37 Google Trending Breakout Blog Post Ideas – Updated on 2022-03-16

Find trends and resources for the highest search-volume keywords on Google in the last 24 hours below. This post was updated on 2022-03-16.

The automated system gathers resources for each breakout keyword, making it much easier to write blog articles on hot-topics quickly. Use this tool to climb the SEO ladder for free!

Please note that everything on this page is automatically gathered and generated. Skim through blog post ideas until you find something you’re interested in writing about. Take the hard work out of finding and researching popular blog post ideas.

Post Idea #1: Canadian Press

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Canada’S Trusted News Leader

We produce branded content for your exclusive use with our national and global network of freelance copy writers, photographers, videographers and graphic designers.

Whether for PR, content marketing or editorial purposes, clients such as Visa, GE, Arthritis Society and Postmedia trust our storytelling expertise and understanding of what audiences want to read, watch and share.

Through our Pagemasters North America division, we take care of your editorial production so you can focus on content creation from proofreading, copy editing and video editing to pagination and layout design.

Our professional editors also provide content curation by selecting and publishing stories, photos, video and more for your website and social channels.

Trusted by leading organizations Partner with Canada’s trusted news leader for content & services to help grow your business.

A response in 24 hours from a knowledgeable specialist.

The Canadian Press

The Canadian Press has been Canada’s trusted national news agency for more than 100 years, a news source and leader in providing real-time, bilingual multimedia stories across print, broadcast and digital platforms.

Through words, photos, graphics, audio and video, more than 180 journalists cover news stories that impact Canadians with fairness, compassion, accuracy and taste.

CP, a for-profit enterprise owned jointly by three of Canada’s largest media companies, gives Canadians an authentic, unbiased source, driven by truth, accuracy and timeliness.

More details about CP’s news principles are available here.

The Canadian Press

The Canadian Press is a Canadian national news agency headquartered in Toronto, Ontario.

Established in 1917 as a vehicle for the time’s Canadian newspapers to exchange news and information, The Canadian Press has been a private, not-for-profit cooperative owned and operated by its member newspapers for most of its history.

Playing an essential role in the development of Canadian identity, The Canadian Press is wholly dependent on leased telegraphic lines in order to send stories back and forth across the country to their vast number of readers.

Canadian Press Enterprises Inc. is the entity that was to “Take over the operations of the Canadian Press” according to a November 2010 article in the Toronto Star.

In addition to news and information, The Canadian Press publishes the Stylebook and Caps and Spelling book, which are considered the chief style guides for Canadian journalists, public relations professionals, editors, and writers of all disciplines.

Through a longstanding partnership, The Canadian Press is the exclusive distributor of the Associated Press and Associated Press Television News material in Canada.

On November 26, 2010, Torstar, The Globe and Mail, and Square Victoria Communications Group announced they have invested in a new for-profit entity, Canadian Press Enterprises Inc., to take over the operations of The Canadian Press.

Media Bias/Fact Check

Overall, we rate the Canadian Press Least Biased based on being a news agency that directly reports news.

We also rate them High for factual reporting due to a clean fact check record.

The Canadian Press is a national news agency headquartered in Toronto.

It was established in 1917 as a vehicle to permit Canadian newspapers to exchange their news and information.

It currently offers a wide variety of text, audio, photographic, video, and graphic content to websites, radio, television, and commercial clients in addition to newspapers and its long-standing ally, The Associated Press, a global news service based in the United States.

In review, The Canadian Press is similar to Reuters and the Associated Press in that they report the news with minimal bias and excellent sourcing.

The website does not publish news but instead sells its news stories to other media outlets.

Canadian Press Style Guide An Overview The Canadian Press Stylebook is the standard for most universities and colleges in the country, but it also goes through regular revisions.

Chapter 19 Canadian Press Style Whether or not you have noticed, you have certainly read a Canadian Press news story.

Open any Canadian newspaper and you will see many stories that start with the initials CP. These are stories distributed by the Canadian Press.

It’s had its high points and its low points, but since it was founded in 1917 it has served Canadian newspapers, and Canadian newspaper readers, well.

If you encounter a question of style, and you’ve not memorized it form the cheat sheet below, the real proverb is this: When in doubt, look it up in the Stylebook! Essential Points of CP Style Numbers The greatest, or at least the most commonly occurring, inconsistency in Canadian Press Style is in its treatment of numbers, which naturally crop up in a wide variety of typical instances.

B.C. Ferries Corp., Cargill Inc., Ford Motor Co. of Canada Ltd., Canadian Pacific Ltd., Sun Microsystems Inc., Smith Bros., General Motors Corp. is one of the largest corporations in the world, and its Canadian subsidiary is the largest company in Ontario.

Spelling CP Style is generally to spell words as they are spelled in the Oxford Canadian Dictionary.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Frank Gunn #cpimages #nhlIn today’s AP image courtesy of CP Images, people with their pets wait to board a bus heading for Przemysl, after fleeing from Ukraine, at the border crossing in Medyka, Poland, Thursday, March 10.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick #ukraine #russiaIn today’s image from our daily top stories, a woman kisses a man goodbye after boarding a Lviv bound train, in Kyiv, Ukraine, Thursday, March 3, 2022.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Justin Tang #ukraine #putin #russia #cpimagesA little moment of joy to share today from CP Images.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Fred Thornhill #pony #miniaturehorse #cpimagesIn today’s Associated Press image from CP Images, a woman and child peer out of the window of a bus as they leave Sievierodonetsk, the Luhansk region, eastern Ukraine, Thursday, Feb. 24, 2022.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Ryan Remiorz #olympichockeyIn today’s archival Wednesday post from CP Images, 80s style is fully realized.

OlympichistoryIn today’s Olympic CP image, Canada’s Sebastien Toutant competes during the men’s snowboard slopestyle qualifications at the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics in Zhangjiakou, China on Sunday, Feb. 6, 2022.

THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick #beijing2022In today’s stunning CP image, Canadian snowboarder’s Brooke Voigt, left to right, Laurie Blouin, and Jasmine Baird, ride the chair-lift as they train on the slopestyle course prior to the start of the Beijing Winter Olympics.

Post Idea #2: Mail.ru Group

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In connection with the merger, Milner became Mail.ru CEO. The company began to operate as Mail.ru on 16 October 2001.

In October 2010, Mail.ru Group announced plans for an IPO via the London stock-market listing of a subsidiary – also called Mail.ru – worth more than $5bn. The IPO offered a stake of about 17% of the subsidiary.

After the public offering, the global operations of Mail.ru Group continued as the privately held company DST Global.

In September 2018, Alibaba announced buying a 10% stake in Mail.ru, which would have a value of $484 million based on Mail.ru’s market capitalization on 10 September 2018.

In December 2019, Mail.ru Group formed a partnership with Sberbank to develop the food and transportation service O2O. In 2020, the state Russian Direct Investment Fund, China’s Tencent, Naspers, and others bought $600 million of GDRs and bonds from Mail.ru.

In October 2021 Sberbank of Russia and “Mail.ru Group” invested 6,1 billion roubles each O2O food and transportation service, the total of their investments in equal shares now touching about 43 billion roubles in 2021.

In January 2007 30% shares of Mail.ru were bought by South African company Naspers for $165 million, and by 2019, the Naspers spin-off Prosus had 28% of Mail.ru.

Mail.ru Group Ltd. develops internet communications and entertainment services.

It also engages in the development of e-commerce projects as well as offers online games that include MMO games and social networking sites.

The company operates through following business segments: Email, Portal and IM, Social Networks, Online Games, and.

The Email, Portal & IM segment includes email, instant messaging and portal.

The Social Networks segment operates two social networks; Odnoklassniki and My World.

The Online Games segment provides online gaming services, including MMO, social and mobile games.

The E-Commerce, Search & Other Services segment consists of search engine services, such as context advertising, e-commerce, online hiring/job search services, and related display advertising.

