Is Parboiling?

Parboiling or blanching is a cooking technique in which something is partially cooked in boiling water, but removed before it is cooked all the way through.

Many recipes call for parboiled ingredients to ensure that foods which take longer to cook will be completely cooked in the final dish.

If the carrots are subjected to parboiling first, they will be tender and soft, along with the rest of the stir fry.

Some rice producers use parboiling as a processing technique.

Parboiled rice cooks more quickly and is less likely to spoil than raw rice.

To parboil at home, fill a pot on the stove with boiling water and prepare the food you intend to parboil.

You may find that parboiling is a big kitchen time saver.


Parboiling is the partial or semi boiling of food as the first step in cooking.

The word is often used when referring to parboiled rice.

Parboiling can also be used for removing poisonous or foul-tasting substances from foods, and to soften vegetables before roasting them.

Parboiling is usually used to partially cook an item which will then be cooked another way such as braising, grilling, or stir-frying.

Parboiling differs from blanching in that one does not cool the items using cold water or ice after removing them from the boiling water.

West Africa and the Afro-Caribbean diaspora are also accustomed to parboiling rice.

Parboiling helps in increasing the vitamin contents of the rice such as vitamin A. This could be helpful in regions where a generalised vitamin A deficiency leads to community health problems like night blindness, conjuctival xerosis, etc.

How To Parboil

Have you ever wondered how to make the perfect grilled potatoes or home fries? The answer is parboiling and this simple guide will teach you how to parboil in a few easy steps.

Parboiling is a somewhat fancy cooking term that combines the words “Partial” and “Boiling.” So what is parboiling? It’s the process of partially boiling an ingredient to then use in another recipe.

Which foods should you parboil? Parboiling potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, mixed vegetables or even grains like rice or brown rice is a very common practice when preparing certain dishes.

Knowing how to parboil rice is a great kitchen hack to have in your repertoire.

Determining how long to parboil food depends entirely on what ingredient you are parboiling.

When parboiling chicken, ribs, brats or other meats, you want to parboil them until they are mostly cooked through.

Here is a standard example of how to parboil vegetables.

How To Parboil Potatoes & What To Know

The unfortunate part is there are a lot of potato recipes that seem impossible to get right at home! Sure, baked potatoes are fairly simple, but have you ever tried homemade home fries? They always end up a little mushier than you want, at least in my kitchen! Luckily, I have recently been researching a new method that will keep this from happening: parboiling! If you haven’t heard of parboiling, or are just starting to learn about this process, you’re in luck! Whether you are looking to roast baby potatoes or are trying to make scalloped potatoes, there are many ways parboiling can help with the cooking process.

Today, we are compiling all the must-have info and tricks to get the perfect parboil every time, and why on earth you would even want that! Keep reading to get the scoop on how to parboil potatoes.

Parboiling potatoes allows you to get crispy roasted potatoes that have a nice crust on the outside while being soft on the inside.

Your parboiled potatoes can then either be cooked in the oven or in a fryer up to two days after you parboil them.

The process of parboiling your potatoes actually gets rid of a lot of the simple sugars and starches in your potatoes, and gelatinizes a layer on the surface of the potatoes.

Parboiling actually pre-cooks the potatoes in the easiest way, and now they will roast, bake, or sauté much faster, just to name a few of my favorite methods for cooking parboiled potatoes.

Sweet potatoes can actually be parboiled as well, although sweet potatoes do typically cook differently than regular potato varieties, so keep an eye on them during this process!

How To Parboil Chicken For Mouth-Watering Dishes – The Kitchen Community

Many people tend to parboil vegetables such as potatoes before frying them up to make them nice and crispy, so you may be shocked to hear that you can parboil chicken too, in order to make beautiful parboiled chicken dishes!

You can also either parboil chicken in water, chicken broth, apple cider or even all three if you wish to.

To parboil the chicken, you will need to place it within a large pan, and add in enough liquid or water to cover the chicken.

To understand how long to parboil your chicken properly, you will need to know that this is different for various cuts of meat or the size of the chicken.

A whole chicken would take around 30-40 minutes to parboil, whereas chicken breasts should only take around 10 minutes to parboil.

If using chicken legs or chicken thighs, you can leave them to parboil for roughly 5 minutes, which is also the case for chicken quarters.

Repeat the process for the other side of the chicken to ensure that those barbecue flavors go all the way through, and remove the chicken from the grill when cooked.

Post Idea #17: Udemy, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized


In December 2012, the company raised $12 million in Series B funding led by Insight Venture Partners, as well as Lightbank Capital, MHS Capital and Learn Capital, bringing Udemy’s total funding to $16 million.

In May 2014, Udemy raised another $32 million in a Series C funding, led by Norwest Venture Partners, as well as Insight Venture Partners and MHS Capital.

In June 2016, Udemy raised $60 million from Naspers Ventures as a follow-up to the $65 million Series D round of financing from June 2015.

Udemy reported net losses of $69.7 million for 2019 and $77.6 million in net losses for 2020.

As of January 2014, the iOS app had been downloaded over 1 million times, and 20 percent of Udemy users access their courses via mobile.

In July 2016, Udemy expanded their iOS platform to include Apple TV. On January 11, 2020, the Udemy mobile app became the #1 top grossing Android app in India.

Udemy has been mentioned in The New York Times, The China Post, Fast Company, the BBC, YPN and TechCrunch, with Mashable noting “Udemy offers an experience that rivals the real classroom, and should prove to be a useful utility for teachers and students of all subject matters.”

Learn About Udemy Culture, Mission, And Careers

Whether you want to learn or to share what you know, you’ve come to the right place.

As a global destination for online learning, we connect people through knowledge.

Our global community and our course catalog get bigger every day.

Our curated collection of business and technical courses help companies, governments, and nonprofits go further by placing learning at the center of their strategies.

Their team curates fresh, up-to-date courses from their marketplace and makes them available to customers.

Udemy responds to the needs of the business in an agile and global manner.

It’s truly the best solution for our employees and their careers.

Udemy, Inc.

Our marketplace platform, with thousands of up-to-date courses in dozens of languages, provides the tools that learners, instructors, and enterprises need to achieve their goals and reach their full potential.

Udemy operates a two-sided marketplace where our instructors develop content to meet learner demand.

Courses can be accessed through our direct-to-consumer or Udemy Business, or UB, offerings.

Our platform provides over 44 million learners with access to over 183,000 courses in 75 languages and over 180 countries.

