29 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-15

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-15.

The automated system gathers resources for each breakout keyword, making it much easier to write blog articles on hot-topics quickly. Use this tool to climb the SEO ladder for free!

Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Hard disk drive

Related Articles – Summarized

Hard Disk Drive

A hard disk drive, hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk is an electro-mechanical data storage device that stores and retrieves digital data using magnetic storage and one or more rigid rapidly rotating platters coated with magnetic material.

The worst type of errors are silent data corruptions which are errors undetected by the disk firmware or the host operating system; some of these errors may be caused by hard disk drive malfunctions while others originate elsewhere in the connection between the drive and the host.

Modern hard disk drives appear to their host controller as a contiguous set of logical blocks, and the gross drive capacity is calculated by multiplying the number of blocks by the block size.

Integrated Drive Electronics, later standardized under the name AT Attachment (ATA, with the alias PATA retroactively added upon introduction of SATA) moved the HDD controller from the interface card to the disk drive.

A SATA hard drive can be connected to and controlled by a SAS hard drive controller.

When the logic board of a hard disk fails, the drive can often be restored to functioning order and the data recovered by replacing the circuit board with one of an identical hard disk.

As of March 2015, available capacities for external hard disk drives ranged from 500 GB to 10 TB. External hard disk drives are usually available as assembled integrated products but may be also assembled by combining an external enclosure with a separately purchased drive.

What Is A Hard Drive?

How is a hard drive connected to a computer? An internal hard drive connects to the computer using two means: a data cable to the motherboard and a power cable to the power supply.

Where is the hard drive found in a computer? All primary computer hard drives are found inside a computer case and are attached to the computer motherboard using an ATA, SCSI, or SATA cable.

What are the sizes of hard drives? The hard drive is often capable of storing more data than any other drive, but its size can vary depending on the type of drive and its age.

Older hard drives had a storage size of several hundred MB to several GB. Newer hard drives have a storage size of several hundred gigabytes to several TB. Each year, new and improved technology allows for increasing hard drive storage sizes.

External and internal hard drives Although most hard drives are internal, there are also stand-alone devices called external hard drives or portable hard drives that backup data on computers and expand the available space.

History of the hard drive The first hard drive was introduced to the market by IBM on September 13, 1956.

Seagate also introduced the first 10,000 RPM hard drive in 1996 and the first 15,000 RPM hard drive in 2000.

What Is A Hard Disk Drive? Definition From SearchStorage

A computer hard disk drive is a non-volatile data storage device.

More specifically, hard disk drives control the reading and writing of the hard disk that provides data storage.

A hard disk drive – often shortened to hard drive – and hard disk are not the same things, but they are packaged as a unit and either term can refer to the whole unit.

Most basic hard drives consist of several disk platters – a circular disk made of either aluminum, glass or ceramic – that are positioned around a spindle inside a sealed chamber.

Hard disk drive components include the spindle, disk platter, actuator, actuator arm and read/write head. Even though the term can refer to the unit as a whole, the term hard disk is the set of stacked disks – in other words, the part of the HDD that stores and provides access to data on an electromagnetically charged surface.

Firmware failure happens when the software that performs the maintenance tasks on a drive and enables the hard disk to communicate with a computer becomes corrupted or stops working properly.

Helium is less dense, cooler and lighter than air, consumes less power, increases drive density and improves performance compared to traditional hard disk drives.

External Hard Drives & SSDs

From portable hard drives to SSD external hard drives.

Whether you need Android backup or advanced security, you get chic design, quick USB-C, USB 3.0, and Windows/Mac compatibility.

Contemporary design, swift USB 3.0 transfers, abundant capacities, automatic backup, plus sweet photo and video apps.

Get capacities up to 5TB, high-speed USB 3.0 compatibility, automatic backup options, and portability.

Get capacities up to 2TB, easy and quick backup capabilities, access to Mylio Create, and compact and portable size.

Get capacities up to 5TB, simple drag-and-drop backup, PC compatibility, and a lightweight, compact design.

Massive capacities, high-speed USB 3.0 compatibility, USB 3.0 Hub and automatic backup option.

Recover Files From Hard Drive

Usually, you can use some native computer features to help you fix the hard drive and use a free hard drive recovery tool to help you recover hard disk data.

The hard disk recovery tool is the free software to help you recover lost files from the hard drive for free.

The hard drive recovery software is free with a certain amount of data you can recover data from the hard drive.

Now, to recover files from hard drive, select the hard disk where you wish to recover data and click “Start” to proceed.

When files get lost, what you need to recover your files from the hard drive is a disk recovery tool built for tracking the files that were deleted and restoring them.

You just need to recover data from hard drives with a reliable free hard disk recovery tool, which can also give you support for damaged hard drive recovery, crashed external hard disk data recovery as well as formatted hard disk recovery.

The hard drive is represented on screen as a virtual disc drive that works as segments of the hard drive.

Post Idea #2: Luggage carrier

Related Articles – Summarized

Amazon.Com: Luggage Carrier

Need extra storage space for a hiking adventure, vacation, or road trip? The best rooftop cargo carrier for you will depend on your vehicle and storage needs.

We’ve tested several options, and we’ll provide a roundup of our top picks in this review.

Luggage Carrier

A luggage carrier, also commonly called a rack, is a device attached to a bicycle to which cargo or panniers can be attached.

Bicycle luggage carriers may be mounted on the front or rear of a bicycle.

The term luggage carrier can also refer to a device with two wheels used to wheel luggage or something of similar weight from one place to another, similar to a dolly but lighter and usually able to be folded up.

Luggage carriers can be mounted on recumbents and on folding bicycles, but may require customization or additional hardware.

A common type of child seat designed for carrying an infant on a bicycle mounts to a rear luggage carrier.

Some models of child seat are not attached to a luggage carrier but are fixed to the seat tube.

Such as longtail bicycles, porteur bicycles, or the Dutch typical transportfiet, may be built with an integrated front or rear luggage carrier.

Post Idea #3: Gerhard Schröder

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Gerhard Schröder

Gerhard Fritz Kurt Schröder; born 7 April 1944) is a German retired politician, consultant, and lobbyist, who served as the chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005.

On 22 May 2005, after the SPD lost to the Christian Democrats in North Rhine-Westphalia, Gerhard Schröder announced he would call federal elections “As soon as possible”.

On election night, both Schröder and Merkel claimed victory and chancellorship, but after initially ruling out a grand coalition with Merkel, Schröder and Müntefering entered negotiations with her and the CSU’s Edmund Stoiber.

Bush stated in his memoirs that Schröder initially promised to support the Iraq war but changed his mind with the upcoming German elections and public opinion strongly against the invasion, to which Schröder responded saying that Bush was “Not telling the truth”.

In his memoirs Decisions: My Life in Politics, Schröder still defends his friend and political ally, and states that “It would be wrong to place excessive demands on Russia when it comes to the rate of domestic political reform and democratic development, or to judge it solely on the basis of the Chechnya conflict.” Schröder’s continued close connection to Vladimir Putin and his government after his chancellorship has been widely criticized in Germany.

As Chancellor, Gerhard Schröder was a strong advocate of the Nord Stream pipeline project, which planned to supply Russian gas directly to Germany, thereby bypassing transit countries.

In an editorial entitled Gerhard Schroeder’s Sellout, the American newspaper The Washington Post also expressed sharp criticism, reflecting widening international ramifications of Schröder’s new post.

Schröder Presses On With Ukraine Peace Bid After ‘Intense’ Meeting With Putin – POLITICO

Ex-German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder has continued his unlikely mission to broker peace between Russia and Ukraine in recent days, meeting with top officials on both sides of the conflict from Moscow to Istanbul.

After meeting with Putin on Thursday in the Kremlin, Schröder sat down Friday morning with Vladimir Medinsky, the Russian leader’s chief negotiator in cease-fire talks with Ukraine, according to the person close to the former chancellor.

Over the weekend, Schröder then traveled to Istanbul, where he met on Sunday with Rustem Umerov, a Ukrainian MP and member of his country’s delegation in peace talks with the Russians.

The German government has not authorized Schröder’s role as a go-between and expressed surprise after learning about it following a POLITICO report on his mission last week.

While Schröder’s shuttle diplomacy hasn’t yielded any immediate results, such as a hoped-for cease-fire, the one-time German leader believes his relationship with Putin and lack of a formal mandate from any government – including his own – allows him to play a unique role as an elder statesman outside normal diplomatic channels.

Schröder worked as an international consultant for Ringier for more than 15 years, but the publisher ended the relationship amid the recent controversy surrounding Schröder’s refusal to relinquish his board seats on Russian energy companies after Moscow’s invasion of Ukraine.

Ringier Chief Executive Marc Walder agreed to link the Ukrainian side with Schröder and facilitate their first meeting in Istanbul last week.

The former German chancellor Gerhard Schröder, whose close ties to the Kremlin have made him an increasingly isolated figure in his own country, has gone to Moscow to try to persuade President Putin to end the war in Ukraine.

Schröder is said to have been recruited as a “Bridge for dialogue with Putin” by a member of Ukraine’s delegation of peace negotiators.

Jan Böhmermann, a well-known satirist, wrote on Twitter: “Let’s see if Vladimir Putin can save Gerhard Schröder’s arse.”

On the first day of the onslaught on Ukraine, Schröder said it was Russia’s responsibility to end the war “As soon as possible”.

The political scientist Heinz Brandenburg tweeted: “He is not and cannot be a mediator … He is Putin’s lackey who’ll be appealing for his income source to be salvaged.” Andrew Gathorpe, a politics professor, called it “One last desperate gambit by Schröder to turn back the clock and prove that Schröder was right all along.”

Scholz warned dryly that Schröder “Speaks only for himself and not for the government.” After weeks of criticism, the former chancellor finally made a statement last week on his LinkedIn page, saying that “Russia must end the war in Ukraine.”

Mützenich reserved harsh words for Putin, calling him a “War criminal.” Putin was once described by Schröder as “Flawless democrat.”

German Ex-Chancellor Schroeder Spoke To Putin For Hours On Thurs Night -Newspaper

Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder is pictured during an interview with Reuters in his office in Berlin, Germany, November 15, 2018.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comBERLIN, March 12 – Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder met Russian President Vladimir Putin for several hours on Thursday evening in a bid to end the war in Ukraine, Germany’s Bild am Sonntag reported, although it was unclear what was achieved.

Citing a person with detailed insight into Schroeder’s activities, the weekly newspaper said Schroeder had also had a long talk with one of Putin’s closest advisers.

Register now for FREE unlimited access to Reuters.comThe former chancellor, who is a personal friend of Putin and has links to Russian companies, had met a group of Ukrainians with links to the country’s delegation for peace talks with Russia in Turkey on Monday evening, reported BamS.The source told BamS that Schroeder was currently the only person to have had direct contact with both Putin and top Ukrainian officials.

News website Politico first reported that Schroeder was flying to Moscow for talks with Putin, and German government sources said it had not agreed to any meeting nor been involved in one.

Scholz, who travels to Turkey on Monday, spoke to Putin in a three-way phone call with French President Emmanuel Macron on Saturday.

Schroeder, Social Democrat chancellor from 1998 to 2005, is on the board of Russian oil giant Rosneft and is chairman of the shareholders’ committee of the company in charge of building the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, which has been shelved.

Former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder Loses Entire Staff After Refusing To Resign From Russian Energy Company Boards

The entire staff of Gerhard Schroeder, the former German chancellor who is close to Russian President Vladimir Putin and an advocate of increasing Russian natural gas exports to Germany, has resigned in protest over his ties to the Kremlin.

The employees quit because they were embarrassed by Mr. Schroeder’s prominent roles at three Russian gas and pipeline companies, according to German media reports.

The German news site Pioneer reported Tuesday that Mr. Funk and his office colleagues – four in total – decided to quit last week after Mr. Schroeder declined to follow his advice and sever his Russian corporate connections.

Mr. Schroeder made it clear as far back as 2004, when he was still chancellor, that he was a fan of Russian gas in general and Mr. Putin in particular.

Last week, SPD co-chairwoman Saskia Esken said “Rosneft and Gazprom are now the infrastructure of a bloody war of aggression. With his mandates there, Gerhard Schroeder is damaging the reputation of Germany and social democracy. Dealings with a warmonger are incompatible with the role of a former chancellor.”

Doing business with Russian companies is proving to be overly embarrassing for some Western companies, if not for Mr. Schroeder himself.

Last week, Olaf Scholz, the new German Chancellor, cancelled the certification process for Nord Stream 2 – the pipeline championed by Mr. Schroeder.

Europe: Germany’S Gerhard Schroeder Says Europe Must Not Cut All Ties With Russia

Germany’s former Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder, who has described himself as a personal friend of Russian President Vladimir Putin, called on Thursday for the war in Ukraine to end as soon as possible and for Europe’s remaining ties with Russia not to be cut.

“There have been many mistakes – on both sides. But Russia’s security interests do not justify the use of military means either,” Schroeder wrote in a post on LinkedIn.

“With the necessary sanctions, care must be taken not to completely cut the remaining political, economic and civil society ties that exist between Europe and Russia.”

Schroeder heads the shareholders committee of Nord Stream, the company in charge of building the controversial Russian gas pipeline to Europe which now faces U.S. sanctions although he is not personally affected by those sanctions.

BERLIN – Russian state-owned gas company Gazprom said Friday that German ex-Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder has been nominated to join its board of directors, a move that comes as the former leader has faced criticism for accusing Ukraine of “Saber-rattling” during its standoff with Russia.

Schroeder, who led Germany from 1998 to 2005, developed a close relationship with Russian President Vladimir Putin when he was chancellor.

The 77-year-old already chairs the shareholders’ committee of Nord Stream AG and heads the board of directors of Nord Stream 2, a new pipeline opposed by the U.S., Ukraine and some other German allies that has been built to bring Russian gas to Germany under the Baltic Sea but isn’t yet in service.

Gazprom listed Schroeder among 11 nominees for its board of directors, to be voted on at its annual general meeting in St. Petersburg on June 30.

Schroeder’s involvement with the gas pipeline and stalwart defense of Russia have long drawn mixed reviews in Germany, even in his own center-left Social Democratic Party, which heads Chancellor Olaf Scholz’ new governing coalition.

In a podcast last week, Schroeder said he doesn’t think the Russian leadership has any interest in a military intervention in Ukraine.

On Wednesday, the new chancellor was asked in an interview with ZDF television whether he is listening to advice from Schroeder.

Post Idea #4: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma?

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that starts in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system.

There is another main type of lymphoma, called Hodgkin lymphoma, which is treated differently.

Treatment for NHL depends on which type it is, so it’s important for doctors to find out the exact type of lymphoma you have.

The type of lymphoma depends on what type of lymphocyte is affected, how mature the cells are when they become cancerous, and other factors.

Lymphoma can start in either type of lymphocytes, but B-cell lymphomas are most common.

Indolent lymphomas grow and spread slowly Some indolent lymphomas might not need to be treated right away, but can be watched closely instead. The most common type of indolent lymphoma in the United States is follicular lymphoma.

The most common type of aggressive lymphoma in the United States is diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

Leukemia And Lymphoma Society

Be sure you know your NHL subtype – different subtypes have different treatments.

About 85-90 percent of NHL cases start in the B cells.

If NHL isn’t treated, the cancerous cells crowd out normal white cells, and the immune system can’t guard against infection effectively.

NHL is classified into more than 60 different subtypes.

Doctors classify the NHL subtypes into categories that describe how rapidly or slowly the disease is progressing: Aggressive NHL. Indolent NHL. Risk Factors.

The exact cause of NHL is not known, but there are risk factors that may increase the likelihood of developing the disease.

Factors affecting people’s risk of developing NHL have been studied extensively.

Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

The most common mature B cell neoplasms are Follicular lymphoma, Burkitt lymphoma, diffuse large B cell lymphoma, Mantle cell lymphoma, marginal zone lymphoma, primary CNS lymphoma.

Splenic marginal zone lymphoma and diffuse large B cell lymphoma are some subtypes of NHL due to the Hepatitis C virus.

There are geographical variations in the incidence of individual subtypes, with follicular lymphoma being more common in Western countries, T cell lymphoma more common in Asia.

High-grade lymphomas such as lymphoblastic and small non cleaved lymphomas are the most common types of NHL observed in children and young adults.

HIV associated lymphoma: Patients with HIV tend to have more aggressive forms of lymphoma such as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, primary CNS lymphoma, or Burkitt lymphoma.

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of the stomach: If infection with Helicobacter pylori is present and the lymphoma is confined to the stomach, and peri-gastric lymph nodes, treatment with antibiotics and Histaminic blockers can eliminate the organism-related antigenic stimulus, and the lymphoma may regress permanently.

The Lugano classification is the current staging used for patients with NHL. The Lugano classification is based on the Ann Arbor staging system, originally developed for Hodgkin lymphoma in 1974 and modified in 1988.

Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment-Patient Version

General Information About Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Key PointsNon-Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant cells form in the lymph system.

There are two general types of lymphomas: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Stages of Adult Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Key PointsAfter adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out whether cancer cells have spread within the lymph system or to other parts of the body.

For information on the treatment of lymphoblastic lymphoma, see Treatment Options for Lymphoblastic Lymphoma and for information on the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma, see Treatment Options for Burkitt Lymphoma.

Treatment of Lymphoblastic Lymphoma Treatment of Burkitt Lymphoma Treatment of Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma For information about the treatments listed below, see the Treatment Option Overview section.

Treatment of indolent lymphoma that comes back as aggressive lymphoma depends on the type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and may include radiation therapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Treatment of aggressive lymphoma that comes back as indolent lymphoma may include chemotherapy.

Non-Hodgkin’S Lymphoma Stages And Prognosis

To describe your cancer stage, doctors often use a number – it could be Roman numerals I, II, III, or IV. Stage I means the least amount of cancer.

You may see an “E” after stages I, II, or III – that stands for extranodal.

Lymphoma is called stage IIE if it’s in one organ and the nearby lymph nodes.

If the cancer is also outside lymph system, it’s called stage IIIE. Stage III lymphoma that’s also in your spleen is stage IIIS. If it’s stage IIIS and has spread outside your lymph system, it’s stage IIIE+S. Stage IV lymphoma has spread outside your lymph nodes to many places in your body.

Advanced disease includes stage II with a large tumor in the chest and all stage III and IV lymphomas.