Mail.Ru Group Stock Forecast, Price & News

VK Co., Ltd. engages in the development of Internet communications and entertainment services.

The Email, Portal and IM segment includes email, instant messaging services, and the Mail.ru portal together with media projects.

The VK segment includes the VK.com social network.

The Social Networks segment includes OK and My World social networks.

The Online Games segment comprises mobile, client-based, browser-based and social games.

The Search, E-commerce and Other Services segment includes search services, e-commerce, esports business and certain other projects.

The company was founded by Yuri Bentsionovich Milner and Dmitry Grishin on May 4, 2005 and is headquartered in Limassol, Cyprus.

Post Idea #3: Global depository receipt

Related Articles – Summarized

Global Depositary Receipt Definition

A global depositary receipt is a bank certificate issued in more than one country for shares in a foreign company.

A global depositary receipt is very similar to an American depositary receipt, except an ADR only lists shares of a foreign country in the U.S. markets.

A global depositary receipt is a type of bank certificate that represents shares in a foreign company, such that a foreign branch of an international bank then holds the shares.

Global depositary receipts allow a company to list its shares in more than one country outside of its home country.

What Is the Meaning of Global Depositary Receipt? A depositary receipt is a negotiable certificate issued by a bank representing shares in a foreign company traded on a local stock exchange.

The depositary receipt gives investors the opportunity to hold shares in the equity of foreign countries and gives them an alternative to trading on an international market.

A global depositary receipt is one that is issued by a foreign company on more than one international market, for instance in the U.K. and the Eurozone.

Meaning, Advantages, Disadvantages

A GDR represents a certain number of shares in a foreign company that is not traded on the local stock exchange.

Financial Intermediaries such as depository banks purchase the shares in one country, create a GDR containing those shares, and sell the GDR in the foreign market.

Global Depository Receipts are based on the historical American Depository Receipts; the difference being ADRs are traded in America, and GDRs are traded in multiple countries.

The dividends paid for every share in a GDR is denominated in the domestic currency of the company whose shares are being held in the GDR. A favorable exchange rate movement can potentially provide gain beyond just the capital gains and the dividends received for the shares in a GDR. Disadvantages of Global Depository Receipts.

No Voting Rights – Under the mechanism of the Global Depositary Receipts, the shares of a company are sold in bulk to an intermediary in another country who further securitizes them into GDRs. Therefore, the voting rights in the company are retained by the intermediary who has directly bought the shares, and not by investors who buy the GDR. Conclusion.

Investors like to buy GDRs holding shares of companies of developing and emerging markets to take advantage of high growth rates in those countries as compared to the developed countries.

Here we discuss characteristics of GDR along with advantages and disadvantages.

GDR: Global Depository Receipt: Definition, Features And Uses

A Global Depository Receipt, also known as international depository receipt, is a certificate issued by a depository bank, which purchases shares of foreign companies and deposits it on the account.

An Indian company which has issued ADRs in the American market wishes to further extend it to other developed and advanced countries such as in Europe, then they can sell these ADRs to the public of Europe and the same would be named as GDR. GDR can be issued in more than one country and can be denominated in any freely convertible currency.

What are the features of a GDR? The following features best describe a Global Depository Receipt.

GDR is denominated in any foreign currency but the underlying shares would be denominated in the local currency of the issuer.

The investor can convert GDR into equity shares, and sell the shares mentioned in the GDR through a local custodian.

Relevant questions for GDR. What is the difference between ADR and GDR? American Depository Receipt is a depository receipt which is issued by a US depository bank against a certain number of shares owned by a non-US based company.

While a Global Depository Receipt is a depository receipt which is issued by the international depository bank, representing the foreign company’s stock.

Advantages, Disadvantages, Example

In GDR, an overseas depository bank i.e. bank outside the domestic territory of a company, issues shares of the company to residents outside the domestic territory.

A company based in USA, willing to get its stock listed on German stock exchange can do so with the help of GDR. The US based company shall enter into an agreement with the German depository bank, who shall issue shares to residents based in Germany after getting instructions from the domestic custodian of the company.

Global Depository Receipt MechanismThe domestic company enters into an agreement with the overseas depository bank for the purpose of issue of GDR. The overseas depository bank then enters into a custodian agreement with the domestic custodian of such company.

GDR expands the global presence of the company which helps in getting international attention and coverage.

With GDR, the non-residents can invest in shares of the foreign company.

Foreign Institutional investors can buy the shares of company issuing GDR in their country even if they are restricted to buy shares of foreign company.

An investor would need to pay tax if he purchases shares in the foreign company, whereas in GDR same is not the case.

Global Depository Receipt

A global depository receipt is a general name for a depositary receipt where a certificate issued by a depository bank, which purchases shares of foreign companies, creates a security on a local exchange backed by those shares.

GDRs represent ownership of an underlying number of shares of a foreign company and are commonly used to invest in companies from developing or emerging markets by investors in developed markets.

Prices of global depositary receipt are based on the values of related shares, but they are traded and settled independently of the underlying share.

Typically, 1 GDR is equal to 10 underlying shares, but any ratio can be used.

GDRs enable a company, the issuer, to access investors in capital markets outside of its home country.

GDRs are often listed in the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, Luxembourg Stock Exchange, and the London Stock Exchange, where they are traded on the International Order Book.

If for example an Indian company which has issued ADRs in the American market wishes to further extend it to other developed and advanced countries such as in Europe, then they can sell these ADRs to the public of Europe and the same would be named as GDR. GDR can be issued in more than one country and can be denominated in any freely convertible currency.

What Is Global Depository Receipt? & How Does It Work?

A global depositary receipt is a bank certificate for foreign firm shares that are issued in multiple countries.

GDRs are most typically utilized when an issuer wants to raise money in the local market as well as foreign and US markets, either through private placements or public stock offerings.

A global depositary receipt is comparable to an American depositary receipt, with the exception that an ADR only offers shares of foreign countries on US markets.

With the relevant foreign depository banks, the US-based corporation engages in a depositary receipt agreement.

The depositary bank will then issue the shares to the broker after the custodian bank confirms receipt of the monies.

Depositary receipts are a way to boost global commerce, which can help boost not only quantities on local and international markets, but also information interchange, technology, regulatory procedures, and market transparency.

Foreign investors are frequently prevented from accessing the local market in many nations, particularly those with emerging markets.

What Is Global Depository Receipt And Its Usages In India

Indian companies can get listed on foreign exchanges only through a Global Depository Receipt.

This article covers what a GDR is, its features, how they are issued, how they work, and ADR vs GDR. What is GDR? Global Depository Receipt is a foreign currency-denominated negotiable instrument.

Indian companies can trade their shares on international exchanges other than the US through a GDR. A foreign depository issues the depository receipt for an Indian company.

The Depository Bank is an intermediary who acts as the custodian of the shares that the Indian company issues.

The investors get dividend and bonus share of the underlying Global Depository Receipt.

The overseas depository bank then provides GDRs. The bank then converts the GDRs into shares to trade on the country’s stock exchange.

Basis of DifferenceGlobal Depository ReceiptAmerican Depository ReceiptMeaningGDR is a negotiable instrument issued by a foreign depository bank to an Indian company.

Post Idea #4: Sabina Gold & Silver

Related Articles – Summarized

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp.

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is a Canadian precious metals company on track to become a mid-tier gold producer.

The Company has a portfolio of properties in Canada at different stages of development.

The Company’s flagship projects are currently located in Nunavut, in the Canadian North.

Through these Nunavut assets, Sabina is currently evolving from a successful exploration company to a developer.

Sabina Gold & Silver Reports Goose Drilling Started At Back River Gold Project

Once complete, drilling will move to the Hook zone which is believed to be part of the gold structure linking the Goose Main and Nuvuyak gold deposits.

Two to three drill holes will be drilled at the Hook zone, which is located along the favourable gold structure that trends between the Goose Main gold deposit and the Nuvuyak Resource.