Udemy courses address learning objectives such as reskilling or upskilling in technology and business, enhancing soft skills, and personal development.

We analyze platform data to better determine our learners’ needs, helping us match individuals with relevant courses and, within UB, learning paths for a more personalized experience.

Our learners also receive access to interactive learning tools such as quizzes, exercises, and instructor questions-and-answers, or Q&A..


Frequently Asked Questions Select a topic to search for help Frequently Asked Questions Select a topic to search for help Teaching Center Visit the Teaching Center for community updates and the latest course creation and promotion resources.

Learn about purchasing courses, how to send gifts, and refunds.

Understand the revenue share and how to receive payments.

Learn what it takes to create a high quality course.

Post Idea #18: Event of default

Related Articles – Summarized

Event Of Default Defined

An event of default is a predefined circumstance that allows a lender to demand full repayment of an outstanding balance before it is due.

An event of default enables the lender to seize any collateral that has been pledged and sell it to recoup the loan.

The clause can contain more circumstances that would permit the creditor to invoke its rights in the event of default.

In essence, the buyer is taking out a form of insurance on the possibility that a debtor will experience an event of default event that would jeopardize its ability to meet its payment obligations.

The three most common such events, as defined by the International Swaps and Derivatives Association, are 1) filing for bankruptcy, 2) defaulting on payment, and 3) restructuring debt.

Payment default is a specific event and refers to the inability of an individual or organization to pay their debts in a timely manner.

Payment default and bankruptcy are often confused with one another: A bankruptcy tells your creditors that you will not be able to pay them in full; a payment default tells your creditors that you will not be able to pay when it is due.

What Is Event Of Default?

An event of default occurs when a borrower breaches a credit agreement and is considered to have defaulted on their debt.

Credit agreements specify which breaches of those obligations will constitute an event of default.

Credit agreements, such as mortgage records, specify what constitutes an event of default.

Event of default clauses in loan documents protect borrowers and lenders by specifying when a borrower is in breach of a loan agreement and what the consequences of that breach entail.

An event of default clause in a credit agreement can help you as a borrower understand what types of actions could trigger consequences, such as nonpayment or insolvency.

An event of default clause also allows you to understand the consequences of an event of default so you are aware of what to expect if you can’t pay your loan or some other event of default occurs.

Event of default clauses are a crucial part of ensuring the availability of credit.

Event Of Default

An event of default is established in advance and lets the lender request full payment of money owed before it’s due.3 min read. 1.

An event of default is established in advance and lets the lender request full payment of money owed before it’s due.

A default is an event that in time or notice, or both, would mean an event of default.

Some contracts use different terms instead to avoid confusion, Potential Event of Default and Event of Default, which reflects the definitions better.

An event of default clause is typically found in a loan agreement, except for loan facility, where the amount owed can be requested on demand.

These are circumstances with power that should only be active while the default is continuing, and ended once the default has ended.

The cross-default provision gives the lender the power to call a default in the agreement when there are a third party and borrower default to any other agreement.

Event Of Default

Default is the occurrence of an event or circumstance against which a party to a contract seeks protection.

A contract may state that the recording of a lien against certain property is a default.

If the default is left uncured after notice and the passage of time, it may ripen into an event of default, which creates in the non-defaulting party certain rights, such as acceleration of a debt or the right to exit a contract.

In a revolving credit facility, the occurrence of an event of default normally also allows the lender to cancel any obligations to make further loan advances.

Payment default, i.e. the failure to pay principal or interest when it falls due for payment;.

Prospective default, when payment is not yet due, but it is clear that it will not be capable of being paid when it does fall due.

Covenant default, when the borrower fails to keep a promise that it has made in the contract.

“Default Or Event Of Default”

A few months ago a reader asked me what I thought of the phrase default or event of default.

The phrase default or event of default is a fixture of loan agreements.

“Default” means any event that with notice or passage of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

Considering the defined terms Default and Event of Default without consulting the definitions, one would be entitled to wonder whether they don’t in fact mean the same thing.

That’s why some agreements use instead the defined terms Potential Event of Default and Event of Default.

The obligation of Lenders to make any Loan is subject to the further satisfaction or waiver of each of the following conditions: no Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing as of the date that Loan is made.

So it might be a good idea to come up with two sets of default terminology, one to use with default as a trigger, the other to use with default as a condition.

Default Or Event Of Default

The phrase default or event of default is a fixture of loan agreements.

Usually default and event of default are used as defined terms.

“Event of Default is straightforward enough-it’s defined to mean any of the sorts of bad things a bank wouldn’t want to have happen to its borrowers. As for Default, it’s given the following definition, or some variation:”Default” means any event that with notice or passage of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

Consistent with that, Charles Fox’s Working With Contracts) says the following:Many agreements characterize breaches that have not yet become “Events of default,” because required notices have not been given or required cure periods have not yet run, as “Defaults.” The existence of a default may trigger lesser remedies, such as the creditor’s refusal to make additional advances.

That’s all well and good, but a defined term should give the reader some sense of the definition.

Considering the defined terms Default and Event of Default without consulting the definitions, one would be entitled to wonder whether they don’t in fact mean the same thing.

That’s why some agreements use instead the defined terms Potential Event of Default and Event of Default.

Default Clauses

A default clause is a legally binding contractual clause where the parties mutually agree what may result in a contractual default and the consequences associated with it.

In a lease agreement, the landlord may state that if the commercial tenant fails to pay rent by the 5th day of the calendar month, it will be considered in default triggering the default clauses.

The main purpose and objective of default contract language is to provide certainty to both parties as to what may be considered a “Default” but also define the procedures and processes that may apply when the event of default takes place.

The default provisions may provide details about notification obligations, the delays the defaulting party may have to cure a breach, and the possible consequences of the default such as fines, injunctive relief, liquidated damages, or termination of contract.

Every contract may define default clauses in a different way.

An event of default is a situation or circumstance that contracting parties define to result in a contractual default.

Cross defaulted Cure period Defaulted on a lease Event of default Lease default Legal clauses Material breachNon-material breach Notification obligation Price supply.

Post Idea #19: Convertible bond

Related Articles – Summarized

Convertible Bond Definition

A convertible bond offers investors a type of hybrid security, which has features of a bond such as interest payments while also providing the opportunity of owning the stock.

A vanilla convertible bond provides the investor with the choice to hold the bond until maturity or convert it to stock.

