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Post Idea #1: Human capital

Related Articles – Summarized

Human Capital Definition

Since human capital is based on the investment of employee skills and knowledge through education, these investments in human capital can be easily calculated.

Any return on investment of human capital can be calculated by dividing the company’s total profits by its overall investments in human capital.

If Company X invests $2 million into its human capital and has a total profit of $15 million, managers can compare the ROI of its human capital year-over-year in order to track how profit is improving and whether it has a relationship to the human capital investments.

Human Capital and Economic Growth There is a strong relationship between human capital and economic growth, which is why it can help boost the economy.

Does Human Capital Depreciate? Like anything else, human capital is not immune to depreciation.

Schultz believed human capital was like any other form of capital to improve the quality and level of production.

Human capital risk refers to the gap between the human capital requirements of a company or organization and the existing human capital of its workforce.

13 School districts could compete for families and families could move to areas that had better schools or less expensive schools or different types of schools.

The involvement of government in the provision of schools, the hiring of teachers Claudia Goldin, Human Capital 2/23/2014 -13- and so forth is often because it is convenient for the collective to provide the school capital than for a private organization to do the same.

Schools for primary school students were often called “common” schools, in part because youth had a shared experience but also because they were generally one-room school houses.

The same 15 Many places have added two other transitions: pre-school to kindergarten and middle school or junior high school to high school.

Claudia Goldin, Human Capital 2/23/2014 -14- laws and judicial interpretation that made primary schools free of marginal charges to parents also made secondary schools free of tuition charges for those living in the school district.

As secondary school enrollment and graduation increased, the high school premium, meaning the return to graduating high school relative to eighth grade, plummeted.

Because the high school movement shifted some individuals into the college ranks and since there was some substitution of the skills of high school graduates for those of the college educated, the premium to college relative to high school also fell.

Human Capital: Definition, Examples, Impact

Human capital is the economic value of the abilities and qualities of labor that influence productivity such as education.

Specific human capital: Training or education that benefits only one company.

Becker found that companies were more likely to pay for specific human capital while individuals paid for general human capital investments.

Human capital includes any human quality or value that can improve economic output and productivity.

The Fed study found the education of an individual is strongly related to the education of their parents, meaning the more familiar and successful the parents are with higher education, the more likely it is the adult child has a four-year degree.

The United States does not invest in human capital like education at the same level that other developed countries do.

One reason for lower education investment is that higher education in the U.S. is more expensive than in many other countries.

Human Capital

The lives of two different families collide when their children begin a relationship that leads to a tragic accident.

What is the Japanese language plot outline for Human Capital?

Human Capital

In this view, human capital is similar to “Physical means of production”, e.g., factories and machines: one can invest in human capital and one’s outputs depend partly on the rate of return on the human capital one owns.

The human capital is further distributed into three kinds; Knowledge Capital Social Capital Emotional Capital.

Human capital is distinctly different from the tangible monetary capital due to the extraordinary characteristic of human capital to grow cumulatively over a long period of time.

The transformation of raw human resource into highly productive human resource with these inputs is the process of human capital formation.

The intangible human capital, on the other hand, is an instrument of promoting comprehensive development of the nation because human capital is directly related to human development, and when there is human development, the qualitative and quantitative progress of the nation is inevitable.

The United Nations publishes the Human Development Report on human development in different nations with the objective of evaluating the rate of human capital formation in these nations.

The UN Human Development indices suggest that human capital is merely a means to the end of human development: “Theories of human capital formation and human resource development view human beings as means to increased income and wealth rather than as ends. These theories are concerned with human beings as inputs to increasing production”.

What Is Human Capital? HR Pros Explain Its Importance

Join us in learning from HR professionals about how human capital is used to bring growth to both employees and organizations alike.

“Human capital is the collective knowledge, experience, skills and abilities that employees bring to an organization,” says Richard Pummell, human resources lead at DevelopIntelligence.

“Human capital is fundamental to an organization,” says Samuel Johns, human resources specialist at ResumeGenius.

These HR pros agree that there is one way any company can start prioritizing their human capital: reduce turnover and give their employees a voice.

“The value of human capital increases when you have employees with longevity at the company,” Pummell says.

Ultimately, human capital is about having an “Employee first” attitude that allows people to grow in their careers while the company grows alongside them.

In addition to creating an enjoyable work environment, employers can increase their human capital by giving work assignments that are interesting and a good fit for each employee’s natural skills and interests.

Human Capital

Turning talent acquisition from a challenge into an asset unlocks potential and growth for our portfolio companies.

Our team built out talent infrastructure as former leaders at Uber, Dropbox, Pinterest, Reddit, Plaid, and Salesforce-now, they assemble teams of talent operators to help our founders build theirs.

Whether you’re pre-seed or pre-IPO, we roll up our sleeves and partner with founders to build the talent foundations necessary for growth at every stage.

Post Idea #2: The Kraft Heinz Company

Related Articles – Summarized

The Kraft Heinz Company

The Kraft Heinz Company has an unparalleled portfolio of powerful and iconic brands.

We at Kraft Heinz are unrelenting in our quest to transform the food industry.

The Kraft Heinz Company is the third-largest food and beverage company in North America and the fifth-largest food and beverage company in the world, with eight $1 billion+ brands.

A globally trusted producer of delicious foods, The Kraft Heinz Company provides high quality, great taste and nutrition for all eating occasions whether at home, in restaurants or on the go.

Kraft Heinz

The Kraft Heinz Company, commonly known as Kraft Heinz, is an American multinational food company formed by the merger of Kraft Foods and Heinz co-headquartered in Chicago, Illinois, and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The new Kraft Heinz Company became the world’s fifth-largest food and beverage company and the third-largest in the United States.

On February 17, 2017, it was reported that Kraft Heinz Co. had made a $143 billion approach to take over the British-Dutch multinational Unilever, a significantly larger competitor with 126,000 more employees and £24bn larger revenue than Kraft Heinz.

Kraft Heinz then partnered with Lactalis to manufacture Kraft and Velveeta cheeses.

On September 15, 2020, Kraft Heinz announced its new Strategic Transformation Plan including a new company purpose, “Let’s Make Life Delicious” and an all new vision, “To sustainably grow by delighting more consumers globally.” The next day Kraft Heinz also released its updated 2020 Environmental Social Governance report with goals to make 100% of Kraft Heinz product packaging recyclable, reusable, or compostable by 2025 and plans to sustainably source 100 percent of Heinz Ketchup tomatoes by 2025.

In September 2021, Kraft Heinz announced that Hemmer, a Brazilian company focused on condiments and sauces, was being acquired for an undisclosed amount.

In February 2019, shares in Kraft Heinz fell to a record low of under $35, after the company reported a $10.2bn loss for the previous year as the company announced that it would take a $15.4 billion write-down of its Kraft and Oscar Mayer brands, cut its dividend, and acknowledged that the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission had opened a probe into its accounting practices.

Kraft Heinz Company

Throughout Black History Month our teams have come together to learn, recognize and celebrate the achievements of Black Americans and the impact that Black culture has on our people and the work we do #HereAtKraftHeinz.

As the month comes to a close, we asked our Black Business Resource Group Leadership Team why Black History Month is important to them? Take a look at what they shared.

Post Idea #3: ConvaTec Group

Related Articles – Summarized

ConvaTec Group

ConvaTec is a global medical products and technologies company focused on therapies for the management of chronic conditions, with leading market positions in advanced wound care, ostomy care, continence and critical care, and infusion care.

Our products provide a range of clinical and economic benefits including infection prevention, protection of at-risk skin, improved patient outcomes and reduced total cost of care.

We have 9,900+ employees and do business in more than 100+ countries.

Continence & Critical Care

ConvaTec is a global medical products and technologies company focused on therapies for the management of chronic conditions, with leading market positions in advanced wound care, ostomy care, continence and critical care, and infusion devices.

ConvaTec’s products provide a range of clinical and economic benefits including infection prevention, protection of at-risk skin, improved patient outcomes and reduced total cost of care.

ConvaTec has 9,400 employees and does business in more than 100 countries.


ConvaTec Group plc is an Anglo-American medical products and technologies company, offering products and services in the areas of wound and skin care, ostomy care, continence and critical care and infusion devices.

It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.

The company was established as a division of E.R. Squibb & Sons, Inc. in 1978 and acquired by Nordic Capital and Avista Capital Partners in 2008.

In 2008 merged with Unomedical, a manufacturer of single-use medical devices, and 180 Medical, a catheter manufacturer, in 2012.

In June 2015 the company won a Court of Appeal ruling that determined that in the context of a patent “Between 1% and 25%” should be interpreted rounding to the nearest 1%, so that an attempt to circumvent a patent by using the value 0.9% failed.

In October 2016 the company was valued at £4.4bn in the largest initial public offering on the London Stock Exchange in the year.

The company has 9,000 employees and operates in more than 100 countries.

ConvaTec Group Plc Receives $256.00 Average Price Target From Analysts

Shares of ConvaTec Group Plc have been assigned a consensus rating of “Hold” from the seven ratings firms that are covering the company, Marketbeat Ratings reports.

Two investment analysts have rated the stock with a sell rating, one has issued a hold rating and three have assigned a buy rating to the company.

The average 1 year price target among brokerages that have issued a report on the stock in the last year is $275.50.

A number of research firms recently issued reports on CNVVY. Royal Bank of Canada reissued an “Underperform” rating on shares of ConvaTec Group in a report on Wednesday, November 24th. JPMorgan Chase & Co. reduced their price objective on shares of ConvaTec Group from GBX 278 to GBX 256 and set an “Overweight” rating for the company in a research report on Friday, January 21st. Barclays raised their price objective on shares of ConvaTec Group from GBX 290 to GBX 295 in a research report on Tuesday.

The stock’s fifty day moving average is $9.82.

ConvaTec Group has a 52-week low of $9.06 and a 52-week high of $14.71.

ConvaTec Group Plc operates as holding company, which engages in medical business.

ConvaTec Group Agrees To Acquire Triad Life Sciences

LONDON, UK: ConvaTec Group has entered into a definitive agreement to acquire Triad Life Sciences Inc, a US-focused medical device company that develops biologically-derived innovative products to address unmet clinical needs in surgical wounds, chronic wounds and burns.

These products are highly complementary to ConvaTec’s existing portfolio and will enable the Group to meet a wider range of needs of both patients and health care practitioners.

Triad will bring expertise in this novel and rapidly growing segment, whilst benefitting from ConvaTec’s global commercial, quality & operations, and R&D capabilities.

“Karim Bitar, CEO, ConvaTec Group said:”Today’s announcement marks another successful step in our strategic intent of pivoting to sustainable and profitable growth.

“Triad Life Sciences has innovative and differentiated products and an exciting pipeline which is consistent with our vision – Pioneering trusted medical solutions to improve the lives we touch. We are delighted that Russ and the team have decided to join ConvaTec.”

Russell Olsen, President and CEO, Triad Life Sciences Inc said: “ConvaTec has an impressive reputation and unique capabilities in Advanced Wound Care, based on decades of innovation. We are excited to be joining ConvaTec and look forward to accelerating the growth of our innovative technology platform.”

ConvaTec is a FTSE 250 global medical products and technologies company focused on solutions for the management of chronic conditions, with leading positions in advanced wound care, ostomy care, continence and critical care, and infusion care.

ConvaTec Ostomy Care

Ostomy surgery takes a toll on your mind and body, but you don’t have to go through it alone.

When you enroll in me+™, ConvaTec’s FREE support network, you get all the valuable resources and support you need right at your fingertips.

Post Idea #4: Globus Medical Inc

Related Articles – Summarized

Time of delivery: 2 days ARO. 11b. Expedited delivery: Next day delivery, as requested.

2 11c. Overnight and 2-day delivery: Standard delivery time is 2 days after receipt of order.

11d. Urgent requirements: The schedule customer may contact Globus Medical, Inc. to effect a faster delivery.

Conform to the statements in Globus’ literature, user documentation and specifications for the Products at the time of delivery.

Globus assumes no liability for fault or improper application or use of any Product or improper use thereof in combination with any other products.

Globus Medical, Inc. warrants and implies that new items delivered will be free from defects in material and workmanship for a period of not less than one year from date of delivery.

Globus Medical will credit, replace or repair at its option all parts that are defective within the period with cost of replacement including shipping charges, to be borne by Globus Medical.

Post Idea #5: Diffusion layer

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Typically, the diffusion layer at both the anode and cathode consists of two layers: a backing layer, which is made of carbon cloth or carbon paper, and a microporous layer, which is composed of hydrophobic polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon powder.

The diffusion layers can be divided into two different types: conventional diffusion layer, which is a single layer made of carbon paper or carbon cloth and advance diffusion layer, which consists of two layers: the backing layer made of carbon paper or carbon cloth and a MPL made of fine carbon powder.

In general, diffusion layers are made hydrophobic by treating them with PTFE. The hydrophobic layer facilitates more effective two-phase flow in the anode and cathode.

The preparation procedures of diffusion layers consist of two major steps: wet-proofing the backing layer and coating the MPL onto the backing layer.

The mixture of hydrophobic polymer, carbon powder, and solvent is then coated onto the pretreated backing layer and again sintered at a temperature of about 350 °C to form the MPL. The carbon loading in the MPL is typically around 1-2 mg cm−2 and the hydrophobic polymer loading in the MPL is the same as that in the backing layer.

As a result, the diffusion layer with the backing layer coated by the MPL is formed.

NH2O=υH2OiCell4F+υcross,H2ONCH3OHM+NH2OM. where υH2O is the stoichiometric coefficient of water in the cathode reaction and υcross, H2O is the stoichiometric coefficient of water in the undesired cathode reaction and both are equal to 2.Solved Example 3.2.Determine the analytical solutions for water concentration on the cathode catalyst layer and the oxygen concentration profile in the cathode diffusion layer.

Diffusion Layer [SubsTech]

As Electroplating process proceeds the positively charged ions are formed at the anode surface, transferred to the cathode and deposit on its surface when the negatively charged ions move toward the anode where they discharge.

Such ion transfer process results in formation of thin electrolyte regions adjacent to the electrodes where there are gradients of the ion concentration.

Within the cathodic diffusion layer the metal ion concentration non-linearly decreases toward the cathode surface.

Diffusion of the ions through the layers controls the material transfer and the deposition rate according to the First Fick’s law: Where:J – flux of the ions in x direction;C – ion concentration as a function of x;D – diffusion coefficient of the ions in the electrolyte.

Nernst diffusion layer is a virtual layer, within which the gradient of the ion concentration is constant and equal to the true gradient at the electrode-electrolyte interface.

The thickness of the Nernst diffusion layer may be measured on the graph “Ion concentration vs. distance from the electrode surface”.

According to the definition of the Nernst diffusion layer the concentration gradient may be determined as follows: Where:C0 – bulk concentration;Cc – concentration of the ions at the cathode surface;δc – thickness of the Nernst diffusion layer.

Diffusion Layer

In electrochemistry, the diffusion layer, according to IUPAC, is defined as the “Region in the vicinity of an electrode where the concentrations are different from their value in the bulk solution. The definition of the thickness of the diffusion layer is arbitrary because the concentration approaches asymptotically the value in the bulk solution”.

The diffusion layer thus depends on the diffusion coefficient of the analyte and for voltammetric measurements on the scan rate.

520499878…. At slow scan rates, the diffusion layer is large, on the order of micrometers, whereas at fast scan rates the diffusion layer is nanometers in thickness.

The relationship is described in part by the Cottrell equation.

Relevant to cyclic voltammetry, the diffusion layer has negligible volume compared the volume of the bulk solution.

For this reason, cyclic voltammetry experiments have an inexhaustible supply of fresh analyte.

What Is The Diffusion Layer Thickness? – Theburningofrome.Com

“The definition of the thickness of the diffusion layer is arbitrary because the concentration approaches asymptotically the value in the bulk solution”.

At slow scan rates, the diffusion layer is large, on the order of micrometers, whereas at fast scan rates the diffusion layer is nanometers in thickness.

The linear diffusion layer thickness is given by the value on the abscissa axis at which the linear concentration profile takes the value unity, corresponding to the bulk of the solution.

The real diffusion layer thickness is given by the abscissa of the concentration profile corresponding to a value.

The thickness of the Nernst diffusion layer may be measured on the graph “Ion concentration vs. distance from the electrode surface”.

The diffusion boundary is a very thin layer of fluid at the edge of the fluid where diffusion takes place between two systems.

Typically, the diffusion layer at both the anode and cathode consists of two layers: a backing layer, which is made of carbon cloth or carbon paper, and a microporous layer, which is composed of hydrophobic polymer such as polytetrafluoroethylene and carbon powder.

What Is The Purpose Of A Gas Diffusion Layer?

The Gas Diffusion Layer plays several critical roles in a typical fuel cell application and is often integrated as part of the Membrane Electrode Assembly.

When a GDL is coated with a catalyst it is than referred to as a Gas Diffusion Electrode, which are sometimes sold or installed separately from the Membrane or MEA. Acting as an electrode is the easy part of the GDL/GDE, though.

What Does a Gas Diffusion Layer Consist Of? The GDL is a porous structure made by weaving carbon fibers into a carbon cloth or by pressing carbon fibers together into a carbon paper.

What Exactly Does a Gas Diffusion Layer Do? GDL essentially acts as an electrode that facilitates diffusion of reactants across the catalyst layered membrane.

A Gas Diffusion Layer comparison table of some of the more common GDL materials so you can quickly compare properties and help decide which option might be best for you.

Which Gas Diffusion Layer is right for you will depend on the specifics of how your fuel cell hardware, MEAs, and sealing are all designed.

Gas Diffusion Layers and Gas Diffusion Electrodes that we have in stock!

Definition From Corrosionpedia

A Nernst layer refers to a fictitious scientific area on a concentration profile graph of an electrode.

It represents the hypothetical thickness of the diffusion layer that is present on an electrode immersed in an electrolytic solution.

The Nernst layer may also be known the Nernst diffusion layer.

The Nernst layer is used in scientific theory to describe the diffusion layer of an active electrode.

A double layer is the interface between an electrode or a suspended particle and an electrolyte created by charge-charge interaction leading to an alignment of oppositely charged ions at the surface of the electrode or particle.

It is related to electrical double layers such as the Helmholtz double layer and works on the principle of the Nernst diffusion layer.

Post Idea #6: Cosucra Groupe Warcoing SA

Related Articles – Summarized

Cosucra Groupe Warcoing S.A.

COSUCRA develops and produces natural food ingredients sourced from locally grown chicory and peas.

COSUCRA is not only a supplier but partners with their customers, providing market and technical expertise, extensive clinical research and assistance in regulatory affairs.

Cosucra works in partnership with more than 400 food manufacturers who use their products in more than 1000 references worldwide.