There are some standard treatment approaches for specific stages of NHL:. Stage I and stage II: You’ll most likely have chemotherapy, with or without other treatments, such as immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and radiation therapy.

Stage II with bulky disease, stage III, and stage IV: Chemotherapy, along with immunotherapy, targeted therapy, and/or radiation therapy, are the treatments doctors usually recommend for these stages of NHL. You might need intrathecal chemotherapy if there’s a risk the lymphoma could spread to the fluid around your brain and spinal cord.

Warning Signs And Symptoms Of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

Because many types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma involve different organs, signs and symptoms may vary depending on the type, location and stage of the disease.

Most common signs and symptoms of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Unlike the cold and flu, non-Hodgkin lymphoma symptoms typically do not go away.

Symptoms may be different depending on the location and type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma often causes symptoms such as fever, night sweats, rashes and itchy skin.

B symptoms are a group of general symptoms that may be indicators of an aggressive lymphoma.

B lymphoma symptoms are often identified during the staging process to help determine an overall prognosis and guide treatment decisions.

Hodgkin’S Vs. Non-Hodgkin’S Lymphoma: What’S The Difference?

What’s the difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma? Answer From Rajiv K. Pruthi, M.B.B.S. Both Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma are lymphomas – a type of cancer that begins in a subset of white blood cells called lymphocytes.

The main difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is in the specific lymphocyte each involves.

A doctor can tell the difference between Hodgkin’s lymphoma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma by examining the cancer cells under a microscope.

If in examining the cells, the doctor detects the presence of a specific type of abnormal cell called a Reed-Sternberg cell, the lymphoma is classified as Hodgkin’s.

If the Reed-Sternberg cell is not present, the lymphoma is classified as non-Hodgkin’s.

Many subtypes of lymphoma exist, and your doctor will use laboratory tests to examine a sample of your lymphoma cells to determine your specific subtype.

Your type of lymphoma helps your doctor determine your prognosis and your treatment options.

Post Idea #5: Wholesale price index

Related Articles – Summarized

Wholesale Price Index Definition

A wholesale price index is an index that measures and tracks the changes in the price of goods in the stages before the retail level.

Usually expressed as a ratio or percentage, the WPI shows the included goods’ average price change; it is often seen as one indicator of a country’s level of inflation.

Wholesale price indexes are reported monthly in order to show the average price changes of goods.

If the total price of the goods under consideration in 2013 was $4,300, and the total for 2018 is $5,000, the WPI for 2018 with the base year of 2013 is 117, indicating an increase of 17 percent.

The index included cotton prices for raw cotton, cotton yarn, cotton gray goods, and cotton clothing.

The U.S. first began measuring its economy with a wholesale price index in 1902.

In 1978, it changed the name of the measured index to the producer price index.

Wholesale Price Index

The Wholesale Price Index is an important index necessary for calculating inflation in a country.

In this article, you can understand about Wholesale Price Index and how it is important for the IAS Exam.

Final Index for the month of February, 2021-For the month of February, 2021 the final Wholesale Price Index and inflation rate for ‘All Commodities’ stood at 128.1 and 4.83% respectively.

The Wholesale Price Index represents the price of a basket of wholesale goods.

The inflation rate calculated on the basis of the movement of the Wholesale Price Index is an important measure to monitor the dynamic movement of prices.

As WPI captures price movements in a most comprehensive way, it is widely used by Government, banks, industry and business circles.

Context WPI CPI Definition Amounts to the average change in prices of commodities at the wholesale level.

Wholesale Price Index

The Wholesale Price Index is the price of a representative basket of wholesale goods.

United States now report a producer price index instead. It also influences stock and fixed price markets.

The Wholesale Price Index focuses on the price of goods traded between corporations, rather than the goods bought by consumers, which is measured by the Consumer Price Index.

The wholesale price index is based on the wholesale price of a few relevant commodities of over 240 commodities available.

The Ten-Day Price Index is a procedure under which, “Sample prices” with high intra-month fluctuations are selected and surveyed every ten days by phone.

Monthly price indexes are compiled by calculating the simple arithmetic mean of three ten-day “Sample prices” in the month.

In May 2021, the Wholesale Price Index soared to 12.94 per cent, the highest in the past decade.

Producer Price Index

Transportation and warehousingunchanged in Jan 2022.

Stage 2 intermediate demand-0.5%(p) in Jan 2022.

Pharmaceutical preparations-0.1%(p) in Jan 2022.

Food and alcohol retailing-0.4%(p) in Jan 2022.

Airline passenger services-4.2%(p) in Jan 2022.

Securities brokerage, dealing, investment, and related services-0.5%(p) in Jan 2022.

Post Idea #6: Blu-ray disc

Related Articles – Summarized


The main application of Blu-ray is as a medium for video material such as feature films and for the physical distribution of video games for the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5, Xbox One, and Xbox Series X. The name “Blu-ray” refers to the blue laser used to read the disc, which allows information to be stored at a greater density than is possible with the longer-wavelength red laser used for DVDs. The polycarbonate disc is 120 millimetres in diameter and 1.2 millimetres thick, the same size as DVDs and CDs. Conventional or pre-BD-XL Blu-ray Discs contain 25 GB per layer, with dual-layer discs being the industry standard for feature-length video discs.

“Mastered in 4K” Blu-ray Disc titles can be played on existing Blu-ray Disc players and have a larger color space using xvYCC. On January 14, 2013, Blu-ray Disc Association president Andy Parsons stated that a task force was created three months prior to conduct a study concerning an extension to the Blu-ray Disc specification that would add the ability to contain 4K Ultra HD video.

Cm) Layers Capacity Bytes Standard disc size, single layer Standard disc size, dual layer Standard disc size, XL 3 layer Standard disc size, XL 4 layer Mini disc size, single layer Mini disc size, dual layer [edit].

Although the 66 GB and 100 GB BD-ROM discs used for Ultra HD Blu-ray use the same linear density as BDXL, the two formats are not compatible with each other, therefore it is not possible to use a triple layer BDXL disc to burn an Ultra HD Blu-ray Disc playable in an Ultra HD Blu-ray player.

With Blu-ray Discs, there are no “Special regions” such as the regions 7 and 8 for DVDs. In circumvention of region coding restrictions, stand-alone Blu-ray Disc players are sometimes modified by third parties to allow for playback of Blu-ray Discs with any region code.

Most Blu-ray Disc players are capable of reading both CDs and DVDs; however, a few of the early Blu-ray Disc players released in 2006, such as the Sony BDP-S1, could play DVDs but not CDs. In addition, with the exception of some early models from LG and Samsung, Blu-ray players cannot play HD DVDs, and HD DVD players cannot play Blu-ray Discs.

On December 17, 2009, the BDA officially announced 3D specs for Blu-ray Disc, allowing backward compatibility with current 2D Blu-ray players, though compatibility is limited by the fact that the longer 3D discs are triple-layer, which normal players cannot read. The BDA has said, “The Blu-ray 3D specification calls for encoding 3D video using the”Stereo High” profile defined by Multiview Video Coding, an extension to the ITU-T H.264 Advanced Video Coding codec currently implemented by all Blu-ray Disc players.

Blu-Ray Disc Association

Ultra HD Blu-ray sets a new standard for Ultra High Definition picture and audio quality in the home.

With the clock ticking down, an NYPD detective is plunged into the midst of a large-scale conspiracy, while trying to bring forth justice in 21 BRIDGES, arriving on Blu-ray on February 18, 2020 from STXfilms and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment.

He’s back Terminator: Dark Fate arrives on Blu-ray in January.

Everyone’s favorite creepy and kooky family is back in the “Frighteningly funny and fresh” animated feature film, THE ADDAMS FAMILY, arriving on Blu-ray, January 21, 2020 from Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios and Universal Pictures Home Entertainment.

GEMINI MAN arrives on Ultra HD Blu-ray with 60fps frame rate and Dolby Vision.

Called “Visually stunning” and “a true breakthrough for action cinema”, director Ang Lee’s action-packed thrill ride GEMINI MAN arrives on Blu-ray January 14, 2020 from Paramount Home Entertainment.

Pictures’ Joker – officially the highest-grossing R-rated film ever made – is hitting Blu-ray Disc on January 7th. See More.

Welcome To The Blu-Ray Disc License Office

Amendment for the BD-RE part 3 v5.1 is uploaded on BD-R v.4 and BD-RE v.5 Licensee Only Pages.

Test Disc Exclusion Lists are uploaded on BD-R v.1.0, BD-R v.3.0, BD-R v.4.0, BD-RE v.2.0, BD-RE v.4.0 and BD-RE v.5.0.

Amendment for the BD-RE part 3 v5.0 is uploaded on BD-R v.4 and BD-RE v.5 Licensee Only Pages.

Test Specifications for Recorder/Player and Application Software business categories for BD-R v.4 and BD-RE v.5 are uploaded in Licensee Only Pages.

Test Disc Exclusion Lists are uploaded on BD-R v.4.0 and BD-RE v.5.0.

Test Tools List & Contact Information as well as the Test Specifications for Recorder/Player and Application Software business categories for BD-R v.4 and BD-RE v.5 are uploaded in Licensee Only Pages.

Amendment for the BD-RE part 1 v2.20 is uploaded on BD-RE v.2 and BD-RE v.3 Licensee Only Pages, amendment for the BD-RE part 1 v3.10 is uploaded on BD-RE v.4 Licensee Only Page, amendment for the BD-R part 1 v1.40 is uploaded on BD-R v.1 and BD-R v.2 Licensee Only Pages, and amendment for the BD-RE part 1 v2.20 is uploaded on BD-R v.3 Licensee Only Page.

Post Idea #7: Rho-associated protein kinase

Related Articles – Summarized

Rho-Associated Protein Kinase

The expressions of both ROCKs are considered ubiquitous, but a higher expression of ROCK II was found in the brain compared to ROCK I. ROCK’s kinase activity is auto-inhibited by its carboxy terminal.

Interaction with GTPase RhoA activates ROCKs by binding to the Rho-binding domain located in the coiled-coil region of ROCK proteins and conformational changes release the auto-inhibitory carboxy terminal from the kinase domain.

Because of the important functions of ROCKs in the regulation of the cytoskeleton of cells, ROCK inhibitors have been proposed for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal diseases including hypertension, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory bowel disease, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, optical nerve and spinal cord injuries, stroke, and AD. In 1995, Japan approved the first ROCK inhibitor Fasudil for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm, followed by China in 2010 for the same indication.

KD-025 is about 200-fold more potent against ROCK II compared to ROCK I. Since the physicochemical properties and in vivo data of those ROCK inhibitors were not detailed in any publications, their CNS penetration could not be evaluated.

Rho could mediate its effect partly through its downstream effector, the ROCK. Treating embryos with a ROCK inhibitor did not cause any compaction defect but resulted in a very similar, but less severe, polarization phenotype.

ROCK inhibition led to an upregulation of Nanog, a pluripotent gene expressed in the ICM, and the downregulation of Cdx2. Similarly for embryos treated with a Rho inhibitor, Cdx2 expression was decreased, as a result of an overly active Hippo signaling, and the cell-fate phenotype could be reversed by the knockdown of LATS kinase.

These stiffness-mediated morphologies were determined to be associated with different MV release properties, with cells on soft matrices releasing more MVs than cells on stiff matrices.

Rho-Associated Protein Kinase

Human ROCK1 has a molecular mass of 158 kDa and is a major downstream effector of the small GTPase RhoA. Mammalian ROCK consists of a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region and a Pleckstrin homology domain, which reduces the kinase activity of ROCKs by an autoinhibitory intramolecular fold if RhoA-GTP is not present.

ROCK plays a role in a wide range of different cellular phenomena, as ROCK is a downstream effector protein of the small GTPase Rho, which is one of the major regulators of the cytoskeleton.

Secondly, ROCK inactivates MLC phosphatase, leading to increased levels of phosphorylated MLC. Thus in both cases, ROCK activation by Rho induces the formation of actin stress fibers, actin filament bundles of opposing polarity, containing myosin II, tropomyosin, caldesmon and MLC-kinase, and consequently of focal contacts, which are immature integrin-based adhesion points with the extracellular substrate.

ROCKs are homologous to other metazoan kinases such as myotonic dystrophy kinase, DMPK-related cell division control protein 42-binding kinases and citron kinase.

ROCK is a downstream effector molecule of the Rho GTPase Rho that increases ROCK kinase activity when bound to it.

The kinase activity is inhibited by the intramolecular binding between the C-terminal cluster of RBD domain and the PH domain to the N-terminal kinase domain of ROCK. Thus, the kinase activity is off when ROCK is intramolecularly folded.

The kinase activity is switched on when Rho-GTP binds to the Rho-binding domain of ROCK, disrupting the autoinhibitory interaction within ROCK, which liberates the kinase domain because ROCK is then no longer intramolecularly folded.

A Rho-Associated Protein Kinase: Differentially Distributed In Limbal And Corneal Epithelia

The purpose of this study was to identify a protein with increased expression associated with the transition of the limbal epithelium to corneal epithelium.

Additional overlapping cDNA clones were obtained from a primer extension cDNA library to determine the sequence of the complete open reading frame encoding the protein recognized by mAb HE1/11F. Results: Rabbit corneal epithelium exhibited strong immunostaining with mAb HE1/11F the limbal epithelial cells stained weakly.

HE1/11F recognized 160-kDa and 100-kDa polypeptides in the corneal epithelial extracts.

A 160-kDa RhoA-binding polypeptide with a molecular mass similar to that of HEBM1 and ROCK-I was detected in the corneal epithelial extracts.

These findings strongly suggested that HEBM1 was rabbit ROCK-I. The identity of HEBM1 was further confirmed from the reactivity of mAb HE1/11F with ROCK-I immunoprecipitated from rabbit corneal epithelial extracts using anti-ROCK-I antibodies.

Conclusions: The increased expression of a protein identified as ROCK-I from cDNA analyses is associated with rabbit corneal epithelial differentiation and transition from the limbal to corneal surface.

A RhoA signaling pathway is likely to be associated with corneal epithelial differentiation.

Anacor Pharmaceuticals Inc, Astex Pharmaceuticals Inc – The Sabre

The report on the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market provides with insightful information with respect to the current market dynamics.

Manufacturing methods, market definition, and fundamental applications of the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market have been studied intricately.

The report offers a thorough research on competitors, regional players, regional players, and other factors affecting the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market during the forecast period.

Further, as a part of the PEST analysis, the report offers the impact of technology on the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market during the assessment tenure.

The research analysts have outlined the market opportunity map for the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market.

What is the expected market value of the global Rho Associated Protein Kinase 2 market during the forecast period?

The A2Z Market Research library provides syndication reports from market researchers around the world.

Rho-Associated Protein Kinase 1

S N1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

T S1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

T P1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

Q E1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

R Q1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

C R1 PublicationManual assertion based on experiment ini.

The Function Of Rho-Associated Kinases ROCK1 And ROCK2 In The Pathogenesis Of Cardiovascular Disease

Similarities and Differences of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in Structure and Expression The Rho-associated kinases ROCK1 and ROCK2 belong to the family of serine/threonine AGC kinases named after the best investigated family members protein kinase A, G, and C. The structure of ROCK1 and ROCK2, including important regulatory phosphorylation and cleavage sites can be seen in Figure 1.

The PH-C1 domains of ROCK1 and ROCK2 seem to have differential binding preferences for membrane lipids: the PH-C1 domain of ROCK2 was demonstrated to bind strongly to phosphatidylinositol-trisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate, whereas the one of ROCK1 did not.

ROCK1 and ROCK2 can be activated by binding of RhoGTP to the RBD and through cleavage of ROCK1 by caspase-3 and of ROCK2 by granzyme B and caspase-2.

Genetic Animal Models of ROCK1 and ROCK2 General Knockout of ROCK1 and ROCK2 The first ROCK KO mouse model described was the global KO of ROCK2.

Similar to ROCK1 KO mice, the hearts of the haploinsufficient ROCK1 mice showed less perivascular fibrosis, associated with decreased expression of TGFβ, CTGF, and collagen III. Likewise, haploinsufficient ROCK1 mice, which were subjected to TAC or myocardial infarction showed decreased perivascular fibrosis.

Finally, the complexity of ROCK1 and ROCK2 function in the heart is nicely demonstrated in an analysis of ROCK1 and ROCK2 expression in two models of cardiac pressure overload: pulmonary artery constriction and TAC to induce overload in the right and left ventricle, respectively.

Function and Regulation of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in Human Cardiovascular Disease There are several lines of evidence that ROCK activity is increased in patients suffering from hypertension, pulmonary hypertension, stable angina pectoris, vasospastic angina, heart failure, and stroke.

Post Idea #8: KaVo Dental

Related Articles – Summarized

KaVo. Dental Excellence. Welcome!

KaVo offers a high quality range of dental instruments.

Like dental turbines,contra-angles, handpieces, MULTIflex couplings, sonic scalers, as well as instruments for prophylaxis, surgical and much more indications.

Find the perfect dental chair for your dental practice.

KaVo excellence: the partner for your dental laboratory.

Lab handpieces, dental equipment, dust extraction systems, articulators, facebows, function diagnostics and much more.

From cast tooth through dental simulation units to entire multimedia training islands, KaVo is a leading equipper for universities worldwide.

Protect yourself, your patients, your team and your KaVo dental chair.

KaVo Dental Handpieces And Motors

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High-speed, low-speed, and torque-controlled rotary and reciprocating endo applications.

Speed range between 100-40,000 rpm with a 1:1 transmission ratio.

Post Idea #9: Dental engine

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Dental Engine?

The very first engine to power a dentist’s drill was a pedal-operated spinning wheel introduced at the end of the 18th century, reportedly by American President George Washington’s dentist, John Greenwood.

In 1871 the dental engine was truly born when George Green unveiled the first electric drill engine, which could roll from patient to patient.

These engines were often alongside reclining dental chairs that could double as barber chairs – for serving customers seeking dental work or just a shave.

In the ensuing century or more, innovation led to the typically cluttered dental engine station of the early 21st century.

As new equipment was devised, it could be incorporated into the single engine unit, which could power not just drills but also an air compressor and high-powered, adjustable light.

One of the dental engine’s more recent developments is the addition of computer equipment.