On the other hand, a reversible convertible bond gives the company the right to convert the bond to equity shares or keep the bond as a fixed income investment until maturity.

Convertible bond investors can get back some of their principal upon failure of the company while they can also benefit from capital appreciation, by converting the bonds into equity, if the company is successful.

Investors can enjoy the value-added component built into convertible bonds meaning they’re essentially a bond with a stock option, particularly a call option.

Convertible bonds tend to offer a lower coupon rate or rate of return in exchange for the value of the option to convert the bond into common stock.

The bond has a maturity of 10 years and a convertible ratio of 100 shares for every convertible bond.

Types & Advantages Of Convertible Bonds

Companies with a low credit rating and high growth potential often issue convertible bonds.

For financing purposes, the bonds offer more flexibility than regular bonds.

These are the most common type of convertible bonds.

Reverse convertible bonds give the issuer an option to either buy back the bond in cash or convert the bond to the equity at a predetermined conversion price and rate at the maturity date.

Convertible bonds are a flexible option for financing that offers some advantages over regular debt or equity financing.

Generally, investors are willing to accept lower interest payments on convertible bonds than on regular bonds.

Since interest payments are tax-deductible, convertible bonds allow the issuing company to benefit from interest tax savings that are not possible in equity financing.

What Are Convertible Bonds? – Forbes Advisor

Convertible bonds work just like ordinary corporate bonds, paying interest according to the specified coupon rate until you or the company decides to trigger a conversion to equity.

Convertible bonds are hybrid securities that offer investors the best of both stocks and bonds.

Issuing convertible bonds allows companies to raise funds without immediately diminishing value for existing shareholders.

Disadvantages of Convertible Bonds Convertible bonds are callable, meaning that the issuer can force investors to convert.

Convertible bonds are highly correlated to equity markets, meaning their values may be more associated with movements in the stock market than other types of bonds.

Convertible bonds are of lower priority than straight bonds in the event of default and are unsecured, meaning if a company goes bankrupt, you may not be repaid the amount you lent them.

As always, speak to a financial advisor to learn more about how convertible bonds can fit into your investment portfolio.

Understanding The Basics Of Convertible Bonds

Convertible bonds are bonds that are issued by corporations and that can be converted to shares of the issuing company’s stock at the bondholder’s discretion.

Convertible bonds typically offer higher yields than common stock, but lower yields than straight corporate bonds.

Convertible bonds can only fall so far-provided the issuing company remains solvent-since they have a specific maturity date when investors will receive their principal.

While convertible bonds have greater appreciation potential than corporate bonds, they may be also more vulnerable to losses if the issuer defaults.

Keep in mind, most convertible bonds are callable, meaning that the issuer can call the bonds away and thereby cap the investors’ gain.

How do convertible bonds affect a company’s diluted earnings per share?

Convertible bonds are converted into stock shares, so the issuing entity needs to be a for-profit business with equity.

Convertible Bonds: Primer On Conversion Features

Convertible Bonds are fixed-income issuances structured with a conversion option to exchange them for a certain number of shares in the underlying company.

Convertible bonds provide the bondholder with the option to convert the bonds into equity if certain conditions are met.

The differentiating factor of convertible bonds is their “Equity-kicker”, where the bonds can be exchanged for a pre-determined number of equity shares.

Maturity Date – The maturity of the convertible bonds and range of dates on which conversion could be done, e.g. conversion only at predetermined times.

The conversion price is the price per share at which a convertible bond can be converted into common shares.

Most convertible bonds contain a call provision that allows the issuer to redeem the bonds earlier, which caps the capital gain potential.

The final downside to convertible bonds is that these securities, particularly those designated as subordinated convertible bonds, are lower in the capital structure than the other debt tranches.

Features of Convertible Bond 2.1 An example of a simple convertible bond On Sep 2003, Primus Telecom issued the following convertible bond.

In an analysis of 311 US companies having actively traded convertible bonds in Jan 2000, Noddings, Christoph and Noddings found3: 58% of companies are in small-cap category, 27% are in medium cap category, the convertible securities include equity warrants, convertible bonds, and convertible preferred stocks.

Valuation of Convertible Bond Convertible bonds combine the features of bonds and stocks in one instrument and its price will be affected by both interest rates and share prices.

In general, since you have the option to make the convertible bond either a bond or stock, its value should be at least the value of the bond or the stock.

Figure 2: Convertible bond price diagram 322 Convertible bond price 272 222 Convertible bond price Conversion value bond price 172 122 72 22 -28 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Share price The convertible bond price will also be affected by interest rate.

Bond plus equity option approach A more sophisticated approach treats the convertible bond as a straight bond plus a call option on the stock.

Figure 5: 4.4 Hedging Assume we bought the convertible bond at 12/31/03 at the price of 132.5, we want to hedge the convertible bond against changes in stock price over the week from 1/2/2004 to 1/9/2004.

To estimate the bond investment value, one has to determine the required yield on a non-convertible bond with the same quality rating and similar investment characteristics.

11 Bond investment value Present value of the interest and principal payments discounted at the straight bond interest rate n bond interest value = C P + t n t =1 where P = par value, r = discount rate, C = coupon rate, n = number of periods to maturity.

The equity component of the convertible bond may dampen the convertible’s interest rate sensitivity, depending on the bond’s equity participation.

47 +$11.92 Percent change -1.02% $312.72 -$24.94 1.19% 18 Correlation with interest rates Consider the impact of an increase on interest rate y The future share price is expected to be higher because of higher drift rate.

Question: What should be the optimal call policies of the issuer and the optimal conversion strategies of the holder? Impact of the credit ratings of the issuer on the convertible bond price! 21 Pricing of risky convertible bonds One-factor binomial model * stock price process follows binomial random walk * interest rates to be deterministic Two discount rates 1.

If the convertible is certain to remain a bond, it is appropriate to use a discount rate corresponding to the creditworthiness of the issuer risky rate.

The bondholder is indifferent to conversion or hold, also the issuer is also indifferent as to whether the bond is called; the correct discount rate at node D is 10%. At node F The correct discount rate is 15% since the convertible is contain not to be converted if node E is reached.

Post Idea #20: Translation

Related Articles – Summarized

Online Translator

We disrupt the old translation models with our online-powered high-quality translation solutions and a native-speaking expert translator team that delivers on-demand and accurate language translation services in over 90 languages.

You can leave a note for the translator before the translation process starts.