Cosucra Groupe Warcoing SA

Cosucra Groupe Warcoing has been processing natural ingredientssince 1852.

We partner with our customers, providing market expertise, extensive clinical research, and experience in regulatory affairs to help them improve existing products and develop new ones.

Partnerships with more than 400 food manufacturers and more than 1,000 products references worldwide demonstrate that Cosucra works alongside clients from idea to launch and from seed to food.

Our product range is:Fibruline® range – Chicory inulin, Fibrulose® range – Chicory oligofructose, Pisane® range – Pea protein isolate, Swelite® range – Pea fibre, Exafine® range – Pea hull fibre, Nastar® range – Pea native starch.

Cosucra Groupe Warcoing SA

COSUCRA Groupe Warcoing is a Belgian group dedicated to develop, produce and promote Natural Ingredients from chicory and yellow pea.

“Food products need to be adapted to the nutritional needs and concerns of every age group, using the appropriate dosage of health promoting ingredients, and with the right communication for the age group in question”.

Sales ServiceBuilding a partnership with the customer through close contact, involving specialized and highly trained local distributors.

Marketing ServiceProviding claim opportunities concerning general health and well-being, weight control, gut health and bone health, adapted to the different age groups.

Regulatory ServiceSupplying up-to-date regulatory advice on nutrition & health claims, in a global and local perspective.

Nutritional ServiceCoordinating external clinical studies and supplying evidence on nutrition and health benefits of inulin, oligofructose and pea protein isolate.

Pisane® range – pea protein isolate.

Post Idea #7: Sodium hexametaphosphate

Related Articles – Summarized

Properties, Preparation, Applications And Effects

What is the Preparation of Sodium Hexametaphosphate? The compound [(NaPO ) ], which is also popularly named Calgon, has a specific preparation procedure.

The compound [(NaPO ) ] gets used as a dispersing agent in the manufacture of ceramics and enamels.

Although the chemical compound has wide-scale application in various sectors, yet these have some effects on human beings, and plants due to prolonged exposure.

The compound can also cause headache and dizziness when it gets absorbed by a person for short durations.

Prolonged exposure to the compound can result in slower pulse rate, cyanosis and even coma along with acute spasms in the body and wrist.

If anyone comes in close contact with the compound for a larger span, it causes pancreatic cancer.

Kidney problems are also an evident side-effect of the compound on a body.

Structure, Molecular Mass, Properties, Uses Of Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

It is a gathering of sodium polyphosphate polymers based on repeating NaPO3 units.

Sodium hexametaphosphate is a complex phosphate glass produced by a thermal process from soda ash and food-grade phosphoric acid.

Chemical Properties of Sodium Hexametaphosphate -6 When Sodium Hexametaphosphate is added with water normally deposit CaCO3 scale, when made more alkaline or when heated the complex phosphate inhibits precipitation.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate is advantageous where the boiler water naturally tends to become too alkaline because this reduces excess of alkalinity by reversion in the boiler to an acid orthophosphate.

Uses of Sodium Hexametaphosphate -6 Used as a surfactant, emulsifier, suspending agent, dispersing agent and as a buffer.

Used in water treatment, when added in to a municipal or industrial water systems it helps to reduce scale formation, corrosion, biofilm formation in pipes and other equipment.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs.What is sodium hexametaphosphate used for?Is sodium hexametaphosphate safe to consume?Is Sodium Hexametaphosphate covalent or ionic?Is sodium hexametaphosphate a preservative?What is the correct formula of Sodium Hexametaphosphate?

Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Sodium hexametaphosphate is a salt of composition Na6[(PO3)6].

Sodium hexametaphosphate of commerce is typically a mixture of metaphosphates, of which the hexamer is one, and is usually the compound referred to by this name.

Sodium carbonate is sometimes added to SHMP to raise the pH to 8.0-8.6, which produces a number of SHMP products used for water softening and detergents.

A significant use for sodium hexametaphosphate is as a deflocculant in the production of clay-based ceramic particles.

The energy drink NOS contains sodium hexametaphosphate.

SHMP hydrolyzes in aqueous solution, particularly under acidic conditions, to sodium trimetaphosphate and sodium orthophosphate.

In 1963, the German chemists Erich Thilo and Ulrich Schülke succeeded in preparing sodium hexametaphosphate by heating anhydrous sodium trimetaphosphate.

What Is Sodium Hexametaphosphate In Food: Uses, Safety, Side Effects

Founder of FoodAdditives.net: major in pharmaceutical in university and have been selling food additives since 2012.

I would like to help readers expand their knowledge of ingredients in their food.

Is Sodium Hexametaphosphate Bad For You?

Frequently consuming sodium hexametaphosphate can result in a wide range of unwanted side effects including an increased risk for pancreatic cancer.

Sodium hexametaphosphate is primarily used as an emulsifier / texturizer in many foods and as an anti-staining agent in toothpaste.

The FDA recognizes this ingredient as “Generally safe”, yet warns you that excessive consumption should be avoided due to possible side effects.

When you hear hexametaphosphate, you may be thinking phosphorus? This ingredient does contain phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for many reasons; improved digestion, bone formation, cellular repair, etc.

The problem here is if you ingest sodium hexametaphosphate without the proper balance of other minerals in your body, it can negatively impact your bones, kidneys, and heart.

Short-term side effects of sodium hexametaphosphate include headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and gastrointestinal irritation.

If you are only consuming sodium hexametaphosphate every once in a while, don’t worry – you will be fine.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate Uses In Various Fields

In metal processing, it is used as a metal surface treatment agent and wetting agent, and there are many other sodium hexametaphosphate uses.

The principle of using sodium hexametaphosphate to soften hard water is that the calcium ion Ca++ or magnesium ion Mg++ that causes the hardness in the water enters the sodium hexametaphosphate molecule and becomes a very stable soluble condensate(Na2 (Ca2(P03)6) and Na26.

Sodium alginate slurry is the most suitable slurry for reactive dyes, but care should be taken to prevent sodium alginate from penetrating into hard water calcium during manufacture to form calcium alginate.

3.As a scouring aid, when the nylon strand is scouring with soap and soda before dyeing, sodium hexametaphosphate is added to prevent the soap from consuming hard water and improve the scouring effect.

In the circulating water, due to the addition of sodium hexametaphosphate to reduce the hardness, it is not easy to produce calcium carbonate deposits and avoid blocking the water pipe.

Sodium hexametaphosphate can also be used to treat hard water in the furnace, which can not only avoid the generation of scale, but also re-dissolve the generated scale, but the price is higher than that of trisodium phosphate.

First of all, sodium hexametaphosphate can reduce oleic acid non-selectively and forms stable complexes with polyvalent metal ions on the mineral surface when sodium hexametaphosphate inhibits albite, porosine, nepheline, pyrochlore and hallucinite by flotation.

Final Report On The Safety Assessment Of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, And Sodium Hexametaphosphate

Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor.

Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used.

Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units.

Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys.

Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating.

No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate.

Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for example, low concentration in a leave-on product or dilution of a higher concentration as part of product usage.

Post Idea #8: Prayon S.A.

Related Articles – Summarized


With more than 130 years experience, Prayon is a worldwide leader in phosphorous chemistry.

Headquartered in Belgium, the Prayon Group operates production sites in Belgium, France and the United States.

Our Group manufactures an extensive range of phosphate and fluorine products used in food and industrial applications, fertilizers, construction, pharmaceuticals and much more.

Our world-renowned equipment, allied with innovative and robust technologies, offer the best solutions to phosphate producers.

Developing more efficient processes, protecting resources and fostering circular economy are all part of our commitment to build a more sustainable future.

Prayon S.A.

Prayon is a fully integrated global phosphate producer headquartered in Belgium, with manufacturing operations in Belgium, France and the United States.

Jointly owned by OCP and SRIW, Prayon manufactures and markets an extensive range of purified phosphoric acids, phosphate salts and fluorine products that are used in food, fertilisers and a range of industrial applications.

Prayon Technologies

Prayon Technologies Prt Our diversity in processes gives solutions for a wide range of products.

Thanks to our variety of processes, we can place at your disposal a wide range of technologies to produce different types of phosphoric acid, feed phosphates and fertilizer phosphates to suit your specific applications.

Technophos : testing your solutions & training your talents.

Added value to your products thanks to our services.

PRT provides a wide range of services related to phosphoric acid and DCP production, enhancing both skills of operators and global process control.

Company, Directors And Contact Details

Prayon S.a is a foreign company incorporated on 02 November 2007.

Previous CINS. Login to view previous cins.

Industry classification is derived from National Industrial Classification.

If the company has changed line of business without intimating the Registrar or is a diversified business, classification may be different.

We are adding and updating information about hundreds of thousands of companies every day, and periodically add companies to the queue for being updated.

You can ask for a company to be added to the front of the queue for updating, especially useful if the address, directors, or other critical information has changed.

Just click on the ‘Update Information’ button below to start the process.

Post Idea #9: Laparoscopy

Related Articles – Summarized


Laparoscopic surgery, also called minimally invasive surgery, bandaid surgery, or keyhole surgery, is a modern surgical technique.

Laparoscopic surgery includes operations within the abdominal or pelvic cavities, whereas keyhole surgery performed on the thoracic or chest cavity is called thoracoscopic surgery.

Due to improved patient outcomes, in the last two decades, laparoscopic surgery has been adopted by various surgical sub-specialties, including gastrointestinal surgery, gynecologic surgery, and urology.

For these reasons, minimally invasive surgery has emerged as a highly competitive new sub-specialty within various fields of surgery.

Surgical residents who wish to focus on this area of surgery gain additional laparoscopic surgery training during one or two years of fellowship after completing their basic surgical residency.

There are a number of advantages to the patient with laparoscopic surgery versus an open procedure.

Efficacy of laparoscopy is inferior to open surgery in certain conditions such as pyloromyotomy for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.

Laparoscopy: Procedure Details, Safety & Recovery

Procedure Details How do I prepare for a laparoscopy?

Your healthcare provider might need to do a few tests and gather some medical information about your health before your laparoscopy.

In most cases, you can leave the hospital about four hours after laparoscopy.

You’ll be asked to return to your healthcare provider’s office for follow-up appointments within two to eight weeks of your laparoscopy.

Just like with many surgeries, you might experience some discomfort after a laparoscopy.

It’s normal to experience vaginal bleeding up to one month after laparoscopy.

Wait two to three menstrual cycles before determining if laparoscopy has helped to relieve your condition.

Laparoscopy: MedlinePlus Medical Test

A laparoscopy is a type of surgery that checks for problems in the abdomen or a woman’s reproductive system.

Laparoscopic surgery uses a thin tube called a laparoscope.

An incision is a small a cut made through the skin during surgery.

Laparoscopic surgery can remove some types of cancer.

Laparoscopic surgery is usually done in a hospital or outpatient clinic.

If you will be getting general anesthesia, you may need to fast for six or more hours before your surgery.

Your abdomen may feel a little sore after the surgery.


Laparoscopy is a procedure a doctor uses to look inside the abdomen and pelvis.

Laparoscopy can be used to treat small gynecologic cancers as well as cancers of the colon or kidney.

Your experience might be a little different, depending on why you’re having the test, where you’re having the test done, and your overall health.

Laparoscopy may be an outpatient or inpatient procedure depending on what is being done.

The laparoscope, cutting tool, and most of the gas will then be removed and the small cuts will be closed.

If biopsies were done as part of the procedure, the results will typically be ready within a few days, although some tests on the biopsy samples might take longer.

Needing to have a laparotomy, where the abdomen is opened with a larger cut, because the procedure could not be done with the smaller cuts used by laparoscopy.

Laparoscopy: Purpose, Preparation, Procedure, And Recovery

Laparoscopy allows your doctor to see inside your body in real time, without open surgery.

The most common risks associated with laparoscopy are bleeding, infection, and damage to organs in your abdomen.

Performing laparoscopy in the presence of adhesions will take much longer and increases the risk of injuring organs.

Your doctor may change the dose of any medications that could affect the outcome of laparoscopy.

These tests can help your doctor better understand the abnormality being examined during laparoscopy.

Laparoscopy is usually done as an outpatient procedure.

You’ll need to attend a follow-up appointment with your doctor about two weeks after laparoscopy.

Laparoscopic Surgery: Purpose, Procedure, And Benefits

Laparoscopy is a type of surgery that uses smaller cuts than you might expect.

Have you heard people talk about “Minimally invasive” surgery? Laparoscopic surgery is one kind.

In laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon makes several small cuts.

The cut in the skin has to be longer than a half-inch, but it still can be smaller than in traditional surgery.

This has made it possible to use laparoscopic surgery for the liver and other organs.

In the robotic version of laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon first cuts into the skin and inserts the camera, as usual.

A lot of surgeons think robotic surgery is especially helpful for operating on people who weigh a lot, and for gynecology and urology surgery.

Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic or “Minimally invasive” surgery is a specialized technique for performing surgery.

In the past, this technique was commonly used for gynecologic surgery and for gall bladder surgery.

The incision required for the hand port is larger than the other laparoscopic incisions, but is usually smaller than the incision required for traditional surgery.

Compared to traditional open surgery, patients often experience less pain, a shorter recovery, and less scarring with laparoscopic surgery.

Laparoscopic surgery is as safe as traditional open surgery.

The surgeon initially inspects the abdomen to determine whether laparoscopic surgery may be safely performed.

Board-certified colon and rectal surgeons complete residencies in general surgery and colon and rectal surgery, and pass intensive examinations conducted by the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery.

Post Idea #10: Ethicon Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

Company History

Ethicon, Inc. is the subsidiary of the giant healthcare products firm Johnson & Johnson Co. that principally develops, manufactures, and markets sutures, ligatures, staplers, and other wound-closing products.

The company was founded in 1921 as Johnson Suture Corp. The line of sutures called Ethicon grew out of this subsidiary.

With the advent of World War II, Johnson and other suture makers were asked to produce scores of millions more sutures than they had ever done before.

In collaboration with High Voltage Engineering Corp. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Ethicon conducted research on sterilizing its sutures, and it purchased a linear electron accelerator for its own research in 1953.

Ethicon’s products in 1986 for precise wound closures included mechanical instruments as well as sutures and ligatures.

Ethicon’s suture products included natural and synthetic and absorbable and nonabsorbable sutures for use by the various surgical specialties.

Ethicon continued to lead the wound-closure sutures market in 1995, accounting for an estimated 75 percent of the U.S. market.

Products, History, Mesh Recall And Lawsuits

Some of Ethicon’s popular mesh products have caused patient injuries.

Ethicon pulled its popular Physiomesh Flexible Composite Hernia Mesh from the market worldwide in 2016.

Ethicon is involved in lawsuits over several of its products.

At one time, Ethicon faced more than 40,000 transvaginal mesh lawsuits over its Prolift transvaginal mesh device and Gynecare TVT-Obturator bladder sling complications.

Cases continue to be filed, but they remain outside the MDL. Ethicon still faces 14,900 pelvic mesh lawsuits, according to the 2020 annual report.

Ethicon agreed to pay $117 million to 41 states and the District of Columbia to settle claims for deceptive marketing of its pelvic mesh products in October 2019.

Ethicon faces thousands of hernia mesh lawsuits related to its Physiomesh Flexible Composite, Proceed and Prolene hernia meshes.

Ethicon Product Center

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Ethicon, Inc. is a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson.

Ethicon has manufactured surgical sutures and wound closure devices since 1887.

On June 13, 2016, Health Canada issued a recall of Ethicon’s Physiomesh Flexible Composite Mesh Product used for ventral hernia repair.

Ethicon’s Gynecare Prolift, was introduced in March 2005, bypassing FDA review.

Three years later, when Ethicon tried to obtain clearance for its Prolift +M, the FDA was alerted to the fact that Prolift had been on the market.

Ethicon’s parent company Johnson & Johnson utilized the FDA’s 510(k) clearance method, which allows a product to be sold without official FDA approval if it is based on another already approved product.

The FDA decided to order Ethicon and other transvaginal mesh manufacturers to cease production until extensive testing and research on each of vaginal mesh device was conducted.

04.31 K212380 – Marife Sevek Page 2 requirements, including, but not limited to: registration and listing; labeling; medical device reporting for devices or postmarketing safety reporting for combination products; good manufacturing practice requirements as set forth in the quality systems regulation for devices or current good manufacturing practices for combination products; and, if applicable, the electronic product radiation control provisions; 21 CFR 1000-1050.

For comprehensive regulatory information about medical devices and radiation-emitting products, including information about labeling regulations, please see Device Advice and CDRH Learn.

Summary of Technological Characteristics and Performance: The subject device has the same technological characteristics as the predicate device.

Like the currently marketed predicate device, PDS™ Plus Antibacterial Suture, the subject device will continue to be available as a suture product with Irgacare®‡ MP, an antibacterial agent.

Substantial Equivalence: The subject device is identical to the predicate device in terms of material, construction, specification, manufacturing, and sterilization process.

The subject device and currently marketed device differ only in the labeling.

The subject device is substantially equivalent to the predicate device.

Post Idea #11: Ethicon Endo-Surgery

Related Articles – Summarized

You must comply with all the Act’s requirements, including, but not limited to: registration and listing; labeling; medical device reporting for devices or postmarketing safety reporting for combination products; good manufacturing practice requirements as set forth in the quality systems regulation for devices or current good manufacturing practices for combination products; and, if applicable, the electronic product radiation control provisions; 21 CFR 1000-1050.

Page 1 of 4 K211273 Device Description HARMONIC® Blue Hand Piece The HARMONIC® Blue Hand Piece is designed to convert electrical energy from a compatible Ethicon Generator to mechanical motion for the instrument blade.

HARMONIC® Gray Hand Piece The HARMONIC® Gray Hand Piece is designed to convert electrical energy from a compatible Ethicon Generator to mechanical motion for the instrument blades.

Page 2 of 4 K211273 Indications for Use for new devices The HARMONIC® Blue Hand Piece, when used in conjunction with the HARMONIC® Instruments, is indicated for soft tissue incisions when bleeding control and minimal thermal injury are desired.

Comparison of technological characteristics with the predicate device At a high level, the new and predicate devices are based on the following same technological elements: Characteristic New Devices Indications for Use Contraindications Non-Sterile, Single Patient Use Bio-Compatibility of Materials: All tissue-contacting materials comply with ISO 10993-1.

Packaging Method Identical Identical Yes Yes Legally marketed Predicate Devices K063192, K002906 Identical Identical Identical Yes Identical Identical Device Operation Identical Identical The following technological differences exist between the new and predicate devices: The new Hand Pieces have a standard connector interface to GEN11 generators.

The cable components have been modified to improve hand activation durability There is a new protective end cap, used in packaging, for the Gray Hand Piece.