Though manufacturers will try to stack a dental engine with as much equipment as a dentist can afford, other times the engine or compressor will be separately located, perhaps in a closet nearby with cabling or hosing connected to several patient stations.

Dental Engine

A dental engine is a large chair-side appliance for use in a dentist’s office.

At minimum, a dental engine serves as a source of mechanical or pneumatic power for one or more handpieces.

Typically, it will also include a small faucet and a spit-sink, which the patient can use for rinsing, as well as one or more suction hoses, and a compressed air/irrigation water nozzle for blowing or washing debris clear of the work area in the patient’s mouth.

The equipment possibly includes an ultrasonic cleaning appliance, as well as a small table to hold the instrument tray, a worklight, and possibly a computer monitor or display.

Due to their design and usage, dental engines are a potential source of infection from several kinds of bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila.

Definition Of Dental Engine By Medical Dictionary

The motive power of a dental handpiece that causes it to rotate.

Motive power of a dental handpiece that causes it to rotate.

Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s page for free fun content.

DENTAL ENGINE Trademark Of Dental Engine LLC. Serial Number: 85140387 :: Trademark Elite Trademarks

The DENTAL ENGINE trademark was assigned a Serial Number #85140387.

Trademark Serial Number is a unique ID to identify the DENTAL ENGINE mark in USPTO. The DENTAL ENGINE mark is filed in the category of Computer Product, Electrical & Scientific Products.

The current status of the DENTAL ENGINE filing is CONTINUED USE NOT FILED WITHIN GRACE PERIOD, UN-REVIVABLE. Based on Dental Engine LLC, the DENTAL ENGINE trademark is used in the following business: Computer networking hardware.

Trademark Elite is the largest free online trademark search, trademark monitoring, and tracking platform.

Trademark Elite can provide you with the best custom-made solutions around your DENTAL ENGINE trademark.

U.S. Trademark government fee – for goods classes you may qualify for reduced government fees.

Not all applications qualify; To be eligible for reduced fees, the identification of goods needs to match an Identification preapproved by the USPTO. The Trademark government fee will be charged when we submit your mark(s) to the Government Trademark Office, which is usually in the next few business days.

ADEA PASS Program Search Engine

ADEA PASS connects prospective applicants to every participating residency program through the ADEA PASS Program Search Engine.

Prospective applicants may use the search engine to identify programs by discipline and/or by state.

Individual programs provide the content of their ADEA PASS Program Search Engine entries.

As information is subject to change without notice program representatives are responsible for providing up-to-date and accurate information on the program’s profile.

ADEA PASS is available for Search Engine profile support but will not be held responsible for inaccurate information.

Placing a targeted recruitment webpage, or landing page, link in your ADEA PASS Program Search Engine profile.

Indicating a program deadline and processing calendar; this gives programs complete control over when they receive applicants’ materials and informs applicants how applications are evaluated and what is required of interviewees.

Post Idea #10: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency

Related Articles – Summarized


Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is a condition characterized by deficiency of the exocrine pancreatic enzymes, resulting in the inability to digest food properly, or maldigestion.

Many people living with CF are unable to properly digest food because they may also have EPI. Diagnosing EPI. If you have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, your body cannot properly digest fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the food you eat.

Only your doctor can tell if your GI symptoms are due to EPI or another digestive condition.

If you have EPI, your pancreas cannot properly break down foods, resulting in poor digestion of nutrients-especially fats.

It’s especially important that people with EPI eat a nutrient-rich diet-along with taking pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy with every meal and snack-since EPI interferes with nutrient absorption.

If you have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, your body may not absorb the nutrients from the food you eat.

Your doctor may prescribe vitamin and mineral supplements to help you maintain proper levels of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K. Eating healthy with EPI and cystic fibrosis.

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is the main cause of EPI in adults.

As many as 8 in 10 adults with this disorder develop EPI. Pancreatitis causes inflammation and swelling of the pancreas.

Many digestive problems cause symptoms similar to EPI. Your healthcare provider may suspect EPI if you have a condition that affects your pancreas.

A high fat volume may be a sign of EPI. Secretin pancreatic function test to test how the pancreas responds to secretin, a hormone that triggers the release of digestive enzymes.

These tests can spot pancreas problems that can lead to EPI. Management and Treatment What are the complications of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency?

For a longer, healthier life, it’s important to manage the condition that causes EPI. Most people will always need to use PERT to manage EPI symptoms.

You can’t cure EPI, but pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy can greatly reduce uncomfortable digestive symptoms.

Practical Guide To Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

DiMagno EP, Go VL, Summerskill WH. Relations between pancreatic enzyme outputs and malabsorption in severe pancreatic insufficiency.

Whitcomb DC, Lehman GA, Vasileva G, Malecka-Panas E, Gubergrits N, Shen Y, Sander-Struckmeier S, Caras S. Pancrelipase delayed-release capsules for exocrine pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic surgery: A double-blind randomized trial.

Phillips ME. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency following pancreatic resection.

Berry AJ. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy during pancreatic insufficiency.

Trang T, Chan J, Graham DY. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in the 21(st) century.

Domínguez-Muñoz JE. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy for pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: when is it indicated, what is the goal and how to do it? Adv Med Sci.

Domínguez-Muñoz JE, Iglesias-García J, Iglesias-Rey M, Figueiras A, Vilariño-Insua M. Effect of the administration schedule on the therapeutic efficacy of oral pancreatic enzyme supplements in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: A randomized, three-way crossover study.

What Is Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency?

Your pancreas doesn’t make enough of the enzymes that your body needs to break down and absorb nutrients.

The enzymes made by your pancreas move into your small intestine, where they help break down the food you eat.

Several tests can help diagnose EPI. First, you may need some blood tests that check to see if you’re getting enough vitamins and that your pancreas is making enough enzymes.

Apart from a healthy diet, the main treatment for EPI is pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

You take prescription pills that replace the enzymes your pancreas isn’t making.

You may also need to take an antacid to keep your stomach from breaking down pancreatic enzymes before they can start to work.

You can find more information about pancreas problems by visiting the web site of the National Pancreas Foundation.

Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency: Signs & Symptoms

In EPI, undigested and unabsorbed food in the digestive tract can lead to frequent gastrointestinal symptoms.

Symptoms of EPI typically become more severe when 90% of your pancreas’s normal enzyme production is gone.

At this point, you’re more likely to have symptoms clearly associated with EPI. The hallmark symptoms of severe EPI are weight loss and loose, fatty stools called steatorrhea.

Nutritional deficiencies: Deficiencies in fat-soluble vitamins are commonly seen in people with severe forms of EPI. The inability to absorb nutrients such as fats and proteins are significant nutritional problems tied to severe EPI. You may also lack fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K because they cannot be absorbed by the digestive tract.

While other warning signs can be too subtle for you to notice, it is especially important to discuss EPI with your healthcare provider if you have a family history of the disease or if you have underlying gastrointestinal issues that contribute to EPI. EPI is a rare malabsorptive condition in which the pancreas doesn’t produce digestive enzymes.

People with EPI often experience a range of symptoms that can resemble other gastrointestinal conditions.

Since EPI can share symptoms with many other gastrointestinal issues, work with your healthcare provider to make sure you have a correct diagnosis and your pain is being managed.

Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency: Diagnosis And Treatment

x. Pancreatic insufficiency is a major consequence of pancreatic diseases leading to a loss of pancreatic parenchyma, obstruction of the main pancreatic duct, decreased pancreatic stimulation, or acid-mediated inactivation of pancreatic enzymes.

Assessments of exocrine pancreatic function, such as fecal fat quantification and C-triglyceride breath test, are the method of choice for diagnosis.

In clinical practice, high-risk patient populations include those with severe necrotizing pancreatitis, gastrointestinal and pancreatic surgery, cancer of pancreas head, and those with pancreatic calcifications.

Therapy of pancreatic insufficiency is based on the oral administration of exogenous pancreatic enzymes.

Enzyme substitution therapy should ideally mimic the physiological pattern of pancreatic exocrine secretion, and pancreatic enzymes in the form of enteric-coated minimicrospheres are considered as the most elaborated commercially available enzyme preparations.

In general, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in patients after surgery may be managed similarly to patients with chronic pancreatitis.

This review focuses on current perspectives in diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency and practical suggestions on its clinical management.

People with EPI may have one, some, or all of the problems listed below1-4: Remember, not everyone with EPI has the same symptoms, so talk to your doctor about all your stomach and bowel problems.

Not all people with EPI have steatorrhea Gas and bloating -Because people with EPI have trouble digesting food, they may feel gassy and bloated Stomach pain – Gas and bloating from EPI can cause stomach pain 4 How Is EPI Diagnosed? The symptoms of EPI can be a lot like other medical conditions that affect the stomach and bowels.

Which Doctors Diagnose EPI? Only a doctor can decide if EPI is the cause of your symptoms.

Your primary care doctor may be able to diagnose EPI. Or, he or she may ask you to see a specialist If your doctor asks you to see a specialist, it will likely be a gastroenterologist – Gastroenterologists are doctors who specialize in medical conditions that affect the pancreas, stomach, and bowels.

6 What Else Do I Need to Do if I Have EPI? When you have EPI, it’s very important that you take good care of yourself so that you stay healthy.

Below are some useful tips to help lead a healthier life with EPI. Take PERT the way the doctor tells you12,13 – Take PERT every day during meals and snacks – Sometimes your PERT dose may need to be changed based on your diet, weight, and EPI symptoms.

It’s important to tell your doctor about the types of foods you eat, if you gain or lose weight, and how you feel at each visit Talk to your doctor about vitamins3 – People with EPI may have problems absorbing fat-soluble vitamins such as A, D, E, and K, from their food.

Post Idea #11: Exocrine gland

Related Articles – Summarized

Exocrine Glands- Structure, Types And Examples

Exocrine glands are the glands of external secretion.

Salivary glands, mammary glands, sweat glands, are some of the exocrine glands.

Merocrine/Eccrine Glands The substance is secreted directly into the duct through the cellular channels.

Exocrine glands are cellular structures or organs that secrete substances external to the body through a ductal system.

Which gland has both exocrine and endocrine functions?

The exocrine glands are located in the intestinal wall, gastrointestinal tract, or outside such as salivary glands, liver, pancreas, etc.

Pancreas is the largest exocrine gland which is 99% exocrine and 1% endocrine.

Physiology, Exocrine Gland

Exocrine glands subclassify into subtypes based on the method of secretion, the compound produced, or the shape of the gland.

The initial manifestation of exocrine gland formation is epithelial budding resulting from a complex interaction between mesenchymal and epithelial cell populations.

The mammary gland is one of the most well-known examples of an exocrine gland found in the breast.

A well-known apocrine gland is the breastmilk-producing mammary gland.

The liver itself acts as an exocrine gland when creating and excreting bile to be stored in the gallbladder, awaiting expulsion and release through the pancreatic duct into the duodenum.

Because CFTR is involved in the production of sweat, mucus, and digestive fluids, the mutation causes a direct effect on exocrine gland secretions.

The exocrine gland can be found in many organs and serves a wide variety of functions within the body.

Definition, Examples & Types

Exocrine glands are cellular sub-structures, organs, in a body that provide a system to secrete substances out and external to the body.

Exocrine glands secrete their substances through a ductal system.

Depending on the exocrine gland, they can function to regulate body temperature, lubricate, nurture newborns, aid in digestion, and aid in reproduction.

Exocrine gland structure is broken down into the ductal portion and the glandular portion.

Endocrine glands secrete products to the bloodstream while exocrine secrete products that end up external to the body.

List the component that would NOT be found in an exocrine gland.

Hormones are released into the bloodstream and therefore be released by an endocrine gland not an exocrine gland.

ScienceDirect Topics

If the distal portion of the gland comprises a system of narrow, branching, ducts with many acini or alveoli opening into them, then the gland is described as a compound acinar gland.

The lumina of the acini are small in the salivary glands, but somewhat larger in the mammary and prostate glands: these glands are described as compound tubulo-alveolar glands.

Morphologically, the simplest glands are those that develop through an increase in the size of epidermal cells, such as the sternal and tergal glands.

The principal exocrine structures considered pheromone-producing glands in Isoptera are the frontal, mandibular, salivary or labial, sternal and tergal glands.

Another type of modification that occurs in termite exocrine glands, especially in the frontal, tergal, and sternal glands, is the development of extracellular spaces, generally constituting subcuticular cavities located between the cuticle and the class 1 cells.

Fg, frontal gland; mg, mandibular gland; psg, posterior sternal gland; sg, sternal gland; slg,= salivary gland; tg, tergal gland.

As in all exocrine glands the functional unit of the kidney is the lobule, but unlike many other exocrine glands, the lobules are not separated by connective tissue septae.

Exocrine Glands: Characteristics, Functions, Types

In the human body there are two main types: the exocrine glands and the endocrine glands.

The exocrine glands differ from the endocrine glands in that the latter have lost their ducts and secrete their products directly into the blood or lymphatic vessels, through which they distribute and reach their target organs.

Because the exocrine glands are distributed in many different organs and tissues in the body, they perform a wide variety of functions.

Another of the most relevant examples of exocrine glands are the breasts, since the mammary glands are housed in these, responsible for the production and secretion of milk and the transmission of passive immunity from the mother to the neonate.

According to the type of discharge, these glands are classified as mucous glands, serous glands, mixed glands, and waxy glands.

When the secretion corresponds to the mature glandular cells that have died, then the glands are holocrine glands and an example of these are the sebaceous glands in the skin.

Large multicellular exocrine glands are surrounded by a kind of “Capsule” and have internal divisions known as “Lobes” or “Lobules” that are produced by the segmentation of said capsule; the vessels, nerves and ducts, enter and leave these glands through the partitions or segmentations.

Exocrine Gland

Exocrine glands are glands that secrete substances on to an epithelial surface by way of a duct.

Exocrine glands are one of two types of glands in the human body, the other being endocrine glands, which secrete their products directly into the bloodstream.

The liver and pancreas are both exocrine and endocrine glands; they are exocrine glands because they secrete products-bile and pancreatic juice-into the gastrointestinal tract through a series of ducts, and endocrine because they secrete other substances directly into the bloodstream.

Exocrine glands contain a glandular portion and a duct portion, the structures of which can be used to classify the gland.

If the glandular portion branches, then the gland is called a branched gland.

Exocrine glands are named apocrine glands, holocrine glands, or merocrine glands based on how their products are secreted.

Examples include the salivary glands: although the parotid gland is predominantly serous, the sublingual gland mainly mucous gland, and the submandibular gland is a mixed, mainly serous gland.

Exocrine Glands

Salivary glands – secrete saliva which contains amylase.

Gastric glands – secretes gastric juices which includes hydrochloric acid and proteases.

Pancreatic glands – secretes pancreatic juices which include lipase, protease and amylase.

Intestinal glands – secretes intestinal juices via crypts of Lieberkuhn in the intestinal wall.

Exocrine glands are composed of a cluster of secretory cells which collectively form an acinus.

Exocrine products are released into a duct, which connects to an epithelial surface.

Click on the image to contrast gland features – acinus and duct.

Post Idea #12: Maschinenfabrik Bernard Krone Gmbh & Co. Kg

Related Articles – Summarized

Maschinenfabrik Bernard Krone GmbH & Co. KG, Spelle

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Maschinenfabrik Bernard Krone

2003 stellte Krone mit der BiG Pack 1270 einen technischen Fortschritt vor, weil Großpacken in bis zu sechs kleine Ballen unterteilt werden können.

Ebenfalls 2004 bot Krone als weltweit erster Hersteller ab Werk eine Häckseltrommel an, die speziell auf die Anforderungen moderner Biogas-Anlagen abgestimmt ist.

Im Jahr 2005 erhielt der BiG X auf der OMÈK eine Auszeichnung für seine Häckselqualität.

2006 wurde Krone mit der Auszeichnung Innovative Technik für das MultiBale-System der BiGPack auf der FIMA ausgezeichnet.

Die weltweit erst Non-Stop Rundballen-Press-Wickel-Kombination wurde 2011 auf der Agritechnica vorgestellt und mit einer Goldmedaille ausgezeichnet.

Im Jahr 2015 wurde die Premos 5000 als erste Pelletpresse, die Halmgutpellets direkt aus dem Schwad auf dem Feld produzieren kann, ebenfalls auf der Agritechnica mit der DLG Goldmedaille ausgezeichnet.

Im Jahr 2007 wurde Europas modernste Tauchanlage in der Maschinenfabrik in Betrieb genommen.

Handelsregisterauszug Von Maschinenfabrik Bernard Krone GmbH & Co. KG

Sie suchen Handelsregisterauszüge und Jahresabschlüsse derMaschinenfabrik Bernard Krone GmbH & Co. KG? Bei uns erhalten Sie alle verfügbaren Dokumente sofort zum Download ohne Wartezeit!

Die Ausgliederung ist mit der Eintragung auf dem Registerblatt des übertragenden Rechtsträgers am *xx.xx.

Xxxx sowie der Zustimmungsbeschlüsse ihrer Gesellschafterversammlung vom *xx.xx.

Xxxx und der Gesellschafterversammlung des übertragenden Rechtsträgers vom *xx.xx.

Als nicht eingetragen wird bekanntgemacht: Den Gläubigern der an der Ausgliederung beteiligten Rechtsträger ist, wenn sie binnen sechs Monaten nach dem Tag, an dem die Eintragung der Ausgliederung in das Register des Sitzes desjenigen Rechtsträgers, dessen Gläubiger sie sind, nach 19 Abs.

Dieses Recht steht den Gläubigern jedoch nur zu, wenn sie glaubhaft machen, dass durch die Ausgliederung die Erfüllung der Forderung gefährdet wird.

Persönlich haftender Gesellschafter: Maschinenfabrik Krone Verwaltungs-GmbH, Spelle, einzelvertretungsberechtigt; mit der Befugnis, im Namen der Gesellschaft mit sich im eigenen Namen oder als Vertreter eines Dritten Rechtsgeschäfte abzuschließen.

Post Idea #13: 2-Pyrrolidone

Related Articles – Summarized


G·mol−1 Density 1.116 g/cm3Melting point 25 °C Boiling point 245 °C Hazards GHS labelling: Warning H319 P305+P351+P338 NFPA 704 Flash point 129 °C 138 °C Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state.

2-Pyrrolidone, also known as 2-pyrrolidinone or butyrolactam, is an organic compound consisting of a 5-membered lactam, making it the simplest γ-lactam.