. What are the advantages of Machine Translation and Human Translation?

Translate.com offers two translation options: machine or online translation and translation by a qualified human translator.

Machine translation doesn’t offer the highest quality, but it is a free online translator.

Professional human translation offers higher quality, SEO-friendly translations.

Our highly-trained professional translators and subject-matter experts understand the importance of linguistic accuracy and work with utmost precision to provide you with the highest quality business, medical, and technical document translation.

Post Idea #21: Animal feed

Related Articles – Summarized

Animal Feed: See, Touch, and Do A Hands-On Lesson Plan on the Basics of Animal Feed and Animal Nutrition Developed by Crystal Groesbeck, Ph.D., Center for Veterinary Medicine, FDA Topic: Exploring animal nutrition and the relationships between feed ingredients in livestock diets Content: Animal feed, livestock diets, animal nutrition, feed mixing, particle size Goals: 1.

An animal nutritionist is an individual who has a passion for animals and is an expert on animal feed and how the feed is used by animals.

1 1 FDA References on Animal Feed and Medicated Feed: FDA’s Role in Animal Health – Yes! No! Maybe So! – What FDA Does and Does Not Regulate, FDA Veterinarian Newsletter, Issue 3, 2010 Animal Food & Feeds Animal Feed Regulations Lesson 2: This lesson explores the basic principles of preparing feed for pigs and chickens, although the concepts can be applied to many animals and expanded to include discussions around other animals and/or feed manufacturing topics.

Mixing appropriately-sized ground corn into the feed prevents this “Feed sorting” and ensures that the pigs and chickens eat the correct amount of all ingredients in their feed.

What are some common problems related to particle size and other properties of the feed ingredients? Animal nutritionists commonly deal with feed handling problems when formulating livestock diets: Feed Handling Problems Typical Causes Feed ingredients are ground too fine.

Because a growing and developing livestock animal should have constant access to feed, the animal nutrition industry wants to prevent all “Out of feed” occurrences.

With their expert knowledge of particle size and shape and other properties of the feed ingredients, animal nutritionists formulate livestock diets that: Maximize animal health and performance; Prevent feed sorting; and Prevent feed handling problems.


The role of Codex in Animal Feed.The link between safe feed and safe food is now well recognized; in particular the modern approach to food safety identifies measures to minimize and prevent and the entry of hazards at the early stages of the production chain, including the primary production of the feed grains and fodder.

Recognizing the importance of animal feeding to the production of safe food, Codex has established two dedicated Task Forces, which have developed texts aiming at providing guidance to governments on good animal feeding practice and on the conduct of risk assessment and prioritization of hazards in feed.

Codex work on animal feeding only addresses food safety and does not cover those issues of animal welfare, other than food safety related animal health issues.

Environmental contaminants are considered where the level of such substances in the feed and feed ingredients could present a risk to consumer health from the consumption of foods of animal origin.

Mainstreaming animal feeding aspects in the work of Codex is an explicit recognition of the role and responsibility of the feed sector to the production of safe and quality food.

More than 350 participants gathered online on Thursday 25 March 2021 to learn more about the risks of contamination of animal food and feed from carryover – a process of feed contamination that can occur during feed processing, handling, transportation, delivery or in feeding animals on-farm, when residues of veterinary drugs are unintentionally transferred to a food-producing animal.

A webinar taking place on 5 February 2021, 12:00-13:30 CET, entitled Feed safety – Good Practices for the Feed Sector Matter, will bring together experts from FAO and the International Feed Industry Federation to discuss the importance of feed safety in the sustainable production of safe food of animal origin.

Animal Feed

Animal feed is food given to domestic animals, especially livestock, in the course of animal husbandry.

Animal feed is an important input to animal agriculture, and is frequently the main cost of the raising or keeping of animals.

Additionally agriculture for producing animal feed puts pressure on land use: feed crops need land that otherwise might be used for human food and can be one of the driving factors for deforestation, soil degradation and climate change.

Feed grains are the most important source of animal feed globally.

The main ingredients used in commercially prepared feed are the feed grains, which include corn, soybeans, sorghum, oats, and barley.

The feed industry is one of the most competitive businesses in the agricultural sector and is by far the largest purchaser of U.S. corn, feed grains, and soybean meal.

Feed manufacturing refers to the process of producing animal feed from raw agricultural products.

Animal Feed & Pet Food

Animal feed, pet food and specialty pet food are all considered Commercial Feed under the Pennsylvania Commercial Feed Act, and are regulated through the inspection of Pennsylvania manufacturing and distribution establishments for compliance with labeling, licensing and Current Good Manufacturing Practices.

Samples of animal feed are collected and analyzed to ensure feed is not adulterated and meets label guarantees.

A license is required for each feed manufacturing facility located in Pennsylvania and for each guarantor of feed who distributes a product in Pennsylvania.

In order to apply for a license to manufacture animal feed or pet food, or to be the guarantor of such products, complete the Application for Commercial Feed License.

Feed tonnage is required to be reported ANNUALLY on form API-216 which is provided by our office to all licensees who distribute commercial feed in Pennsylvania.

Who is required to be licensed to sell commercial feed in Pennsylvania?Pennsylvania manufacturers and all guarantors of commercial and customer-formula feed including pet food and treats.

A person that repackages or alters commercial feed products for resale becomes a manufacturer of commercial feed and is required to obtain a commercial feed license and label the product with the required information.

Animal Feed & Supplements L Purina

Skip to Content Purina has been leading the industry with innovation since 1894, and over the years our purpose has never changed.

Over the last 125 years, our ideas and research-backed nutritional solutions have modernized the way animals are fed.

Baby chicks need 38 unique nutrients to grow into happy, healthy hens.

You’ve always known what’s best for your animals.

Introducing the Purina Animal Nutrition online shop: shop.

For the widest selection of Purina products – along with personal service and know-how – Please check with your local retailer.

To tackle some of the biggest horse nutrition challenges, our Ph.D. nutritionists pair science with their love for horses to come up with innovative solutions that are grounded in the biggest needs.

Post Idea #22: Feed additive

Related Articles – Summarized

What Are Feed Additives?

>”Feed additives are products used in animal nutrition for purposes of improving the quality of feed and the quality of food from animal origin, or to improve the animals’ performance and health, e.g. providing enhanced digestibility of the feed materials.”

According to a 2010 report by MarketsandMarkets, a market research company, the global feed additives market is expected to reach $18.7 billion by 2016.