Two drill holes will be drilled down plunge from 2021 drilling where drill hole 21GSE600 returned 5.42 g/t Au over 28.05 m, including 12.68 g/t Au over 5.30 m. An additional drill hole will target mineralization within the Hook gold structure located approximately 150m north of the Goose Main pit.

Positive results from this drilling will help inform future decisions around resource growth and development along the Goose Main to Hook to Nuvuyak gold structure.

Technical Services Manager for Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is a Qualified Person under the terms of NI 43-101 and has reviewed the technical content of this press release for the Back River Project and has approved its dissemination.

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is an emerging gold mining that 100% owns the district scale, advanced, high grade Back River Gold District in Nunavut, Canada.

Sabina recently filed an Updated Feasibility Study on its first mine on the district, the Goose Mine, which presents a project that will produce ~223,000 ounces of gold a year for ~15 years with a rapid payback of 2.3 years, with a post-tax IRR of ~28% and NPV5% of C$1.1B. See “National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report – 2021 Updated Feasibility Study for the Goose Project at the Back River Gold District, Nunavut, Canada” dated March 3, 2021.

Sabina Gold & Silver Reports Goose Drilling Started At Back

Once complete, drilling will move to the Hook zone which is believed to be part of the gold structure linking the Goose Main and Nuvuyak gold deposits.

Two to three drill holes will be drilled at the Hook zone, which is located along the favourable gold structure that trends between the Goose Main gold deposit and the Nuvuyak Resource.

Two drill holes will be drilled down plunge from 2021 drilling where drill hole 21GSE600 returned 5.42 g/t Au over 28.05 m, including 12.68 g/t Au over 5.30 m. An additional drill hole will target mineralization within the Hook gold structure located approximately 150m north of the Goose Main pit.

Positive results from this drilling will help inform future decisions around resource growth and development along the Goose Main to Hook to Nuvuyak gold structure.

Technical Services Manager for Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is a Qualified Person under the terms of NI 43-101 and has reviewed the technical content of this press release for the Back River Project and has approved its dissemination.

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is an emerging gold mining that 100% owns the district scale, advanced, high grade Back River Gold District in Nunavut, Canada.

Sabina recently filed an Updated Feasibility Study on its first mine on the district, the Goose Mine, which presents a project that will produce ~223,000 ounces of gold a year for ~15 years with a rapid payback of 2.3 years, with a post-tax IRR of ~28% and NPV5% of C$1.1B. See “National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report – 2021 Updated Feasibility Study for the Goose Project at the Back River Gold District, Nunavut, Canada” dated March 3, 2021.

Sabina Gold & Silver Reports Goose Drilling Started At Back – DailyBubble News

Once complete, drilling will move to the Hook zone which is believed to be part of the gold structure linking the Goose Main and Nuvuyak gold deposits.

Two to three drill holes will be drilled at the Hook zone, which is located along the favourable gold structure that trends between the Goose Main gold deposit and the Nuvuyak Resource.

Two drill holes will be drilled down plunge from 2021 drilling where drill hole 21GSE600 returned 5.42 g/t Au over 28.05 m, including 12.68 g/t Au over 5.30 m. An additional drill hole will target mineralization within the Hook gold structure located approximately 150m north of the Goose Main pit.

Positive results from this drilling will help inform future decisions around resource growth and development along the Goose Main to Hook to Nuvuyak gold structure.

Technical Services Manager for Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is a Qualified Person under the terms of NI 43-101 and has reviewed the technical content of this press release for the Back River Project and has approved its dissemination.

Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. Sabina Gold & Silver Corp. is an emerging gold mining that 100% owns the district scale, advanced, high grade Back River Gold District in Nunavut, Canada.

Sabina recently filed an Updated Feasibility Study on its first mine on the district, the Goose Mine, which presents a project that will produce ~223,000 ounces of gold a year for ~15 years with a rapid payback of 2.3 years, with a post-tax IRR of ~28% and NPV5% of C$1.1B. See “National Instrument 43-101 Technical Report – 2021 Updated Feasibility Study for the Goose Project at the Back River Gold District, Nunavut, Canada” dated March 3, 2021.

Sabina Gold & Silver Reports Goose Drilling Started At Back River Gold Project Seite 1

This drilling will allow for further characterization of the geology and mineralization of higher-grade gold zones in those areas which will inform optimization of the open pit and underground mine designs.

Once complete, drilling will move to the Hook zone which is believed to be part of the gold structure linking the Goose Main and Nuvuyak gold deposits.

The initial series of six to eight drill holes are designed to better delineate and detail the gold mineralization at the intersection of the Quartz Feldspar Porphyry dyke and the Lower Iron Formation, which is an area of thickened iron formation host rock.

Drilling is focused in and around the crown pillar and upper and lower sill areas, where it is believed that opportunities exist for better characterization of higher-grade mineral zones and mining infrastructure planning.

Two to three drill holes will be drilled at the Hook zone, which is located along the favourable gold structure that trends between the Goose Main gold deposit and the Nuvuyak Resource.

Two drill holes will be drilled down plunge from 2021 drilling where drill hole 21GSE600 returned 5.42 g/t Au over 28.05 m, including 12.68 g/t Au over 5.30 m. An additional drill hole will target mineralization within the Hook gold structure located approximately 150m north of the Goose Main pit.

Positive results from this drilling will help inform future decisions around resource growth and development along the Goose Main to Hook to Nuvuyak gold structure.

Post Idea #5: Trinity Ravine Towers

Related Articles – Summarized

Price Lists & Floor Plans

Trinity Ravine Condos is a new condo development by Global Kingdom Ministries, located at 1250 Markham Road, Scarborough, ON. Currently, in its public sales phase, this condo development will be available for occupancy by 2021 and will feature two buildings containing a total of 565 residential units ranging from 553 sqft to 1,200 sqft.

Some of the top reasons for living at Trinity Ravine Condos are the location, amenities in and around the region, and the welcoming community.

There will be various floor plans to cater to the requirements of the residents.

Trinity Ravine Condos will be the ideal place to call home when you have the luxury and all the basic amenities at a single place.

All these eateries provide a diverse set of options to the residents of Trinity Ravine Condos.

The location of Trinity Ravine Condos is ideal for the residents who have to do up and down daily.

Residents will not face any issues when it comes to commute to and fro Trinity Ravine Condos.

Get Info, Pricing Today

We provide quality independent living and senior apartments at Trinity Ravine Towers by empowering our residents to maintain their independence, while enjoying an active social life.

Members of our staff are extensively trained to care for senior Toronto residents and everything they need.

We strive to create memorable meals from fresh produce that help our residents reach their best health and wellness.

Activities, Senior-Friendly Bathrooms, Socialization are available for all residents.

Our trained staff helps our residents enjoy benefits that our facility offers, like Security, Building Maintenance and other perks.

Residents enjoy of a full schedule of social, educational and entertaining activities.

Our structured program helps all residents maintain a high quality of life.


Trinity Ravine Towers a new preconstruction condo development by Maple Reinders located at 1250 Markham Road in Toronto.

Trinity Ravine Towers will be 30 storeys with a total of 448 condo units.

Trinity Ravine Towers ground floor amenities will include a fitness centre, common rooms, concierge, movie and media lounges, craft room, workshop, dining room, commercial spaces, courtyard, games room, wellness centre, library and a computer lab.

Second Floor amenities will include a common room, fitness centre, wellness centre and resident storage lockers.

Outdoor amenities will include an outdoor rooftop terrace with BBQ grills, Green roof and Garden Planters, outdoor activities courtyard and a ravine with manicured garden and walking paths.

Trinity Ravine Towers Highlights:-Situated on a tranquil, park-like ravine.

Their first major experience in the real estate market after immigrating to Canada has ended for Fengfeng Zhou and his wife with no home to live in and a fight to get their $50,300 deposit back.