2-Pyrrolidone itself and various derivatives made from it have a variety of industrial uses.

2-Pyrrolidone is produced industrially almost exclusively by treating aqueous gamma-butyrolactone with ammonia at a temperature of 250-290 °C and pressures ranging from 0.4-1.4 MPa over solid magnesium silicate catalysts.

After subsequent distillation and purification, the desired 2-pyrrolidone is obtained with a purity of 99.5%. Alternative routes include the catalytic or electrochemical reduction of succinimide, the carbonylation of allylamine, the hydrogenation of succinonitrile under hydrolytic conditions and the reaction of maleic or succinic anhydride in aqueous ammonia with Pd-Ru-catalysts.

In 2010, the worldwide demand for 2-pyrrolidone was estimated to be 32.000 t. Important manufacturers of 2-pyrrolidone are BASF and ISP. 2-Pyrrolidone itself is used in inkjet cartridges.

A variety of pharmaceutical drugs are 2-pyrrolidone derivatives, including cotinine, doxapram, povidone, and ethosuximide, and the racetams.

Post Idea #14: Ethyl group

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Of ENU can be transferred to a variety of different target atoms in DNA, including the N-1, N-3, and N-7 groups of adenine; the O2 and N-3 groups of cytosine; the N-3, O6, and N-7 groups of guanine; the O2, N-3, and O4 groups of thymine; and the phosphate groups of the DNA backbone. DNA alkylationIn the alkylating of DNA, methyl or ethyl groups.

VCD spectra of cryptochiral hydrocarbon 96: solid line, observed VCD of-(−)-[VCD(+)984]-96; dotted line, observed VCD of-(+)- -96.

Reprinted with permission from Ref.)In the studies of VCD spectra, it is advised to measure the VCD spectra of both enantiomers because of very weak signals; see the value of VCD in Fig.

Observed VCD of-(−)-96 shows a strong positive Cotton effect at 984 cm−1 and hence the enantiomer can be specified by VCD as follows;-[VCD(+)984]-96 indicates that the enantiomer 96 showing a positive VCD Cotton effect at 984 cm−1 has AC.The VCD spectrum curve of hydrocarbon-96 was computed by the DFT MO method as shown in Fig.

Substitution of a −CHCH- group by an −NH- group or a CH- group by an N- atom both increase the boiling point.

Conversion of an NH group into an NR group results in a large decrease in the boiling point because of decreased association by hydrogen bonding.


The ethyl group is the two carbon atom unit that is connected to a longer chain of carbon atoms or possibly a benzene ring.

Ethylene has the chemical formula of H2 C=CH2 and is composed of two carbon atoms connected by a double bond, each carbon atom is also bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

Ethyl chloride is an alkyl halide that has of one of the hydrogen atoms of ethane replaced by a chlorine atom.

The incorporation of an ethyl group or chain of two carbon atoms into a molecule’s structure can change the properties of the compound drastically.

Ethane- The molecule whose formula is CH3 CH3 and is composed of two carbon atoms connected by a single bond, and each carbon atom has three single bonds to hydrogen atoms.

Ethyl chloride- The molecule whose chemical formula is CH3CH2Cl and is an alkyl halide that has of one of the hydrogen atoms of ethane replaced by a chlorine atom.

Ethylene- The molecule whose chemical formula is H2 C=CH2 and is composed of two carbon atoms connected by a double bond, each carbon atom is also bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

Ethyl Group

In chemistry, an ethyl group is an alkyl substituent derived from ethane.

It has the formula -CH2CH3 and is very often abbreviated Et. Ethyl is used in the IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry for a saturated two-carbon moiety in a molecule, while the prefix “Eth-” is used to indicate the presence of two carbon atoms in the molecule.

Ethylation is the formation of a compound by introduction of the ethyl group.

For good nucleophiles, less electrophilic reagents are employed, such as ethyl halides.

In unsymmetrical ethylated compounds, the methylene protons in the ethyl substituent are diastereotopic.

Chiral reagents are known to stereoselectively modify such substituents.

The name “Ethyl” was coined in 1835 by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius.

Ethyl Group Definition & Meaning

Asian-Americans are a group of persuadable swing voters, growing faster than any other group in America today.

Latinos, the fastest growing minority group in America, are even more underrepresented in Congress.

Only 24 percent of the 3,892 femicides the group identified in 2012 and 2013 were looked at by authorities.

Though tissues are present and tears are not uncommon, the Dinner Parties are distinctly not grief counseling or group therapy.

Fully two miles away, on the south side of the ravine, were the sepoy lines, and another group of isolated bungalows.

Each little family group had had its say and exchanged its domestic gossip earlier in the evening.

Who has patience for the recapitulation of a string of names, when a group of faces may be placed simultaneously before him?

Atoms, Carbon, Ethane, And Atom

Ethyl group is the name given to the portion of an organic molecule that is derived from ethane by removal of a hydrogen atom.

It is composed of two carbon atoms connected by a single bond, and in turn, each carbon atom has three single bonds to hydrogen atoms.

The ethyl group is the two carbon atom unit that is connected to a longer chain of carbon atoms or possibly a benzene ring.

Ethylene has the chemical formula of H2C=CH2 and is composed of two carbon atoms connected by a double bond, each carbon atom is also bonded to two hydrogen atoms.

Ethyl chloride is an alkyl halide that has of one of the hydrogen atoms of ethane replaced by a chlorine atom.

Ethyl chloride is commonly used as a substrate for the addition of an ethyl group on to a benzene ring or another organic chemical.

The incorporation of an ethyl group or chain of two carbon atoms into a molecule’s structure can change the properties of the compound drastically.

Chemical Compound

Organometallic compounds In organometallic compound: Defining characteristicslarger homologs such as the ethyl group, C2H5, which attach to a metal atom through only one carbon atom.

More elaborate organic groups include the cyclopentadienyl group, C5H5, in which all five carbon atoms can form bonds.

Naming Alkanes With Ethyl Groups

The prefix for to carbons is eth, so this is an ethyl group.

The yl is ’cause it’s a group attached to the main alkane chain.

We have to specify where the ethyl group is attached and we wanna give it as low of a number as possible so we start counting on the side closest to it.

So let’s say it is, we have another ethyl group over there.

Now we have two ethyl groups, one on the five carbon, one, two, three, four, five, and then one on the six carbon.

The five, six tells us the two carbons on the main backbone that the ethyl groups are attached to and the di says that we have two ethanes, two ethyl groups, I should say, not ethane groups.

Two ethyl groups, one over here, and one right over here.

Post Idea #15: Cyber insurance

Related Articles – Summarized

Cowbell Raises $100M To Build Out Its AI-Based Cyber Insurance Platform For SMBs – TechCrunch

The founder and CEO, tells me that it’s projecting its policy holder base to grow three-fold in the next 12 months to 35,000-40,000 customers and that its premium run rate has grown 40x this year to $200 million, in what is still a very nascent market, with less than 10% of small businesses in the country currently taking out cyber insurance policies.

“Underwriting cyber insurance for SMEs is a more dire prospect than for large enterprises,” he said.

“This is okay for any other kind of insurance but not for cyber risk. You have to assess each business in its uniqueness.”

Cowbell does not intend to license its technology or white label its product to be sold through other business insurance providers, he added, believing that the opportunity for it lies in building out its own business on its own rails.

Cowbell forecasts that cyber insurance “In-force premiums” in the U.S. will total $100 billion by 2030 – a figure that will cover both large enterprises and SMBs, which is one reason that investors are interested.

“With its unique approach to cyber risk underwriting and continued collaboration with cybersecurity suppliers, Cowbell Cyber has positioned itself as the leader in the cyber insurance space for SMEs,” said Matthew Jones, managing director at Anthemis Group, in a statement.

“The company has accomplished stellar results to date and we are thrilled to be a part of their next chapter. We look forward to the innovation they’ll continue to bring to the cyber insurance market.” Jones is joining the board with this round.

Cowbell Raises $100M To Offer Organizations Continuous Cyber Insurance

Today, cyber insurance provider Cowbell Cyber announced that it had closed a Series B funding round of $100 million for its continuous underwriting platform.

Cowbell Cyber’s announcement comes as data breaches and cyberattacks become increasingly difficult to prevent, and organizations look to cyber insurance solutions to protect themselves from financial impact of data breaches.

Continuous cyber insurance provides enterprises with a solution that can decrease the amount they spend on remediating cyber threats.

Cowbell Cyber is part of the cybersecurity Insurance market, which was valued at $9.29 billion in 2021, and is estimated to reach $28.25 billion by 2027 as the advancement of digitalization and cloud computing makes it more difficult for security teams to secure their environments.

One of the organization’s main competitors is Cyber insurance provider Coalition, currently valued at $3.5 billion, which offers an active insurance solution with real-time risk assessments and continuous underwriting.

Another is Resilience, a cyber insurance company which recently closed $80 million in a Series C funding round to cater to mid-market organizations with holistic cyber insurance packages, loss mitigation services and incident response planning.

In the future, Kudale argues that Cowbell will differentiate itself from other providers by offering the definitive end-to-end cyber insurance management in one place.

Cowbell Cyber Raises $100 Million In Series B Funding To Further Revolutionize Cyber Risk Underwriting

PLEASANTON, Calif., March 15, 2022 /PRNewswire/ – Cowbell Cyber, the leading provider of cyber insurance for small and medium-sized enterprises, has secured $100 million in capital led by Anthemis Group with participation from Permira Funds, PruVen Capital, NYCA Partners, Viola Fintech and all existing investors.

“Since its 2019 inception, Cowbell has delivered on its promise to meet the needs of our policyholders by aligning cyber coverage to their specific exposures, continuously monitoring their rapidly changing threat landscape, and offering access to unique risk mitigation resources,” said Jack Kudale, founder and CEO at Cowbell Cyber.

“As we position ourselves to lead the ‘second wave’ of cyber insurance growth, this funding will accelerate our pioneering approach to cyber risk underwriting and drive growth and profitability while closing insurability gaps.”

“With its unique approach to cyber risk underwriting and continued collaboration with cybersecurity suppliers, Cowbell Cyber has positioned itself as the leader in the cyber insurance space for SMEs,” said Matthew Jones, managing director at Anthemis Group.

Cowbell has developed the largest cyber insurance distribution network in the U.S. with more than 14,000 producers and has grown its monitored risk pool to more than 23 million businesses – 70% of the SME U.S. market.

Cowbell Cyber offers standalone, individualized, and easy-to-understand cyber insurance for small and medium-sized enterprises.

In its unique AI-based approach to risk selection and pricing, Cowbell’s continuous underwriting platform, powered by Cowbell Factors, compresses the insurance process from submission to issue to less than 5 minutes.

AI-Powered Cybersecurity Insurance Provider Cowbell Cyber Raises $100M

Artificial intelligence-powered cybersecurity insurance provider Cowbell Cyber Inc. announced today that it has raised $100 million in new funding.

Founded in 2019, Cowbell Cyber offers vertically integrated cyber insurance for small and midsized enterprises.

Using an AI-based approach to risk selection and pricing, Cowbell’s continuous underwriting platform, powered by Cowbell Factors, compresses the insurance process from submission to issue to less than five minutes.

“Since its 2019 inception, Cowbell has delivered on its promise to meet the needs of our policyholders by aligning cyber coverage to their specific exposures, continuously monitoring their rapidly changing threat landscape, and offering access to unique risk mitigation resources,” Jack Kudale, founder and chief executive officer at Cowbell Cyber, said in a statement.

“As we position ourselves to lead the ‘second wave’ of cyber insurance growth, this funding will accelerate our pioneering approach to cyber risk underwriting and drive growth and profitability while closing insurability gaps.”

Cowbell Insurance Agency is currently licensed in 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia.

Image: Cowbell Cyber Show your support for our mission by joining our Cube Club and Cube Event Community of experts.

What Is Cyber Insurance?

Data breaches and other cyber crimes are becoming way too common.

A data breach can damage more than just your small-business computer system – it also can damage your reputation and put your customers and/or employees at risk.

That’s why cyber insurance can be a smart precaution for any size business.

Cyber insurance generally covers your business’ liability for a data breach involving sensitive customer information, such as Social Security numbers, credit card numbers, account numbers, driver’s license numbers and health records.

Cyber insurance is often excluded from a general liability policy.

Most states require companies to notify customers of a data breach involving personally identifiable information2- a process that can be very expensive.

Cyber Protection, which protects your business against damage caused by a virus or computer attack, as well as helping with the cost of restoring and recreating data.

What Is Cyber Insurance?

Just like businesses insure against business problems, natural disasters, and physical risks, they need insurance coverage for cyber risks as well.

Cybersecurity insurance can provide support, so these attacks do not cripple your business.

Most cyber insurance plans cover a broad range of cyber risk losses that may unexpectedly arise from cyberattacks.

Can I replace cybersecurity defense with cyber insurance?

No. Cyber risk insurance can be a great way to mitigate the damage caused by a breach, but it should complement cybersecurity technology as part of an overall cyber risk management plan.

Cyber risk insurers analyze the strength of a company’s cybersecurity posture before issuing any policy.

If your business has not invested in the appropriate cybersecurity solutions, then you may not qualify for insurance or it could be limited and expensive.

Cyber Security & Liability Insurance Protection For Small Businesses

This coverage is also referred to as cyber security insurance or cyber risk insurance.

Cyber insurance cost depends on your business’s exposure to cyber risk and your coverage needs.

Cyber insurance is important to the financial well-being and future of your small business.

A cyber insurance policy allows you to spend less time worrying about cyber threats, and more on what matters most – running your business.

Easily assess your cyber risk and get a free quote to learn which cyber insurance coverages to consider for your situation.

Cyber Insurance vs Tech E&O. Cyber insurance won’t cover you for claims related to the performance of your product or service.

Protect your small business with cyber insurance through the Progressive Advantage® Business program.

Post Idea #16: SoftwareONE

Related Articles – Summarized

Snow Software

Learn why SoftwareONE, a leading global provider of end-to-end software and cloud technology solutions, relies on Snow to create a truly comprehensive license management program for their organization and more.

With capabilities across the entire value chain, SoftwareONE helps companies design and implement their technology strategy, buy the right software and cloud solutions at the right price, and manage and optimize their software estate.

Since 2012, SoftwareONE and Snow have worked in close partnership to implement Snow technologies for customers across most major markets around the globe.

In addition to being a trusted partner, SoftwareONE is also a long-time Snow customer.

“We have Snow deployed on all of SoftwareONE’s endpoints and we use it to cover our server side too,” said Darryl Sackett, Global Director of Software Lifecycle Management at SoftwareONE. “As one of Snow’s biggest partners, we have one of the largest hosted platforms in the world and manage millions of devices for our customers. We have delivered tremendous value for our customers with Snow, and we realize many of those same benefits ourselves as a Snow customer.”

Another benefit to using the Snow platform is its ability to securely handle SoftwareONE customer data within shared cloud databases.

GDPR protects client data from unauthorized access and Snow shows the SoftwareONE IT team which applications contain personal data, the type of data, as well as who has access to it, whether the data is on-premise, in the cloud or on a mobile device.

EQS-News: SoftwareONE Acquires Satzmedia, An Application Services Specialist In E-Commerce And CMS Solutions In Germany

An Application Services specialist in e-Commerce and CMS solutions in Germany.

Stans, Switzerland I 10 February 2022 – SoftwareONE Holding AG, a leading global provider of end-to-end software and cloud technology solutions, today announced it has acquired Satzmedia, a specialist in digital experience, e-Commerce and CMS solutions based in Germany.

The acquisition further strengthens SoftwareONE’s Application Services practice, adding a team of highly skilled software development Java-Experts to support customers with their journeys to the cloud.

Felix Temming, Application Services Business Owner DACH, said “In the next few years, we expect to see huge demand for modernization of individual software applications of all kinds, including e-Commerce and CMS solutions, with a focus on fully digitalized and integrated processes. With the acquisition of Satzmedia, we are expanding our capabilities in Application Services – one of SoftwareONE’s five strategic growth areas – to include comprehensive online platforms and complete web presences for companies and public authorities. We complement each other perfectly and are also an excellent cultural fit.”

Christian Satz, CEO of Satzmedia, said “The rapid increase of new, digital technologies and increasingly diverse customer requirements are becoming more challenging. Together with SoftwareONE, we can now offer our customers and employees entirely new opportunities. I am extremely pleased that we share the same DNA and values, and look forward to supporting the expansion of its Application Services practice, particularly in the DACH region.”

Christian Satz, founder and previous sole owner of Satzmedia, will join SoftwareONE’s Application Services practice in a leadership position, joined by the company’s employees.

With around 8,300 employees and sales and service delivery capabilities in 90 countries, SoftwareONE provides around 65,000 business customers with software and cloud solutions from over 7,500 publishers.

SoftwareONE: A SoftwareONE Approach To Ideal SAP Migrations

An SAP gold partner, with close to 20 years’ experience, and SAP recognized expertise in S/4HANA, BNW provides affordable advisory, consulting, and managed services specializing in SAP platform transformation and cloud migration.

SoftwareONE’s ability to holistically move entire Data Center workloads to the public cloud includes critical workloads now and a state-of-the-art managed service The depth of BNW’s exceptional capabilities in SAP services has accelerated the SoftwareONE SAP practice to help customers across all SAP infrastructure and cloud environments.

“We have quickly emerged as a leader in the SAP space by deepening our well-established partnership with BNW,” said Daniel DaVinci, Global Vice President of SAP Technology Services at SoftwareONE. BNW has helped SoftwareONE with SAP platform transformations and migrations from on-premise to public cloud hyperscaler platforms, such as Microsoft Azure and Amazon Web Services.

“Our proprietary SAPcertified tool, PowerConnect, enables SoftwareONE to provide analytical insights into SAP performance data across on-premise and cloud infrastructures as well as security and business process data,” said Warwick Chai, Principal and Founder of BNW. In addition, PowerConnect is the only SAP Splunk-certified tool that extracts operational business data, and security telemetry, enabling a high degree of real-time operational insight into what’s going on inside SAP systems.

SoftwareONE SAP technology services span cloudreadiness assessments, proof of concepts for SAP in the cloud, to full SAP cloud migration.

Specialists with deep SAP technology skills provide delivery support across Asia from the SoftwareONE service center in Manila that includes 24/7 SAP cloud-based managed services.