Buy J&J Ethicon Endo-Surgery Products Online-Smart Medical Buyers

Ethicon Endo-Surgery is a division of Johnson & Johnson Medical that markets advanced medical devices for conventional open surgeries and minimally invasive surgical procedures.

Focus specialties include bariatric, surgical oncology, gynaecology, thoracic surgery, hepato – biliary surgery, hernia repair, general surgery and colorectal surgery.

The EES product portfolio includes endo surgery generators & accessories, laparoscopic hand instruments, staplers, trocars, cutters, harmonic scalpel, shears, ligating clips & appliers, irrigation cannula, tissue sealers and insufflations needles.

Complete Range of Ethicon Endo – Surgery products available online in India on Smart Medical Buyer All the leading brands of EES are available on Smart Medical Buyer including: – Endopath endoscopic instruments are laparoscopic hand instruments which can be used for a range of minimally invasive surgical procedures.

Buy All Brands of Ethicon – Endo Surgery Online on Smart Medical Buyer at Attractive Prices As a hospital, nursing home or individual medical practitioner you can buy EES products online in small and large quantities on Smart Medical Buyer.

You can order these products on the Smart Medical Buyer iOS and Android apps as well.

We have a direct tie up with Ethicon Endo – Surgery and serve as an authorized online seller for them.

Ethicon Sued Over Allegedly Defective Surgical Stapler

The case was filed by a patient against Ethicon Endo-Surgery Inc, and regards product liability for surgical staples and stapler produced by Ethicon which allegedly failed during the plaintiff’s surgery.

The plaintiff was suffering from diverticulitis with colonic obstruction and a decision was made with the plaintiff’s surgeon to attempt a robotic-assisted laproscopic sigmoid colectomy surgery to remove the affected portion of the intestine and reattach the unaffected portions to return the patient to a normal condition.

The complaint explained that, due to the patient’s anatomy and degree of swelling from the diverticulitis, the surgeon used a more extensive procedure and the stapler was used aggressively to remove the affected intestine.

The complaint countered that in the post surgical period, the plaintiff was discovered to have massive distension and infection.

Examination of the staples and device used revealed a possible device defect which plaintiff claims resulted in the failure.

The plaintiff is suing for defective product and failure to warn under the Washington State Product Liability act.

The plaintiff is represented by Diamond-Massong and Martin Baughman, PLLC..

Post Idea #12: Network interface controller

Related Articles – Summarized

Network Interface Controller

Network interface cardAs mentioned above, advanced NIC features such as TCP offloads and SR-IOV can interfere with the ability to provide VXLAN or NVGRE tunneling in the hypervisor.

An alternative solution would be to add encapsulation and de-encapsulation resources after the TCP/IP offload functions in the NIC. In addition, if the frame encapsulation and de-encapsulation resources are after the SR-IOV block, frames could be tunneled before reaching the network.

Few NICs offer this feature, so any data flows that bypass the hypervisor by using SR-IOV must be passed on to the top of rack switch before tunneling into the network.

Proposed a coherent NIC interface , which was followed by an implementation on the front-side bus architecture by Schlansker et al.

This allows the hypervisor to configure and manage the SR-IOV NIC including the association of VMs with VFs. SR-IOV capable NICs from different vendors can support different numbers of VFs, so the hypervisor must read this information from the PF configuration space before assigning VMs to VFs. You can think of SR-IOV as a hardware offload of the vSwitch network connections that are implemented in the NIC to reduce CPU utilization and improve performance.

When using SR-IOV, traffic between two VMs within the same server must pass through the NIC PCIe interface before returning back from the NIC. With today’s servers connected to a 10GbE NIC, the PCIe bandwidth is limited to around 14Gbps while a vSwitch can maintain transfer rates up to 30Gbps because it is simply passing memory pointers.

In Ethernet-based fabrics, a NIC is used as a fabric interface.

Network Interface Controller

A network interface controller is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer network.

Modern network interface controllers offer advanced features such as interrupt and DMA interfaces to the host processors, support for multiple receive and transmit queues, partitioning into multiple logical interfaces, and on-controller network traffic processing such as the TCP offload engine.

The network controller implements the electronic circuitry required to communicate using a specific physical layer and data link layer standard such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. This provides a base for a full network protocol stack, allowing communication among computers on the same local area network and large-scale network communications through routable protocols, such as Internet Protocol.

The low cost and ubiquity of the Ethernet standard means that most new computers have a network interface controller built into the motherboard.

A separate network card is typically no longer required unless additional independent network connections are needed or some non-Ethernet type of network is used.

An Ethernet network controller typically has an 8P8C socket where the network cable is connected.

LEDs adjacent to or integrated into the network connector inform the user of whether the network is connected, and when data activity occurs.

What Is Network Interface Card?

A network interface card is a hardware component without which a computer cannot be connected over a network.

It is a circuit board installed in a computer that provides a dedicated network connection to the computer.

It is also called network interface controller, network adapter or LAN adapter.

In internal networks cards, motherboard has a slot for the network card where it can be inserted.

It requires network cables to provide network access.

External network cards are of two types: Wireless and USB based.

Wireless network card needs to be inserted into the motherboard, however no network cable is required to connect to the network.

Create, Change, Or Delete An Azure Network Interface

This article explains how to create a network interface with custom settings, change existing settings, such as network filter assignment, subnet assignment, DNS server settings, and IP forwarding, and delete a network interface.

If you’d rather specify all your network interface settings, you can create a network interface with custom settings and attach the network interface to a virtual machine when creating the virtual machine.

The portal doesn’t provide the option to assign a public IP address to the network interface when you create it, though the portal does create a public IP address and assign it to a network interface when you create a virtual machine using the portal.

If you want to create a network interface with a public IP address, you must use the CLI or PowerShell to create the network interface.

The network interface can inherit the setting from the virtual network the network interface is assigned to, or have a custom setting that overrides the setting for the virtual network it’s assigned to.

You can only add a network interface to, or remove a network interface from an application security group using the portal if the network interface is attached to a virtual machine.

You can use PowerShell or the Azure CLI to add a network interface to, or remove a network interface from an application security group, whether the network interface is attached to a virtual machine or not.

Post Idea #13: Marvell Technology, Inc.

Related Articles – Summarized

Essential Technology, Done Right

AUTOMOTIVE. Driving a Safer Future Modern vehicles are becoming mobile data centers.

Advanced emerging features such as collision detection, lane departure warnings, and autonomous driving require massive amounts of secure data processing, networking and storage.

Working closely with leading automotive manufacturers and technology partners, Marvell is delivering automotive chipset innovations for a safer future.

Marvell Technology, Inc.

Marvell Technology, Inc. is an American company, based in Delaware, which develops and produces semiconductors and related technology.

In July 2016, Marvell appointed Matt Murphy as its new President and CEO. On July 6, 2018, Marvell completed its acquisition of Cavium, Inc. On the same day, it announced the appointment of Syed Ali, Brad Buss and Edward Frank to the Marvell Board of Directors.

In September 2019, Marvell completed the acquisition of Aquantia Corp. In April 2021, Marvell completed the acquisition of Inphi Corporation.

Following Marvell’s 2019 acquisition of Avera Semiconductor, Marvell offers custom ASIC tailored to clients’ specific design goals.

At the time of the announcement, the co-acting regional director of the SEC’s San Francisco office stated, among other things, that the SEC did not believe that the lack of cooperation and remediation shown by Marvell merited much credit in terms being lenient with Marvell.

In December 2012, a Pittsburgh jury ruled that Marvell had infringed two patents by incorporating hard disk technology developed and owned by Carnegie Mellon University without a license.

On February 17, 2016, Marvell agreed to a settlement in which Marvell will pay Carnegie Mellon University $750,000,000.

Marvell Technology, Inc. Reports Fourth Quarter And Fiscal Year 2022 Financial Results

PRNewswire/ – Marvell Technology, Inc., a leader in infrastructure semiconductor solutions, today reported financial results for the fourth fiscal quarter and the full fiscal year, ended January 29, 2022.

Non-GAAP net income for the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022 was $429 million.

“Marvell delivered record revenue of $1.34 billion. in the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, growing 11 percent sequentially and 68 percent year over year, exceeding the midpoint of guidance. The Marvell team continued to rack up design wins, securing additional sockets at key customers leveraging our advanced technology platforms,” said Matt Murphy.

For the fourth quarter of fiscal 2022, a non-GAAP tax rate of 5.0% has been applied to the non-GAAP financial results.

Marvell believes that the presentation of non-GAAP financial measures provides important supplemental information to management and investors regarding financial and business trends relating to Marvell’s financial condition and results of operations.

While Marvell uses non-GAAP financial measures as a tool to enhance its understanding of certain aspects of its financial performance, Marvell does not consider these measures to be a substitute for, or superior to, financial measures calculated in accordance with GAAP. Consistent with this approach, Marvell believes that disclosing non-GAAP financial measures to the readers of its financial statements provides such readers with useful supplemental data that, while not a substitute for GAAP financial measures, allows for greater transparency in the review of its financial and operational performance.

Non-GAAP financial measures have limitations in that they do not reflect all of the costs associated with the operations of Marvell’s business as determined in accordance with GAAP. As a result, you should not consider these measures in isolation or as a substitute for analysis of Marvell’s results as reported under GAAP. The exclusion of the above items from our GAAP financial metrics does not necessarily mean that these costs are unusual or infrequent.

What’S Going On With Marvell Technology Shares Today?

Marvell Technology Inc is trading relatively flat Friday despite reporting better-than-expected financial results.

Marvell said fourth-quarter revenue increased 68% year-over-year to $1.343 billion, which beat the $1.32 billion estimate.

“Revenue grew in all five of our end markets in the fourth quarter, with strong contributions from cloud, 5G and auto, which together represented 40% of total revenue,” said Matt Murphy, president and CEO of Marvell.

Marvell expects first-quarter revenue of $1.425 billion +/- 3% versus the $1.38 billion estimate.

The company expects adjusted quarterly earnings to be between 48 cents and 54 cents per share versus the 50 cent estimate.

Following Marvell’s financial results, multiple analysts adjusted price targets on the stock, ranging from $70 to $125. Marvell is a leading fabless chipmaker focused on networking and storage applications.

MRVL Price Action: Marvell has traded between $37.92 and $93.85 over a 52-week period.

Post Idea #14: Electroencephalography

Related Articles – Summarized

Mayo Clinic

An EEG is one of the main diagnostic tests for epilepsy.

How you prepareFood and medicationsAvoid anything with caffeine on the day of the test because it can affect the test results.

If you’re supposed to sleep during your EEG test, your doctor might ask you to sleep less or avoid sleep the night before your test.

Testing for certain conditions require you to sleep during the test.

Video is routinely recorded during the EEG. Your body motions are captured by a video camera while the EEG records your brain waves.

Doctors trained to analyze EEGs interpret the recording and send the results to the doctor who ordered the EEG. Your doctor might schedule an office appointment to discuss the results of the test.

Explore Mayo Clinic studies of tests and procedures to help prevent, detect, treat or manage conditions.

Johns Hopkins Medicine

An EEG is a test that detects abnormalities in your brain waves, or in the electrical activity of your brain.

Ask your healthcare provider to tell you what you should do before your test.

Follow any directions your healthcare provider gives you about reducing your sleep the night before the test.

Some EEG tests require that you sleep through the procedure, and some do not.

If the EEG is to be done during sleep, adults may not be allowed to sleep more than 4 or 5 hours the night before the test.

After your healthcare provider does the initial recording while you are at rest, he or she may test you with various stimuli to produce brain wave activity that does not show up while you are resting.

Your healthcare provider will inform you when you may resume any medicines you stopped taking before the test.


An aEEG stands for amplitude integrated electroencephalography and can detect any electrical brain activity just like an EEG monitor.

Recording these voltages over time gives us the EEG. The electric potential generated by an individual neuron is far too small to be picked up by EEG or MEG. EEG activity therefore always reflects the summation of the synchronous activity of thousands or millions of neurons that have similar spatial orientation.

Computational processing of the EEG is often named quantitative electroencephalography.

The prenatal EEG and neonatal EEG is quite different from the adult EEG. Fetuses in the third trimester and newborns display two common brain activity patterns: “Discontinuous” and “Trace alternant.” “Discontinuous” electrical activity refers to sharp bursts of electrical activity followed by low frequency waves.

The EEG in childhood generally has slower frequency oscillations than the adult EEG. The normal EEG also varies depending on state.

The EEG in REM sleep appears somewhat similar to the awake EEG. EEG under general anesthesia depends on the type of anesthetic employed.

Wearable EEG aims to provide small EEG devices which are present only on the head and which can record EEG for days, weeks, or months at a time, as ear-EEG. Such prolonged and easy-to-use monitoring could make a step change in the diagnosis of chronic conditions such as epilepsy, and greatly improve the end-user acceptance of BCI systems.


ECoG recordings are usually obtained only over a very limited portion of the cortex, areas which vary widely across individuals, partly guided by EEG recordings of epileptic activity using electrodes placed on the scalp prior to surgery.

Although the EEG has been used by some as a screening procedure for patients requiring further investigation, the EEG is less sensitive than cranial CT scanning or MRI and-given the implications of delay in the diagnosis of an intracranial mass lesion-it is hard to justify its use in place of imaging studies when these modalities are readily available and intracranial pathology is suspected clinically.

Quantitative electroencephalography refers to digital analysis and measurements made on the routine EEG signals.

Topographic scalp maps or three-dimensional brain maps can display EEG features, a process often labeled EEG brain maps.

Epileptiform activity is absent in the first EEG in approximately half of affected individuals and the interictal EEG remains normal in about 10%. Prolonged EEG recordings increase the odds of finding epileptiform activity and also provide the opportunity to capture ictal discharges for more definitive diagnosis and classification.

The activity is recorded with scalp electrodes placed equidistantly on the head. A normal EEG recording is characterized by well-defined rhythms that have specific frequencies.

The person generally credited with the first application of EEG to human subjects is Hans Berger, a German neuropsychiatrist, who began recording EEG from people in 1924.

EEG used to be a first-line method for the diagnosis of tumors, stroke and other focal brain disorders, but this use has decreased with the advent of anatomical imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. Derivatives of the EEG technique include evoked potentials, which involves averaging the EEG activity time-locked to the presentation of a stimulus of some sort.

Electroencephalography The electric potentials generated by single neurons are far too small to be picked by EEG or MEG. EEG activity therefore always reflects the summation of the synchronous activity of thousands or millions of neurons that have similar spatial orientation.

There are technical difficulties associated with combining these two modalities, including the need to remove the MRI gradient artifact present during MRI acquisition and the ballistocardiographic artifact from the EEG. Furthermore, currents can be induced in moving EEG electrode wires due to the magnetic field of the MRI. EEG can be recorded at the same time as MEG so that data from these complementary high-time-resolution techniques can be combined.

The neonatal EEG is quite different from the adult EEG. The EEG in childhood generally has slower frequency oscillations than the adult EEG. The normal EEG also varies depending on state.

The EEG in REM sleep appears somewhat similar to the awake EEG. EEG under general anesthesia depends on the type of anesthetic employed.

In the 1950s, William Grey Walter developed an adjunct to EEG called EEG topography, which allowed for the mapping of electrical activity across the surface of the brain.

Games Recently a few companies have scaled back medical grade EEG technology to create inexpensive devices based on EEG. Two of these companies, NeuroSky and OCZ, have even built commercial EEG devices retailing for under 100$. In 2007 NeuroSky released the first affordable consumer based EEG along with the game NeuroBoy.

Definition Of Electroencephalography By Medical Dictionary

An EEG may also be used to monitor brain activity during surgery and to determine brain death.

Brain wave patterns in patients with brain disease, mental retardation, and brain injury show overall slowing.

A trained medical specialist should interpret EEG results in the context of the patient’s medical history, and other pertinent medical test results.

Ictal EEG – Used to measure brain activity during a seizure.

Electroencephalography the recording of changes in electric potentials in various areas of the brain by means of electrodes placed on the scalp, on the brain surface, or within the brain itself, and connected to a vacuum tube radio amplifier, which amplifies the impulses more than a million times.

Electroencephalography is widely used in studying brain function and in tracing the connections between the parts of the central nervous system.

The electroencephalograph is affected by sleep, HYPERVENTILATION, drugs, concussion, brain injury, brain tumours, bleeding within the brain, brain inflammation, EPILEPSY and various psychiatric conditions.

Electroencephalography: An Introductory Text And Atlas Of Normal And Abnormal Findings In Adults, Children, And Infants

The two main types of slowing are focal and generalized slowing.

As previously discussed, generalized background slowing in the theta and delta frequency ranges is a normal finding on EEG when it represents developmental slowing in children, adolescents, and some young adults or the evolution of drowsiness and sleep activity.

Focal slow wave activity on the EEG is indicative of focal cerebral pathology of the underlying brain region.

Slowing may be intermittent or persistent, with more persistent or consistently slower activity generally indicating more severe underlying focal cerebral dysfunction.

Focal brain lesions of a variety of causes to cortex, underlying white matter, or both may induce focal slowing.

Note the focal delta frequency slowing in the right temporal region as compared with the homologous normal right temporal region.

Generalized background slowing indicates diffuse cerebral dysfunction, which, similar to focal slowing, is also not specific as to cause.

Post Idea #15: Nihon Kohden

Related Articles – Summarized

Post Idea #16: Charge controller

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ScienceDirect Topics

While charging the battery with the solar PV array, the battery voltage increases and the charge controller ensures that the solar array output voltage is higher than the battery voltage.

A solar PV module known as a 12 V nominal voltage is suitably designed to give an output of around 18 V, which can charge the battery to 14.4 V. As may be understood, if the solar PV module and battery are of the same voltage, then charging the battery by a solar PV module would not be possible.

In a similar manner, if it is intended to charge a 24 V battery bank by a single solar PV module, one would not be able to charge the battery and will end up in discharging the battery.

In the second stage, after the battery is fully charged, it will lower the voltage from the solar array to trickle charge the battery, so that the battery is kept charged at a 100% charge level.

If the charge trickles out of the battery bank by various means outside of normal battery usage, the charge controllers send in small tickles of charge into the battery as maintenance charging.

14A. The most common control scheme is PWM. The power to the battery is switched on and off at a constant frequency, with the duty ratio varied, to control either the mean current to the battery or the charging voltage of the battery.

A battery charge controller regulates the flow of electricity from the PV generator to the battery.

The 7 Best Solar Charge Controllers

Because it is an especially versatile controller with lots of safety features, the Top One Power MPPT Solar Charge Controller is arguably the best MPPT solar charge controller reviewed here.

This makes the Renogy Rover MPPT Common Positive Solar Charge Controller one of the best solar controllers you can buy.