Zhou’s wife paid the deposit in March 2018 to secure what’s known as a life lease at Trinity Ravine Towers – a faith-based community for Christian seniors slated for construction in Scarborough.

The corporation now overseeing the development has returned some deposits, but others life-lease holders are still waiting.

The project’s owner, now called Trinity Ravine Communities Inc., says it’s been issuing refunds and promises to return all deposits to those who requested them by mid-January.

CBC News spoke with a couple of people who have received their deposits from the corporation, but they say it wasn’t easy.

The corporation says it plans to announce those plans in early 2022 and will allow life-lease holders to move forward with the new project or withdraw their deposits.

Initial life-lease deposits should be low, province says.

Post Idea #6: Competitive landscape

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is A Competitive Landscape?

Analyzing your competitors’ strengths and weaknesses is part of understanding a competitive landscape.

Determining a competitive landscape requires a competitive landscape analysis, or research about your direct and indirect competitors.

To analyze their place in the competitive landscape, the owners of the coffee shop might categorize each of the items on their menu and research their competitors for factors such as menu variety, price and advertising strategies.

Spotting trends A competitive landscape analysis can reveal changes in both business and consumer trends, which can keep you from trailing competitors or allow you to distinguish yourself in the market.

Marketing How you present products can be as important as the products you offer, and a competitive landscape analysis can reveal your competitors’ marketing strategies, providing you a platform on which to base your own strategy.

Frameworks for competitive landscape analysis A competitive analysis framework is a template or model that can guide you as you identify and analyze your competitors and also provide structure to your analysis.

Once you have a better understanding of your competitors’ activities, determine how they contribute to a competitive advantage.

Definition And Overview

The competitive landscape refers to the list of options a customer could choose rather than your product.

The list includes your competitors’ products and other types of customer solutions.

Product teams should conduct a competitive analysis to learn all the alternatives to their product.

A competitive matrix can let you view side-by-side details of each competitive product in your market.

Create columns to track the characteristics of each product, such as features, pricing, customer support, average customer reviews, etc.

If your target market is using a different type of tool-even something free-to solve their problem, you’ll need to know that, so you can make sure your product offers something more.

In addition to helping you uncover new product or feature ideas, a competitive landscape analysis can also help you find ways to improve your customer journey.

How To Do A Competitive Landscape Analysis

A competitive landscape analysis provides the information necessary to overcome your competitors and reach your destination.

In this article, we’ll explain what a competitive landscape analysis is, describe some common competitive landscape analysis frameworks, and offer some techniques that demonstrate how to conduct a landscape analysis.

Competitive landscape analysis is the process of examining your market to identify your competitors and figure out where they stand with regard to other players, including you.

While the competitive landscape analysis process shares a lot in common with competitor analysis or market analysis, there’s an important distinction.

Competitive landscape analysis is primarily focused on studying the relationship between businesses and how they relate to each other.

Either way, an understanding of the relationships between players on the field is the goal.5 Competitive Landscape Analysis Frameworks.

Once you’ve selected the right competitive analysis framework for organizing your landscape analysis, you’ll need to figure out where to collect data about your competitors.

The competitive landscape refers to the existing market for your product or service.

The competitive landscape can indicate a company’s position in the market and influence its business strategy.

On the other side of the competitive landscape, you have independent coffee shops that offer a bespoke experience and higher quality coffee.

A competitive landscape map is a visual tool that helps a business understand its position in the market.

The map consists of four values that represent important aspects of products in your market.

Companies or their products are positioned on the map depending on where they fit, giving you a complete picture of the competitive landscape and where your business fits into it.

Mapping the competitive landscape allows a business to identify where it stands in the marketplace.

What Is A Competitive Landscape?

Definition: A competitive landscape is a complete description of competitors and their relative position at a particular market.

It is a strategic marketing concept that applies to the conditions of competition and rivalry that a company and its products have to face at the market they are part of.

Every company should monitor its competitive landscape.

Since the company is not alone in the market, it is indispensable to understand who the rivals are and how they usually perform with the purpose of improving its own market position.

As the company increases the number and variety of products and lines the competitive landscape will become more complex.

The company’s Marketing Manager said that competition comes from other sweet bakeries too.

After an analysis of the competitive landscape the company decided that prices should be increased only in 5% and that new low-calorie varieties should be developed and sold at higher prices.

How To Create A Competitive Landscape Analysis

How do you know your company’s competition compared to your competitors? Completing a competitive landscape analysis provides the information you need to leverage your company’s strengths instead of engaging in price wars.

In this post we will walk you through how to complete a competitive landscape analysis and recommend tools to get the most accurate information.

Before discussing how to complete a competitive landscape analysis, let’s clarify what it includes.

A competitive landscape analysis is a way of identifying and examining your rival’s product offering, social media content, and marketing strategies to improve your own business.

There are several benefits for completing a competitive landscape analysis.

Let’s use Starbucks as an example to illustrate the competitive landscape analysis process.

Continually monitoring competitors encourages you to continue thinking proactively and making strategic moves based on how customers respond rather than reacting.

What Is A Competitive Landscape Analysis?

Over the past year, our Competitive Landscape Analyses have taken off among our clients, providing valuable insight and serving as a great launching point for our marketing strategies.

A Competitive Landscape Analysis is our fancy way of saying competitor research.

Every industry is different, so we always tailor our CLAs to the client, looking for specific new items with each one.

In one CLA we did recently, we noticed a clear difference between the peer group, which used anxiety-ridden, fear-based language to sell services to clients, versus the aspirational group, which used powerful, motivational language.

Another powerful advantage of a CLA is its ability to identify upcoming challenges and opportunities for our clients.

Maybe we find a competitor with a new service that our client can also offer.

CLAs are a smart and effective way to identify those tools and put them into practice for our clients.

Post Idea #7: Mechanical, electrical, and plumbing

Related Articles – Summarized

Mechanical, Electrical, And Plumbing

This is a vast improvement from traditional active cooling units which have an overhead of 30-70%. However, this novel and complicated method requires careful and expensive planning from mechanical engineers, who must work closely with the engineers designing the electrical and plumbing systems for a building.

The introduction of mechanical systems requires the integration of the two so that plumbing may be controlled by electrics and electrics may be serviced by plumbing.

Advances in technology and the advent of computer networking have led to the emergence of a new facet of electrical systems incorporating data and telecommunications wiring.

The information technology sector of electrical installations is used for computer networking, telephones, television, security systems, audio distribution, healthcare systems, robotics, and more.

Competent design of plumbing systems is necessary to prevent conflicts with other trades, and to avoid expensive rework or surplus supplies.

In commercial environments, these distribution systems expand to accommodate many more users, as well as the addition of other plumbing services such as hydroponics, irrigation, fuels, oxygen, vacuum/compressed air, solids transfer, and more.

Plumbing systems also service air distribution/control, and therefore contribute to the mechanical part of MEP. Plumbing for HVAC systems involves the transfer of coolant, pressurized air, water, and occasionally other substances.

Mechanical, Electrical And Plumbing MEP

Mechanical, electrical and plumbing systems are an important part of building services and can have many different functions.

Typically designed by specialised consultants and contractors, MEP systems can present complex challenges in terms of coordination and detailing.

They must satisfy multiple objectives and criteria for design, installation, commissioning, operation, and maintenance.

Mechanical systems most commonly relate to heating ventilation and air conditioning systems, but they can also relate to transportation systems such as lifts and escalators, elements of infrastructure, industrial plant and machinery, and so on.

Plumbing refers to any system that allows the movement of fluids, typically involving pipes, valves, plumbing fixtures, tanks and other apparatus.

Using building information modelling, MEP engineers are able to access critical design data while contributing to a building process that can be more efficient, result in fewer problems on site, and produce the optimum system design.

Mechanical, Electrical, And Plumbing

Plumbing engineering plays a critical and essential role in water efficiency, site sustainability, energy, fire protection, and pollution systems of a facility.