Deep SoftwareONE SAP expertise provides unrivaled consultancy and advisory services to organizations to help them maximize SAP benefits from cloud implementations.

Post Idea #17: United Biscuits

Related Articles – Summarized

United Biscuits

A leading international baked snack business, part of pladis which combines three centuries of baking and confectionery expertise by bringing together its iconic Godiva, McVitie’s and Ulker brands.

We hope you love our snacks, but if you have any feedback on any of our products we would be delighted to hear from you.

The product’s name, size and best before date and associated detail.

For all our other biscuits and snacks, please call: 0800 456 1372.

United Biscuits products are available through many retail outlets.

We are committed to offering clear and accurate information to help you make your own choices when it comes to snacking.

Our wide range of high quality, tasty baked snacks provide you with choice whether you’re looking for a healthier option or an indulgent treat.

United Biscuits

United Biscuits is a British multinational food manufacturer, makers of McVitie’s biscuits, Jacob’s Cream Crackers, and Twiglets.

In 1962, William Crawford & Sons, a business founded in Leith, Edinburgh in 1813 which was best known for its shortbread, was acquired by United Biscuits for £6 million.

Two years later in 1974, United Biscuits acquired the US-based Keebler Company for $53 million.

United Biscuits acquired the frozen food company Ross Young’s from Hanson in 1988 for £335 million.

United Biscuits sold Keebler for $500 million in 1995 after giving up efforts to break into the American market.

The core of the business is in the United Kingdom, where it produces biscuits under a number of brand names including: McVitie’s biscuits and Jacob’s Cream Crackers.

In his 2009 book The Pleasures and Sorrows of Work, Alain de Botton chronicles his tour and brief experiences with employees of United Biscuits as they launched the “Moments” biscuit line.

United Biscuits

United Biscuits Foods Division is a subsidiary by United Biscuits UK PLC – United Biscuits is one of the world’s pre-eminent branded snacks businesses.

United Biscuits Foods Division is one of Northern Ireland’s leading ambient foods distributors / service providers, delivering our ‘Partners’ a comprehensive range of Sales, Distribution, Warehousing and Instore services.

Since 1982 UBFD embarked upon a development strategy to build business partnerships with manufacturing partners to achieve increased sales and distribution to our mutual benefit.

Diversification into a broad range of ambient grocery & confectionery categories and improved economies of scale have elevated UBFD to the position of a major brands distributor / service provider.

We offer a solution to your sales and distribution needs across Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland.

Distribution and Sales can always be improved, and we would be happy to discuss the many ways your brand performance can be optimised.

We are owned by manufacturers, therefore we think like manufacturers, your brands will be represented by people just like you!

History Of United Biscuits

United Biscuits produces McVitie’s Digestives, Jaffa Cakes, Jacob’s cream crackers and Carr’s water biscuits.

United Biscuits is formed and becomes the largest biscuit manufacturer in BritainTwo Scottish biscuit manufacturers, McVitie & Price and Macfarlane Lang merged in 1948 to form United Biscuits, with a capital of £3.5 million.

Following the acquisition, United Biscuits produced over one third of all biscuits consumed in Britain.

United Biscuits acquired Keebler, the second largest biscuit manufacturer in the United States, for £23 million in 1974.

United Biscuits sold 75 million biscuits every day by 1978.

Recent historyAfter initial success, United Biscuits began to struggle in the United States, amidst strong competition from larger rivals Nabisco, as well as lower-cost supermarket own-label products.

United Biscuits rebranded all of its sweet biscuits under the McVitie’s name, and all of its savoury biscuits under the Jacob’s name from 2014.

United Biscuits – SafeStart

Mike Howells, Logistics Operations Controller at United Biscuits, explained the situation, “There was a problem maintaining consistency in safety due to the number of staff and the shift-style pattern of working. Although the Midlands Distribution Centre had a good safety record, we wanted a way of building the safety culture within the site to help focus employees and avoid unnecessary accidents”.

To combat these issues the team at United Biscuits wanted to implement a system that would improve the general safety culture within the distribution center whilst helping to promote consistency amongst all staff, no matter what shift pattern they were working.

By creating a communications platform for the provision of safety information and placing the SafeStart logo around the building, employees could be continually reminded of the safety culture within United Biscuits.

“Internal surveys are regularly conducted at United Biscuits to gauge satisfaction within the company. The 2011 survey revealed that out of 244 responses, 209 employees strongly agreed or agreed that health and safety is taken seriously at Midlands site. That equates to 86% of the workforce. Mr. Howells said,”We have seen some fantastic results since implementing the program, including at present we have not had any lost time accidents for over 700 days.

Mr. Howells added, “Further to improving our safety culture and safety record we really liked the SafeStart program because it allows employees to think about safety at all times, including at home”.

As a result of the changes made to the safety culture with the help of the SafeStart program, United Biscuits has been presented with several prestigious awards recognizing its achievements and dedication to safety and its employees.

United Biscuits has won the British Safety Council International Safety Award five years in a row and has achieved a Five Star accreditation in safety in both 2010 and 2011 with a 96% and 96.6% score respectively.


Robert McVitie, the man behind McVitie’s established his bakery in Edinburgh in 1830.

Having crafted UK’s favourite biscuits for 186 years, McVitie’s debuted in 2010 in India.

Robert McVitie, the man behind McVitie’s had an intense passion for baking, which made him establish his bakery in Edinburgh in 1830.

Crafting UK’s favourite biscuits for the last 186 years, we made way to India in 2010.

The legendary Digestives from McVitie’s is a name that blends together the traditions of tasty wholewheat biscuits with the healthy benefits of fibre.

Wholewheat was never so tasty with McVitie’s bringing yumminess into healthy eating.

Bite in, and get hooked to this fit habit of eating McVitie’s biscuits with healthy wholewheat.

Where Is United Biscuits Head Office? – Cravencountryjamboree.Com

United Biscuits are bringing back the Trio bar after it was discontinued 13 years ago.

The UK company behind the McVitie’s, Jaffa Cakes and Penguin brands has been bought by Turkish food group Yildiz Holdings for a reported £2bn. United Biscuits was put up for sale by its private equity owners Blackstone and PAI Partners.

McVitie’s is a British snack food brand owned by United Biscuits.

Type Private Fate Merged with Peek Freans to form Associated Biscuits Ltd. in 1921, which was acquired by Nabisco in 1982; Resumed operations in 2006 What brands do United Biscuits make?

What companies do McVities own? Where are United Biscuits located in the UK? UNITED BISCUITS LIMITED is a Private limited with Share Capital company based in HAYES PARK, HAYES END ROAD, HAYES Hayes End Road, United Kingdom, which employs 10 people.

A strong supporter of workplace training for his team, Marcos is the Finance Manager for United Biscuits on both sides of the border.

How to call United Biscuits for Republic of Ireland?

Post Idea #18: Subcutaneous injection

Related Articles – Summarized

Subcutaneous Injections: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

You will need a syringe that has a SQ needle attached to it.

DO NOT use the same needle and syringe more than once.

You may get syringes from the pharmacy that are pre-filled with the correct dose of your medicine.

Hold the syringe like a pencil in the hand you write with, pointing the needle end up.

If you are filling your syringe with medicine, you will need to learn the proper technique for filling a syringe with medicine.

With the hand that is not holding the syringe, pinch an inch of skin and fatty tissue between your fingers.

SQ injections; Sub-Q injections; Diabetes subcutaneous injection; Insulin subcutaneous injection.

How To Give A Subcutaneous Injection By Johns Hopkins Arthritis

Before the Injection Some medications such as Kineret® and Enbrel® must be injected.

These medications come with a kit and a device to inject the medication.

Some patients however prefer not to use the kit but to do the injection themselves; much like an insulin injection would be done.

If you are very thin do not use the abdomen as an injection site.

You should be at least 1 inches away from the last injection site.

If you do not see blood, slowly push the plunger to inject the medication.

Remove the needle from the skin and gently hold an alcohol pad on the injection site.

Syringe or pen and needle Depending on the amount of medication to be given and the size of the child or adult: 0.5 cc,1.0 cc, or 2 cc with 27­gauge needle 3­cc luer lock syringe-used when solution is more than 1 cc 25­gauge needle (5/8 of an inch long or 27­gauge needle 0.3 mL insulin syringes with 31­gauge needles are available for those who are visually impaired or for those who need very small doses of medication.

The inside of the cap and needle is sterile, and the needle will be covered again with this cap.

Push the needle in at a 90 degree angle, being careful not to bend the needle.

Do the following: a. Attach needle to pen by cleaning the top with alcohol and screwing on the needle.

Do not “Push” the needle into the skin slowly or thrust the needle into the skin with great force.

Again, apply pressure using a 2 x 2 gauze pad. If using a pen: Untwist needle on the pen and safely dispose the needle.

Safe needle disposal Please refer to the Clinical Center pam­ phlet “Handling Sharp Objects Safely at Home.” o Place the syringe or needle in a hard plastic or metal container with a tightly secured lid.

Subcutaneous Injection: Definition And Patient Education

A subcutaneous injection is a method of administering medication.

For small amounts of delicate drugs, a subcutaneous injection can be a useful, safe, and convenient method of getting a medication into your body.

Medications administered by subcutaneous injection include drugs that can be given in small volumes.

The location of injection is important for subcutaneous injections.

Alternate injection sites to prevent damage to an area with repeated injections.

If you’ll be doing this type of injection for more than one dose or for multiple days, you’ll need to rotate the injection sites.

As with any injection procedure, infection at the site of injection is a possibility.

Subcutaneous Injection

A subcutaneous injection is a shot that delivers medication into the layer of fat between the skin and the muscle.

Giving the Subcutaneous Injection Remove the needle cap.

General Injection Tips Change your injection site in a regular pattern.

Give new injections at least 1.5 inches away from the last injection site.

The needles for sub-Q injection are very thin and short, so pain is usually minimal.

Tips for Minimizing Injection Pain Inject medication that is at room temperature.

Remove all air bubbles from the syringe before injection.

How To Give A Subcutaneous Injection

A subcutaneous injection is a shot given into the fat layer between the skin and muscle.

Subcutaneous injections are used to give small amounts and certain kinds of medicine.

The syringe is marked every 0.1 mL. Where can I give a subcutaneous injection?

Give the injection halfway between the spine and the side.

Change sites for the injections: It is important to use a different site each time you give an injection.

Give the injection at a 90 degree angle if you can grasp 2 inches of skin between your thumb and first finger.

If you can grasp only 1 inch of skin, give the injection at a 45 degree angle.

Subcutaneous Injection Of Drugs: Literature Review Of Factors Influencing Pain Sensation At The Injection Site

Robb DM, Kanji Z. Comparison of two needle sizes for subcutaneous administration of enoxaparin: effects on size of hematomas and pain on injection.

Candiotti K, Rodriguez Y, Koyyalamudi P, Curia L, Arheart KL, Birnbach DJ. The effect of needle bevel position on pain for subcutaneous lidocaine injection.

Zijlstra E, Jahnke J, Fischer A, Kapitza C, Forst T. Impact of injection speed, volume, and site on pain sensation.

Impact of injection speed and volume on perceived pain during subcutaneous injections into the abdomen and thigh: a single-centre, randomized controlled trial.

Berteau C, Filipe-Santos O, Wang T, Rojas HE, Granger C, Schwarzenbach F. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance.

The influence of injection speed on pain during injection of local anaesthetic.

Identification of the component part in an epoetin alfa preparation that causes pain after subcutaneous injection.

Post Idea #19: Tetanus vaccine

Related Articles – Summarized

Tetanus Vaccination

Vaccines are available that can help prevent tetanus, an infection caused by Clostridium tetani bacteria.

Babies and children younger than 7 years old receive DTaP or DT, while older children and adults receive Tdap and Td. CDC recommends tetanus vaccination for all babies and children, preteens and teens, and adults.

Talk with your or your child’s healthcare professional if you have questions about tetanus vaccines.

Tetanus Vaccine

Tetanus vaccine, also known as tetanus toxoid, is a toxoid vaccine used to prevent tetanus.

A number of vaccine combinations include the tetanus vaccine, such as DTaP and Tdap, which contain diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis vaccines, and DT and Td, which contain diphtheria and tetanus vaccines.

The tetanus toxoid vaccine was developed in 1924, and came into common use for soldiers in World War II. Its use resulted in a 95% decrease in the rate of tetanus.

It is recommended for pregnant women who have never received the tetanus vaccine to receive a series of three Td vaccinations starting during pregnancy to ensure protection against maternal and neonatal tetanus.

In 2020, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommended that either tetanus and diphtheria toxoids vaccine or Tdap to be used for the decennial Td booster, tetanus prevention during wound management, and for additional required doses in the catch-up immunization schedule if a person has received at least one Tdap dose.

Common side effects of the tetanus vaccine include fever, redness, and swelling with soreness or tenderness around the injection site.

A more effective adsorbed version of the vaccine, created in 1938, was proven to be successful when it was used to prevent tetanus in the military during World War II. DTP was first used in 1948, and was continued until 1991, when it was replaced with an acellular form of the pertussis vaccine due to safety concerns.

Tetanus Symptoms, Cause And Vaccination

The tetanus vaccine has made tetanus a preventable disease.

Tetanus symptoms result from a toxin produced by tetanus bacteria.

If not treated, tetanus can cause death from suffocation.

Four different kinds of vaccines protect against tetanus and other diseases.

If you didn’t get a tetanus vaccine as a child, you should start with a three-dose primary series with one dose of Tdap and two doses of Td. You get these vaccines over a period of seven to 12 months.

It’s important to know that, in general, the risk of problems from getting tetanus is much greater than from getting a tetanus vaccine.

Sometimes the tetanus vaccine can cause mild side effects.

What Is The Purpose Of A Tetanus Shot?

A tetanus shot is a vaccine that protects you from getting tetanus.

Tetanus, also called “Lockjaw,” is a serious disease caused by bacteria called Clostridium tetani.

When you get tetanus vaccines as recommended, your body makes antibodies, special proteins that will help your immune system fight the toxin produced by the bacteria.

Tetanus infections most commonly happen when you suffer a wound that gives the bacteria a chance to enter your body.

Stepping on a nail is a common cause of tetanus infections.

Tetanus is now rare in the United States, in large part because of vaccinations and improved wound care.

In the United States, tetanus infections are more likely to be fatal in people over the age of 65 and people with diabetes, but they are serious in all individuals.

Tetanus Toxoid Uses, Side Effects & Warnings

Generic name: tetanus toxoid vaccineBrand name: Tetanus Toxoid AdsorbedDrug class: Bacterial vaccines.

Like any vaccine, the tetanus toxoid vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

You may not be able to receive tetanus toxoid vaccine if you have ever received a similar vaccine that caused a life-threatening allergic reaction or a neurologic disorder or disease affecting the brain.

Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Tetanus toxoid vaccine is given every 10 years as a booster dose to the tetanus vaccines given during childhood as part of a routine immunization schedule.

Tetanus toxoid vaccine is often given immediately after an injury that causes a wound that may be infected with bacteria that causes tetanus.

You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1 800 822 7967.

Do Adults Really Need Tetanus Booster Shots?

If you haven’t had a tetanus booster shot in the past decade, your doctor may recommend getting one.

Many people think of a tetanus shot as something you only need if you step on a rusty nail.

Why? A group of researchers recently questioned whether you need to repeat tetanus vaccines on a regular schedule.

These cases almost always occur in adult patients who have never received a tetanus vaccine, or adults who have not been up to date on their 10-year booster shots.

A recent paper published in the journal Clinical Infectious Diseases suggested that tetanus and diphtheria booster vaccines are not necessary for adults who have completed their childhood vaccination series.

After comparing the incidence of tetanus and diphtheria, they found no significant difference in disease rates in countries that require adults to receive booster shots compared with those that do not.

Based on this, the authors suggest that childhood vaccination alone protects sufficiently against tetanus and diphtheria without booster shots.

Tetanus Shot: When Should A Person Get One And Where From?

Scheduled tetanus shots over a person’s lifetime can prevent tetanus.

If a person has a dirty wound and is unsure if or when they had the vaccines, a doctor can administer a tetanus booster while treating the wound.

If the initial shot was Tdap, the person might have a Td booster shot against tetanus.

Insurance plans cover most vaccines, including the tetanus shot, so doctors can administer it at no extra cost to the person.

Learn more about the side effects of the tetanus shot here.

If a person is worried about contracting tetanus after cutting themselves on a dirty object, they should speak to a doctor immediately.

The doctor can treat the wound and may administer a tetanus booster shot.

Post Idea #20: LEO A DALY

Related Articles – Summarized

Building Design + Construction

LEO A DALY’s diverse and creative teams combine planning, architecture, engineering and interiors expertise to offer a holistic response to our clients’ challenges.

For more than 100 years, we’ve created places that inspire wonder, connect communities and enable great things.

Our design approach is energized by inquiry, focused on innovation and rooted in social and ecological responsibility.


LEO A DALY, the global planning, architecture, engineering and interiors firm, has announced that John Somerville joined the firm as its next chief operations officer.

After a transition period, he will take over for current COO John Kraskiewicz to provide leadership and vision across operations, strategic planning, and talent development for LEO A DALY worldwide.

Somerville brings over 25 years of experience in design, operations, growth, and client and business development within the planning, design, and consulting practices.

He is recognized for his dynamic leadership skills and ability to develop teams across all phases of programs, projects, and pursuits to exceed client and organizational goals and objectives.

Somerville joins LEO A DALY from AECOM, where he was senior vice president and practice director for the Buildings + Places business line.

In this role, he led strategy, business development, growth and performance across the government market sector.

Additional focus areas included expanding and integrating multidisciplinary services for design-build and disaster relief response programs, growing the government design portfolio across the globe, managing client accounts, and leading collaborative efforts with multiple teams on strategic pursuits.

Leo Anthony Daly, Architect

Daly was employed as a draftsman from 1907-1922, and received private tutoring in design, structural engineering and aspects of mechanical engineering during that time.

Daly was a member of the Nebraska Architects Association and the Engineer’s Club of Omaha.

Leo A. Daly died at his summer home in western Omaha, Tuesday, August 5, 1952 at age 62.

His eldest son, Leo Anthony Daly, Jr., Architect, followed his father in architectural practice, and together they founded the Leo A. Daly Company, Architects in 1948; this was a continuous extension of Daly’s original practice.