>”Antibiotics is the leading demand generating product with a share of more than 27% in 2011, followed by amino acid with 26.5% share in the global feed additives market. The consumption of antibiotics is high due to increasing demand in Asian and Latin American regions to meet the high domestic and export demand for meat.”

Zootechnical Additive – these improve the overall nutritional value of an animal’s diet through additives in the feed.

Coccidiostats and Histomonostats – these are feed additives which are antibiotics, intended to kill or inhibit protozoa.

Some of the controversy around feed additives comes from their use in livestock that is labeled ‘organic’.

Just this year, researchers and educators from Arkansas, Indiana and Virginia are embarking on a new project to “Create a model that tracks feed, ventilation, manure and energy use in pork production, as well as exploring the use of pig manure in making biofuels.” This would include an examination of the carbon footprint of feed additives in hog production.

Feed Additives

Feed additives & functional feed play an increasingly important role in animal nutrition as livestock producers seek new sustainable and natural ways to enhance performance, improve gut health, optimize feed conversion, reduce and replace antibiotic growth promoters in feed, and address consumer demands.

Cargill Animal Nutrition provides Promote® additives, a platform for feed additive products designed to help bring feed manufacturers, animal producers, and retailers innovative and impactful feed-additive solutions to boost profitability and address challenges in the market.

Improving performance & animal well-being with PROMOTE® additives.

PROMOTE® additives puts our legacy of feed industry leadership into your hands, helping you to propel animal performance and business profitability to new levels.

PROMOTE® additives combines the extensive additives research, feed-application insights, and global expertise in selecting, developing and commercializing the most impactful additive products that make us a trusted advisor to many customers around the globe.

Our PROMOTE® additives offer includes both multi-species lines and dedicated species solutions: Notox™, a range of solutions to support animal performance under mycotoxins challenge conditions.

Enzae® best in class enzymes solutions to optimize feed cost and consistently improve performance.

Feed Additives and their use in animal nutrition Dept of Animal Nutrition, CoVSc & AH, Jabalpur Defination Feed additives is an ingredient or combination of ingredients added to the basic feed mix or parts there of to fulfill the specific need Usually used in microquantities and requires careful handling and mixing It is used to improve rate of gain, feed efficiency, preventing and controlling disease, prevention against untoward enviromantal influences.

Types of feed additives Nutrient feed additives – E.g.

Amino acids, minerals and vitamins Non nutrient feed additives – E.g.

Antibiotics, hormones, immunomodulators, enzymes, probiotics, Advantages Increase feed quality and feed palatability Improve animal performance Improve the final product Economise the cost of animal protein Antibiotics Two Types: Non Ionophore antibiotics e.g. Chlortetracyclin, zinc bacitracin etc.

Ionophore antibiotics e.g. monensin, lasalocid, salinomycin etc.

Difference in between two is there mode of action Non ionophore antibiotics – Stimulation of microorganisms which favors nutrient synthesis – Suppression of organisms which compete for critical nutrients – Inhibition of toxin producing bacteria Ionophore antibiotics – Form hydrophobic complex with inorganic cations like sodium potassium and calcium – Mainly active against gram +ve organisms bcoz outer membrane of gram -ve bacteria are impermeable to such complexes Ionophore and nonionophore have been used in non-ruminants and preruminants while, only ionophore are successfully used in adult ruminants Arsenicals E.g.

MOS, FOS complex carbohydrates extracted from yeast cell wall MOS blocks the attachment of harmful bacteria and prevent their colonization FOS enhance the growth of probiotic bacteria which reduces harmful bacteria Acidifiers E.g.

Feed Additives

Support your livestock with innovative, sustainable and profitable feed additives manufactured under our Pancosma flagship brand.

Improve the zootechnical and economic performances of your animals with feed additives developed to enhance gut integrity.

Pancosma has been developing, manufacturing and distributing feed additives worldwide for over 70 years, since 1947.

A world leader in flavors, sweet taste enhancers and natural concepts, Pancosma partners with top feed manufacturers and lead users, globally.

With an extensive understanding of animal physiology, we target key metabolic processes which may improve efficacy in ingredient and animal production.

You can meet and exceed your economic requirements, with our essential additive products and complementary services.

Choose from high-value products, including flavors, sweeteners, plant extracts, yeast, acidifiers, direct fed microbials, non-nutritive solutions, natural solutions and tailor-made solutions.

Animal Health & Performance Feed Additives

FEED MICROPROCESSORS. At PMI, we’re defining the future of feed additives through feed microprocessors.

We focus on the future by exploring and creating next-generation feed additives distributed to customers around the world.

Our innovation and cutting-edge technologies are driven by customer collaboration and intentionally designed to deliver a specific solution in animal health and nutrition.

Our goal as PMI is to anticipate and address tomorrow’s toughest animal health challenges through advanced feed technologies.

Our additive products are designed to a specific cause or result and paired with a high standard of efficacy to help promote overall animal health and nutrition.

PRODUCTS THAT DELIVER PROVEN RESULTS Stress, feed impurities and pathogens in the environment present on-going challenges to animal health.

Vitacy® delivers Medium Chain Fatty Acid combinations that actively target animal performance, immunity and feed biosecurity challenges.

Feed Additive

A feed additive is an additive of extra nutrient or drug for livestock.

The additives might impact feed presentation, hygiene, digestibility, or effect on intestinal health.

Prior to the Animal Drug Availability Act 1996, animal feed was available in two fashions: over-the-counter transacted, and by prescription from a veterinarian.

According to EU Regulation 1831/2003, all feed additives to be placed on the market within the European Union have to undergo a thorough approval process.

A feed additive shall be allocated to one or more of the following categories, depending on its functions and properties, in accordance with the procedure set out at Articles 7, 8 and 9:.technological additives: any substance added to feed for a technological purpose;.

Sensory additives: any substance, the addition of which to feed improves or changes the organoleptic properties of the feed, or the visual characteristics of the food derived from animals;.

Zootechnical additives: any additive used to affect favourably the performance of animals in good health or used to affect favourably the environment;.

Post Idea #23: Arla Foods

Related Articles – Summarized

Deliciously Simple Cheese

Arla provides dairy products of exceptional quality and simplicity.

We describe all of our products as “Naturally Delicious,” which means they are created without the use of synthetic hormones*, and contain simple ingredients, with no artificial flavors or artificial preservatives.