It shows battery voltage, the current from the solar array, and the status of the external load. The OOYCYOO Solar Charge Controller can handle a 720W solar panel array in a 12V system or a 1440W array in a 24V system, which is more than the similarly priced EPever 3210AN. However, unlike the EPever 3210AN, this charge controller is not compatible with lithium-ion batteries.

MPPT solar charge controllers ensure that the batteries receive more of the potential power from your solar array and charge rapidly.

The smallest charge controllers can only handle a current of 8A and a voltage of 12V. The best-designed MPPT charge controllers can handle a current as high as 80A and a voltage up to 150V. Before you purchase a charge controller, you must know what range of current and voltage you need your system to handle so you can select an appropriate model.

The majority of PWM solar charge controllers can only be connected to lead-acid batteries, but most MPPT solar charge controllers can be connected to both lead-acid solar batteries and lithium-ion solar batteries.

Some charge controllers can only be connected to a 12V battery while a few may charge any battery up to a maximum of 60V. Temperature Control of Solar Charge Controller.

What Is A Charge Controller? SOLAR POWER SECRETS

The charge controller is a device preventing solar batteries from overcharging and over-discharging.

A charge controller controls the charge by managing properly the battery voltage and current.

MPPT charge controllers are more expensive but they can boost the performance of the solar array.

PWM charge controllers are less expensive but they can extend the battery bank’s lifecycle at the expense of solar panels performing lower than in case of MPPT controller.

What kind of charge controller to choose depends on the specific case and is a trade-off between getting more power from solar panels and extending battery life.

Which type of charge controller is recommended for a given solar system type.

You can discover more about charge controllers in our Definitive guide to solar charge controllers.

Solar Systems Charge Controllers

Charge controllers are the gizmo that goes between the solar array and the batteries and are sized to the systems they protect by the short circuit array current and watts matched to the battery voltage.

Note; Solar charge controllers are rated and sized by the solar panel array current and system voltage.

If you have a larger system with muliple strings you are considering, you should look at our Off-Grid Living page for some preconfigured systems that include the right sized charge controller or consult the charge controllers manufactures string calculator.

MidNite’s Classic series of Maximum Power Point Tracking charge controllers are the most powerful, full featured controllers on the market as well as being the only ETL listed controllers designed to work with Solar, Wind, and Micro Hydro Electric systems.

Most MPPT charge controllers work with higher array voltages, which can greatly reduce the required wire size between the array and the charge controller.

On a cold clear morning if your solar panel or string of panels Voc exceeds the controller’s limit, the charge controller will protect itself by refusing to turn on.

MPPT controllers are more effective that PWM controllers and save considerable money on larger systems since they provide 16% to 30% more power to the battery.

6 Best Solar Charge Controllers

Every solar-powered system requires regulation to prevent battery damage, which is why we’ve collected a list of the very best solar charge controllers for a variety of uses.

From eco-conscious homeowners to self-taught underground bunker builders, anyone using a solar panel larger than small trickle systems needs some sort of battery regulation, which is where solar charge controllers come in.

Most solar charge controllers require quite a hefty upfront investment, sometimes in excess of $600. The price of the controller, combined with the price of the panels and batteries, means solar system users may be intimidated by the wide range of models available on the market.

The best solar charge controllers are those with a higher max input voltage, so users can scale their systems depending on their use and interests.

In the simplest of terms, a solar charge controller regulates the power that is transferring from a solar panel to a battery.

Based on our established criteria of controller type, battery bank voltage, max input voltage, max current output and extra features, we’ve selected the best 6 solar charge controllers for you to choose from.

One of the best features included in the Midnite Solar Classic controller is the ability to remotely access the power system via the Midnite Solar Local Application.

Charge Controller

A charge controller, charge regulator or battery regulator limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries to protect against electrical overload, overcharging, and may protect against overvoltage.

In solar applications, charge controllers may also be called solar regulators or solar charge controllers.

A series charge controller or series regulator disables further current flow into batteries when they are full.

A shunt charge controller or shunt regulator diverts excess electricity to an auxiliary or “Shunt” load, such as an electric water heater, when batteries are full.

A charge controller with MPPT capability frees the system designer from closely matching available PV voltage to battery voltage.

By way of example, a 150 volt PV array connected to an MPPT charge controller can be used to charge a 24 or 48 volt battery.

Circuitry that functions as a charge regulator controller may consist of several electrical components, or may be encapsulated in a single microchip, an integrated circuit usually called a charge controller IC or charge control IC. Charge controller circuits are used for rechargeable electronic devices such as cell phones, laptop computers, portable audio players, and uninterruptible power supplies, as well as for larger battery systems found in electric vehicles and orbiting space satellites.

Post Idea #17: Surgical suture

Related Articles – Summarized

The Surgical Suture

Surgeons must select the optimal suture materials for tissue approximation to maximize wound healing and scar aesthetics.

This article describes the selection of various suture materials available today and their intended design.

Modern suture material should have predictable tensile strength, good handling, secure knot-tying properties, and could be enhanced with an antibacterial agent to resist infection.

The smallest suture size that will accomplish the purpose should be chosen to minimize tissue trauma and foreign material within tissues.

Monofilament suture has lower resistance when passed through tissues, whereas multifilament sutures possesses higher tensile strength and flexibility but greater tissue friction and pose risks of suture sinus and infection.

Collagen or polymer structures in the suture can be modified to control absorption time.

Excess reaction leads to chronic inflammation, suboptimal scarring, or suture extrusion.

Surgical Suture: Types, Vs. Stitches, More

Monofilament sutures consist of a single thread. This allows the suture to more easily pass through tissues.

Suture material is graded according to the diameter of the suture strand.

Just like there are many different types of sutures, there are many different suture techniques.

This type of suture can be placed rapidly and is also strong, since tension is distributed evenly throughout the continuous suture strand.

This suture technique uses several strands of suture material to close the wound.

This type of suture is applied so that the suture knot is found inside.

There are many different types of suture materials available.

Types Of Sutures: Different Types Of Surgical Sutures Online

This triumph is achieved with the help of surgical equipment and procedures broadly categorised as surgical sutures.

This article explains the different types of surgical sutures.

The application of a suture essentially involves the use of a needle along with an attached thread. Today, doctors have access to a wide variety and types of surgical sutures of different sizes, shapes and thread materials.

Surgical sutures may be classified in several different ways.

Polyglactin sutures typically have a mild tissue reaction, for the duration of the absorption process but are a better alternative to catgut sutures as the absorption level of this suture is more predictable.

While speaking about the types and uses of surgical sutures, we must also mention non-absorbable sutures.

Let us understand the varying suture techniques and the different types of suture needles.

6 Main Types Of Surgical Sutures

There are various types of surgical sutures and they are classified based on several factors such as absorbability, origin and structure of the surgical suture.

There are various types of surgical sutures and they can be classified based on different parameters.

Non-absorbable sutures, as the name implies are surgical sutures that cannot be absorbed by the body as such need to be removed at a later time.

Non-absorbable sutures are used either on skin wound closure, where the sutures can be removed after a few weeks or in stressful internal environments where absorbable sutures will not suffice.

Surgical sutures can also be classified based on the origin of the raw material into natural and synthetic.

Examples of natural surgical sutures are catgut sutures and silk.

Surgical sutures can also be classified based on the structure of the material.

Surgical Suture, Types Of Sutures, Sizes, How To Suture & Suture Removal Times

A wide variety of suture materials are available for each surgical location and surgical requirement.

Multifilament sutures are more likely to harbor contaminants than monofilament sutures are; accordingly, monofilament sutures are generally preferable in potentially contaminated tissues.

The first suture is made in the same manner as the simple interrupted, but subsequent sutures are placed without cutting the suture material.

Disadvantages include possible crosshatching, the risk of dehiscence if the suture material ruptures, difficulty in making fine adjustments along the suture line, and puckering of the suture line when the stitches are placed in thin skin.

In areas of extremely high tension at risk for dehiscence, horizontal mattress sutures may be left in place even after removal of the superficial skin sutures.

Different parts of the body require suture removal at varying times.

Staple removal is a simple procedure and is similar to suture removal.

Surgical Suture

Different suture characteristics lend way to differing degrees of tissue reaction and the operator must select a suture that minimizes the tissue reaction while still keeping with appropriate tensile strength.

Historically, surgeons used reusable needles with holes, which are supplied separate from their suture thread. Such suture must be threaded on site, as is done in embroidery sewing.

Swaged, or atraumatic, needles with sutures comprise a pre-packed eyeless needle attached to a specific length of suture thread. The suture manufacturer swages the suture thread to the eyeless atraumatic needle at the factory.

Finally, atraumatic needles may be permanently swaged to the suture or may be designed to come off the suture with a sharp straight tug.

Another important distinction among suture material is whether it is comprised of monofilament or polyfilament and whether or not the suture is braided.

Purse-string suture, a continuous, circular inverting suture which is made to secure apposition of the edges of a surgical or traumatic wound.

The earliest reports of surgical suture date to 3000 BC in ancient Egypt, and the oldest known suture is in a mummy from 1100 BC. A detailed description of a wound suture and the suture materials used in it is by the Indian sage and physician Sushruta, written in 500 BC. The Greek father of medicine, Hippocrates, described suture techniques, as did the later Roman Aulus Cornelius Celsus.

Suture Materials

Surgical suture materials are used in the closure of most wound types.

It is worth noting that regardless of suture composition, the body will react to any suture as a foreign body, producing a foreign body reaction to varying degrees.

In this article, we shall look the classification of suture materials, suture size, and the components of the surgical needle.

Monofilament suture – a single stranded filament suture.

The larger the size ascribed to the suture, the smaller the diameter is, for example a 7-0 suture is smaller than a 4-0 suture.

The surgical needle allows the placement of the suture within the tissue, carrying the material through with minimal residual trauma.

Key Points Suture materials can be classified in a variety of ways.

Post Idea #18: Constipation

Related Articles – Summarized

Symptoms And Causes

Chronic constipation is infrequent bowel movements or difficult passage of stools that persists for several weeks or longer.

Though occasional constipation is very common, some people experience chronic constipation that can interfere with their ability to go about their daily tasks.

Chronic constipation may also cause people to strain excessively in order to have a bowel movement.

Treatment for chronic constipation depends in part on the underlying cause.

Constipation may be considered chronic if you’ve experienced two or more of these symptoms for the last three months.

Problems with the pelvic muscles involved in having a bowel movement may cause chronic constipation.

Chronic constipation may cause an accumulation of hardened stool that gets stuck in your intestines.

Constipation; Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Prevention

Having fewer than three bowel movements a week is, technically, the definition of constipation.

At least 2.5 million people see their doctor each year due to constipation.

There are many causes of constipation – lifestyle choices, medications, medical conditions, and pregnancy.

Management and Treatment How is constipation treated?

Your doctor may recommend surgery if constipation is caused by a structural problem in the colon.

Some causes of outlet dysfunction constipation may be treated with surgery.

You have symptoms of outlet dysfunction constipation.


Anismus occurs in a small minority of persons with chronic constipation or obstructed defecation.

Voluntary withholding of the stool is a common cause of constipation.

Once the presence of constipation is identified based on a culmination of the symptoms described above, then the cause of constipation should be figured out.

The laboratory tests performed depends on the suspected underlying cause of the constipation.

The National Institute of Health and Care Excellence break constipation in adults into two categories – chronic constipation of unknown cause and constipation due to opiates.

While it is difficult to assess an exact age at which constipation most commonly arises, children frequently suffer from constipation in conjunction with life-changes.

Especially in infants, changes in formula or transitioning from breast milk to formula can cause constipation.

Symptoms & Causes Of Constipation

You should see a doctor if your symptoms do not go away with self-care or you have a family history of colon or rectal cancer.

You should see a doctor right away if you have constipation and any of the following symptoms.

You may be constipated for many reasons, and constipation may have more than one cause at a time.

Medicines and dietary supplements that can make constipation worse include.

Constipation can happen when your life or daily routine changes.

Certain health and nutrition problems can cause constipation.

Constipation Symptoms And Causes: What To Do For Severe Constipation

Going longer than 3 or more days without one is usually too long.

Your stool gets harder and more difficult to pass.

Drink two to four extra glasses of water a day, unless your doctor told you to limit fluids for another reason.

Constipation is a new problem for you and lifestyle changes haven’t helped.

See how prebiotic supplements can help ease digestion.

Drink 1 1/2 to 2 quarts of water and other fluids a day.

Do something active for at least 30 minutes a day, most days of the week.

Constipation: Symptoms, Causes, Relief, And More

A healthcare professional may carry out tests to rule out a more serious condition, such as colorectal cancer or irritable bowel syndrome.

Ask a healthcare professional if any of your medications might be causing constipation.

Linaclotide or plecanatide, which can help make bowel movements more regular for people with long-term constipation or IBS.prucalopride, which can help the colon move the stool along.

A healthcare professional may also advise that you stop taking certain medications that may cause constipation.

If constipation persists, or if you have concerns about your symptoms, it may be time to see a healthcare professional.

They may recommend additional tests to identify the cause of your symptoms.

If you’re experiencing chronic constipation or constipation along with other bowel changes, it’s important that you talk with a healthcare professional.

Common Causes Of Constipation

People who exercise regularly generally don’t develop constipation.

Increasing exer-cise to improve constipation may be more effective in older people, who tend to be more sedentary, than in younger people.

The digestive tract has receptors for opioids, and constipation can occur when people take opioid pain medications.

Opioid-induced constipation occurs in roughly 94% of cancer patients taking opioids for pain and 41% of people taking opioids for chronic noncancer pain.

If you hold in a bowel movement, for whatever reason, you may be inviting a bout of constipation.

Increasing fiber intake helps cure constipation in many people, but those with more severe constipation sometimes find that increasing fiber makes their constipation worse and leads to gassiness and discomfort.

A number of systemic conditions, like scleroderma, can also cause constipation.

Post Idea #19: Surface-mount technology

Related Articles – Summarized

Surface Mount Technology

1.2.2 Surface-mount technologySurface-mount technology is basically a component assembly technology related to printed-circuit boards wherein the components are attached and connected on the surface of the board using batch solder-reflow processes.

A further advantage of surface mount is that, rather than taking advantage of the component size reduction to pack more functions into a given board area, you can reduce the board area needed for a given function.

There may be challenges to handle and process a big volume of data if integration between MDAS and HES will not be proper or there may be ineffectiveness in data analysis or error in software programming of complexed and growing system.

Incorporation of AMI and CIS with information technology is the latest field involving advanced technologies which will require upgradation of standards and data transfer protocols.

The standard deviation for the fit is 4.0VPN. The model was compared with data obtained at irradiation temperatures of 225, 295 and 315 °C. Although the model was not developed using these data, a good fit was obtained.

31 More recently, Williams, Wilford, Odette and Yamamoto developed an embrittlement correlation equation optimized specifically for the low-Cu RPV steels with Cu contents less than 0.075 wt%.32 They utilized the test reactor data to evaluate the RPV wall properties at higher fluences than those of the surveillance data.

Data from a wide variety of data sources with very wide range of dose rate are very well predicted by the method.

Surface-Mount Technology

Surface-mount technology is a method in which the electrical components are mounted directly onto the surface of a printed circuit board.

Both technologies can be used on the same board, with the through-hole technology often used for components not suitable for surface mounting such as large transformers and heat-sinked power semiconductors.

Components were mechanically redesigned to have small metal tabs or end caps that could be directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities and smaller circuit boards and, in turn, machines or subassemblies containing the boards.

The surface tension of the molten solder helps keep the components in place, and if the solder pad geometries are correctly designed, surface tension automatically aligns the components on their pads.

Regardless of cleaning or not those PCBs, current industry trend suggests to carefully review a PCB assembly process where “No-Clean” is applied, since flux residues trapped under components and RF shields may affect surface insulation resistance, especially on high component density boards.

Higher density of connections because holes do not block routing space on inner layers, nor on back-side layers if components are mounted on only one side of the PCB. Small errors in component placement are corrected automatically as the surface tension of molten solder pulls components into alignment with solder pads.

SMDs, usually being smaller than equivalent through-hole components, have less surface area for marking, requiring marked part ID codes or component values to be more cryptic and smaller, often requiring magnification to be read, whereas a larger through-hole component could be read and identified by the unaided eye.

701 General Requirements

UNACCEPTABLE. SOLDER IN STRESS RELIEF BEND. Solder shall not extend into the stress relief bend or any leaded part.

The solder is also in contact with the part body and the body seal.

UNACCEPTABLE. SOLDER PEAKS, ICICLES, SHARP EDGES. Solder peaks, icicles and/or sharp edges are an indicator of an improper process parameter and are a reliability and short-circuit concern.

What Is SMT: Surface Mount Technology Primer » Electronics Notes

Surface mount technology, SMT and its associated surface mount devices, SMDs considerably speed up PCB assembly as the components simply mount on the board.

This technology is known as Surface Mount Technology, SMT and SMT components.

Virtually all today’s equipment that is manufactured commercially uses surface mount technology, SMT, because it offers significant advantages during PCB manufacture, and in view of the size the use of SMT components enables far more electronics to be packed into a much smaller space.

As a result, surface mount technology, SMT was born, and the use of SMT components rose very rapidly as their advantages were seen and realised.

SMT components are able to be made very small, and may types are used in their billions, particularly SMT capacitors and SMT resistors.

The popular basic components like transistors and many logic and analogue ICs such as operational amplifiers normally have versions available as a traditional leaded component and also as a surface mount component.

Components like surface mount transistors and surface mount integrated circuits where there are leads from the device body onto the surface of the board have some means for accommodating movement, but surface mount resistors and capacitors do not.

Printed Circuit Board Manufacturing & PCB Assembly

SMT is a component assembly tech related to PCBs where components get connected and attached to the board’s surface by a batch solder-reflow process.

The SMT PCB has stronger signal integrity than PTH PCB, as its small size, besides fitting more components, leads to shorter signal routes on the PCB. It will also generate less heat compared to PTH. Almost every piece of equipment manufactured commercially in the current dispensation uses SMT for its diverse benefits during manufacturing.

Computerized machines become essential for the component selection and placement; after that, position the preferred SMDs and further components appropriately on the PCB board.

Any component that proves heat-sensitive can then be integrated into the printed circuit board after the automatic soldering process is completed.

If you incorporate these components early when designing, you will ensure that your PCB Layout is developed using the right component package tracks/footprints.

The manufacturer not only has the benefit of understanding printed circuit boards but boasts the benefit of hindsight, having worked with almost every component package style concerning printed circuit boards.

Try and incorporate as many design features that will prove relevant to the functionality of your PCB. Once you have finalized the design and picked the components, the printed circuit board data must get sent to the manufacturing company.