In 1948 Daly incorporated his firm as the Leo A. Daly Company, with his son, Leo Anthony Daly, Jr., Architect, as vice president.

a. This building was done while Daly worked for John L. Latenser; Daly may have “Moonlighted” the job.

b. Daly stated that his tutoring in design was with Harold Haulse and William Burres, tutoring in structural engineering was with Walter Holmes, and tutoring in heating and sanitary engineering was with Arthur Sprague.

Working At Leo A Daly: Employee Reviews

The Minneapolis office is a fun and fulfilling place to work.

People are goal-oriented and strive for excellence while at the same time caring about people.

It is easy to get to know people in the office, and the people there made coming to work enjoyable.

There are a variety of project types so work does not become cookie cutter.

While the average employee does great work, some in particular are exceptional.

People are happy to share their time helping each other out and sharing knowledge with each other; I’ve learned a lot from my fellow employees, including people in other departments.

While most of the work is with other engineers, architects, and PMs in the Minneapolis office, work with other offices tends to go smoothly and employees from other offices are enjoyable to work with.

Leo A Daly Profile

3.How much revenue does Leo A Daly generate? $50 to $500 million.

4.What is employee size of Leo A Daly? 501-1000 employees.

The company is located in San Francisco, United States and has an estimated revenue and employee in the range of $1,000 to $10,000 million and 5001-10000 respectively.

The company specialises in Architecture, Commercial, Education, Energy Engineering, Financial, Fire Protection Engineering, Government, Graphic Design, Healthcare, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture with an estimated revenue and employee in the range of $50 to $500 million and 201-500 respectively.

The company is located in Baltimore, United States and has an estimated revenue and employee in the range of $1 to $5 million and 11-50 respectively.

The company specialises in Architecture, Construction Management, Engineering, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture, Planning, Procurement with an estimated revenue and employee in the range of $1 to $5 million and 11-50 respectively.

The company is located in Portland, United States and has an estimated revenue and employee in the range of $10 to $50 million and 11-50 respectively.

Post Idea #21: Equity capital markets

Related Articles – Summarized

Equity Capital Market Definition

The equity capital market refers to the arena where financial institutions help companies raise equity capital and where stocks are traded.

The equity capital market is broader than just the stock market because it covers a wider range of financial instruments and activities.

As part of the capital markets, the ECM, leads, in theory, to the efficient allocation of resources within a market economy.

Primary Equity Market The primary equity market, where companies issue new securities, is divided into a private placement market, and a primary public market.

Secondary Equity Market The secondary market, where no new capital is created, is what most people typically think of as the “Stock market”.

Raising capital through equity markets offers several advantages for companies.

While equity market investors are more tolerant of risk as compared to their debt market counterparts, they are also focused on returns.

Overview, Instruments, Participants

The equity capital market is a subset of the broader capital market, where financial institutions and companies interact to trade financial instruments and raise capital for companies.

What is a stock? An individual who owns stock in a company is called a shareholder and is eligible to claim part of the company’s residual assets and earnings.

An ADR is a certificate of ownership issued in the name of a foreign company by an American bank, against the foreign shares deposited in the bank by the said foreign company.

ADRs promote the trading of foreign shares in America by admitting the shares of foreign companies into a well-developed stocked market.

If the company creates new shares for the issue, the proceeds from the sale of those shares are credited to the company.

The company is subject to greater scrutiny: Investors in the equity market rely very heavily on the company’s financial statements to make their investment decisions.

Return on EquityReturn on Equity is a measure of a company’s profitability that takes a company’s annual return divided by the value of its total shareholders’ equity.

Equity Capital Markets: The Definitive Guide

If you’re in this group, you’ll spend most of your time advising companies that want to raise equity capital.

“Raising equity capital” means that the company sells a percentage of ownership in itself in exchange for cash – as opposed to raising debt, where the company maintains its ownership but must pay interest on the funds it raises.

Convertible Bonds / Equity-Linked: This group helps companies raise capital with “Convertible bonds,” which start out as debt issuances but convert into equity if the company’s stock price reaches a certain level.

Finally, some banks also have Private Placements teams, which help companies raise capital by selling equity to a small group of large investors.

Your main job in Equity Capital Markets is to tell stories about companies’ growth potential so that the companies can raise capital from investors.

Follow-On Offering: With this one, the company is already public and simply wants to raise additional equity capital.

Accelerated Bookbuild: This one happens even more quickly, and companies often do it when they need capital ASAP and cannot wait for better pricing or terms…Secondary Offering: The company does not raise capital at all – instead, one group of investors sells its shares to another group of investors.

What Are Equity Capital Markets?

You can do that through equity capital markets, which are broader than the stock market.

Learn how equity capital markets work and what ECM groups do.

Equity capital markets are where companies raise capital with the help of financial institutions.

There are two markets within the ECM: the primary market and the secondary market.

The secondary market doesn’t raise capital.

Private Placement Market Primary Public Market Companies raise equity through private, unquoted shares that are directly sold to investors.

ECM works closely with debt capital markets, and are under the same umbrella of investment banking.

Equity Capital Markets: What Is It?

Equity Capital Markets is the team / group that is responsible for providing advice on equity, equity-linked and equity derived products.

The group is focused on raising equity for clients through the Capital Markets.

Certified user [MBAApply] worked in equity capital markets as an analyst.

Origination is definitely a corporate finance job and is usually done by coverage or M&A bankers whereas the equity syndication is more related to markets.

An IPO is an initial public offering, in which the equity capital markets team helps a company issue shares to the public market to invest in on public exchanges.

Truth is, many people from Capital Markets transfer to M&A within the bank and eventually end up with the same exit opportunities as M&A people.

In the Capital Markets, you will not be doing any modeling which is done by other product or industry teams, but you will be heavily exposed to markets.

What Are Equity Capital Markets

An equity capital market is a market between companies and financial institutions that aims to raise equity capital for the companies.

The key players within ECMs are big financial institutions such as Citigroup, Goldman Sachs and UBS.Where have you heard about equity capital markets?

The business pages of leading newspapers are always full of news about the state of the equity capital markets.

ECMs provide a way for businesses to raise additional capital through the issuance of stock.

The company gives information about its finances to a financial institution, which then helps the company with market transactions.

Institutions providing ECM services can be involved in initial public offerings, convertible bonds and other services involving equity.

They can also raise money for a company merger or an acquisition of another company.

Equity Capital Markets

About EY. EY is a global leader in assurance, consulting, strategy and transactions, and tax services.

The insights and quality services we deliver help build trust and confidence in the capital markets and in economies the world over.

We develop outstanding leaders who team to deliver on our promises to all of our stakeholders.

We play a critical role in building a better working world for our people, for our clients and for our communities.

EY refers to the global organization, and may refer to one or more, of the member firms of Ernst & Young Global Limited, each of which is a separate legal entity.

Ernst & Young Global Limited, a UK company limited by guarantee, does not provide services to clients.

ED MMYY. This material has been prepared for general informational purposes only and is not intended to be relied upon as accounting, tax, or other professional advice.

Post Idea #22: Neuraminidase inhibitor

Related Articles – Summarized

Neuraminidase Inhibitor

Influenza Neuraminidase InhibitorsNAIs are potent inhibitors of influenza virus in vitro and in vivo because NA activity is essential for viral release from infected cells, a necessary step for viral spread to other cells.

Peramivir is the first IV neuraminidase inhibitor available for treatment in influenza patients.

Inhibit influenza virus type A and type B by binding to a highly conserved region of the neuraminidase protein on the viral surface to inhibit viral penetration, replication, and disease.

The only neuraminidase inhibitor available for oral treatment in children younger than 6 years is oseltamivir [1.,532.] because this drug has been shown to be safe and effective at reducing both the duration and severity of influenza symptoms in adult and pediatric patients over the age of 1 year [533-538.]. However, neuraminidase inhibitor resistance among circulating influenza strains is increasing.

In a large Japanese prospective multicenter study during the influenza season of 2002-3 oseltamivir was given to 803 patients with influenza A and 684 patients with influenza B; amantadine was given to 676 patients with influenza A. In each group, the duration of fever was significantly shorter in patients who were treated within 12 hours after the onset of symptoms than in those who were treated more than 12 hours after the onset.

Are a class of antiviral agents that are active against both influenza A and influenza B. The neuraminidase inhibitors, inhaled zanamivir and oral oseltamivir have received regulatory approval in some countries for the treatment of acute influenza and for chemoprophylaxis.

Neuraminidase InhibitorsNA inhibitors inhibit the NA protein present on both influenza A and B, blocking the influenza virus from fusing with the host cell membrane.

Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Who, When, Where?

Although the neuraminidase inhibitors, oseltamivir and zanamivir were first licensed in 1999, their clinical effectiveness is still hotly debated.

Two rigorous systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the data from clinical trials conducted in community settings against relatively benign influenza, both suggest that reductions in symptom duration are extremely modest, under one day.

Whilst one of these reviews could find no evidence of reductions in complications, the most recent review reported clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in the likelihood of requiring antibiotics and hospitalizations in adult patients with confirmed influenza, treated with oseltamivir.

A further meta-analysis of observational data from the 2009 influenza A(H1N1) pandemic suggested that, in hospitalised patients, NIs significantly reduced mortality in adults by 25% overall, and by 62% if started within 48 hours of symptom onset, compared with no treatment.

The effectiveness of NIs in children is far less clear.

Taken together, these data suggest that NIs should be reserved for patients with influenza who are at high-risk of complications, or when clinically assessed found to be markedly unwell, or rapidly deteriorating.

Keywords: Antivirals; influenza; inhibitors; neuraminidase; treatment.

Neuraminidase Inhibitor

Neuraminidase inhibitors are a class of drugs which block the neuraminidase enzyme.

Viral neuraminidases are essential for influenza reproduction, facilitating viral budding from the host cell.

Unlike the M2 inhibitors, which work only against the influenza A virus, NAIs act against both influenza A and influenza B. The NAIs oseltamivir and zanamivir were approved in the US and Europe for treatment and prevention of influenza A and B. Peramivir acts by strongly binding to the neuraminidase of the influenza viruses and inhibits activation of neuraminidase much longer than oseltamivir or zanamivir.

After the pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009, the effectiveness of early treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors in reducing serious cases and deaths was reported in various countries.

The abnormal behaviors of children after taking oseltamivir that have been reported may be an extension of delirium or hallucinations caused by influenza.

Children with influenza are advised to be observed by their parents until 48 hours after the onset of the influenza illness, regardless of whether the child is treated with NAIs.

Media related to Neuraminidase inhibitors at Wikimedia Commons.

Neuraminidase Inhibitors For Treatment Of Influenza A And B Infections

This indication was based on studies in which the predominant influenza infections were influenza A and a limited number of patients with influenza B were also enrolled.

More clinical data are available concerning the effectiveness of zanamivir and oseltamivir for treatment of influenza A infection than for treatment of influenza B infection.

Limited data from clinical trials of zanamivir and from studies of oseltamivir treatment of experimental influenza B infections also suggest that zanamivir and oseltamivir are effective for treatment of infections caused by influenza B viruses.

No studies have directly compared the effectiveness of these drugs for treatment of influenza A; however, available information indicates that all four agents are roughly comparable in reducing the duration of uncomplicated acute illness due to influenza A when treatment is started shortly after onset of symptoms.

CONCLUSION. Amantadine has been available since 1976, and rimantadine has been available since 1993; both drugs have been extensively used for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza A. Zanamivir and oseltamivir offer new options for treatment of influenza.

Efficacy and safety of the neuraminidase inhibitor zanamivir in the treatment of influenza A and B virus infections.

Inhibition of influenza virus infections in mice by GS4104, an orally effective influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor.

Neuraminidase Inhibitors: Drug Class, Uses, Side Effects, Drug Names

Neuraminidase inhibitors are antiviral drugs used to treat acute respiratory infections and influenza.

All influenza viruses contain two glycoproteins, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase.

Neuraminidase inhibitors block the function of the viral neuraminidase protein, thus stopping the release of viruses from the infected host cells and preventing new host cells from being infected, and therefore, the infection does not spread in the respiratory tract.

Neuraminidase inhibitors should be given as early as possible.

As neuraminidase inhibitors are effective against all strains of influenza and can be used as a prophylaxis, they play a key role in the preparedness of epidemics and pandemics.

Most of the minor side effects occur only once at the initiation of therapy and resolve within 1 to 2 days.

The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible side effects, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects.

Post Idea #23: Enzyme inhibitor

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Potent inhibitors bind to the active site and thereby prevent labeling of the enzyme by the probe.

Free hapten competes for antibody-binding sites and increases the concentration of available inhibitor with a corresponding acceleration of inhibition and decrease in enzyme activity.

The applicability of using peptide libraries for the identification of peptide enzyme inhibitors was therefore investigated using trypsin as the model enzyme.

The inhibitors are highly specific, limited proteolysis substrates for their target enzymes.

37,38.Noncompetitive inhibitors are compounds which bind to the enzyme at sites usually distinct from the substrate binding site, altering the enzyme configuration and as a result impede the access of the substrate to the active site or inhibit its catalytic action.

Transition state analogs typically bind to enzyme active sites much more tightly than substrate analogs because the enzyme binds the substrate in the transition state more strongly than one in the ground state, as explained by the thermodynamic cycle as previously described.

The actions of such chemicals result from the modification of active-site residues of enzymes and may or may not be specific, depending on whether the chemicals specifically bind to the enzyme or whether the modification process depends on the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme.

Enzyme Inhibitors

The noncompetitive inhibitor reacts either remote from or very close to the active site.

The net effect of a non competitive inhibitor is to change the shape of the enzyme and thus the active site, so that the substrate can no longer interact with the enzyme to give a reaction.

Non competitive inhibitors are usually reversible, but are not influenced by concentrations of the substrate as is the case for a reversible competive inhibitor.

These inhibitors may act at, near, or remote from the active site.

Since many enzymes contain sulfhydral, alcohol, or acid groups as part of their active sites, any chemical which can react with them acts as an irreversible inhibitor.

In the graphic on the left, the substrate and the irreversible inhibitor are shown in the active site pocket.

In the case of the inhibitor the reaction starts in the same way as with the substrate, but the end result is that the inhibitor is covalently bonded to the histidine-57 in the active site and is not reversible.

Enzyme Inhibitor

An enzyme inhibitor is a molecule that binds to an enzyme and decreases its activity.

It can be said that as the concentration of enzyme inhibitors increases, the rate of enzyme activity decreases, and thus, the amount of product produced is inversely proportional to the concentration of inhibitor molecules.

Not all molecules that bind to enzymes are inhibitors; enzyme activators bind to enzymes and increase their enzymatic activity, while enzyme substrates bind and are converted to products in the normal catalytic cycle of the enzyme.

This usually results from the inhibitor having an affinity for the active site of an enzyme where the substrate also binds; the substrate and inhibitor compete for access to the enzyme’s active site.

As noted above, an enzyme inhibitor is characterised by its two dissociation constants, Ki and Ki’, to the enzyme and to the enzyme-substrate complex, respectively.

This is because the amount of active enzyme at a given concentration of irreversible inhibitor will be different depending on how long the inhibitor is pre-incubated with the enzyme.

Other examples of physiological enzyme inhibitor proteins include the barstar inhibitor of the bacterial ribonuclease barnase.

Definition Of Enzyme Inhibitor By Medical Dictionary

A molecule that prevents an enzyme from catalysing a reaction.

Such inhibitors can compete with the normal substrate.

Enzyme inhibitors often form part of a FEEDBACK MECHANISM to regulate a biochemical pathway.

Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, or visit the webmaster’s page for free fun content.

Enzyme Inhibitors

Enzyme Inhibitors reduce the rate of an enzyme catalysed reaction by interfering with the enzyme in some way.

Competitive Enzyme Inhibitors work by preventing the formation of Enzyme-Substrate Complexes because they have a similar shape to the substrate molecule.

Non-competitive Enzyme Inhibitors work not by preventing the formation of Enzyme-Substrate Complexes, but by preventing the formation of Enzyme-Product Complexes.

Enzyme Inhibitors by organisms are used in controlling metabolic reactions.

Potassium Cyanide is an irreversible Inhibitor of the enzyme Cytochrome C Oxidase, which takes part in respiration reactions in cells.

Some Enzyme Inhibitors can be used as Medicines in the treatment of conditions.

Infection by viruses can be treated by Inhibitors to the viral enzyme Protease, often competitive Inhibitors.

Allosteric Regulation

Allosteric enzymes display a sigmoidal curve in contrast to the hyperbolic curve displayed by Michaelis-Menten Enzymes.

This is because most allosteric enzymes contain multiple sub-units which can affect each other when the substrate binds to the enzyme.

Allosteric enzymes have two states: a low affinity state dubbed the “T” state and the high affinity “R” state.

Inhibitors work by preferentially binding to the T state of an allosteric enzyme, causing the enzyme to maintain this low affinity state.

The kinase enzymes cleave off a phosphate group from ATP and binds it to the enzyme.

Zymogens are a useful mechanism allowing enzymes to be safely transported to different locations, without the enzyme becoming active and performing its function along the way.

Cyanide binds to the final enzyme in the electron transport chain, and prevents this enzyme from catalysing the reaction from oxygen to water.

Present chapter introduces beginners with basic tenets of classic presumptions of enzyme inhibition, types of enzyme inhibitors, different models of enzyme inhibition with established examples cited in literature, and scientific basis of emerging immobilized enzyme technology in different applications.

The remaining unmodified enzyme molecules are normally functional considering their turnover number and Km. For example: Natural poisons act as Enzyme inhibitors and Inhibitory enzymes In nature, animals and plants are rich in poisons as secondary metabolites, peptides and proteins that can act as enzyme inhibitors.

The “a” can be calculated from the change in the slope of the line at a given inhibitor concentration; a = 1+ [I] [E][I] , w here, K I = KI [EI] Therefore, competitive inhibitors do not affect the turnover number or the efficiency of the enzyme because once enzyme is free, enzyme behaves normally.

In following description, factors are discussed on different practical considerations that influence the enzyme reaction rates, enzyme inhibition kinetics, % binding efficiency on enzyme solid support with a glimpse of known theories and concepts on real-time, cheaper, economic, user-friendly immobilized enzyme technology.