Simply put – every Arla product is Simply Delicious.

Arla Foods, Inc.

Arla Foods, Inc. is a cooperative owned by more than 13,400 dairy farmers in Northern Europe, with production in 13 countries and products sold in over 100 countries around the globe.

In 1998, Arla Foods’ cheese experts, using Danish know-how, began manufacturing high quality havarti cheese in Wisconsin at Hollandtown Dairy.

Today, Hollandtown Dairy produces a variety of cheese types and flavors using the high quality standards and specifications of the original European recipes.

Arla Foods

Arla Foods amba is a Danish multinational cooperative based in Viby, Denmark, and the largest producer of dairy products in Scandinavia.

Arla Foods was formed as the result of a merger between the Swedish dairy cooperative Arla and the Danish dairy company MD Foods on 17 April 2000.

The first cooperative dairy was established in Sweden at Stora Arla Gård in Västmanland in 1881 under the name of Arla Mejeriförening, and the first Danish cooperative dairy was established in Hjedding, outside Ølgod, Southern Jutland in 1882.

Arla Foods is the fourth largest dairy company in the world with respect to milk volume, seventh with respect to turnover.

Arla Foods has three minor brands: Arla, Lurpak and Castello cheeses that are sold worldwide.

Arla Foods incorporated Arla Foods Ingredients, a former division, as an independent subsidiary in 2011.

In March 2011, Arla Foods and DMK formed the joint venture company ArNoCo GmbH & Co. KG, to produce whey proteins for the food industry.

Arla Foods

The program includes checking the cows daily to make sure they are healthy and in good condition and working closely with farmers to help them achieve high milk quality.

OUR HERITAGE GOES BACK TO THE 1880S. Our philosophy of producing natural, healthy and high quality dairy products dates back to the 1880s when dairy farmers in Denmark and Sweden joined forces with one common goal: To produce and provide the best dairy products.

WE CONTROL EVERY STEP OF THE WAY. Because we are owned by the same farmers who produce most of our milk, we have full control of the milk’s journey from our cows to you.

FREE FROM ANTIBIOTICS AND HORMONES. In line with European standards, Arla farmers do not give hormones to their cows to increase the amount of milk they produce.

ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIBILITY. Arla Foods is on a global mission to create delicious, quality products in an environmentally friendly way.

SUSTAINABLE PRACTICES. Our approach to sustainable dairy farming is based on us providing healthy, natural and safe food to the world’s growing population in a sustainable way.

QUALITY CONTROL. The majority of the feed used by Arla farmers is produced by the farmers themselves.

Arla Food Inc.

Coronavirus UPDATE “Even though our plans and routines have certainly been disrupted here at Arla, the core of what we do remains the same and is clearly reflected in our two most important priorities during this crisis.”

WHO WE ARE. and how we develop our products.

We believe in organic farming and that organic dairy products should be available to everyone.

From our farmers’ fields to your fridge, you can trust that Arla Organic is made with sustainability and animal welfare in mind.

Every one of our brands reflects this, so read on to find out more about the Arla family.

EXPLORE ALL OUR BRANDS. We are farmer-owned, which means when you buy any Arla product, you know you are helping support our farmers and their families.

Arla’s global strategy for Sustainable Dairy Farming focuses on three core areas: Climate, animals, and nature.

Arla Foods Dairy Product Provides You With Natural Godness All Day Every Day

WHAT HAPPENS AT ARLA. Learn about our corporate social responsibility.

Learn more NATURE & ENVIRONMENT. Our ambition is to be at the forefront when it comes to sustainable dairy farming and environmental standards in the dairy industry.

Arla Foods’ Increases Revenues Despite Pandemic Disruptions And High Inflation

10 Feb 2022 — Arla Foods’ annual results are indicative of the European dairy cooperative’s buoyancy throughout 2021, in spite of continued disruptions from the COVID-19 pandemic and renewed market volatility created by high inflation.

This was driven mainly by higher sales prices and strategic branded sales growth of 4.5%. “2021 was a tough year on farms as both our members and company were impacted by the continued effects of the pandemic and rapidly rising production costs,” says Arla Foods Chairman, Jan Toft Nørgaard.

Arla Foods CEO, Peder Tuborgh, adds: “Month on month, we managed sales and operations firmly to maintain product availability amidst fluctuating demand between in-home consumption, dining out and on-the-go as lockdowns eased and we returned to the workplace.”

Arla continued to see high consumer demand for in-home dairy products, with brands such as Arla, Castello and Starbucks “Exceeding their unprecedented branded growth in 2020” and Lurpak gaining market shares in both Denmark and UK. Farmers shoulder weight of rising costs rising costsArla’s farmer-owners were again challenged throughout 2021 due to rising costs and additional requirements on their farms.

Arla international sees boost for cheesesArla International delivered branded volume driven growth of 9.1% on top of last year’s 11.6%. In addition to pricing, International grew market share in key positions for Puck in the Middle East and North Africa where it became the number one spreadable cheese brand and for Arla Dano in Bangladesh, which won best milk brand for the 7th year.

Arla Foods Ingredients navigates price hike challengesArla Foods Ingredients, a 100% owned subsidiary of Arla, grew its value-add segment by 14.5% and delivered increased revenue of EUR 794 million compared to EUR 716 million in 2020.

“2021 was another year defined by COVID-19 and although the global economy recovered much faster than expected, the volatility of the dairy market and high inflation put pressure on us and our farmer-owners,” comments Arla Foods CFO, Torben Dahl Nyholm.

Post Idea #24: Fossil fuel

Related Articles – Summarized

National Geographic Society

Fossil fuels are made from decomposing plants and animals.

Fossil fuels are a nonrenewable resource and waiting millions of years for new coal, oil, and natural gas deposits to form is not a realistic solution.

Scientists across the country and around the world are trying to find solutions to fossil fuel problems so that there is enough fuel and a healthy environment to sustain human life and activities in the future.

Researchers at Stanford University in California have been using greener technologies to figure out a way to burn fossil fuels while lessening their impact on the environment.

Process of capturing carbon dioxide emission from large point sources, such as fossil fuel power plants, transporting it to a storage site, and depositing it where it will not enter the atmosphere, normally an underground geological formation.

Fossil fuels formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals.

Type of fossil fuel made up mostly of the gas methane.

Fossil Fuel

Most air pollution deaths are due to fossil fuel combustion products: it is estimated that this pollution costs over 3% of global GDP, and that fossil fuel phase-out would save 3.6 million lives each year.