The Difference Between SMT And SMD, What Is Surface Mount Technology

The technique of directly attaching electronic components to the surface of a printed circuit board is referred to as SMT. As the leads are placed into the PCB using the through-hole approach, a problem will arise if the leads are not properly fitted, slowing down the production pace.

SMT components utilize up less space than TH components of equal size.

The Difference Between SMT and SMD. Surface Mount Technology is the method of mounting electrical components directly to the surface of a printed circuit board, as we’ve seen.

What exactly is SMD?A Surface Mounted Device is a component that is meant to mount directly to the board’s surface utilizing surface mount technology.

SMD refers to an electronic component that is mounted on a PCB. SMT refers to an electronic component that is mounted on a circuit board.

Manufacturers can mount tens of thousands of components every hour using this technology.

In order to verify that the solder has made full contact between the component and the board, the boards must be “Heated” in an oven as a final step.

Surface Mount Technology

Traditionally, these components would be connected to the board via wire leads, also known as the thru-hole technology method.

A new method evolved which makes use of “Surface Mount Technology”, instead of using wire leads, the components are directly mounted to the surface of the boards.

Surface Mount Technology as we’ve mentioned before allows the direct mounting of components onto the printed circuit board.

There are certain components such as large transformers and heatsinked power semiconductors that are not suitable for surface mounting, and so are connected using thru-hole technology.

The next step involves the placement of surface mount components via a pick-and-place machine.

Components used in SMT are more commonly available due to their large demand and are usually cheaper as opposed to through-hole components.

Some through-hole components do not have equivalent parts for SMT usage and so you may have to work with the through-hole components instead. Some through-hole components give better mechanical strength as opposed to SMT. The complexity of the process demands professional training learning.

Post Idea #20: Accutek Packaging Equipment

Related Articles – Summarized

The company’s filing status is listed as Active and its File Number is C1901330.

The Registered Agent on file for this company is Edward Chocholek and is located at 2980 Scott Street, Vista, CA 92081.

Post Idea #21: Syntegon Technology

Related Articles – Summarized

Syntegon Technology Services

We are your partner for all after-sales services for your Syntegon.

As an experienced, global business, we maintain your machines and provide tailored service solutions wherever you are.

Helping you achieve maximum production at minimum expense and effort.

Syntegon Technology

Global process and packaging technology provider, Syntegon, were quick to scale up their production capacity to help tackle the enormous challenges the pharmaceutical industry is experiencing in the fight against COVID. With more than 1,800 vaccines and drugs against COVID-19 being examined in over 3,700 clinical trials, existing laboratories and manufacturing capacities needed to rededicated, or new capacity built in record time.

The motivation and dedication of Syntegon’s team of engineers, mechanics and service technicians, made it possible to deliver numerous solutions to customers in record time.

Post Idea #22: Sumitomo Chemical

Related Articles – Summarized

Sumitomo Chemical Group Companies Of The Americas Celebrate International Women’S Day 2022: Interview Series 1 Of 4

At Sumitomo Chemical Group Companies of the Americas, we are proud of our International Women’s Day annual celebration.

Sumitomo Chemical is forging an inclusive work culture where women thrive and celebrate achievements.

Our complete interview series of four interviews interconnect women from functional areas across the company to bond and break down barriers with the aim of helping more women to move into leadership roles.

Join us for Interview #1 and meet four remarkable women from some of our manufacturing locations representing different Group Companies within the Americas Region.

We are delighted to promote this and the entire IWD 2022 interview series to all the Group Companies of the Americas and throughout social media.

We are extremely indebted to all the women at our Group Companies for their achievements and contributions and for the perspectives and value they bring to their companies.

Sumitomo Chemical America, Inc., the regional Headquarters for the Americas, is part of the Sumitomo Chemical Group of more than 180 companies operating worldwide in a variety of business categories.

Sumitomo Chemical

Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. is a major Japanese chemical company.

1934: Sumitomo Fertilizer Manufacturing changes its name to Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd. 1944: Sumitomo Chemical acquires Japan Dyestuff Manufacturing Company, starting a fine chemical business at the Osaka Works and the Oita Works.

1949: Sumitomo Chemical takes over the aluminum business of Sumitomo Aluminium Smelting Co., starting the integrated production of aluminum from alumina.

Sumitomo Chiba Chemical Co., Ltd. is established and begins petrochemical operations at the Chiba Works.

1984: Sumitomo Pharmaceuticals Co., Ltd. established by consolidating the pharmaceutical operations of Sumitomo Chemical and pharmaceuticals division of Inabata & Co., Ltd. The Petrochemical Complex in Singapore, a Japan-Singapore economic cooperation project, begins operations; Sumitomo Chemical is a leading participant, with its former chairman Norishige Hasegawa [ja] having proposed the project in 1975.

Sumitomo Chemical establishes the IT-related Chemicals Sector as a new business sector.

2002: Sumitomo Chemical Takeda Agro Co., Ltd., a joint venture between Sumitomo Chemical and Takeda Chemical Industries, Ltd., succeeds Takeda Chemical’s agrochemical business and commences operation.

Sumitomo Group Companies Of Europe

Sumitomo Chemical Europe is part of a group of more than 160 companies operating worldwide in such diverse business categories as Basic Chemicals, Petrochemicals & Plastics, IT-related Chemicals, Health & Crop Sciences, and Pharmaceuticals.

We offer a wide range of innovative products and technologies that strive to address global needs and challenges.

Sumitomo Chemical Brasil

O novo episódio do Sumicast está no ar! No sexto episódio, temos a presença do Eng.

Agrônomo, Dr. em Fitopatologia e Pesquisador do Instituto Phytus, Nédio Tormen, conversamos sobre clima e previsibilidade climática na aplicação de fungicidas.

O Sumicast o podcast agro oficial da Sumitomo Chemical, que tem o objetivo de compartilhar conhecimento com o campo, para uma agricultura mais inovadora e sustentável.

Esse episódio faz parte da trilha de conteúdos Encontro de Gigantes, onde especialistas abordam as suas experiências nas principais regiões do país.

Post Idea #23: Aluminium oxide

Related Articles – Summarized

Aluminium Oxide

Aluminium oxide is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula Al2O3.

Aluminium oxide is responsible for the resistance of metallic aluminium to weathering.

Metallic aluminium is very reactive with atmospheric oxygen, and a thin passivation layer of aluminium oxide forms on any exposed aluminium surface in a matter of hundreds of picoseconds.

The aluminium oxide generated by anodising is typically amorphous, but discharge assisted oxidation processes such as plasma electrolytic oxidation result in a significant proportion of crystalline aluminium oxide in the coating, enhancing its hardness.

2 Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + 3 H2O. The product aluminium oxide tends to be multi-phase, i.e., consisting of several phases of aluminium oxide rather than solely corundum.

Annual world production of aluminium oxide in 2015 was approximately 115 million tonnes, over 90% of which is used in the manufacture of aluminium metal.

Aluminium oxide can be grown as a coating on aluminium by anodizing or by plasma electrolytic oxidation.

Structure, Properties, And Uses Of Aluminium Oxide

What is Aluminium Oxide? Al2O3 is an inorganic chemical reagent with chemical name Aluminum oxide.

Metal oxides are generally basic in nature but aluminium oxide is amphoteric oxide.

Aluminum oxide contains oxide ions, and thus reacts with acids in the same way sodium or magnesium oxides do.

Aluminum oxide reacts with hot dilute hydrochloric acid to give aluminum chloride solution.

Al2O3+6HCl 2AlCl3+3H2O. Aluminium oxide Uses Aluminium oxide is one of the common ingredients in sunscreen and also present in cosmetics such as nail polish, blush, and lipstick.

Aluminium oxide is an electrical insulator used as a substrate for integrated circuits.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs.What is aluminium oxide used for?How can aluminium oxide be produced?Is aluminium(III) oxide acidic or basic?What liquids react aluminum?Why can’t aluminium react with water?

Aluminium Oxide: Properties, Production, And Applications

Aluminium oxide is a thermally unstable and insoluble compound that occurs naturally in various minerals such as corundum, a crystalline variant of the oxide, and bauxite, which is considered as its principal aluminium ore.

What the main application areas that utilise aluminium oxide are.

Aluminium oxide is often produced by the Bayer process, which means refining bauxite to produce alumina.

Most of the aluminium oxide produced is used to form aluminium metal.

Aluminium oxide is also used in synthetic-sapphire bulletproof windows and ballistics.

Its high melting and boiling points, in addition to its excellent thermal resistive properties, make aluminium oxide desirable in the manufacture of high-temperature furnace insulations and electrical insulators.

Aluminium oxides are used for the production of piping components such as elbows, tees, straight pipes, hydro cyclones, reducers, nozzles, and valves.

Al2O3 Material Properties

Alumina is one of the most cost effective and widely used material in the family of engineering ceramics.

Aluminum oxide, commonly referred to as alumina, possesses strong ionic interatomic bonding giving rise to it’s desirable material characteristics.

Its high hardness, excellent dielectric properties, refractoriness and good thermal properties make it the material of choice for a wide range of applications.

The composition of the ceramic body can be changed to enhance particular desirable material characteristics.

The data presented is typical of commercially available material and is offered for comparative purposes only.

The information is not to be interpreted as absolute material properties nor does it constitute a representation or warranty for which we assume legal liability.

User shall determine suitability of the material for the intended use and assumes all risk and liability whatsoever in connection therewith.

🥇 Alumina Injection Molding

Owing to the fact that you can machine alumina ceramic, aluminium oxide is a suitable material for a wide variety of products and applications.

Individuals in need of advanced ceramic components are often interested in two aspects of alumina injection molding – if aluminium oxide is toxic to humans, and what it can be used for.

Aluminium is the most naturally abundant type of metal on our planet, and it’s common in the form of aluminium oxide, or bauxite.

Aluminium oxide is an insoluble compound of aluminium, and it does not tend to produce an acute toxic response.

Which company provides the leading alumina injection molding services?

At Wunder Mold, we specialize in first-class alumina injection molding for various applications and purposes our clients need them for.

We used advanced alumina injection molding machines and processes to ensure the highest-quality end product perfectly suited for the specific needs of our clients.

Health Hazard Information Acute Health Effects The following acute health effects may occur immediately or shortly after exposure to Aluminum Oxide: Contact can irritate the skin and eyes.

Chronic Health Effects The following chronic health effects can occur at some time after exposure to Aluminum Oxide and can last for months or years: Cancer Hazard While Aluminum Oxide has been tested, it is not classifiable as to its potential to cause cancer.

Control measures include: enclosing chemical processes for severely irritating and corrosive chemicals, using local exhaust ventilation for chemicals that may be harmful with a single exposure, and using general ventilation to control exposures to skin and eye irritants.

If Aluminum Oxide is spilled, take the following steps: Occupational Health Information Resources The New Jersey Department of Health, Occupational Health Service, offers multiple services in occupational health.

OSHA is the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration, which adopts and enforces health and safety standards.

PEOSHA is the New Jersey Public Employees Occupational Safety and Health Act, which adopts and enforces health and safety standards in public workplaces.

IRIS is the Integrated Risk Information System database on human health effects that may result from exposure to various chemicals, maintained by federal EPA. STEL is a Short Term Exposure Limit which is usually a 15minute exposure that should not be exceeded at any time during a work day.

Aluminum Oxide Benefits & Uses

Aluminum oxide is a popular abrasive for etching and finishing.

Due to its aggressive nature Aluminum Oxide is a common blasting media used on metal, glass, wood and other materials.

The rate of how quickly the aluminum oxide degrades depends on the type of material you’re blasting, and the pressure at which you are blasting.

Fused Brown Aluminum Oxide has several unique properties that make it a great choice over other materials.

Aluminum Oxide is a low-iron content abrasive which will not leave any rust on the surface of your part.

Aluminum Oxide is also a cost effective blasting abrasive due to the fact that it can be recycled and reclaimed for multiple passes in a blasting process.

At Finishing Systems, our aluminum oxide abrasive makes an excellent material for a variety of industrial applications.

Post Idea #24: Check Point Software Technologies

Related Articles – Summarized

Leader In Cyber Security Solutions

RECOMMENDED FOR YOU. Protect your enterprise network from the most sophisticated cyber-attacks with the highest caliber of security, real-time prevention and the world’s highest performing security gateways.

Secure the Cloud with a unified cloud native security platform, automating security posture at scale, preventing advanced threats and giving you visibility and control over any workload across any cloud.

Wherever you connect from, whatever you connect to and however you connect – your devices, your privacy and your organizational data must be secure and protected from any cyber threat.

Ensure 100% breach prevention and manage your entire security estate with a unified policy, from a single point across networks, clouds, Mobile, Endpoint and workloads.

Expose, investigate and shut down attacks faster, with 99.9% precision with SOC and XDR capabilities used by Check Point Research and are now available for you.

This website uses cookies for its functionality and for analytics and marketing purposes.

By continuing to use this website, you agree to the use of cookies.

CP Harmony – Harmony: 360° User Protection Against All Attack Vectors

REMOTE WORKFORCE SECURITY ASSESSMENT. With employees working anywhere, using their personal devices to access any application, your organization’s attack surface has never been wider.

To keep remote users safe from phishing and ransomware attacks, you first need to understand your security posture.

Take five minutes to answer ten simple questions and receive a detailed report with your security score and most critical security gaps, as well as practical recommendations on closing them.

Career Opportunities At Check Point Software

Check Point Software Technologies is an equal opportunity employer and we strive for diversity in our workplace.

All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment opportunities without regard to religion, race, color, sex, marital or veteran statuses, age, national origin, ancestry, physical or mental disability, medical condition, sexual orientation, gender identity/expression, genetic information, or any other characteristics protected by the laws or regulations of any jurisdiction in which we operate.

Check Point

Check Point is an American-Israeli multinational provider of software and combined hardware and software products for IT security, including network security, endpoint security, cloud security, mobile security, data security and security management.

In June 1996 Check Point raised $67 million from its initial public offering on NASDAQ. In 1998, Check Point established a partnership with Nokia, which bundled Check Point’s Software with Nokia’s computer Network Security Appliances.

During the first decade of the 21st century Check Point started acquiring other IT security companies, including Nokia’s network security business unit in 2009.

On 23 July 2020, Aryaka confirmed an alliance with Check Point Software Technologies to optimize the SD-WAN system operated by Aryaka Cloud-First, and Check Point CloudGuard Link and CloudGuard Edge to provide optimized protection and SD-WAN as-a-Service.

SofaWare Technologies was founded in 1999, as a cooperation between Check Point and SofaWare’s founders, Adi Ruppin and Etay Bogner, with the purpose of extending Check Point from the enterprise market to the small business, consumer and branch office market.

In 2004 Etay Bogner, co-founder of SofaWare, sought court approval to file a shareholder derivative suit, claiming Check Point was not transferring funds to SofaWare as required for its use of SofaWare’s products and technology.

Bogner claimed that Check Point, which owned 60% of Sofaware, had behaved belligerently, and withheld monies due for use of SofaWare technology and products Check Point appealed the ruling, but lost.

Does your company’s security solution need a reboot? See how CoxHealth was able to dynamically scale security with Check Point Maestro Hyperscale Orchestrator: bit.

Gain insight on securing growth data centers and high-frequency trading platforms, here: bit.

Download the 2022 IDC Hybrid Datacenter Buyer’s Guide to gain insight on leveraging the latest breakthroughs in hyper-performance: bit.

Did you know that 57% of 1200 security professionals reported that more than half of their workforce works remotely at least two days a week? Read our 2022 Workforce Security Report, to get the full insights into the state of #workforce security: bit.

Update your public website w/ our new branding & share via social using #youdeservethebestsecurity: bit.

Ly/3CcswX1 #cybersecurityGiven the recent geo-political uncertainty, cyber security professionals should prepare for a continued uptick in threat activity.

Read the blog to learn about banks’ top 8 #cybersecurity challenges: bit.

Check Point Software Technologies

Check Point Software Technologies Ltd. is the world’s leading cyber security provider.

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Happy International Women’s Day! Today and every day we celebrate women’s achievements across the world.

In this special video we put together in honor of #IWD, some of our Check Point employees reflect on their past ambitions and future dreams: bit.

Does your company’s security solution need a reboot? See how CoxHealth was able to dynamically scale security with Check Point Maestro Hyperscale Orchestrator: bit.

Post Idea #25: CyberGhost VPN

Related Articles – Summarized

Fast, Secure & Anonymous VPN Service

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CyberGhost VPN: The one-click solution for your privacy needs Just one subscription covers and protects up to 7 devices simultaneously.

They’re on top of everything going on in the VPN world.

All you need from a truly complete VPN solution Over 7600 VPN servers worldwide.

Got questions? If you’re looking for more info on CyberGhost VPN, here are the answers to a few of our most frequently asked questions.

For further assistance, you can check out our VPN guides.

Or get in touch with our Customer Support team via live chat or email.

CyberGhost VPN 🛡️ Download CyberGhost VPN For Free: Trial For Chrome & Firefox

CyberGhost VPN is one of the fastest and most reliable VPN providers in the world with over 200 servers in over 60 countries.

Cyberghost secure VPN gives users the ability to choose their preferred virtual location and IP address.

CyberGhost VPN has a variety of subscription plans with prices ranging from $2.75 per month to $9.99 per month.

This best VPN service has trial periods of 7 days for €1.99, 30 days for €6.99, and 3 months for €9.99.

CyberGhost VPN is extension for browsers that unblocks websites, protects personal data and online identity, and secures public Wi-Fi connections.

CyberGhost VPN offers deals for Windows, Mac and Linux.

What is the difference between CyberGhost VPN and Private Internet Access?

Can This VPN Be Trusted?

CyberGhost currently supports three VPN protocols in the desktop and mobile VPN apps: OpenVPN, IKEv2, and WireGuard.

If you need a VPN for the UK, or a UK VPN server, CyberGhost probably isn’t the best choice as you can see above.

CyberGhost servers in Europe seemed to be more congested than servers in the US. CyberGhost VPN Windows test results.

Therefore I would not consider this to be the best VPN for PC. CyberGhost can be slow to establish VPN connections.

On a positive note, the new CyberGhost version 8 VPN client offers some good leak protection settings and a functioning kill switch to block VPN traffic if the connection drops.

For my final CyberGhost VPN speed test, I connected to a server in the UK. The results were dismal at around 6 Mbps. At 6 Mbps, it’s clear that CyberGhost is not the best VPN for the UK if you value performance.

CyberGhost speeds compared to NordVPN. To put the CyberGhost speed tests in comparison, let’s take a quick look at NordVPN. Like CyberGhost, NordVPN also uses the WireGuard VPN protocol.