Immobilized enzyme systems In search of economic, efficient and practical enzyme platforms to test enzyme inhibitors, new user-friendly immobilized enzyme technology is available now.

Covalent bonding is done by enzyme retention on support surfaces by covalent binding between functional groups such as amino, carboxylic, sulfhydryl, hydroxyl groups on the enzyme and those on the support surface keeping enzyme active site(s) free.

In recent years, application of enzymes and enzyme inhibition science have gone in healthcare, pharmaceutical, bio-industries, environment, and biochemical enzyme chip industries with great impact on healthcare and medical business.

Post Idea #24: Global Adsorbents Private Limited

Related Articles – Summarized

Company, Directors And Contact Details

It is classified as Non-govt company and is registered at Registrar of Companies, Kolkata.

Previous CINS. Login to view previous cins.

View Events Timeline – List of all company events since inception.

If the company has changed line of business without intimating the Registrar or is a diversified business, classification may be different.

We are adding and updating information about hundreds of thousands of companies every day, and periodically add companies to the queue for being updated.

You can ask for a company to be added to the front of the queue for updating, especially useful if the address, directors, or other critical information has changed.

Just click on the ‘Update Information’ button below to start the process.

Company Profile, Directors, Revenue & More

Global Adsorbents Private Limited is an unlisted private company incorporated on 31 October, 2000.

It is classified as a private limited company and is located in Kolkata, West Bengal.

It’s authorized share capital is INR 1.00 cr and the total paid-up capital is INR 83.48 lac.

Global Adsorbents Private Limited’s operating revenues range is INR 1 cr – 100 cr for the financial year ending on 31 March, 2019.

It’s EBITDA has increased by 119.17 % over the previous year.

Description: The company is engaged in manufacturing of adsorption chemicals such as activated carbon, activated bleaching earth, and filter media sand, gravel, premium anthracite.

The last reported AGM of Global Adsorbents Private Limited, per our records, was held on 30 November, 2021.

Manufacturer From Elgin, Kolkata, India

Global Adsorbents Pvt. Ltd., is established in the year 1995.

We are the leading manufacturer, supplier and exporter of high quality Activated Carbon in all varieties i.e. Powder, Granular & Extruded form.

The company supplies Activated Carbon to various industries in India as well as global market.

The State of Art Carbon manufacturing Plant is located in Hyderabad and Anthracite Coal processing plant in Kolkata.

Today, we are one of the most reliable manufacturer, supplier and exporter of the Activated Carbon in India.

We are a team personnel including engineers and chemists with the vision to become one of the leading Activated Carbon Company in the world market.

Out of almost 150 grades of Activated Carbon, we offer nearly 100 types of Activated Carbon and made from a host of feed stocks such as Coal, Wood and Coconut shell.

Reviews, Photos, Phone Number And Address

How to make a phone call to Global Adsorbents Pvt Ltd? You can dial +91 228-322-66 during business hours.

What are the business hours for Global Adsorbents Pvt Ltd? Global Adsorbents Pvt Ltd works at the following schedule: Mon-fri: 09:30 – 18:30; sat: 09:30 – 16:00.

What is Global Adsorbents Pvt Ltd’s score on Nicelocal? The average rating of this place is 4.1 out of 5.

You can visit the Global Adsorbents Pvt Ltd reviews section to put together your own review!

Post Idea #25: Tor Browser

Related Articles – Summarized

Tor Project

Tor Browser will block browser plugins such as Flash, RealPlayer, QuickTime, and others: they can be manipulated into revealing your IP address.

We do not recommend installing additional add-ons or plugins into Tor Browser.

Plugins or addons may bypass Tor or compromise your privacy.

Tor Browser already comes with HTTPS Everywhere, NoScript, and other patches to protect your privacy and security.

Each file on our download page is accompanied by a file labelled “Signature” with the same name as the package and the extension “.

This will vary by web browser, but generally you can download this file by right-clicking the “Signature” link and selecting the “Save file as” option.

These are example file names and will not exactly match the file names that you download. We now show how you can verify the downloaded file’s digital signature on different operating systems.

Therefore every time a new file is uploaded a new signature is generated with a different date.

Asc” signature file as well as the installer file itself, and verify it with a command that asks GnuPG to verify the file that you downloaded.

The examples below assume that you downloaded these two files to your “Downloads” folder.

If you get error messages containing ‘No such file or directory’, either something went wrong with one of the previous steps, or you forgot that these commands use example file names and yours will be a little different.

Tor Browser

Tor Browser is free and open-source software that guarantees anonymity online and enhances your security and safety while using the internet.

Tor’s name comes from its original moniker, The Onion Router, and as the name suggests Tor uses several layers of encryption to protect your data.

Tor Browser is available for Windows, Mac, and Android operating systems.

Tor Browser hides your location and prevents your web traffic from being tracked, making it virtually impossible to trace your activity on the internet.

Tor Browser is not 100% secure and can suffer the same attacks that other browsers do.

As it’s a gateway to potentially malicious content it is a good idea to fully understand the risks of using Tor as your primary or secondary browser.

For this reason, if you are using Tor as your primary browser, you should educate yourself and other users on using Tor safely.

Tor Browser Download

Tor Browser enables you to use Tor on Windows, Mac OS X, or Linux without needing to install any software.

Tor is a software that bounces your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers.

This effectively prevents anyone watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit; it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location; and allows you access to sites which are blocked.

Tor Browser can run off a USB flash drive, comes with a pre-configured web browser to protect your anonymity, and is self-contained.

Monitor, manage, and support clients at the desktop level-without requiring integration of third-party RDS tools.

What Is The Tor Browser?: A Guide To The Dark Web Browser

The Tor browser is an internet browser that allows users to surf the web anonymously.

For surfing the web anonymously, using the Tor browser is better than using a normal web browser.

The use of the Tor browser itself is completely legal in most jurisdictions, especially in the “Western world.” However, some Tor users do engage in illegal activities.

The Tor browser is the only browser that lets you visit the dark web.

Step 1: Go to the Tor Project website and click on the Tor browser download button in the top right corner of your screen.

You can find more information on the Tor browser and by visiting the Tor Project website.

Many consider them both less effective and less secure than both Tor and a good VPN. Nevertheless, people often wonder how a proxy differs from the Tor browser.

Tor Browser Download For Free

Tor browser is a 100% free software designed specifically to enable users to anonymously make searches through different search engines and use the Dark Web.

Tor browser is available for desktop and mobile devices powered by Microsoft Windows, macOS, Linux, and Android making the software accessible to everyone.

Follow the steps below and I’ll show you to download the Tor Browser for free.

Click the Download button on the sidebar and the official Tor Browser download page will open in a new tab.

In addition to the regular browser features, such as tabbed browsing, shortcuts, and the ability to display websites with video and audio components, the TOR browser keeps your online activities anonymous.

Tor Browser Features Hides your IP address: The computer’s IP address can reveal a lot of information about a user, such as their location, computer type, ISP, and more.

Yes! Follow the instructions above to download the official Tor Browser 100% free.

Download Tor Browser For Windows 10 Free

So those are all the processes that you have to follow to download Tor Browser for Windows PC. Then let’s go on to the next section where we will discuss Tor Browser itself.

Tor Browser Free & Safe Download. Tor Browser latest version for the best experience.

Or you can share with us your experience when using this Tor Browser on your Windows 10 PC. And if you know other people who want to experience Tor Browser for Windows PC, you can share this article to help them.

Enjoy using Tor Browser for Windows PC. Find other interesting articles that will help you how to download Bitdefender for Windows 10 PC, install RoboForm for Windows 10, Parental review, or about best Firewall alternative apps for Windows 10.

Q: How do I access the free Tor Browser download for Windows PC?A: It is easy! Just click the free Tor Browser download button in the above of this page.

Clicking the download button will start the installer to download Tor Browser free for a PC/laptop.

Q: Is this Tor Browser will typically run on any Windows?A: Yes! The Tor Browser for PC will typically work on most recent Windows operating systems, including Windows XP / Vista / Windows 7 / Windows 8 / Windows 10 64-bit and 32-bit.

Post Idea #26: Microlearning

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Microlearning? Examples And Best Practices

Microlearning can really improve on-the-job training because employees will learn in a short period of time, and without disrupting their daily tasks.

Microlearning works in synergy with mobile learning so that you can learn on the go.

People all learn differently, and microlearning allows people to find a way of learning that works for them.

Microlearning allows you to construct your learning paths with short, informative pieces of learning, which don’t incorporate extraneous information.

Because microlearning courses are very short pieces, it means that a full, traditional course could be split into many dozens of microlearning courses.

One of the best things about microlearning is that it boosts engagement.

At the end of a series of microlearning modules, or at the end of a shorter microlearning segment, include tools for employees to review what they’ve learned.

What Is Microlearning: A Complete Guide For Beginners

While there’s no official microlearning definition, all microlearning-based training shares one key characteristic: brevity.

A few microlearning examples include employee onboarding, compliance training, and skills training.

Microlearning courses can cover any subject that regular eLearning courses can; just in a bite-sized way.

The microlearning experience is similar to checking your favorite social app on your smartphone, compared to the “Serious study” feel of regular training.

Compared to traditional courses, a microlearning course is easier to start creating and faster to complete.

If your subject matter is complex, requires in-depth study, or calls for in-person training, microlearning is probably not for you.

If your microlearning platform supports gamification, add a few elements to your courses.

What Is Microlearning?

As learners are able to personalize their training experience, they are more likely to apply knowledge on the job and seek out future training.

JUST-IN-TIME LEARNING. Microlearning strategies support employees accessing information when they need it most.

Because assets are compact, learners are more likely to invest the time needed to use them in an on-the-job context.

Assets developed to be compatible with a wide variety of devices allow learners to use them when and where it’s most helpful.

As a result, learners gain new knowledge just in time to meet their immediate needs.

EFFECTIVE AND VARIED LEARNING. Microlearning lends itself to a variety of different modalities, which creates effective, richly varied training experiences for learners.

ADVANTAGEOUS FOR TRAINERS. There are several key advantages for trainers and learning and development departments.

What Is Microlearning? Benefits, Examples, And Best Practices

Videos: Research suggests that video learning is more effective than in-person instruction, so leveraging this format for microlearning is highly beneficial.

Microlearning is an ideal strategy for L&D functions that embrace a 70:20:10 framework – where 70% of learning takes place on-the-job, 20% through interaction with others, and 10% through formal learning.

Since microlearning experiences are typically around five to ten minutes in length, learning designers should focus on including only one objective per module.

Why is microlearning so effective? Barbara Oakley, the author of Mindshift: Break Through Obstacles to Learning and Discover Your Hidden Potential, discusses how learning often involves going back and forth between two different “Neural modes.”

Microlearning is a natural aid in the learning process.

Microlearning is a natural aid in this learning process.

Because microlearning experiences come in short bursts, they reduce the initial cognitive load, allow a learner to take breaks, and easily return to the information at a later time.

What Is Microlearning? A Complete Guide For Beginners

Microlearning often appears with other terms like Bites/Bite-sized learning, Chunks, Micro-content, Snacks a.o. Also, because learning is most remembered, when it is applied in some situations, Microlearning usually comes with practicing.

While there is no definite way to teach or train new learners, microlearning definitely comes with a lot of benefits and shows many positive results in regards to learners’ progress and performance.

Whether you are offering corporate training, employee training, compliance training or you are an online instructor who simply wants to educate a group of learners, you can start making use of microlearning and change the way your learners think and learn.

To evaluate the effectiveness of Microlearning or a microlearning strategy, you should track learners’ progress through tests, assessments or exams, and also ask for feedback on the overall learning experience.

Microlearning is not long-form pieces of learning content, but a standalone piece of content that can be offered to learners who want to go through a holistic learning experience.

Microlearning is an important method of learning, and now learners are more in need of it than ever to learn quickly and on-the-go.

Microlearning is the future of training in the workplace because employees are learning how to become and stay more engaged in learning new concepts through small nuggets of information, and they prefer so, than going through long-form and boring texts.

What Is Microlearning? Examples, Strategy, And More

Traditionally, microlearning has been used primarily as part of a more developed blended learning course, combining face-to-face instruction with microlearning for followup and reinforcement.

Microlearning does the complete opposite: By breaking learning into smaller pieces, the hippocampus stays alert and focused while receiving information, making it easier for the brain to receive, sort, and store information without losing focus or giving into the temptation to multitask while learning.

Bite-sized takeaway: Breaking learning into 10 to 15 minute “Chunks” and utilizing microlearning as part of a daily learning routine is the key to seeing the best results.

Learners love microlearning because it saves time and puts them in charge, letting them choose not only what to learn, but when to learn.

If your organization can’t afford missed work and extra resources allowing learners to attend training, a microlearning strategy makes sense.

Smartphones allow you to blend microlearning aspects seamlessly with your current training strategy in what’s called “Second screen learning.” Traditional lectures, conferences and classes are complemented by learners using smartphones and tablets to answer questions.

In addition to lightening the learning load, microlearning provides quick turn-around: as you surf the web, read reports and check in with sites, you’ll undoubtedly happen upon articles, videos and information that you want to share with your learners via Twitter or other social media.


Microlearning deals with relatively small learning units and short-term learning activities.

Microlearning is a holistic approach for skill based learning and education which deals with relatively small learning units.

In a wide sense, microlearning can be understood as a metaphor which refers to micro aspects of a variety of learning models, concepts and processes.

Microlearning marks a transition from common models of learning towards micro perspectives on and the significance of micro dimensions in the process of learning.

The selection of micro learning objects and also pace and timing of microlearning activities are of importance for didactical designs.

Microlearning has also been considered as a promising topic in work-based learning and the applications of microlearning have been widely studied in different fields.

In a wider sense, microlearning is the way more and more people are actually doing informal learning and gaining knowledge in micro-content, micro-media or multitasking environments, especially those that become increasingly based on Web 2.0 and wireless technologies.

Post Idea #27: HelpSystems

Related Articles – Summarized


In June 2012, HelpSystems purchased UK-based Safestone, a security and compliance software developer for the IBM i. In October 2012, HelpSystems bought Gillingham, UK-based CCSS, the developer of QSystem Monitor, QMessage Monitor and QRemote Control systems monitoring and performance management tools for the IBM i server.

In April 2013, HelpSystems acquired IBM’s ShowCase business intelligence products, and added the software to its SEQUEL Software division.

In July 2014, HelpSystems acquired Minneapolis-based document management software company RJS Software, and the data warehousing product from Australia-based Coglin Mill.

In January 2015, HelpSystems bought Peterborough, England-based Halcyon, a developer of software for multi-platform systems management, and announced its intention to operate Halcyon as an independent company for the time being.

In February 2016, HelpSystems acquired Tango/04 Computing Group, a software company specialized on monitoring, with HQ in Barcelona and offices in Buenos Aires.

In August, HelpSystems announced a partnership with IBM. It involved accelerating enhancements and marketing for IBM i products including Backup, Recovery and Media Services on i, PowerHA SystemMirror for I, and Rational Developer for i. HelpSystems agreed to also enhance the development of Rational Developer for AIX and Linux.

In November, HelpSystems acquired MVP Software Systems and its JAMS enterprise workload automation solution.

Eden Prairie’S HelpSystems Announces 10th Acquisition In 15 Months

Eden Prairie-based software firm HelpSystems is buying Alert Logic, a Houston-based company that provides cybersecurity for cloud-based computer systems.

This will be HelpSystems’ 10th acquisition in the past 15 months.

The company did not disclose the purchase price for Alert Logic but said it would be the largest since HelpSystems acquired GlobalScape for $217 million in July 2020.

The deal will extend HelpSystems’ suite of IT options to the field of managed detection and response where Alert Logic is a well-known leader in the space, the company said.

“The speed of change in the cybersecurity environment requires HelpSystems to stay abreast of rapidly evolving macro trends and the tools and services our customers need to succeed,” said Kate Bolseth, chief executive of HelpSystems, in a statement.

HelpSystems posted revenue of $550 million in 2021, up from $350 million in 2020 and $300 million in 2019.

The deal for Alert Logic is expected to drive HelpSystems’ annual revenue over $800 million and employees to over 2,800.

HelpSystems To Acquire Alert Logic To Enable Customers To Address Cybersecurity Skills Shortage With Hybrid IT Approach

Alert Logic works as a seamless extension of security teams, augmenting existing cybersecurity resources and technology to safeguard on-premise, cloud, SaaS, and hybrid infrastructures.

Alert Logic will become a cornerstone of HelpSystems’ comprehensive cybersecurity portfolio.

Businesses of all sizes look to Alert Logic to establish a hybrid IT approach to meeting their cybersecurity goals and applicable compliance mandates.

Alert Logic is the industry leader in MDR for cloud environments, with more than 4,000 customers and an extensive partner ecosystem around the globe.

“The lack of skilled cybersecurity professionals means enterprises everywhere are increasingly looking to outsource this function to a reliable partner. Alert Logic is a respected leader in this capacity, and we’re so pleased to welcome this team of experts to the HelpSystems family.”

“The Alert Logic team is excited to continue our tradition of providing best-in-class service to global organizations as part of HelpSystems. We look forward to enabling HelpSystems to expand its offerings to customers looking to supplement their teams with managed services.”

Alert Logic is the only managed detection and response provider that delivers comprehensive coverage for public clouds, SaaS, on-premises, and hybrid environments.

HelpSystems Launches Channel Program

Cyber security and automation software vendor HelpSystems has launched a new global partner program, tapping into the channel ecosystem with five separate paths.

According to the vendor’s vice president of sales for Asia Pacific, David Land, HelpSystems is seeing “Significant growth” in the APAC region, claiming the vendor’s regional channel managers are already working with cyber security partners.

“The new program will deliver comprehensive resources and support for partners, allowing them to expand their role as trusted advisors and work closely with customers who are strengthening their security,” he said.

The referral program offers partners commissions for referring customers to HelpSystems.

The distributor program largely provides these partners with advanced technical assistance, global sales support and advanced marketing support.

The strategic alliance/OEM program sees partners placing HelpSystems’ software into their offerings for customers or partners, which benefits varying on a case-by-case basis.

HelpSystems has promoted the US-based Renee Ritter to vice president of channel to support and accelerate the global program, who is set to work with regional teams to make sure the program is aligned to its global objectives.