In December 2020, the United Nations released a report saying that despite the need to reduce greenhouse emissions, various governments are “Doubling down” on fossil fuels, in some cases diverting over 50% of their COVID-19 recovery stimulus funding to fossil fuel production rather than to alternative energy.

Environmental pollution from fossil fuels impacts humans because particulates and other air pollution from fossil fuel combustion cause illness and death when inhaled.

Fossil fuel divestment or fossil fuel divestment and investment in climate solutions is an attempt to reduce climate change by exerting social, political, and economic pressure for the institutional divestment of assets including stocks, bonds, and other financial instruments connected to companies involved in extracting fossil fuels.

Fossil fuel divestment campaigns emerged on campuses in the United States in 2011 with students urging their administrations to turn endowment investments in the fossil fuel industry into investments in clean energy and communities most impacted by climate change.

Air pollution from fossil fuels in 2018 has been estimated to cost US$2.9 trillion, or 3.3% of global GDP. The International Energy Agency estimated 2019 global government fossil fuel subsidies to have been $320 billion.

Fossil fuels are subsidized in the amount of $4.7 trillion in 2015, which is equivalent to 6.3% of the 2015 global GDP and are estimated to grow to $5.2 trillion in 2017, which is equivalent to 6.5% of global GDP. The largest five subsidizers in 2015 were the following: China with $1.4 trillion in fossil fuel subsidies, the United States with $649 billion, Russia with $551 billion, the European Union with $289 billion, and India with $209 billion.

Types, Uses, Advantages & Disadvantages

“Fossil fuels are the fuels formed by natural processes such as decomposition of dead and buried organisms.”

Fossil fuels are buried flammable geologic deposits of organic substances such as dead plants and animals that got deposited under several thousand feet of silt.

Are Fossil Fuels Renewable? Fossil fuels are a non-renewable source of energy.

Most of the energy used by us is obtained by the burning of fossil fuels.

With the increased demand for the production of various energies, fossil fuel energy is declining.

Fossil fuels emit carbon dioxide when burnt which is a major greenhouse gas and the primary source of pollution.

Combustion of fossil fuels makes the environment more acidic.

Department Of Energy

Fossil energy sources, including oil, coal and natural gas, are non-renewable resources that formed when prehistoric plants and animals died and were gradually buried by layers of rock.

Over millions of years, different types of fossil fuels formed – depending on what combination of organic matter was present, how long it was buried and what temperature and pressure conditions existed as time passed.

Today, fossil fuel industries drill or mine for these energy sources, burn them to produce electricity, or refine them for use as fuel for heating or transportation.

Over the past 20 years, nearly three-fourths of human-caused emissions came from the burning of fossil fuels.

The Energy Department maintains emergency petroleum reserves, ensures responsible development of America’s oil and gas resources and executes natural gas regulatory responsibilities.

Scientists at the Energy Department’s National Labs are developing technologies to reduce carbon emissions and ensure fossil energy sources play a role in America’s clean energy future.

These non-renewable fuels, which include coal, oil, and natural gas, supply about 80 percent of the world’s energy.

Oil demand continues to rise, driven not only by our thirst for mobility, but for the many products-including plastics-made using petrochemicals, which are generally derived from oil and gas.

Natural gas: An odorless gas composed primarily of methane, natural gas often lies in deposits that, like those for coal and oil, formed millions of years ago from decaying plant matter and organisms.

As a result, natural gas has surpassed coal to become the top fuel for U.S. electricity production, and the U.S. leads the world in natural gas production, followed by Russia and Iran.

Natural gas is cleaner than coal and oil in terms of emissions, but nonetheless accounts for a fifth of the world’s total, not counting the so-called fugitive emissions that escape from the industry, which can be significant.

Undersea methane hydrates, for example, where gas is trapped in frozen water, are being eyed as a potential gas resource.

Many sources of carbon emissions, such as existing power plants that run on natural gas and coal, are already locked in.

Our World In Data

As low-carbon sources of energy – nuclear and renewables – become readily available, the world needs to rapidly transition away from fossil fuels.

Earlier data, pre-1965, is sourced from Vaclav Smil’s work on energy transitions; this has been combined with data published in BP’s Statistical Review of World Energy from 1965 onwards.

Across the world we see that the largest consumers use more than ten times the amount of fossil energy than some of the smallest consumers.

This has been converted into primary energy equivalents for comparability across our other data on energy.

To maintain consistency between metrics and sources, we have attempted to normalise all energy data to units of watt-hours, or one of its SI prefixes.

IEA – International Energy AgencyData: Data on electricity, oil, gas, coal and renewables.

Some data is available through Gapminder, for example Residential Energy Use.Data: Total and crude oil production, oil consumption, natural gas production and consumption, coal production and consumption, electricity generation and consumption, primary energy, energy intensity, CO2 emissions and imports and exports for all fuels.

Fossil Fuels: The Dirty Facts

For more than a century, burning fossil fuels has generated most of the energy required to propel our cars, power our businesses, and keep the lights on in our homes.

Using fossil fuels for energy has exacted an enormous toll on humanity and the environment-from air and water pollution to global warming.

Here’s a look at what fossil fuels are, what they cost us, and why it’s time to move toward a clean energy future.

Coal, crude oil, and natural gas are all considered fossil fuels because they were formed from the fossilized, buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.

Renewables are on track to become a cheaper source of energy than fossil fuels, which is spurring a boom in clean energy development and jobs.

Energy efficiency is our cleanest, cheapest, and largest energy resource, contributing more to the nation’s energy needs over the past 40 years than oil, coal, natural gas, or nuclear power.

To do that, we will need to cut energy demand in half, grow renewable energy resources so that they provide at least 80 percent of our power, electrify almost all forms of transportation, and get fossil fuels out of our buildings.

Post Idea #25: The Castle Climbing Centre

Related Articles – Summarized

The Castle Climbing Centre

A ‘BOOK TO CLIMB’ slot is an unsupervised climbing session.

The centre is very busy during these times, so for the safety and enjoyment of our customers, the Castle may refuse entry if the centre hits the capicity limit.

It is essential to book a slot to guaranteed your entry.

Weekdays before 5pm.Discounted entry for Concessions or Children.

Enjoy the centre while it is much quieter, booking a slot is not essential but it will speed up your entry.

You can skip the queue and are guaranteed entry, at anytime.