Our team understands that for design systems to be successful, the infrastructure – including the natural biospheric earth systems of recycling air, waste, and water – must be considered and respected.

In coordination with other engineering facets, our plumbing engineers perform the calculations, size the equipment, and prepare the necessary plumbing design and construction documents to carry out a successful project.

We utilize various proven and current building system technologies, including solar systems, radiant floor heating, geothermal heat pump systems, electronic charging stations for hybrid vehicles, and more cutting-edge technologies.

Whether you need to install a new air conditioning or heating system, or replace your inefficient central mechanical plant, the McGill team brings decades of experience.

We help clients identify the needs of the project, review the overall system design, research new technologies, and align viable solutions with their project goals and budgets.

Our team’s experience covers a broad spectrum that includes air and heating systems, steam supply systems, energy recovery, control systems, energy management and audits, air quality and facility analysis, and more.

Mechanical, Electrical And Plumbing Service Market Future Outlook 2029 WithJacobs Engineering Group Inc., Macro Services, Inc ? – The Sabre

The report covers a thorough analysis of the global Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market during the forecast period from 2022 to 2029.

The report highlights the fundamental applications, market definition, and manufacturing methods prevailing in the Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market.

The report contains details on competitors, geographical market analysis, market players, and other important factors impacting the Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market.

The global Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market was valued at USD Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service in 2021.

The global Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market is anticipated to secure a market value of USD XX by 2029 while expanding at a CAGR of XX% during the forecast period from 2022-229.

The global imposition of lockdown owing to the outbreak of COVID-19 brought a significant impact on the global Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market.

What is the anticipated market size of the global Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing Service market during the forecast period?

Investigates new MEP design concepts and technical developments of systems for applicability to engineering problems.

MEP ENGINEER Class Code: 3688 Page 2 May prepare plans, details, specifications, and cost estimates in such specialties as plumbing; heating; ventilating; air conditioning; and general piping systems for noncomplex projects or those of limited scope Provides technical advice to staff designers, craft supervisors, inspectors, and contracting service providers, regarding installation and maintenance of MEP systems.

May oversee a comprehensive engineering project, with responsibility for insuring that the project is completed on schedule and within budget and for acting as a liaison between the judiciary and other governmental agencies.

Mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing engineering customs and practices in expressing ideas, designs, and data in drawings.

Design principles, mathematics, and construction industry practice for the solution of mechanical, electrical, and/or plumbing engineering problems.

MEP ENGINEER Class Code: 3688 Page 3 Identify problems in designs prepared by others.

Five years of professional engineering experience as an engineer in charge of important engineering works including their direction, planning, and design.

MEP Engineering -Mechanical Electrical Plumbing In Construction Projects

When the mechanical model is linked to the plumbing model by a trained drafter, the designer conducts a continuous survey of space allocation for MEP coordination check-saving hassles during the engineering review stages.

Finally, Plumbing deals with everything starting from drain lines, soil lines, valves, water tanks, and the fixing of W.C. MEP Engineer is a single-level professional classification responsible for designing mechanical, electrical, and plumbing systems, including developing policies, standards, inspection procedures, and evaluation tools for matters involving judicial branch facilities.

HVAC is an area that requires close collaboration between mechanical and electrical engineers during the MEP design process.

There is a great deal of overlap between mechanical and electrical systems, with many systems including both mechanical and electrical components, hence the term M&E. P- Plumbing Works In Mep For A Building Project.

Like mechanical and electrical installations, plumbing requires laying out complex piping routes, and engineering firms widely use MEP design software to simplify the process.

Significant Advantages of MEP BIM in construction Clash-free MEP Modeling- early-stage clash detection.

The main task of the MEP engineer is to work on the MEP design to complete the MEP works for the time in any construction projects.

Mechanical, Electrical, And Plumbing

Tetra Tech offers various services to help create a safe, comfortable, and environmentally sound building environment, including movable structures for ports and harbors.

We work with our clients to provide sustainable buildings that are energy and resource efficient and promote a healthier environment for building occupants.

We specialize in designing innovative building systems for the world’s signature buildings and have helped our clients achieve Platinum, Gold, and Silver LEED® certification in hundreds of buildings around the world.

Mechanical-Building Systems and Moveable Structures Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning.

Electrical Utility service and power distribution systems.

Electrical power monitoring systems and SCADA. Lighting controls.

Plumbing and Fire Protection Fire suppression systems.

Post Idea #8: Architecture

Related Articles – Summarized


Ancient urban architecture was preoccupied with building religious structures and buildings symbolizing the political power of rulers until Greek and Roman architecture shifted focus to civic virtues.

Nunzia Rondanini stated, “Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values, architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development…. To restrict the meaning of formalism to art for art’s sake is not only reactionary; it can also be a purposeless quest for perfection or originality which degrades form into a mere instrumentality”.

In many ancient civilizations such as those of Egypt and Mesopotamia, architecture and urbanism reflected the constant engagement with the divine and the supernatural, and many ancient cultures resorted to monumentality in architecture to represent symbolically the political power of the ruler, the ruling elite, or the state itself.

The architecture of different parts of Asia developed along different lines from that of Europe; Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh architecture each having different characteristics.

Around the beginning of the 20th century, general dissatisfaction with the emphasis on revivalist architecture and elaborate decoration gave rise to many new lines of thought that served as precursors to Modern architecture.

Concurrently, the recent movements of New Urbanism, Metaphoric architecture, Complementary architecture and New Classical architecture promote a sustainable approach towards construction that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.

A set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems, with software architecture, hardware architecture and network architecture covering more specific aspects.

WHAT IS ARCHITECTURE? is also a question that is particularly important for students who are looking for different perspectives on architecture as they come to form their own definitions.

Architecture is the art and science of designing buildings and other physical structures.

Interior Architecture bridges the practices of interior design and architecture so that professionals working in the field have a structural and load bearing education with an emphasis on interior spaces.

If architecture is only in the building, what, we might say, puts it there? The labour and skills of the contractors and mechanics who build the building? If that were true then every building would be architecture, and not even the most sceptical of observers would claim that to be the case.

The balanced integration of artistic sensibility and scientific methodology as it applies to designing buildings and their environments is essential to creating great architecture.

At its simplest, architecture is the design of buildings, groups of buildings and often the space between buildings.

Have you ever wondered why architecture is so important for the society we live in? Architecture is the art that provide us the physical environment we live in.

Definition, Techniques, Types, Schools, Theory, & Facts

Architecture, the art and technique of designing and building, as distinguished from the skills associated with construction.

The practice of architecture is employed to fulfill both practical and expressive requirements, and thus it serves both utilitarian and aesthetic ends.

The present article treats primarily the forms, elements, methods, and theory of architecture.

For the history of architecture in antiquity, see the sections on ancient Greece and Rome in Western architecture; as well as Anatolian art and architecture; Arabian art and architecture; Egyptian art and architecture; Iranian art and architecture; Mesopotamian art and architecture; and Syro-Palestinian art and architecture.

For later historical and regional treatments of architecture, see African architecture; Chinese architecture; Japanese architecture; Korean architecture; Oceanic art and architecture; Western architecture; Central Asian arts; Islamic arts; South Asian arts; and Southeast Asian arts.

For a discussion of the place of architecture and architectural theory in the realm of the arts, see aesthetics.

The types of architecture are established not by architects but by society, according to the needs of its different institutions.

What Is Architecture?

What is architecture? How do we define architecture as a profession, as a practice, as a concept? I’ve been talking a lot about this recently with colleagues, and I have seen a couple of posts in various forums recently on this topic.

Design is an element of architecture, but it is not architecture and does not encompass architecture as a whole.

Again this is a very architecture adjacent concept and most certainly an element of creating Architecture, but in and of itself, this is not architecture.

Researching architecture; theorizing about architecture; writing papers about architecture and design, development; all of these efforts are not Architecture.