CyberGhost VPN Review

Unlike ProtonVPN and Editors’ Choice winner NordVPN, CyberGhost VPN cannot route your traffic through the Tor anonymization network-although a VPN is not required to use Tor.

The biggest addition to the CyberGhost arsenal is CyberGhost Security Suite for Windows, which is an additional $5.99 per month with the purchase of a VPN subscription.

Issues involving law enforcement and VPN companies can be tricky, which is why it’s important to know what country the VPN company is headquartered in and under what legal jurisdiction it operates.

The Smart Rules Exceptions tab is where you can designate URLs that CyberGhost VPN should route outside the VPN connection.

We could only stream Netflix originals content while connected to a New York-based VPN server, and we had the same problem when connected to one of CyberGhost VPN’s servers optimized for Netflix streaming.

Hands on With CyberGhost for macOS. CyberGhost does not have a MacOS VPN app in the App Store, so we downloaded it from the vendor’s website.

During testing, we were surprised to find that a CyberGhost VPN connection continued after we uninstalled the CyberGhost client.

CyberGhost Review: Cheap Premium VPN, But Is It Safe?

CyberGhost has 7,680 servers in 90 locations with servers dedicated to streaming, torrenting, and gaming – but none of them work in heavily censored countries like China.

Blocked By: SkyTV, DAZN, Channel4, and ITV. CyberGhost can’t unblock Sky TV or DAZN. After trying 5 UK servers, I asked a live chat support agent for the best server to watch Sky TV. The representative let me know that CyberGhost doesn’t work with it.

It’s normal for a VPN to slow your connection speed a little because it takes extra time for your traffic to be encrypted and travel to the VPN server.

CyberGhost isn’t the fastest gaming VPN I’ve tested, but its local servers can support online play.

It’s possible to play online games with CyberGhost if you stick to local non-optimized servers.

CyberGhost has an impressive global network of 7,680 servers in 90 locations.

The NoSpy servers are based in CyberGhost’s private data center in Romania and only the CyberGhost team can access them.

WiFi Proxy On The App Store

Enjoy absolute privacy and freedom with the best VPN for iOS: CyberGhost VPN! Let us hide your IP address, encrypt your internet connection, and keep you safe online.

Amp-up the security on your iOS device with CyberGhost VPN. – Leave no traces online We have a proven track record of keeping no logs, and over 36 million people worldwide trust us with protecting their digital privacy.

Get instant protection One tap is all you need to get instant protection with CyberGhost VPN! And everything about the app is intuitive and user-friendly.

Enjoy premium features Create your own privacy rules, use state-of-the-art protocols like WireGuard®, and enjoy all the advanced features in the CyberGhost VPN app!

Start your free 7-day trial The first week of each subscription is free! Discover CyberGhost VPN’s unmatched flexibility and take the app for a spin now.

Experts love CyberGhost VPN. “Overall, I can honestly say CyberGhost is the best VPN provider I have used to date. [] Most VPN providers just offer a layer of anonymity and tell you to go along and use the service. But CyberGhost actually cares. With their amazing server locations, amazing server setup, crypto, and much more, CyberGhost is the best VPN I have ever used.” – Brandon Stosh, Freedom Hackers.

“Even first-time VPN users will quickly understand how to use CyberGhost and what it can offer its customers. Users can choose to connect to whatever server they like, in any location they want, with unlimited data.” – THEVPNLAB. “A slick fully featured VPN with an interface simple enough for the beginner, yet with options that will also keep the serious privacy enthusiast happy.” – TechAdvisor.

Télécharger CyberGhost VPN PC

VPN léger et très simple d’emploi, CyberGhost vous permet de sécuriser votre connexion en masquant vos activités en ligne et de changer de localisation en prenant une autre adresse IP. CyberGhost VPN est un client VPN utilisant des serveurs distants comme intermédiaires pour protéger la connexion Internet et changer d’adresse IP. La version actuelle de Cyberghost VPN est la numéro 8, elle a été publiée le 16/10/2020.

Parue au printemps 2019, la précédente version 7 amenait notamment la connexion en un clic, la connexion intelligente aux serveurs les plus proches et les filtres de serveurs de stream.

Comme il s’agit d’un simple client VPN, tous les changements ne se font pas forcément au niveau du logiciel : ainsi Cyberghost VPN a durant ces derniers mois proposé une option pour avoir une IP dédiée et a stoppé le support des protocoles L2TP et PPTP pour raisons de sécurité.

Comme la plupart des VPB, CyberGhost fonctionne sur abonnement payant, mais il est souvent proposé en promotion des tarifs très bas.

Anonymat : CyberGhost VPN change l’adresse IP de l’utilisateur pour qu’elle ne puisse pas être retracée par les pirates informatiques.

Il est en mesure de contourner le pare-feu du système d’exploitation pour ne pas être pris en compte par les différents filtres de connexion.

Protection : au cas où des personnes malintentionnées auraient accès une adresse IP, CyberGhost VPN peut effectuer une protection supplémentaire des données en les cryptant.

Post Idea #26: High performance computing

Related Articles – Summarized

High Performance Computing

Explore Azure HPC solutions by application and industry.

Find the right high-performance computing resources at nearly unlimited scale on Azure.

Burst your HPC applications into Azure using data stored in on-premises NAS devices with HPC Cache.

Access large amounts of I/O with a sub-millisecond latency with Azure NetApp Files, delivered as an Azure service natively within an Azure datacenter.

For a high throughput storage solution, use Cray ClusterSor, a Lustre-based, bare-metal HPC storage solution that’s fully integrated with Azure.

Azure HPC purpose-built infrastructure and optimized application services.

Take advantage of Cray ClusterStor high-performance storage in Azure or with Azure H-series virtual machines.

What Is HPC? Introduction To High-Performance Computing

In contrast, HPC uses all available resources or processors to complete many jobs at once.

If there are more jobs than there are processors, then the HPC system forms a queue.

In addition to parallel processing, HPC jobs also require fast disks and high-speed memory.

HPC systems include computing and data-intensive servers with powerful CPUs that can be vertically scaled and available to a user group.

HPC systems can also have many powerful graphics processing units for graphics-intensive tasks, too.

HPC systems can also scale horizontally by way of clusters.

Single HPC clusters are as large as 100 thousand or more compute cores, as an example.

What Is High Performance Computing?

High Performance Computing most generally refers to the practice of aggregating computing power in a way that delivers much higher performance than one could get out of a typical desktop computer or workstation in order to solve large problems in science, engineering, or business.

Time – processing on local systems is too slow or not feasible.

Management of Computer Systems – Science Groups don’t want to purchase and manage local computer systems – they want to focus on science.

A supercomputer is one large computer made up of many smaller computers and processors.

Each node has processors/cores Carry out the instructions of the computer.

With a supercomputer, all these different computers talk to each other through a communications network Example – InfiniBand.

Supercomputers give you the opportunity to solve problems that are too complex for the desktop.

High-Performance Computing

HPC in the cloud requires huge amounts of resources, and typically needs very high performance networking hardware.

These benefits of and drawbacks to HPC in the cloud versus traditional HPC show that while HPC in the cloud will broaden access to HPC capabilities, some historical users of supercomputers are unlikely to move to a cloud computing platform, both for performance requirements and for the sensitivity of the applications and data being used.

Cluster computing is well suited to HPC. The local nature of the hardware and the exclusivity of the system to a limited number of users is ideal for peak performance.

In many cases, traditional cluster computing remains the method of choice for the largest consumers of HPC. Smaller clusters are also accessible to many organizations, and while cloud and grid computing may be attractive in some scenarios, many groups choose to operate private cluster computers.

AbstractHigh performance computing or supercomputing is the class of computing for which performance or alternately time to solution is the primary property.

One major drawback of HPC clusters is high expense because such clusters require high-end hardware to reach excellent performance.

High Performance Computing is a needed follow-on to Becker and Sterling’s 1994 creation of the Beowulf clusters recipe to build scalable high performance computers from commodity hardware.

One of the best-known types of HPC solutions is the supercomputer.

An HPC cluster consists of hundreds or thousands of compute servers that are networked together.

Deployed on premises, at the edge, or in the cloud, HPC solutions are used for a variety of purposes across multiple industries.

The system is integrated with leading HPC file systems, including Lustre, IBM Spectrum Scale, BeeGFS, and others to handle the performance and reliability requirements of the world’s largest computing infrastructures.

HPC solutions from NetApp enable you to process huge volumes of data quickly and securely.

To meet customer expectations now and in the future, media and entertainment companies require fast, reliable HPC solutions that also integrate with existing tools and applications.

The NetApp HPC solution features a complete line of high performance, reliable storage systems with a true “Pay as you go” pricing model.

The term High-performance computing is occasionally used as a synonym for supercomputing.

Although technically a supercomputer is a system that performs at or near currently highest operational rate for computers.

High-performance Computers :Processors, memory, disks, and OS are elements of high-performance computers of interest to small & medium size businesses today are really clusters of computers.

Each individual computer in a commonly configured small cluster has between one and four processors and today ‘s processors typically are from 2 to 4 crores, HPC people often referred to individual computers in a cluster as nodes.

The main reason to use this is that in its individual node can work together to solve a problem larger than any one computer can easily solve.

It is used in technologies like IoT, AI, 3D imaging evolves & amount of data that is used by organization is increasing exponentially to increase ability of a computer, we use High-performance computer.

In HPC architecture computer servers must be networked together in a cluster.

High Performance Computing

AWS High Performance Computing Competency Partners help customers accelerate their digital innovation in the areas of HPC spanning high performance solvers, high throughput computing, HPC workload management, and foundational HPC technology.

AWS HPC Competency Partners offer agile, flexible, and cost-effective technology offerings for HPC on AWS supporting genomics, computational chemistry, seismic processing, computer aided engineering, as well as emerging applications, such as deep learning and autonomous driving.

Post Idea #27: Herman Miller

Related Articles – Summarized

Herman Miller Embody Gaming Chair Review: Seating’S Endgame?

It’s important to know this history because those are the shoes Herman Miller’s Embody had to fill when it launched in 2009, and was slightly tweaked to be a gaming chair in 2020.

Its futuristic aesthetics likely also played a part in Herman Miller’s subsequent decision to bring its Embody chair into the gaming space.

Designed in collaboration with gaming and PC peripheral maker Logitech, the Herman Miller Embody Gaming chair mirrors the design and structure of the original, adding a unique color scheme and additional padding.

Herman Miller describes the original Embody as being designed “With the input of more than 30 physicians and PhDs in biomechanics, vision, physical therapy, and ergonomics.” For the Logitech version, the company added additional research into “What gamers need from their chairs.” On paper, this should result in an ideal chair for a full day’s work and whatever gaming you might get up to after hours.

More: Secretlab TITAN Evo 2022 Series review: The best gaming chair levels upShipping and setup.

The Embody Gaming Chair arrives fully assembled and ready to use.

Backfit adjustment: Last up is Herman Miller’s proprietary Backfit adjustment, which can best be described as a way to adjust the level of lumbar support the chair provides.

Herman Miller X Logitech Embody Review: “All The Gaming Chair You’Ll Ever, Ever Need”

The Herman Miller X Logitech Embody gaming chair is a coming together of two great powerhouses from their respective spheres.

It’s also very much highlighted the difference between the Embody and a traditional gaming chair which can push your shoulders, and thus you, forward.

It’s worth noting that if you do game at an electric desk, one with a motor that can bring the surface right down, then the Embody could even be a supreme gaming chair for PS4, PS5, or Xbox.

The Herman Miller X Logitech G Embody Gaming Chair is simultaneously a very complex and complicated chair, and also a very simple one.

It could just be all the gaming chair that you’ll ever, ever need.

I tested the Herman Miller X Logitech G Embody chair mainly by adopting it as my go-to everyday chair for work and PC play.

Across the weeks of testing, being able to use the Herman Miller X Logitech G Embody chair at home part of the week and shifting to the Razer Iskur when in our office ensured I had a good reference point, too.

Office Furniture Market By Supply And Consumption Demand Analysis To 2027

The global office furniture market was valued at US$ 74,428.

The Office Furniture Market report provides insightful data about the Office Furniture industry, identifies key challenges, opportunities, and joint actions taken at local, regional, level, and shares other market crucial information to the market participants.

The refurbishment of offices require investments on new office furniture.

Market definition of the Office Furniture market along with the analysis of different influencing factors like drivers, restraints, and opportunities.

A comprehensive list of key market players operating in the Office Furniture market.

It offers a descriptive analysis of demand-supply chaining in the Office Furniture market.

About Us:. Coherent Market Insights is a global market intelligence and consulting organization that provides syndicated research reports, customized research reports, and consulting services.

The Best Herman Miller Chairs In 2022: Our Complete Guide

The best Herman Miller chairs are a hugely worthwhile investment for any home office, even if your office is mainly used for gaming.

The best Herman Miller desk chairs certainly aren’t cheap, but they’re a very worthwhile investment that should last you for many years.

The best Herman Miller chairs also come in three different sizes too, so you don’t have to settle for a one-size-fits-all option.

Yes, Herman Miller’s Aeron chair is a very expensive option, but it does live up to expectations – and Herman Miller wouldn’t have sold over seven million of them if it didn’t.

Note that this model is no longer being restocked in the UK.Choosing the best Herman Miller chair How do I choose the best Herman Miller chair?

In our best Herman Miller chair guide we’ve included all the measurements you’ll need to get the perfect fit for you.

Although it is true that the Aeron Herman Miller chair is the most iconic option, it may not be the best Herman Miller chair for you.

One of the most famous and well-known office chair and furniture brands globally, Herman Miller® is synonymous with quality.

Celebrated designers like Charles Eames and Ray partnered with Herman Miller to make their comfortable molded chairs while George Nelson designed the lighting options.

Some top-selling chairs at Herman Miller, including Aeron®, Sayl® Mirra 2®, Cosm®, Embody®, and Setu® are costly as compared to a normal office chair.

Whether you want some handy chairs and tables for your workplace or need to revamp the furniture at your home, there is no better brand than Herman Miller.

Apart from the high-quality Aeron® and Lino® office chairs, there is a great variety of monitor arms, leg desks, media cabinet, trays, etc.

All of Herman Miller’s chairs are perfect for offices, and we will read about them in the next section.

Every Herman Miller chair is unique in its own way, and any one sitting on it will realize the reason behind its high price.


Herman Miller, Inc. is an American company that produces office furniture, equipment, and home furnishings.

In 1909, Dirk Jan De Pree began working for the company as a clerk, and became its president by 1919, when it was renamed the Michigan Star Furniture Co. De Pree and his father-in-law, Herman Miller, purchased 51% of the company stock in 1923 and renamed it the Herman Miller Furniture Company.

Under Rohde’s supervision Herman Miller entered the contract furniture market in 1942, with the introduction of the “Modular Executive Office” Group, the first in a long line of office furnishings to be produced by the company.

Beginning in the late 1940s, the period under Nelson’s guidance saw Herman Miller produce some of the company’s most recognizable pieces of furniture, including the Noguchi table, Eames Lounge Chair, Marshmallow sofa, Ball clock, and the Sling sofa.

George Nelson’s influence at Herman Miller gradually declined during the 1970s as new designers joined the company, including Don Chadwick and Bill Stumpf, who co-designed the Equa chair and in the 1990s developed the highly-successful Aeron chair.

In November of 2021, the company rebranded as MillerKnoll.

Management of the company has expressed concerns about global warming, and the company was using 27% renewable energy as of 2007.

See how we’re diverting plastic waste from our oceans and incorporating into our classic icons, starting with the Aeron Chair in Onyx.

Designer Ben Kocinski pairs the George Nelson-designed Coconut Chair with an airy Nelson Bubble Pendant, which is 15% off during our Lighting Sale.

Do you want to know more about how to measure the impact of your work? In partnership with and , join us on 3/16 at 2 p.m. ET to learn how to demonstrate interior design’s value through outcome measures, PLUS earn a CEU credit! buff.

Ly/6014wnrrGYou still have time to save on better, healthier play, but hurry-Free Ship Weekend ends tomorrow! Shop Herman Miller Gaming Chairs, Motia Gaming Desk, and Ollin Monitor Arm with free shipping and our 12-year warranty.

Ly/6015wuoMJ”It’s the best chair I’ve used by far. [Aeron] allows me to actually sit in a position much longer than a traditional chair.” – Personalized comfort is the key to peak play.

Co/6012wPyEA”Drawing is so active I think it suits a very simple chair.” Discover more workspace wisdom from the world-renowned artist Geoff McFetridge + learn how to incorporate our classic forms to feed your creativity.

Ly/6011wM5MXIf you like to jump from task to task during the workday, see how the Cosm Chair can intuitively move with you.

Post Idea #28: Aquaponics

Related Articles – Summarized

Alternative Farming Systems Information Center

Federal government websites always use a.gov or.

Before sharing sensitive information online, make sure you’re on a.gov or.

Mil site by inspecting your browser’s address bar.

This site is also protected by an SSL certificate that’s been signed by the U.S. government.

The https:// means all transmitted data is encrypted – in other words, any information or browsing history that you provide is transmitted securely.


The team made findings on rapid root growth in aquaponics systems and on closing the solid-waste loop and found that, owing to certain advantages in the system over traditional aquaculture, the system can run well at a low pH level, which is favored by plants but not fish.

Depending on the sophistication and cost of the aquaponics system, the units for solids removal, biofiltration, and/or the hydroponics subsystem may be combined into one unit or subsystem, which prevents the water from flowing directly from the aquaculture part of the system to the hydroponics part.

In an aquaponics system, the bacteria responsible for the conversion of ammonia to usable nitrates for plants form a biofilm on all solid surfaces throughout the system that are in constant contact with the water.

Ten primary guiding principles for creating successful aquaponics systems were issued by Dr. James Rakocy, the director of the aquaponics research team at the University of the Virgin Islands, based on extensive research done as part of the Agricultural Experiment Station aquaculture program.

EcoPonics is an aquaponics company based out of Iceland that is joining similar companies from Iceland, Denmark, and Spain to advocate for the implementation of commercial and competitive Aquaponics systems in European countries.

The Caribbean island of Barbados created an initiative to start aquaponics systems at home, called the aquaponic machine, with revenue generated by selling produce to tourists in an effort to reduce growing dependence on imported food.

Aquaponics in India aims to provide aspiring farmers with aquaponics solutions for commercial and backyard operation… North America Dakota College at Bottineau in Bottineau, North Dakota has an aquaponics program that gives students the ability to obtain a certificate or an AAS degree in aquaponics.

Oklahoma State University

The goal of this combined system is to simultaneously grow plants and fish in the same system.

Whichever the interest, it is a good idea to review and have an understanding of aquaculture, more specifically recirculating aquaculture systems, before creating an aquaponics system.