For Off-Peak members and Bulk Buy customers, at peak times, it is essential you book a slot to guaranteed your entry.

The Castle Climbing Centre

The Castle Climbing Centre is the largest and busiest of the Central London climbing walls.

Boasting some fantastic top rope/lead climb routes that reach a dizzying height of 12.5m. This in addition to a wealth of well set bouldering routes, makes the Castle a must visit for any level of climber.

Only registered adult climbers may climb unsupervised at The Castle.

All three focus on the basics of climbing indoors and making the most of the Centre.

You can hire harnesses and climbing boots and other gear from The Castle Shop which is located just opposite the reception area.

Castle Shop – The Castle shop has the largest range of climbing shoes on offer in London.

We sell a full range of clothing, climbing gear, climbing books and videos.

The Castle Climbing Centre

Description The Castle, located in London, is a climbing centre like no other.

It is reckoned to be the most comprehensible of all the climbing centres in the area with a fascinating mixture of the excellent indoor climbing, outdoor boulders, a garden and a delicious café with a hang-out area.

Brief In 2015, CCC engaged Rolique for website security audit and remediation seeking to improve both reader and editorial site experiences.

The audit revealed several opportunities for streamlining editorial workflows and generating more traffic, including optimizing mobile versions of the website and discarding inessential functionality.

Apart from those granular enhancements, the brief was also to enable editors and marketing staff to easily curate content across templates and create associations between content.

Introduced ‘call-to-action’ buttons on the website.

Upgraded version of the ‘News’ section, which makes it possible for the content manager to assign priority levels and manage news more effectively.

Post Idea #26: Bouldering

Related Articles – Summarized


Bouldering is a form of free climbing that is performed on small rock formations or artificial rock walls without the use of ropes or harnesses.

While bouldering can be done without any equipment, most climbers use climbing shoes to help secure footholds, chalk to keep their hands dry and to provide a firmer grip, and bouldering mats to prevent injuries from falls.

The growing popularity of bouldering has caused several environmental concerns, including soil erosion and trampled vegetation, as climbers often hike off-trail to reach bouldering sites.

One important training tool was bouldering mats, also referred to as “Crash pads”, which protected against injuries from falling and enabled boulderers to climb in areas that would have been too dangerous otherwise.

Notable boulder climbs are chronicled by the climbing media to track progress in boulder climbing standards and levels of technical difficulty; in contrast, the hardest traditional climbing routes tend to be of lower technical difficulty due to the additional burden of having to place protection during the course of the climb, and due to the lack of any possibility of using natural protection on the most extreme climbs.

While bouldering pioneer John Sherman asserted that “The only gear really needed to go bouldering is boulders,” others suggest the use of climbing shoes and a chalkbag – a small pouch where ground-up chalk is kept – as the bare minimum, and more experienced boulderers typically bring multiple pairs of climbing shoes, chalk, brushes, crash pads, and a skincare kit.

Although every type of rock climbing requires a high level of strength and technique, bouldering is the most dynamic form of the sport, requiring the highest level of power and placing considerable strain on the body.

What Is Bouldering? A Beginner’S Guide To Rope-Free Climbing

As we explain in our guide to rock climbing terms, bouldering is a form of rock climbing where you climb rock formations that are smaller and closer to the ground.

The main difference between bouldering and rock climbing is that in bouldering you don’t use any of the typical gear such as a harness or ropes.

In addition to the obvious lack of ropes and addition of a crash pad, there are a few key differences between bouldering and other types of rock climbing.

Bouldering emphasizes strength and technique rather than endurance that you might need for trad climbing.

On the other hand, you don’t have to learn how to use climbing equipment and how to belay, so in some regards, bouldering is actually easier for beginners.

Obviously, the chances of falling are increased with bouldering because you’re not roped, but you won’t fall far and you have your trusty crash pad. Perhaps a better question than whether or not climbing is safe is what kind of injuries you’re likely to sustain doing it.

Literally all you need to get started in bouldering are a good pair of rock climbing shoes and some chalk, which you’ll keep in a chalk bag.

What Is Bouldering?

Bouldering grades, and climbing grades in general, are the source of endless arguments and strife.

We think that giving bouldering problems grades is a great way to point you in the right direction in terms of which climbs at the centre you might enjoy, and give you a sense of improvement over time – but grades aren’t everything.

The important thing is to have fun and enjoy your climbing – your sense of achievement having managed to climb something that you found a challenge is what really counts.

There are several different grading systems in use across the world.

We prefer the Fontainebleau system, which is also popular in the UK. This gives a number and a letter to indicate how hard the climb is, for instance 5B. Grade 5C would be one grade harder, 5A one grade easier.

The Font system starts at 1 for the easiest climb imaginable and goes all the way up to 9A for the super-humanly hard.

If you’re used to a different system you can get a rough idea of how the Font system compares using conversion charts like the one here.

A Glossary Of Bouldering

Bouldering is a style of rock climbing that usually consists of short, challenging problems sans harness/ropes on boulders that are low enough to fall from safely.

Beta – Information about the climb passed on from another climber.

A super helpful way to familiarize yourself with routes and climbs, and a good way to socialize.

On Sight – To climb a route clean the first time ’round from bottom to top in one continuous flow – no rests or falls.

Deadpoint – A kind of semi-dynamic move where the climber finally hits the hold they’re moving towards at the end of their movement arc.

It’s only advisable to use these rock climbing terms after you’ve heard someone else use them.

Indoor climbing is a great way to make new friends, seasoned climbers or novices.

The Complete Guide For Bouldering Grades

As a beginner climber, you are likely noticing your skill level improving quickly and proof of that is in the bouldering grades that you keep leveling up through.

You may be visiting different gyms in your area or have tried outdoor climbs and noticed that the grades aren’t as black and white as they seem on paper.

Bouldering is usually a more power-driven route and rock climbing is a more endurance-driven route so even if someone can climb a V9, they may not be able to climb a 5.10 because they don’t have the energy/endurance to get to the top.

Many climbers argue that “Indoor grades are easier than outdoor grades,” however, there is a lot more to it.

Grades/the difficulty of a climb is decided by a community of climbers and then printed in a guide book and published it online.

You can usually participate in regional bouldering competition and sometimes state comps, though the bigger the competition, the higher the grade you need to be able to climb.

Even among climbers, bouldering is recognized as one of the most technically oriented and powerful move climbing disciplines there is.

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