HelpSystems Launches New Global Channel Program

A cybersecurity and automation software company, has launched its new worldwide channel program, focusing on the strategic recruitment, development and enablement of its global partners, including those in Australia and New Zealand.

Under its new channel program, partners are better positioned to bring suites of HelpSystems’ products to market.

Benefits are tied to program type and solution groups, and partners must achieve the requirements applicable to their tier to qualify.

“HelpSystems is seeing significant growth in APAC, and our regional channel managers already work with great cybersecurity partners,” said HelpSystems vice president of sales Asia Pacific David Land.

“The new program will deliver comprehensive resources and support for partners, allowing them to expand their role as trusted advisors and work closely with customers who are strengthening their security.”

“Aquion has had a long-standing, valued relationship with HelpSystems across a range of their products and is excited by the launch of its new partner program,” said Aquion chief operating officer and chief financial officer Richard Thomas.

Ritter works with regional teams to ensure the program delivers on its global objectives.

HelpSystems To Acquire Alert Logic To Gain MDR Service

HelpSystems has agreed to acquire Alert Logic to gain control over a set of managed detection and response services.

Alert Logic today services more than 4,000 customers that chose to rely on a set of MDR services rather than deploy a platform themselves.

The overarching goal of an MDR service is to detect vulnerabilities, configuration issues and breaches in a way that ultimately limits their impact on the organization.

Alert Logic, for example, already built a security operations center through which its cybersecurity teams apply machine learning algorithms to aggregated data collected from thousands of customers to identify security issues.

The rise of machine learning algorithms and other forms of AI may force more organizations to rely on cybersecurity services simply because the expertise required to build and maintain an AI model is beyond the capability of an internal cybersecurity team.

Through these acquisitions, HelpSystems is moving to reduce the number of cybersecurity vendors an organization might need to engage, said Grancarich.

It’s not clear at what rate organizations are moving to consolidate cybersecurity vendors, but the percentage of IT budgets being consumed by cybersecurity has grown significantly as the volume and sophistication of cyberattacks has increased.

HelpSystems To Acquire Alert Logic To Enable Customers To Address Cybersecurity Skills Shortage With Hybrid IT Approach

HelpSystems announced today it has signed a merger agreement to acquire Alert Logic, a well-known leader in managed detection and response services.

Alert Logic works as a seamless extension of security teams, augmenting existing cybersecurity resources and technology to safeguard on-premise, cloud, SaaS, and hybrid infrastructures.

Alert Logic will become a cornerstone of HelpSystems’ comprehensive cybersecurity portfolio.

Businesses of all sizes look to Alert Logic to establish a hybrid IT approach to meeting their cybersecurity goals and applicable compliance mandates.

Alert Logic is the industry leader in MDR for cloud environments, with more than 4,000 customers and an extensive partner ecosystem around the globe.

“The lack of skilled cybersecurity professionals means enterprises everywhere are increasingly looking to outsource this function to a reliable partner. Alert Logic is a respected leader in this capacity, and we’re so pleased to welcome this team of experts to the HelpSystems family.”

“The Alert Logic team is excited to continue our tradition of providing best-in-class service to global organizations as part of HelpSystems. We look forward to enabling HelpSystems to expand its offerings to customers looking to supplement their teams with managed services.”

Post Idea #28: FV Pharma Inc

Related Articles – Summarized

Licensed Producers Canada

FV Pharma Inc. is an authorized licensed cultivator, processor and seller under the Cannabis Act.

Headquartered at the former Kraft plant in Cobourg, Ontario, approximately an hour’s drive from Toronto, FV Pharma Inc. management’s mission is to transform the facility into the largest hydroponic indoor cannabis facility in the world.

FV Pharma Inc. intends to target all legal aspects of the cannabis industry, including cultivation, processing, manufacturing, extracts and research and development.

FV Pharma Inc. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of FSD Pharma Inc. which is a publicly traded company on the Canadian Securities Exchange under the symbol HUGE. The following licences were issued to FV Pharma Inc. by Health Canada.

“CannabisWheaton” or the “Company”) is pleased to provide the following development update on the joint venture with FV Pharma Inc”.

This is an unclaimed listing and is not currently maintained by FV Pharma Inc. Only a current employee may claim this listing.

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TRAK International

FV Pharma Inc. Cobourg Facility is a cannabis production facility with a current production area of 20,000 square feet that was built-out by TRAK International.

TRAK studied and designed for the build-out of the available 620,000 square feet of building space.

Phase 1 – TRAK Mechanical and Electrical Design and Construction included mechanical, electrical, and some general services for multiple grow rooms, mother room, clone room, vault and other production spaces that involved the central plant and main hydronic heat pump modules, circulating pumps, main piping loop sizing and multiple make-up air handlers, preparations for next phase expansion, and a system-wide energy-management and controls system for a complete installation.

TRAK remotely monitored and assisted the operation of the new cannabis grow environment.

Phase 2 – Upon being awarded an extended agreement for design and intent for construction, TRAK completed the study, modelling and design of system expansion upon to an additional 200,000 square feet that would extend to Phase 3.

Working with local power authorities, TRAK completed a Detailed Engineering Study on an industrial system for the integration of a Combined Heat and Power plant, with the facility’s Phase 2 expansion and how it will enable and reduce electricity use and offset heating requirements.

TRAK completed the initial Phase 2 and 3 design, obtained equipment, material, and subcontractor costs, and certified an Advanced Order of Magnitude Estimate and Construction Schedule that enabled operation by December 2018, based on the planned May 2018 start date.

FV Pharma Inc.

Our investment in innovative growing technology and our access to premium cannabinoid-based products and research are keys to delivering world class products.

Headquartered at the former Kraft plant in Cobourg, Ontario, approximately an hour’s drive from Toronto, FV Pharma Inc. management’s mission is to transform the facility into the largest hydroponic indoor cannabis facility in the world.

FV Pharma Inc. intends to target all legal aspects of the cannabis industry, including cultivation, processing, manufacturing, extracts and research and development.

FV Pharma Inc. holds an ACMPR license to cultivate cannabis under the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations.

FV Pharma Inc. is a wholly-owned subsidiary of FSD Pharma Inc. which is a publicly traded company on the Canadian Securities Exchange under the symbol HUGE..

FV Pharma International Corp. Stock Quote

FV Pharma International Corp. is a development stage company, which engages in the distribution of teeth whitening strips in Latvia.

It plans to shift its business line into the production of medical marijuana through its subsidiary.

The company was founded on February 9, 2012 and is headquartered in Toronto, Canada.

Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. Provides FV Pharma Inc. Facility Development Update

Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. is pleased to provide the following development update on the joint venture with FV Pharma Inc. The FV Pharma facility is located in Cobourg, Ontario and hosts an existing 620,000 square feet of building space, a portion of which is currently licensed for cultivation pursuant to the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations.

Pursuant to the Company’s agreement with FV Pharma, in exchange for access to the Cannabis Wheaton platform which includes ongoing financial, design and operational support and expertise, Cannabis Wheaton will receive a 49.9% stream of all cannabis produced at the Facility, under partnership with Cannabis Wheaton, in perpetuity.

The Company is pleased to announce that is has chosen Cornerstone Builders Ltd. as the design builder for the FV Pharma Facility.

Chuck Rifici, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cannabis Wheaton commented, “The FV Pharma facility remains one of the most unique and important assets in the Cannabis Wheaton portfolio and we are very pleased with the progress the project has made over the previous few months. With the addition of Cornerstone as our design and building partner, and the ongoing support of the Town of Cobourg, we remain convinced that the FV Pharma facility will be a truly differentiated indoor growing facility.”

FV Pharma’s management mission is to make the former Kraft plant in Cobourg, Ontario the largest hydroponic cannabis indoor facility in the world.

Forward-looking information includes, but is not limited to: expectations of future growing capacity at the Facility and the projected costs associated with each expansion phase of the Facility; the completion of the planned build-out and expansion phases; the funding requirements for each expansion phase; the projected revenue achievable by the Facility; and the proposed licensing of the Facility and the expected timing to obtain all necessary licenses required for the proposed operation of the Facility.

Except as may be required by applicable securities laws, the Company does not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking information to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this release or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, whether as a result of new information, future events or results, or otherwise.

Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. Provides FV Pharma Inc. Facility Development Update

Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. is pleased to provide the following development update on the joint venture with FV Pharma Inc. The FV Pharma facility is located in Cobourg, Ontario and hosts an existing 620,000 square feet of building space, a portion of which is currently licensed for cultivation pursuant to the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations.

Pursuant to the Company’s agreement with FV Pharma, in exchange for access to the Cannabis Wheaton platform which includes ongoing financial, design and operational support and expertise, Cannabis Wheaton will receive a 49.9% stream of all cannabis produced at the Facility, under partnership with Cannabis Wheaton, in perpetuity.

The Company is pleased to announce that is has chosen Cornerstone Builders Ltd. as the design builder for the FV Pharma Facility.

Chuck Rifici, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cannabis Wheaton commented, “The FV Pharma facility remains one of the most unique and important assets in the Cannabis Wheaton portfolio and we are very pleased with the progress the project has made over the previous few months. With the addition of Cornerstone as our design and building partner, and the ongoing support of the Town of Cobourg, we remain convinced that the FV Pharma facility will be a truly differentiated indoor growing facility.”

FV Pharma’s management mission is to make the former Kraft plant in Cobourg, Ontario the largest hydroponic cannabis indoor facility in the world.

Forward-looking information includes, but is not limited to: expectations of future growing capacity at the Facility and the projected costs associated with each expansion phase of the Facility; the completion of the planned build-out and expansion phases; the funding requirements for each expansion phase; the projected revenue achievable by the Facility; and the proposed licensing of the Facility and the expected timing to obtain all necessary licenses required for the proposed operation of the Facility.

Except as may be required by applicable securities laws, the Company does not undertake any obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking information to reflect events or circumstances after the date of this release or to reflect the occurrence of unanticipated events, whether as a result of new information, future events or results, or otherwise.

Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. Provides FV Pharma Inc.

VANCOUVER, British Columbia, May 15, 2018 – Cannabis Wheaton Income Corp. is pleased to provide the following development update on the joint venture with FV Pharma Inc. The FV Pharma facility is located in Cobourg, Ontario and hosts an existing 620,000 square feet of building space, a portion of which is currently licensed for cultivation pursuant to the Access to Cannabis for Medical Purposes Regulations.

Pursuant to the Company’s agreement with FV Pharma, in exchange for access to the Cannabis Wheaton platform which includes ongoing financial, design and operational support and expertise, Cannabis Wheaton will receive a 49.9% stream of all cannabis produced at the Facility, under partnership with Cannabis Wheaton, in perpetuity.

Chuck Rifici, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Cannabis Wheaton commented, “The FV Pharma facility remains one of the most unique and important assets in the Cannabis Wheaton portfolio and we are very pleased with the progress the project has made over the previous few months. With the addition of Cornerstone as our design and building partner, and the ongoing support of the Town of Cobourg, we remain convinced that the FV Pharma facility will be a truly differentiated indoor growing facility.”

Thomas Fairfull, President and CEO of FV Pharma commented, “We are delighted with the progress of the facility, not to mention the fact that it remains on schedule and on budget. This goes to highlight the strength and value of the partnership with Cannabis Wheaton, in addition to their ability to execute within the parameters of the original agreement and timeframe. We look forward to working with them as this project moves into the advanced stages of construction and ultimately into the production of cannabis.”

Cannabis Wheaton is a collective of entrepreneurs with a passion for the cannabis industry past, present and future.

FV Pharma intends to target all aspects of the cannabis industry including cultivation, processing, manufacturing, R&D, concentrates, beverages and edibles when and only when it is legal to do so.

The purpose of forward-looking information is to provide the reader with a description of management’s expectations, and such forward-looking information may not be appropriate for any other purpose.

Post Idea #29: Liquidity crisis

Related Articles – Summarized

Liquidity Crisis Definition

A liquidity crisis is a financial situation characterized by a lack of cash or easily-convertible-to-cash assets on hand across many businesses or financial institutions simultaneously.

In a liquidity crisis, liquidity problems at individual institutions lead to an acute increase in demand and decrease in supply of liquidity, and the resulting lack of available liquidity can lead to widespread defaults and even bankruptcies.

Liquidity problems can occur at a single institution, but a true liquidity crisis usually refers to a simultaneous lack of liquidity across many institutions or an entire financial system.

When many financial institutions experience a simultaneous shortage of liquidity and draw down their self-financed reserves, seek additional short-term debt from credit markets, or try to sell-off assets to generate cash, a liquidity crisis can occur.

The acute need for liquidity across institutions becomes a mutually self-reinforcing positive feedback loop that can spread to impact institutions and businesses that were not initially facing any liquidity problem on their own.

For the economy as a whole, a liquidity crisis means that the two main sources of liquidity in the economy-banks loans and the commercial paper market-become suddenly scarce.

A liquidity crisis can unfold in in response to a specific economic shock or as a feature of a normal business cycle.

Liquidity Crisis Definition

A liquidity crisis is economic and financial terminology for a shortage of liquidity.

It can refer to various types of liquidity including funding, market and accounting liquidity.

Certain economists state that a market is liquid if it can consume liquidity trades without large shifts in price.

One of the earliest and most influential models of liquidity crisis is the Diamond-Dybvig model.

Significant drops in asset prices are rife during a liquidity crisis.

This is why asset prices are vulnerable to liquidity risk and risk averse investors need a higher expected return as a means of compensation to account for the risk that they are taking.

The CAPM imparts that if an asset has a high market liquidity risk then it should also have a higher required return.

What Is A Liquidity Crisis?

A liquidity crisis can have terrible financial consequences for individuals, businesses, and an economy as a whole.

Now that we have a basic understanding of liquidity, we can now move on to learning all about liquidity crises and why they are so bad. A liquidity crisis is a situation where there is a shortage in liquidity.

This can result in a mutually reinforcing liquidity spiral-or a ‘liquidity black hole’-especially between market liquidity and funding liquidity.

If nothing is done to fix the liquidity crisis, you can get situations where liquidity can evaporate entirely in certain markets and sectors of the economy.

If a widespread liquidity crisis was to be left to fix itself, a distressing period of economic recession would be highly likely.

The reason a central bank can fix a liquidity crisis is because one of its functions is to serve a lender of last resort.

In principle, a liquidity crisis can always be resolved by a central bank because it can continue to exchange base money for less liquid assets until the crisis passes.

Managing The Liquidity Crisis

With the economic impact of the pandemic likely to last into the fourth quarter of this year, it is very likely that companies will have to look beyond their bank credit lines for additional liquidity.

The global corporate sector went into the pandemic with unprecedented levels of financial leverage, largely because the low-interest environment following the 2008 financial crisis made it easy for companies to borrow.

Where Does This Leave Us? Given that their bank credit lines are already full, the effective closure of the main sources of liquidity for lower-rated companies leaves only one plausible private-sector source for these companies: private capital investors, specifically distressed debt funds, private equity, private debt funds, and hedge funds.

As a result, the act does little to protect many of the companies and jobs that are arguably most at risk from the economic shock delivered by the coronavirus pandemic and penalizes perfectly good small companies that happen to be owned by private equity investors.

These companies are as much part of the fabric of the U.S. economy, employing people and generating economic growth, as any other small companies.

Involvement of private lenders with the expertise to identify whether a company is only suffering from short-term liquidity needs or whether there are also long-term solvency issues is key to efficient allocation of capital.

Any loans made to the company while it is in Chapter 11 can be structured as super senior debt, taking precedence over all other company obligations.

Liquidity Crisis

In financial economics, a liquidity crisis refers to an acute shortage of liquidity.

Liquidity may refer to market liquidity, funding liquidity, or accounting liquidity.

Several mechanisms operating through the mutual reinforcement of asset market liquidity and funding liquidity can amplify the effects of a small negative shock to the economy and result in lack of liquidity and eventually a full blown financial crisis.

A liquidity crisis may even result due to uncertainty associated with market activities.

Liquidity crises such as the financial crisis of 2007-2008 and the LTCM crisis of 1998 also result in deviations from the Law of one price, meaning that almost identical securities trade at different prices.

A phenomenon frequently observed during liquidity crises is flight to liquidity as investors exit illiquid investments and turn to secondary markets in pursuit of cash-like or easily saleable assets.

Empirical evidence points towards widening price differentials, during periods of liquidity shortage, among assets that are otherwise alike, but differ in terms of their asset market liquidity.

Why The Global Economy Is Facing A Liquidity Crisis

A paradox has emerged in the financial markets of the advanced economies since the 2008 global financial crisis.

A series of recent shocks suggests that macro liquidity has become linked with severe market illiquidity.

So what accounts for the combination of macro liquidity and market illiquidity?

For starters, in equity markets, high-frequency traders, who use algorithmic computer programs to follow market trends, account for a larger share of transactions.

In short, though central banks’ creation of macro liquidity may keep bond yields low and reduce volatility, it has also led to crowded trades and more investment in illiquid bond funds, while tighter regulation means that market makers are missing in action.

Over time, the longer central banks create liquidity to suppress short-run volatility, the more they will feed price bubbles in equity, bond, and other asset markets.

Macro liquidity is feeding booms and bubbles; but market illiquidity will eventually trigger a bust and collapse.

Liquidity Crisis: Keeping Firms Afloat During Covid-19

Figure 2 Total liquidity shortage for all firms and by firm size.

To check for this, we let firms borrow the maximum amount according to the different measures and check which firms cannot cover their liquidity shortage with such borrowing.

Even in the case of a second wave after the summer, firms’ liquidity needs are manageable under the current schemes of liquidity provision.

Many firms become illiquid very quickly, so it is essential that credit flows to firms with the necessary urgency.

Figure 3 Firms with liquidity shortfalls according to the liquidity measure.

Schivardi, F and G Romano, “A simple method to estimate firms liquidity needs during the COVID-19 crisis with an application to Italy”, CEPR Covid Economics: Vetted and Real-Time Papers.

In particular, for firms with less than 500 employees, it offers full guarantee up to the minimum between 30,000 and 25% of 2019; for firms with less than 3.2 million turnover, it offers 25% of 2019 sales with 90% government guarantee and 10% Confidi guarantee; up to 5 million with 90% government guarantee; up to the maximum between 25% of sales and twice the labor costs of 2019, with a guarantee from 90% to 70% according to firm and loan size.

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