Since aquaponics systems have both fish and plants, the material needs to be non-toxic for the health of the system and for the health of the consumer.

To remove the chlorine, run the system for a couple of days; most of the chlorine will off-gas and be removed from the system.

Due to the nature of the system, many plants that do well in hydroponic systems can do well in aquaponics.

In a functioning aquaponics system, new supplemental nutrients do not need to be added as in other soilless systems.

Many of the nutrients may take some time before they build up to significant levels in the system, so when beginning an aquaponics system, it is important to choose plants that are not high nutrients users.

ScienceDirect Topics

Although aquaponic systems are mostly small scale and many of them are operated by hobbyists in urban areas, aquaponics technology has advanced significantly in the past decade.

Indonesia is a strong supporter of aquaponics, where a socioeconomic survey of 33 practitioners using aquaponics has been conducted noting the technical, social, and economic characteristics, as well as a nutrient composition study of aquaponic vegetables.

Interviews with the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries officials reveal that aquaponics has blossomed, starting from around 2011, although data on the total number of aquaponic farms in Indonesia are not available.

Negative effects were also reported from the adoption of the aquaponic systems, which included tension among household members over control/usage of the aquaponic system, increased overall workload, and loss of money.

The media bed hydroponic system, nutrient film technique and deep water culture are the most common hydroponic systems currently in use within aquaponics systems.

Despite the great potential and expansion of aquaponics, as an important method of food production, only a few studies have considered commercial-scale aquaponics production.

These results suggest that the aquaponics plants can act as a biofilter, and that NBF aquaponics system could be used for small-scale farmers in the tropics.

Get Aquaponic Systems And Aquaponics Training

Nelson and Pade, Inc.® provides aquaponic systems, training, and support to individuals, entrepreneurs, governments and schools who want food security, food quality, and a positive return on their investment.

Unlike traditional agriculture, we use 1/6 of the water to sustainably grow 8 times more food per acre, without the use of pesticides, herbicides, or chemical fertilizers, year ’round, in any climate.

Successful implementation of aquaponic projects leads to the availability of fresh fish and vegetables around the world.

The goal of Nelson and Pade, Inc.® is to provide aquaponic equipment, supplies, training, and support so that growers anywhere in the world can be successful in aquaponic food production.

With aquaponic systems in 30 countries, Nelson and Pade, Inc.® is having a positive impact on the availability of fresh food around the globe.

What Is Aquaponics And How Does It Work?

Aquaponics is a combination of aquaculture, which is growing fish and other aquatic animals, and hydroponics which is growing plants without soil.

Since aquaponics uses basically the same systems as hydroponics, there aren’t many differences in how the system works, except for the added fish in the water tank(s).

The fish used in this type of aquaculture are freshwater fish, most popular being tilapia and barramundi because they tolerate better diverse water conditions and they grow fast.

Avoid growing plants that need acidic or alkaline water, because those levels of pH can definitely harm the fish.

1) Aquaponics is a way to grow your own fish and vegetables at the same time.

You feed the fish and the fish will feed your plants through their waste output.

4) Keep food input constant for the fish and that will result in regular fish waste you can use to feed your plants.

13 DIY Aquaponics Systems To Suit Any Budget

Thankfully, the internet has allowed those who are gifted in the DIY department to share their ideas on how they built their own aquaponics structures.

Are you trying to grow as many of your own crops year-round as you can? Turning a shipping container into a greenhouse with an aquaponics system inside could be the way to go.

Do you have a larger budget to invest in an aquaponics greenhouse? This could be the project you need.

You can also use them in an easy DIY aquaponics system.

If you have a tank you could fill with water and fish and a few pieces of PVC pipe; you could easily have a PVC gravity fed aquaponics system.

I love aquaponics systems which can fit into almost any space and take only a few resources to bring the whole idea together.

You now have multiple ideas on how you can construct your own aquaponics system.

Post Idea #29: Boart Longyear

Related Articles – Summarized

Boart Longyear

High-quality, innovative tooling and drill rigs to keep your productivity promises.

Explore opportunities with the world’s largest drilling company.

Drilling Services Whether you need a mineral exploration drilling contractor, water services, or production drilling, you need a contractor with a rock solid reputation and a track record for safety and innovative solutions.

Boart Longyear has been operating safely with integrity and drilling with results since 1890.

We consistently deliver innovative solutions to the most technical drilling challenges, in some of the most complex operating environments around the world.

Products When you need high-quality, innovative tooling and drill rigs to keep your productivity promises, count on Boart Longyear to deliver when and where you need it.

Boart Longyear offers the most advanced technology, specifically engineered for long life and high performance while boasting world-class safety features.

Boart Longyear Jobs

SEARCH BOART LONGYEAR CAREERS Career Areas Imagine yourself working with the world’s largest Drilling company.

EHS. Safety is important to us here at Boart Longyear.

GDS. Geological Data Services is one of our innovative areas here at Boart.

MANUFACTURING. World class drilling products are produced in Boart Longyear manufacturing facilities.

The people of Boart Longyear are focused on driving exploration technology, building relationships with our key customers, and leveraging our unique products and service mix.

At Boart Longyear we believe that diversity means complimentary minds working together and when we achieve this, the result is a safer and more efficient place of work for us all.

The future of Boart Longyear will be one where we transform our workplace to make our tasks easier, safer and more appealing to a greater number of people.

Boart Longyear

In 1903, Longyear and John E. Hodge formed a partnership called Longyear and Hodge to expand their business, which included contract drilling, shaft-sinking, mineral ventures, and related consulting work.

In 1911, the Longyear and Hodge partnership merged with Longyear’s separate contract drilling company to E.J. Longyear Company.

On January 2, 1995, Boart International and the Longyear Company officially merged into a single company and changed its name to Boart Longyear Limited.

By October 2006, Advent sold Boart Longyear to the Australian investment firm, Macquarie Bank, and, in April 2007, Macquarie took Boart Longyear public in an A$2.3 billion IPO on the ASX stock exchange.

In early 2010 Boart Longyear continued to introduce new technology to the industry, drilling products include a heli-portable surface drill with integrated rod handling, patented surface set bit technology and patented spearpoint design for the corebarrel head assembly.

To better focus on its core business and align with its long-term strategy, Boart Longyear announced the sale of its Environmental and Infrastructure drilling services operations to Cascade Drilling, L.P. of Woodinville, Washington on July 15, 2013.

In August 2013, Boart Longyear founder, Edmund J. Longyear, was nominated for inclusion in the International Mining Hall of Fame.

Working At Boart Longyear: 169 Reviews

Of all the employees I met in the project I was assigned to, the vast majority were miserable, condescending and unarticulate.

Very few employees in the field seemed willing to be helpful.

Fellow employees were ever so eager to throw you under the bus, wether it was deserved, or not.

Management anticipates the high turnover, thus expecting employees coming and going very frequently.

You do have to have a certain mindset to stick it out, or be stuck in it, because of the money that can be made and some employee’s expenses that need to be met.

There were too many negatives about the lifestyle and fellow employees to make this an attractive job.

Supervision and management understand this and rely on the ever revolving pool of employees.

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Drilling Company To Exit Adelaide After Massive Debt Restructure

The company’s share price slumped almost 30 per cent on Thursday after it announced to the Australian Securities Exchange that it planned to convert $1.03 billion of its debts into equity, which will result in its lenders owning more than 98 per cent of the company’s shares when the recapitalisation is complete.

The company will maintain its listing on the ASX and investors will continue to have the ability to buy and sell shares.

Board Chair Kevin McArthur said the company had “Thoroughly investigated a number of strategic alternatives” over the past year.

The world’s largest integrated mineral exploration products and services company has reported losses of $127 million and $73 million for the past two calendar years.

Boart Longyear CEO Jeff Olsen said the company’s underlying business was still sound and the process would not affect day-to-day operations.

“Following the transaction, the Company will emerge with an improved balance sheet and an enhanced ability to execute on its growth objectives, as the minerals industry enters an improved commodity cycle.”

Established in 1890, Boart Longyear is in its 130th year as one of the world’s leading providers of drilling services, orebody-data-collection technology, and innovative, safe and productivity-driven drilling equipment.

Company Profile

Decent company, but as a service company a little unorganized.

Good place to work and can be very rewarding if you put in the effort, always have the proper tools for the job, wide variety of gear, good quality equipment, good wages, benefits and pension plan, inovative company, keeping up with the industry as it grows and becomes more competitive.

0 on the job training, the people that work there all fight with each other and are constantly stressed out, can’t ask questions without getting yelled at, very disorganized.

All in all a very chaotic and stressful work environment.

Questions and answersPeople have asked 22 questions about working at Boart Longyear.

See the answers, explore popular topics, and discover unique insights from Boart Longyear employees.

Common questions about Boart Longyear People also viewed.

Post Idea #30: Cloud Peak Energy

Related Articles – Summarized

Cloud Peak Energy

Cloud Peak Energy Inc. is a company headquartered in Gillette, Wyoming which mines coal in the Powder River Basin.

In its 2009 Annual Report Rio Tinto stated that it held a 48.3% stake in Cloud Peak Energy and its directly owned mines.

Cloud Peak Energy also has a 50% stake in the Decker Coal Company, which operates the Decker Mine in Montana.

According to The Guardian, Cloud Peak Energy Inc was responsible for 0.1% of global industrial greenhouse gas emissions from 1988-2015.

Big Metals Coal is a wholly owned subsidiary of Cloud Peak.

In the past Cloud Peak Energy has denied any ties to the climate denial movement.

Richard Reavey, a vice president for government and public affairs, has stated Cloud Peak Energy “Has never fought climate change – never fought it, never denied it or funded anyone who does.”

Cloud Peak Energy Stock Forecast, Price & News

Cloud Peak Energy Inc. produces coal in the Powder River Basin and the United States.

The company operates through Owned and Operated Mines, and Logistics and Related Activities.

It owns and operates three surface coal mines comprising the Antelope Mine and the Cordero Rojo Mine located in Wyoming; and the Spring Creek Mine located in Montana.

These mines produce subbituminous thermal coal with low sulfur content.

The company sells its coal primarily to domestic and foreign electric utilities.

The company also has two development projects comprising the Youngs Creek project, an undeveloped surface mine project located in Wyoming; and the Big Metal project located in southeast Montana.

Cloud Peak Energy Inc. was founded in 1993 and is headquartered in Gillette, Wyoming.

Cloud Peak Energy Careers And Employment

Mechanic in Douglas, WY.on November 8, 2021.It’s all about who you’re related to or close friends with here, that is what determines how good or bad you will be treated and how hard you’ll have to work NTEC is by far the worst management this mine site has ever had. Very long commute and you have to be on shift 12.5 hours unlike other mines you don’t get paid for the half hour lunch…. Equipment Operator in Antelope Mine.on July 16, 2020.All around a good place to work.

On June 3, 2020.My review of cloud peak is a good company to work for.

Questions and answersPeople have asked 11 questions about working at Cloud Peak Energy.

See the answers, explore popular topics and discover unique insights from Cloud Peak Energy employees.

Interview insightsInsights from 10 Indeed users who have interviewed with Cloud Peak Energy within the last 5 years.

Cloud Peak Energy locations What’s being discussed at Cloud Peak Energy?Select a topic to see what people are saying about different issues.

Explore work from home during COVID-19, remote work support and work-life balance.

Cloud Peak Energy Sale Closes, But Questions Remain

Cloud Peak Energy Inc. has successfully closed its sale of three coal mines to Navajo Transitional Energy Company, LLC. NTEC is owned, but not controlled by the Navajo Nation.

NTEC will pay the recently bankrupt coal company Cloud Peak $15.7 million upfront, with $40 million expected down the line, and royalty payments for the next five years on coal produced.

“With the acquisition of these mines, NTEC is thrilled to become a neighbor and important employer in Montana and Wyoming,” said President and CEO of NTEC Clark Moseley in a press release.

In September, NTEC released a report explaining its interest in Cloud Peak’s assets.

“The Navajo Nation has learned that certain sureties may seek to use the Nation’s prior limited consent to the NTEC General Indemnity Agreements, which consent was intended solely for the financial backing of surety bonds for the Nation,” it reads.

Clark Williams-Derry, energy finance analyst with the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, said, “The only reason NTEC was willing to make the bid on Cloud Peak assets when no one else was touching it [was] they thought they had a free pass from the Navajo Nation to cover the whole cost of the surety bonds. No one else could get that.”

A story today published in the Navajo Times explained NTEC was deliberately created for the nation’s pursuit of energy independence.

Sale Of Cloud Peak’S PRB Mines To NTEC Is Final

While much of the Powder River Basin’s coal industry was monitoring a U.S. Bankruptcy Court hearing in West Virginia on Wednesday, another bankruptcy court was quietly approving the sale of Cloud Peak Energy’s three active Powder River Basin coal mines to Navajo Transitional Energy.

Judge Kevin Gross of the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware signed an order Wednesday giving final approval of the sale of the Antelope and Cordero Rojo mines in Campbell County and Spring Creek mine in Montana.

“As a company, we have a solid record of returning mines to profitability and doing so as an industry leader in safety and reclamation.”

The Native corporation based in Farmington, New Mexico, will take over mines that employ about 1,200 people and pay about $230 million annually in federal and state taxes and royalties.

NTEC was selected as the winning bidder for Cloud Peak’s major assets in an August bankruptcy sale.

Navajo Transitional Energy is buying the mines, along with the Sequatchie Valley reclamation project, for $15.7 million cash to be paid as a deposit upon closing the sale.

He also said that the company buying all of Cloud Peak’s operational mines is a good sign the corporation plans to continue mining coal in the Powder River Basin.

Cloud Peak’S Bankruptcy: The Winners And Losers

Cloud Peak Energy, the coal giant that operates three massive mines in Montana and Wyoming, officially declared bankruptcy on May 10.

Bankruptcy cancels debts and shreds IOUs, so if Cloud Peak owes you money, there’s a good chance you won’t get it back.

It may seem strange, but the management team that drove Cloud Peak into a ditch will emerge from the bankruptcy process not merely unscathed, but rich.

First, the same people who drove Cloud Peak into insolvency will see a big payday during the bankruptcy process.

Last year, the company likely made additional payments to the “Strategic alternatives” advisors over at J.P. Morgan-a team that tried to market Cloud Peak to 21 potential buyers without a lick of success, other than a single bid that Cloud Peak deemed too risky.

Cloud Peak’s tenuous financial position raises the specter that Cloud Peak’s asset auction, currently scheduled for June 26, won’t raise a lot of cash.

The bottom pool of the bankruptcy waterfall consists of Cloud Peak’s ordinary shareholders.

Post Idea #31: Value chain

Related Articles – Summarized

Value Chain Definition

A value chain is a business model that describes the full range of activities needed to create a product or service.

For companies that produce goods, a value chain comprises the steps that involve bringing a product from conception to distribution, and everything in between-such as procuring raw materials, manufacturing functions, and marketing activities.

Because of ever-increasing competition for unbeatable prices, exceptional products, and customer loyalty, companies must continually examine the value they create in order to retain their competitive advantage.

A value chain can help a company to discern areas of its business that are inefficient, then implement strategies that will optimize its procedures for maximum efficiency and profitability.

In his concept of a value chain, Porter splits a business’s activities into two categories, “Primary” and “Support,” whose sample activities we list below.

Trader Joe’s Another example is privately held grocery store Trader Joe’s, which also has received much press about its tremendous value and competitive edge.

When you enter a Trader Joe’s store, you can readily observe instances of Trader Joe’s business that reflect the five primary activities of the value chain.

Overview, How To Implement, Advantages

Value chain analysis is a focus on the internal activities of a business to gain an understanding of the costs of the business and how different activities can add value to its product.

In addition to the five primary activities, there are also secondary activities that support the operations within certain primary activities.

Identify the secondary activities for each primary activity.

Direct activities – Activities that individually help create value.

Indirect activities – Activities that help direct activities function more smoothly.

Support activities such as accounting and human resources determine the sub-activities that provide value to the primary activities.

How does accounting add value to a primary activity such as operations or logistics?

What Is A Value Chain?

A value chain is the combination of activities a business undertakes to move a product or service along its life cycle, including design, marketing, distribution, and customer support.

The goal of using the value chain is to create an operationally strong combination of activities that bring about higher sales prices at lower costs to the business.

Analyzing your company’s value chain allows you to increase value at each stage in the chain so you can deliver a stronger product, impress customers, and build more profit.

Starbucks uses the value chain to identify its most and least costly activities, then uses this information to make changes, create more value for the customer, and create more profit for the business.

A value chain details the activities, workers, and suppliers that take a product or service from concept to distribution.

The chain is made up of primary and secondary activities that affect a product’s value to both the customer and the company.

Your business’s manufacturing and distribution process may fall into one of two distinct types of value chains: a typical value chain or a global value chain.

Value Chain

A firm’s value chain forms a part of a larger stream of activities, which Porter calls a value system.

A value system, or an industry value chain, includes the suppliers that provide the inputs necessary to the firm along with their value chains.

Value chain analysis has also been employed in the development sector as a means of identifying poverty reduction strategies by upgrading along the value chain.

The industry wide synchronized interactions of those local value chains create an extended value chain, sometimes global in extent.

A value chain approach could also offer a meaningful alternative to evaluate private or public companies when there is a lack of publicly known data from direct competition, where the subject company is compared with, for example, a known downstream industry to have a good feel of its value by building useful correlations with its downstream companies.

The central element in the ITIL Service Value System is the Service Value Chain.

Once value has been analysed and the contributing parts of the organisation have been identified, other models can be used in conjunction with the value chain to assess how these areas can either be improved or capitalised upon.

What Is A Value Chain And Why Is It Important?

A value chain is a concept describing the full chain of a business’s activities in the creation of a product or service – from the initial reception of materials all the way through its delivery to market, and everything in between.

The value chain framework is made up of five primary activities – inbound operations, operations, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, service – and four secondary activities – procurement and purchasing, human resource management, technological development and company infrastructure.

A value chain analysis can reveal linkages, dependencies and other patterns in the value chain.

The value chain framework helps organizations identify and group their own business functions into primary and secondary activities.

When an organization applies the value chain concept to its own activities, it is called a value chain analysis.

A value chain analysis can offer important benefits; however, when emphasizing granular process details in a value chain, it’s important to still give proper attention to an organization’s broader strategy.

A value chain analysis is a process that helps organizations understand points in their value chain, as well as relationships between these different points.

The Value Chain Of Porter

A value chain is a business model that describes the process or activities required by companies to add value to a product or service.

A value chain refers to all business activities which increase the value of the finished product or service in the eyes of the customer.

The example here below explains how basic value offered by a traditional supply chain can have added value by performing value chain.

Value chain analysis is a continuous process of identifying and evaluating the primary and supporting activities, required to add value at each step the product flows, to create value for customers.