True Capital “A” Architecture requires more than the physical act to be considered as “A” Architecture.

So as I talk about all these actions that Architecture is not, I think that begins to give us an inclination as to what architecture is.

My argument stands with respect to this notion; we should tighten the definition of architecture to one that could give us back some actual agency over the built environment and “A” Architecture.

Architecture News And Projects

Historic structures including a silo building and an old factory have been incorporated into the University of the Arts Helsinki’s new home, which was designed by local architecture studio JKMM. More.

Ten key projects by Pritzker Architecture Prize-winner Diébédo Francis Kéré. Here are 10 key projects by Burkinabè architect Diébédo Francis Kéré, who has been named this year’s laureate of the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize.

Architecture studio Mithun, along with design firms The Office of Charles de Lisle and Terremoto, has overhauled a cedar-clad lodge in a famed California community along the Pacific Ocean.

Architecture studio Tonkin Liu has completed a biomimetic tower containing flues for a low-carbon energy centre in Manchester, England, along with a sculptural wall made from organically-shaped tiles.

Klopf Architecture updates San Francisco home with “Modern inversion”.

Klopf Architecture has reconfigured a San Francisco home to create an open-concept living space that faces onto the backyard.

Latest from Dezeen Showroom Hacker Architects overhauls Oregon residence with colourful interiors and natural pine finishes BMW’s iX Flow concept car can change colour “At the touch of a button” PARA Project designs surreal pavilion floating on a Belgian canal Claywood by Ayre Chamberlain Gaunt is a wheelchair-friendly house in disguise OMCM Arquitectos covers Reforma Alas house in Paraguay with ceramic screen Cobalt-blue accents brighten interior of family apartment in Thane “Thompson Center renovation aiming for lowest common denominator of apparently good taste” Max Lamb crafts minimalist altar for St John Chrysostom Church Dezeen Events Guide Dezeen Jobs Architecture.

Architecture News

In different parts of the world, women are transforming cities and taking up spaces in urban planning and management as never before.

Paris, Barcelona and Rome, for example, in addition to being cities where almost anyone would like to live, are now cities managed by women for the first time in their history, all in their second term.

Major changes and currently celebrated plans, such as the “15-minute city” in Paris, the opening of Times Square to the people in New York, and the urban digitization of Barcelona as a smart city, were led by women.

Post Idea #9: Field-induced polymer electroluminescent technology

Related Articles – Summarized

Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Technology

Field-induced polymer electroluminescent technology is a low power electroluminescent light source.

The technology can produce white light similar to that of the Sun, or other tints if desired.

As cited from the Carroll Research Group at Wake Forest University, “To date our brightest device – without output couplers – exceeds 18,000 cd/m2.” This confirms that FIPEL technology is a viable solution for area lighting.

FIPEL lights are different from LED lighting, in that there is no junction.

Instead, the light emitting component is a layer of polymer containing an iridium compound which is doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

This planar light emitting structure is energized by an AC field from insulated electrodes.

The lights can be shaped into many different forms, from mimicking conventional light bulbs to unusual forms such as 2-foot-by-4-foot flat sheets and straight or bent tubes.

Engineering:Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Technology

Field-induced polymer electroluminescent technology is a low power electroluminescent light source.

The technology can produce white light similar to that of the Sun, or other tints if desired.

As cited from the Carroll Research Group at Wake Forest University, “To date our brightest device – without output couplers – exceeds 18,000 cd/m2.” This confirms that FIPEL technology is a viable solution for area lighting.

FIPEL lights are different from LED lighting, in that there is no junction.

Instead, the light emitting component is a layer of polymer containing an iridium compound which is doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

This planar light emitting structure is energized by an AC field from insulated electrodes.

The lights can be shaped into many different forms, from mimicking conventional light bulbs to unusual forms such as 2-foot-by-4-foot flat sheets and straight or bent tubes.

Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Products And Technology Market

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Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescent Technology

Field-induced polymer electroluminescent technology is a low power electroluminescent light source.

The technology can produce white light similar to that of the Sun, or other tints if desired.

As cited from the Carroll Research Group at Wake Forest University, “To date our brightest device – without output couplers – exceeds 18,000 cd/m2.” This confirms that FIPEL technology is a viable solution for area lighting.

FIPEL lights are different from LED lighting, in that there is no junction.

Instead, the light emitting component is a layer of polymer containing an iridium compound which is doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes.

This planar light emitting structure is energized by an AC field from insulated electrodes.

The lights can be shaped into many different forms, from mimicking conventional light bulbs to unusual forms such as 2-foot-by-4-foot flat sheets and straight or bent tubes.

AC Field-Induced Polymer Electroluminescence With Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes

Here, we demonstrate an electroluminescence enhancing strategy that tetrapod-like ZnO whiskers are added into the bottom electrode of carbon nanotubes instead of phosphor layer in flexible ACEL devices emitting blue, green and orange lights, and the brightness is greatly enhanced due to the coupling between the T-ZnOw and ZnS phosphor dispersed in the flexible polydimethylsiloxane layer.

Such gated AC organic devices can achieve a non-output coupled luminance of 25,900 cd/m 2 with power efficiencies that exceed both the insulator-based AC devices and OLEDs using the same emitters.

Here, we show that a two-terminal device that uses an array of carbon nanotubes as the source contact can excite electroluminescence from various materials independent of their chemical composition.

Our blended emission film consisting of 83 vol % PS is mechanically robust with excellent surface adhesion as well as uniformity, when combined with scratch-tolerant AC device architecture, not only resulted in large area cell operation but also allowed for a solution-based pattern-mask process, giving rise to well-defined R, G, and B cells individually addressable in a single device platform.

In optimized top contact PeLEFETs, AC operation results in brighter and more uniform electroluminescence compared to DC-driven devices, while high frequency modulation enables electroluminescence emission up to room temperature.

We propose an alternating current field operation scheme by using an asymmetric voltage waveform to improve the electroluminescence property of AC field-induced electroluminescence devices.

The roles of rGO in the active layer as a conductive support and local electric field enhancing agent because its wrinkles are unraveled by comparing with other carbon exotic nano forms such as carbon nanotubes, graphite, charcoal, and activated carbon, which significantly improves the brightness of the device.

Nano-Engineered Polymer Matrix Used In New Style High Efficiency Light Bulbs

Say goodbye to that annoying buzz created by overhead fluorescent light bulbs in your office or residence hall.

The lighting, based on field-induced polymer electroluminescent (FIPEL) technology, also gives off soft, white light – not the yellowish glint from fluorescents or bluish tinge from LEDs.

The team uses a nano-engineered polymer matrix to convert the charge into light.

The technology allows the researchers to create an entirely new light bulb – overcoming one of the major barriers in using plastic lights in commercial buildings and homes.

The device is made of three layers of moldable white-emitting polymer blended with a small amount of nanomaterials that glow when stimulated to create bright and perfectly white light similar to the sunlight human eyes prefer.

This new lighting solution is at least twice as efficient as compact fluorescent bulbs and on par with LEDs, but these bulbs won’t shatter and contaminate a home like CFLs or emit a bluish light like LED counterparts.

Carroll’s group is the first to make a large-scale FIPEL that can replace current office lighting and is based on natural white light.

Post Idea #10: Supreme Court of India

Related Articles – Summarized

Supreme Court Of India

The Supreme Court of India is the supreme judicial body of India and the highest court of the Republic of India under the constitution.

The Supreme Court initially had its seat at the Chamber of Princes in the parliament building where the previous Federal Court of India sat from 1937 to 1950.

Supreme Court Rules, 2013 entitle only those advocates who are registered with the Supreme Court, called advocates-on-record to appear, act and plead for a party in the court.

As per the constitution, as held by the court in the Three Judges Cases -, a judge is appointed to the Supreme Court by the president on the recommendation of the collegium – a closed group of the Chief Justice of India, the four most senior judges of the court and the senior-most judge hailing from the high court of a prospective appointee.

Supreme Court Reports is the official journal of reportable Supreme Court decisions.

Whereas the fair trial to examine the validity of the ninety-ninth constitutional amendment dated 31 December 2014, to form National Judicial Appointments Commission for the purpose of appointing the judges of the Supreme Court and high courts, was conducted on utmost priority and the Supreme Court delivered its judgement on 16 October 2015 quashing the constitutional amendment as unconstitutional and ultra vires stating the said amendment is interfering with the independence of the judiciary.

He further reminded that the Supreme Court of United States delivers judgement on just 120 cases in a year, while every judge in the Supreme Court of India delivers judgements on 1000-1500 cases.

History, Functions, Composition, Jurisdiction

The Supreme Court of India is the country’s highest judicial court.

The Federal Court of India was created as per the Government of India Act 1935… This court settled disputes between provinces and federal states and heard appeals against judgements of the high courts.

The Federal Court and the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council were replaced by the Supreme Court of India, which came into being in January 1950.

Original – Read in detail about Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court in the linked article.

Advisory – Notes on Advisory Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court are given in the linked article.

The Supreme Court of India has powers to consult the President to regulate the practice and procedure of the Court.

As per the Constitution of India, Delhi is declared as the seat of the Supreme Court of India.

Supreme Court Of India| National Portal Of India

Users can find cause lists, daily orders and judgements etc.

One can also get information pertaining to the Constitution, Chief Justice, judges, committees and former judges etc.

Details of practice and procedure in the Apex Court are also available.

Supreme Court Of India

The Supreme Court of India is the apex court in India.

As stated by the Indian Constitution, the function of the Supreme Court of India is that of a custodian of the Constitution, a court established by the authority of a federal government, and the uppermost court of appeal.

In terms of legal relief, the Supreme Court of India is principally the only remaining option and uppermost court of appeal which listens to appeals in opposition to verdicts of the High Courts of the union territories and states.

The apex court of India consists of the Chief Justice of India and not above 30 other judges designated by the President of India.

On 28 January 1950, two days past the day when India turned into an independent and autonomous nation, the Supreme Court of India came into existence.

For an extensive period of 12 years, the Chamber of Princes was used as the bench of the Judicature of India and also the Supreme Court up to the time when the apex court of India obtained its current building in 1958.

Stipulations are there for the recruitment of a Judge of a High Court as an impromptu justice of the apex court and for retired judges of the apex court or High Courts to be seated and function as justices of that court.

Supreme Court Of India: Composition, Power And Functions

The Indian Constitution under Article 124(1) states that there shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief justice of India and 34 judges, including the CJI. The Jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India can broadly be categorised into original jurisdiction, appellate jurisdiction and advisory jurisdiction.

Article 124(1) and Amendment act of 2008 states that there shall be a Supreme Court of India consisting of a Chief justice of India and 34 judges including the CJI. Article 124(2) states that every judge of the Supreme Court shall be appointed by the President of India by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with such of the judges of the Supreme Court and of the High Courts in the states.

Articles 137 to 141 of the Constitution of India lay down the composition and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court of India.

Article 141 states that Law declared by Supreme Court is binding on all the courts in India and Article 137 empowers Supreme Court to review its own judgment.

Appointment of ad hoc judges- Article 127 states that if at any time there is a lack of quorum of Judges of Supreme Court, the CJI may with the previous consent of the President and Chief Justice of High Court, concerning request in writing the attendance of Judge of High Court duly qualified to be appointed as Judge of the Supreme Court.

Appointment of retired judges of the Supreme Court or High Court – Article 128 states that the CJI at any time with the previous consent of the President and the person to be so appointed can appoint any person who had previously held the office of a Judge of SC. 8.

Supreme Court as a Court of Record- The Supreme Court is a court of record as its decisions are of evidentiary value and cannot be questioned in any court.

Advocate On Record – Supreme Court Of India

The Supreme Court of India has, in exercise of its rule making power, made a provision for advocate on record.

SENIOR ADVOCATES. Senior Advocates are designated as such by the Supreme Court of India or by any High Court.

The Court can designate any advocate, with his consent, as Senior Advocate if in its opinion by virtue of his ability and standing at the Bar or special knowledge or experience in law, the said advocate is deserving of such distinction.

A Senior Advocate is not entitled to appear without an Advocate-on-Record in the Supreme Court or without a junior in any other court or tribunal in India.

ADVOCATES-ON-RECORD. Only these advocates are entitled to file any matter or document before the Supreme Court.

He has to practice for 4 years as an advocate and thereafter has to intimate to the Supreme Court that he has started taking training with a Senior Advocate on record because he intends to become an Advocate-on-record.

After an advocate passes this examination he must have a registered office within a radius of 10 miles from the Supreme Court building and a registered clerk.

Post Idea #11: Embryonic stem cell

Related Articles – Summarized

Embryonic Stem Cell Fact Sheet

What are embryonic stem cells? All embryonic stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are unlike any specific adult cell.

Because undifferentiated embryonic stem cells can proliferate indefinitely in culture, they could potentially provide an unlimited source of specific, clinically important adult cells such as bone, muscle, liver or blood cells.

Where do embryonic stem cells come from? Human embryonic stem cells are derived from in vitro fertilized embryos less than a week old.

Why are they important? Embryonic stem cells are of great interest to medicine and science because of their ability to develop into virtually any other cell made by the human body.

Are there other potential uses for these cells? The first potential applications of human embryonic stem cell technology may be in the area of drug discovery.

Embryonic stem cells derived from the inner cell mass of an early-stage embryo cannot give rise to a placenta, so a human being could not develop, even if the stem cells were implanted into a woman’s uterus.

Studies of adult stem cells are important and will provide valuable insights into the use of stem cell in transplantation procedures.

ScienceDirect Topics

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells as they can be propagated indefinitely and differentiate into cells of all three germ layers, shown by teratoma and embryoid body formation.

From: Principles of Regenerative Medicine, 2011.Stem Cells, Kidney Regeneration, and Gene and Cell Therapy in Nephrology Pluripotent Stem CellsPluripotent stem cells can differentiate into all other cell types of the body, i.e., they have the potential for many different cell fates.

Although mice entirely derived from ES cells can be generated, signals from the ICM of the blastocyst are likely necessary for mouse ES cells to contribute to offspring, as fetal development has not been reported when the ICM is completely replaced with ES cells.

The formation of embryoid bodies has been used, for example, to produce neural cells, cardiomyocyte, hematopoietic precursors, β-like cells, hepatocytes, and germ cells.

With improved understanding of regulatory events governing germ layer and cell lineage specifications, more cell types will likely be derived from ES cells in increasingly defined conditions.

Differentiation of Embryonic Stem CellsSince ES cells have the ability to differentiate into clinically relevant cell types such as dopamine neurons, cardiomyocytes, and β-cells, there is tremendous interest in using these cells both in basic biological research and in transplantation medicine.

Following sorting, Hes1-high and Hes1-low ES cells were subjected to differentiation conditions, and it was found that whereas Hes1-high ES cells tended to differentiate into mesodermal cells, Hes1-low ES cells tended to differentiate into neural cells.

Embryonic Stem Cell

Embryonic stem cells are stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo.

Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm.

Embryonic stem cells are distinguished by two distinctive properties: their pluripotency, and their ability to replicate indefinitely.

Pluripotency distinguishes embryonic stem cells from adult stem cells found in adults; while embryonic stem cells can generate all cell types in the body, adult stem cells are multipotent and can produce only a limited number of cell types.

Under defined conditions, embryonic stem cells are capable of propagating themselves indefinitely.

Besides the ethical concerns of stem cell therapy, there is a technical problem of graft-versus-host disease associated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

These problems associated with histocompatibility may be solved using autologous donor adult stem cells, therapeutic cloning, stem cell banks or more recently by reprogramming of somatic cells with defined factors.