Porter laid down the concept of the value chain by splitting the value chain analysis into two activities that are primary and secondary.

Now you know everything about the value chain! You discovered what a value chain is, its connection to a supply chain, what entails Michael Porter’s value chain analysis, and why it is vital for every business.

In short, the value chain consists of all activities that increase the value of a product or service.

4 Examples Of A Value Chain

A value chain is a sequence of activities that each adds value to a product, service or experience.

Any business model that is not part of a value chain can be considered rent seeking as it adds no value.

The following are illustrative examples of a value chain.

At the highest level, the production of a product typically has the following value chain.

The ecommerce value chain for sales of physical products.

The value chain for SaaS is mostly about technology with a thin layer of marketing and customer service.

There may be an attempt to automate this layer of the value chain too with a combination of digital advertising and ecommerce capabilities.

Post Idea #32: Solvay S.A.

Related Articles – Summarized

Solvay S.A.

Solvay is a Belgian multinational chemical company established in 1863, with its headquarters located in Neder-Over-Heembeek, Brussels, Belgium.

Founded in 1863 by Ernest Solvay and his brother Alfred Solvay to produce sodium carbonate by the Solvay process, the company has diversified into two main sectors of activity: chemicals and plastics.

Before World War I, Solvay was the largest multinational company in the world.

Following its integration with Rhodia, the Committee of Executive Members at Solvay reorganised its various business units into five segments – Consumer Chemicals, Advanced Materials, Performance Chemicals, Functional Polymers and Corporate & Business Services, effective from 2013.

The company is a supporter of the Solvay Conferences that were started by Ernest Solvay in 1911.

On December 3, 2015, Solvay launched a share issue sent to existing shareholders, completing funding for the $5.5 billion purchase of Cytec Industries Inc. The company’s head office is located in Brussels, Belgium.

Solvay Specialty Polymers USA, LLC is currently under litigation for its per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances contamination of water sources and soil.

Company History

1967: Company is incorporated as Solvay & Cie S.A. 1971: Solvay’s shares are placed for sale on the public market for the first time; company adopts a more modern management structure, with top management positions opened up to executives from outside the founding family.

Although they are no longer involved in the direct management, members of the Solvay family continue to have a substantial ownership interest in the company through a 26 percent stake held by Solvac S.A., a publicly traded Belgian holding company controlled by the family.

Many European firms have been forced into similar changes by economic necessity, but Solvay managers said they chose their own time, when the changes made were able to provide significant benefits to the company.

The changes in Solvay’s management kept the company financially healthy through the late 1970s when, under the leadership of Jacques Solvay, a great-grandson of the founder, it was acknowledged as the European leader in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride.

In a historic development, Michielsen, a 28-year company veteran, became the first person from outside the founding Solvay family to head up the company.

The resulting Houston-based entity, BP Solvay Polyethylene North America, also took over Solvay’s interest in the two HDPE plants being built with Chevron Phillips Chemical Company.

As part of the deal with BP, Solvay had the right to exit from the joint ventures in late 2004, and industry observers widely expected the company to do just that.

Solvay, Rehau Suspend Russian Operations

Officials noted that Russia “In particular, where we have been present for many years, is an important market for us. We hope that the situation will soon change in such a way that we can resume our activities in both countries.”

“Our priority now is the safety of our colleagues and their families in Ukraine and those that are leaving the country,” Rehaus officials said.

They added that Rehau began preparing possible contingency plans some time ago and that “Concrete help” is underway at various levels, including an emergency aid fund – Family for Families – which has been endowed by the company with “a significant sum” to provide immediate assistance and to support reconstruction.

Rehau also has set up an account for donations from its 20,000 employees worldwide.

Rehau has annual sales of more than 4 billion euros, making plastic products for automotive, construction, furniture and other markets.

The firm’s Americas headquarters is in Lynchburg, Va. It makes PVC windows and doors for the building and construction industry, injection molded bumper fascia and spoilers for the auto industry, cross-linked polyethylene pipes and other functional parts.

Post Idea #33: Taiyo Yuden

Related Articles – Summarized

Taiyo Yuden

Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd. is a Japanese materials and electronics company, situated in Kyobashi, Chuo, Tokyo, that helped pioneer recordable CD technology along with Sony and Philips in 1988.

In June 2015, Taiyo Yuden announced its intention to discontinue its recording media business by December of that year, citing market shrinkage, changing market conditions, difficulty while improving earnings and a hike in the cost of raw materials.

In 1987, START Lab Inc. was founded as a joint venture between Sony Corporation and Taiyo Yuden Co., Ltd. for the CD-R recording media business in Japan.

In October 2008, JVC and Taiyo Yuden set up a new joint venture, called Victor Advanced Media.

On June 11, 2015, Taiyo Yuden announced that it will withdraw from the recording media business, including CDs, DVDs, BDs, at the end of 2015.

Rebranded Taiyo Yuden media could be found under Fujifilm, Fusion, Maxell by December of that year.

Taiyo Yuden sold its disc manufacturing patents and equipment to CMC Magnetics, and today the media is manufactured by CMC under the CMC Pro brand.

Post Idea #34: Murata Manufacturing

Related Articles – Summarized

Murata Manufacturing Solutions

Murata’s qualified connectivity modules combining the excellence in module manufacturing with a large and diversified products portfolio, together with AWS cloud excellence powered by over 175 services and a dedicated IoT Core platform – providing scalability, security, analytics and device management services, accelerate and simplify the journey to develop IoT devices and end-to-end solutions.

Accelerating the AI & IOT solutions enriching our lives.

Google combined Murata’s compact package technology and Google’s own Edge TPU chip enabling power-efficient and high-performance machine learning inference to create a new compact AI module.

VitaNet and Murata join forces to utilize Murata Bluetooth® module with QR code to convert industrial components to IoT. Cloud is enabled to directly control Bluetooth® device by reading QR code to identify a device.

Locix’s patented LPS technology and Murata’s WiFi module combine to provide breakthrough performance even in the most dynamic, challenging environments.

Evaluation kit solution for Wi-Fi and Bluetooth🄬 modules for microcomputers equipped with real-time OS. Equipped ST Microelectronics wireless LAN provides a turnkey solution which supports realization of applications utilizing wireless networks.

Low power consumption wireless LAN solution integrated with an MCU which can be selected according to the Wi-FIR module and system for integrated devices.

Murata Manufacturing

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. is a Japanese manufacturer of electronic components, based in Nagaokakyo, Kyoto.

Honorary Chairman Akira Murata started Murata Manufacturing as a personal venture in October, 1944.

In December 1950 reorganized the company into Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. with paid-in Capital ¥1 million.

Murata Manufacturing is primarily involved in the manufacturing of ceramic passive electronic components, primarily capacitors, and has an overwhelming marketshare worldwide in ceramic filters, high-frequency parts, and sensors.

Murata conducts research on new technology related to RF components, which has led it to acquire many patents.

Murata holds several patents and patent applications for technology related to ceramic capacitors.

Murata Machinery, an industrial machines manufacturer that is often confused with Murata Manufacturing.

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. engages in research, production and sale of electronic devices made from fine ceramics.

It operates through the following segments: Components, Modules, and Others.

The Components division offers multilayer ceramic capacitors, SAW filters, ceramic resonators, piezoelectric sensors, ceramic filters, piezoelectric buzzers, short-range wireless communication modules, Bluetooth modules and others.

The Modules segment provides communication modules, power supplies,.

The Others segment handles employee welfares, staffing, education and training, and facility maintenance services, including operational software for affiliates.

The company was founded by Akira Murata in October 1944 and is headquartered in Nagaokakyo, Japan.

Murata Manufacturing Stock Forecast, Price & News

Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd. engages in research, production and sale of electronic devices made from fine ceramics.

It operates through the following segments: Components, Modules, and Others.

The Components division offers multilayer ceramic capacitors, SAW filters, ceramic resonators, piezoelectric sensors, ceramic filters, piezoelectric buzzers, short-range wireless communication modules, Bluetooth modules and others.

The Modules segment provides communication modules, power supplies, multilayer ceramic devices, connectors, isolators, circuit modules, EMIsuppression filters, inductors, sensors and lithium ion batteries.

The Others segment handles the employee welfares, staffing, education and training, and facility maintenance services, including operational software for affiliates.

The company was founded by Akira Murata in October 1944 and is headquartered in Nagaokakyo, Japan.

Mysterious Device Appeared On My LAN

From time to time I scan my home LAN to check that all the IP addresses are as expected and to see if there are any anomalies.

MAC Address: 00:13:E0:9B:11:69Warning: OSScan results may be unreliable because we could not find at least 1 open and 1 closed port.

Unless I’ve got a huge gap in my memory, this doesn’t in any way correspond to anything known to be connected to my LAN. I should explain that this is a mixed wired/wireless LAN. There is no security on the wireless part, but as our house is way out in the country with no other regularly inhabited house within 300m, I’ve always taken a relaxed view of the likelihood of somebody using my wireless connection.

Normally there are 2-3 Windows PCs + 2 Linux servers on the wired LAN, plus 1-2 laptops and an iPhone, plus a Netgear router/modem, plus a simple switch.

Post Idea #35: Vishay Intertechnology

Related Articles – Summarized

Vishay Intertechnology, Inc.

Vishay Intertechnology, Inc., a Fortune 1000 Company listed on the NYSE, is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of discrete semiconductors and passive electronic components.

These components are used in virtually all types of electronic devices and equipment, in the industrial, computing, automotive, consumer, telecommunications, military, aerospace, power supplies, and medical markets.

Vishay’s product innovations, successful acquisition strategy, and “One-stop shop” service have made it a global industry leader.

Vishay Intertechnology

Vishay Intertechnology, Inc. is an American manufacturer of discrete semiconductors and passive electronic components founded by Polish-born businessman Felix Zandman.

Vishay Intertechnology revenues for 2018 were $3.035 billion.

As of December 31, 2018, Vishay Intertechnology had approximately 24,100 full-time employees.

Vishay is one of the world’s foremost manufacturers of power MOSFETs.

Vishay Precision Group represents approximately 9% of Vishay annual revenue, and included their product lines in Bulk Metal Foil Resistors, micro-measurements, load cells, process weighing, and on-board weighing.

Since 1985, Vishay has pursued a business strategy that principally consists of the following elements: expanding within the electronic components industry, primarily through the acquisition of other manufacturers of electronic components; reducing expenses; transferring manufacturing operations to countries with lower labor costs and government-sponsored incentives; maintaining significant production facilities in regions where Vishay markets the bulk of its products; continually rolling out new products; and strengthening relationships with customers and strategic partners.

Some of the manufacturers that Vishay has acquired include HiRel Systems, the resistor business of Huntington Electric, the wet tantalum capacitor business of KEMET, the PCS business of International Rectifier, BCcomponents, General Semiconductor, the infrared components business of Infineon, Mallory, and Tansitor, Cera-Mite, Electro-Films, and Spectrol, Siliconix and Telefunken, Vitramon, Roederstein, Sprague, Sfernice, Draloric, and Dale.

Vishay Intertechnology Stock Moves -0.05%: What You Should Know

Vishay Intertechnology closed at $18.55 in the latest trading session, marking a -0.05% move from the prior day.

Wall Street will be looking for positivity from Vishay Intertechnology as it approaches its next earnings report date.

Based on our research, we believe these estimate revisions are directly related to near-team stock moves.

The Zacks Rank system, which ranges from #1 to #5, has an impressive outside-audited track record of outperformance, with #1 stocks generating an average annual return of +25% since 1988.

Vishay Intertechnology currently has a Zacks Rank of #3.Valuation is also important, so investors should note that Vishay Intertechnology has a Forward P/E ratio of 7.64 right now.

The Zacks Industry Rank includes is listed in order from best to worst in terms of the average Zacks Rank of the individual companies within each of these sectors.

Just Released: Zacks’ 7 Best Stocks for Today Experts extracted 7 stocks from the list of 220 Zacks Rank #1 Strong Buys that has beaten the market more than 2X over with a stunning average gain of +25.4% per year.

Earnings Trend: VSH’s earnings have grown significantly by 24.7% per year over the past 5 years.

Notable Dividend: VSH’s dividend is higher than the bottom 25% of dividend payers in the US market.

High Dividend: VSH’s dividend is low compared to the top 25% of dividend payers in the US market.

Stable Dividend: Whilst dividend payments have been stable, VSH has been paying a dividend for less than 10 years.

Growing Dividend: VSH’s dividend payments have increased, but the company has only paid a dividend for 8 years.

VSH’s dividend payments are well covered by earnings.

Future Dividend Coverage: VSH’s dividends in 3 years are forecast to be well covered by earnings.

Post Idea #36: The Chemours Company

Related Articles – Summarized


Chemours is protecting the health and safety of our employees and supporting local heroes of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Looking for a safety data sheet? Meet Our New CEO Recently appointed CEO, Mark E. Newman, talks about the future of Chemours and why he sees a bright future ahead for the company.

Chemours is making a more colorful, capable, cleaner world through the power of chemistry.

Newly appointed CEO, Mark E. Newman, talks about the future of Chemours and why he sees a bright future ahead for the company.

Chemours Announces First Quarter Dividend The Chemours Company, a global chemistry company with leading market positions in Titanium Technologies, Thermal & Specialized Solutions, Advanced Performance Materials, and Chemical Solutions, announced today that the Board of Directors of Chemours declared a quarterly cash dividend of $0.25 per share on the company’s common stock for the first quarter of 2022.

Chemours Appoints Guillaume Pepy to Board of Directors The Chemours Company, a global chemistry company with leading market positions in Titanium Technologies, Thermal & Specialized Solutions, Advanced Performance Materials, and Chemical Solutions, announces the appointment of Guillaume Pepy to its board of directors.

Chemours Washington Works Nature Trail Achieves “Certified Gold” Status by the Wildlife Habitat Council Excellent wildlife habitat, miles of networked trails, and community education programs are part of Chemours’ commitment to the community.


The Chemours Company, commonly referred to as Chemours, is an American chemical company that was founded in July 2015 as a spin-off from DuPont.

In October 2013, DuPont announced that it was planning to spin off its “Performance chemicals” business into a new publicly traded company in mid-2015.

DuPont filed its initial Form 10 with the SEC in December 2014 and announced that the new company would be called “The Chemours Company”.

The spin-off to DuPont shareholders was completed on July 1, 2015, and Chemours’ stock began trading on the New York Stock Exchange on the same date.

Chemours has assumed various liabilities arising from lawsuits against DuPont.

Chemours’ plant in Bladen County, North Carolina, was found to be dumping vast quantities of a chemical dubbed “GenX”, a precursor of Teflon, into the Cape Fear River.

Chemours manufactures and sells performance chemicals falling within three segments: Titanium Technologies; Fluoroproducts; and Chemical Solutions.

West Virginia Department Of Economic Development Website

The products produced at Chemours Washington Works-the company’s largest fluoroproducts manufacturing site- enable the continued safety and growth of the construction, semiconductor, automotive, aerospace, and household goods industries, among others.

Those products include: Capstone™ repellents; Teflon™ FEP, PFA, and PTFE resins; Teflon™ industrial and nonstick coatings; TFE and HFP monomers.

The 723-acre Belle site is situated along the Kanawha River and has manufactured various specialty and agricultural products since 1926.

Here Is Why The Chemours Company Stock Volatility Recorded Over The Last Month Was 5.23% – Invest Chronicle

The Chemours Company, a global chemistry company with leading market positions in Titanium Technologies, Thermal & Specialized Solutions, Advanced Performance Materials, and Chemical Solutions, today announced it has suspended business with Russian entities in response to the ongoing military conflict and humanitarian crisis.

The 1-year high price for the company’s stock is recorded $36.97 on 02/10/22, with the lowest value was $22.56 for the same time period, recorded on 03/08/22.

The Chemours Company full year performance was -5.37%. Price records that include history of low and high prices in the period of 52 weeks can tell a lot about the stock’s existing status and the future performance.

Presently, The Chemours Company shares are logging -33.42% during the 52-week period from high price, and 14.72% higher than the lowest price point for the same timeframe.

In a similar fashion, The Chemours Company posted a movement of -16.22% for the period of last 100 days, recording 1,559,100 in trading volumes.

Raw Stochastic average of The Chemours Company in the period of last 50 days is set at 23.04%. The result represents improvement in oppose to Raw Stochastic average for the period of the last 20 days, recording 23.04%. In the last 20 days, the company’s Stochastic %K was 17.05% and its Stochastic %D was recorded 9.94%. Now, considering the stocks previous presentation, multiple moving trends are noted.

Year-to-date Price performance of the company’s stock appears to be encouraging, given the fact the metric is recording -22.88%. Additionally, trading for the stock in the period of the last six months notably deteriorated by -18.13%, alongside a downfall of -5.37% for the period of the last 12 months.

On September 27, 2017, the Toxics Programs Branch mailed an inspection notice to the Washington Works Facility confirming the inspection date and requesting that certain records be made available for review during the inspection.

2.2 Inspection Entry The final inspection team included all the planned inspection team members as follows: Lauren O. Davis Scott Rice Verne George TSCA Lead Inspector TSCA Co-inspector TSCA Co-inspector Daryl Hudson Dan-Tam Nguyen TSCA Co-inspector TSCA Co-inspector On October 17, 2017, the inspection team arrived at the facility security office at approximately 8:50 am.

Ms. Davis explained the TSCA Inspection Confidentiality Notice and stated that to ensure confidentiality of documents provided by Washington Works Facility, Chemours must make a TSCA CBI claim as documents are provided to EPA. Ms. Davis also stated that no documents claimed by Chemours to contain TSCA CBI would be taken by the inspectors at the conclusion of the inspection.

The inspection team requested such information to be sent to the EPA and ERG after the inspection.

Introduction The findings discussed below are based on statements and observations made during the inspection and based on information provided by Chemours before and after the inspection.

3.7.3 Recordkeeping The Consent Order states that DuPont/Chemours “Shall maintain records until 5 years after the date created and shall make them available for inspection and copying by the EPA in accordance with Section 11 of TSCA.” The records associated with Chemours compliance with the Consent Order and other sections of TSCA were requested during the inspection and were either provided during the inspection or following the TSCA NEC Inspection Report The Chemours Company – Washington Works Report Date: July 31, 2018 Page 29 of 79 inspection.

3.7.4 Request for Pre-inspection Information The Consent Order states that the EPA may conduct compliance inspections of DuPont/Chemours facilities and conveyances associated with the and , and that the EPA may contact DuPont/Chemours “In advance to request information pertinent to the scheduling and contact of such inspections.” Prior to the inspection, the EPA did contact Chemours to schedule the inspection and provided information requests as part of the NOI letter.

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