The Embryo Project Encyclopedia

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of dividing for long periods of time and can give rise to specialized cells under particular conditions.

Embryonic stem cells are a particular type of stem cell derived from embryos.

As of 2009, embryonic stem cells refer to pluripotent cells that are generally derived from the inner cell mass of blastocysts.

While working at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center, located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, James A. Thomson and his team of researchers cultured human embryonic stem cells from the inner cell mass of donated embryos originally produced for in vitro fertilization.

A research team led by John D. Gearhart at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, published “Derivation of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Cultured Human Primordial Germ Cells” in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.

In theory adult stem cells can also be cultivated for such purposes, but isolating and identifying adult stem cells has been difficult and the prospects for treatment are more limited than using embryonic stem cells.

Much of the debate stems from differing opinions on how we should view embryos: is an embryo a person? Should an embryo be considered property? Ethical concerns in embryonic stem cell research include destroying human blastocysts, laws surrounding informed consent, and particularly for SCNT, misapplication of techniques for reproductive cloning.

Human Embryonic Stem Cells

The establishment of permanent human embryonic stem cell lines was first reported in 1998.

Due to their pluripotent nature and ability to differentiate to all cell types in the body, they have been considered as a cell source for regenerative medicine.

hESCs are obtained from supernumerary human IVF embryos that cannot be used for the couple’s infertility treatment.

Today, we can establish and expand these cells in animal substance-free conditions, even from single cells biopsied from eight-cell stage embryos.

Clinical trials are ongoing for age-related macular degeneration and spinal cord injury.

This review focuses on the present state of these techniques.

Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; embryonic stem cell; pluripotency; regenerative medicine; spinal cord injury.

Embryonic Stem Cell Research

The origin of stem cells themselves encapsulates the controversy: embryonic stem cells, originate from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst, a 5-day pre-implantation embryo.

The principal argument for embryonic stem cell research is the potential benefit of using human embryonic cells to examine or treat diseases as opposed to somatic stem cells.

Researchers invent the term “Pre-embryo” to distinguish a pre-implantation state in which the developing cell mass does not have the full respects of an embryo in later stages of embryogenesis to further support embryonic stem cell research.

Stem cell researchers demonstrate a lack of respect for the autonomy and welfare of the human embryos sacrificed in stem cell research.

The autonomous choice to donate embryos to research necessitates a fully informed, voluntary sanction of the patient(s), which poses difficulty due to the complexity of the human embryonic stem cell research.

Since the embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos that underwent in vitro fertilization, when implanted in the body, the stem cell’s marker molecules will not be recognized by the patient’s body, resulting in the destruction of the stem cells as a defensive response to protect the body.

With knowledge of embryonic stem cells having higher complications than the viable adult stem cells continued use of embryonic stem cells violates the Principle of Beneficence not only for the embryos but for the health and safety of the patients treated with stem cells.

Stem Cells: What They Are And What They Do

These daughter cells either become new stem cells or become specialized cells with a more specific function, such as blood cells, brain cells, heart muscle cells or bone cells.

This new technique may allow researchers to use reprogrammed cells instead of embryonic stem cells and prevent immune system rejection of the new stem cells.

Although research into adult stem cells is promising, adult stem cells may not be as versatile and durable as are embryonic stem cells.

Adult stem cells may not be able to be manipulated to produce all cell types, which limits how adult stem cells can be used to treat diseases.

These stem cells are manipulated to specialize into specific types of cells, such as heart muscle cells, blood cells or nerve cells.

Researchers have discovered ways to direct stem cells to become specific types of cells, such as directing embryonic stem cells to become heart cells.

Embryonic stem cells might also trigger an immune response in which the recipient’s body attacks the stem cells as foreign invaders, or the stem cells might simply fail to function normally, with unknown consequences.

Post Idea #12: Empower Clinics

Related Articles – Summarized

Empower Clinics Inc.

Empower is opening its first CBD extraction facility in Portland, OR.A 5,000 sq.

Building capable of producing 6,000 kg per year of hemp-derived distillate or isolate for gel caps, tinctures and vape cartridges.

Empower Clinics Inc Provides Business Update On Continued Growth

“I am excited about the progress the entire Empower team has made to date and look forward to sharing further details on our measurable growth as part of our upcoming Q4 and year-end financial results,” Steven McAuley, company chair and CEO said.

Empower Clinics Inc. has provided a business update, outlining its recent highlights and its continued growth.

“Our company is disciplined in our focus to become a North American leader for integrated healthcare. The first quarter of 2022 has seen our company advance opportunities, sharpen our operational focus and upgrade our leadership team,” Steven McAuley, Empowered Clinics chair and CEO said in a statement.

Empower Clinics signed a Memorandum of Understanding to provide COVID- 19 testing and logistics management with Ceres Terminals Canada which is the operator of the cruise ship terminal at Canada Place.

Empower Clinics previously announced its intention to acquire eight medical clinics in Ontario representing collectively C$8 million in top-line revenues and 600,000 patients.

A robust pipeline of healthcare businesses – ranging from traditional medical clinics to health technology firms – form the foundation of strong growth, the company added.

Empower provides body and mind wellness for patients through its clinics, with digital and telemedicine care, a medical device company and world-class medical diagnostics laboratories.

Post Idea #13: OTCMKTS:EPWCF

Related Articles – Summarized

Stock Quotes For Empower Clinics Inc

“On behalf of the Company, I would like to thank Ms. Tyler for her contributions to the Company and we wish her all the best in her future endeavors,” stated Steven McAuley, Chairman and CEO of Empower Clinics.

Anthony Tomasello brings more than 30 years of healthcare, technology, public markets and commercialization experience to support growth of Empower ClinicsVANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / February 22, 2022 / EMPOWER CLINICS INC.(Frankfurt:8EC)(OTCQB…. ACCESSWIRE 02/22 11:30.

Seasoned executive with more than 20 years of professional medical practice management to lead ongoing success and expansion of The Medi-CollectiveVANCOUVER, BC / ACCESSWIRE / February 14, 2022 / EMPOWER CLINICS INC.(Frankfurt:8EC)(OTCQB:EPWCF) …. ACCESSWIRE 02/14 11:30.

YoY. Learn about the latest financial forecast of EPWCF. Analyze the recent business situations of Empower Clinics Inc through EPS, BVPS, FPS, and other data.

About EPWCF. Empower Clinics Inc. is an integrated healthcare company.

Its Sollievo product line offers patients a variety of delivery methods of doctor recommended cannabidiol based products in its clinics and online.

Webull offers kinds of Empower Clinics Inc stock information, including OTCMKTS:EPWCF real-time market quotes, financial reports, professional analyst ratings, in-depth charts, corporate actions, EPWCF stock news, and many more online research tools to help you make informed decisions.

Is There Support Here? Empower Clinics Inc

Empower Clinics Inc is trading sharply lower in the mid-day session on Tuesday after the news.

As of 1:09, EPWCF stock moved down by 25% at $0.4832.

The stock has traded 775K shares, compared to its average volume of 226K shares.

The stock opened at $0.5400 and moved in a range of $0.4678 – 0.5516.

Key Highlights: providing this bi-weekly update on the status of the management cease trade order granted by the British Columbia Securities Commission on May 3, 2021.The MCTO was issued in connection with the delay by the Company in filing its annual financial statements, management’s discussion and analysis and related officer certifications for the financial year ended December 31, 2020 before the prescribed deadline of April 30, 2021.The MCTO was granted pursuant to Empowers application made under National Policy 12-203 – Management Cease Trade Orders.

The Company requested and received an extension relating to the Required Filings for delays primarily due to the impact of COVID-19 on the audit and associated required travel, of the Company’s recently acquired subsidiaries in both the US and Canada.

The Company’s staff and accounting firm is working diligently with its auditors and the Company now anticipates having the audit of the Required Filings completed, and the Required Filings filed, by June 28, 2021.

EPWCF Stock: Why Little-Known Empower Clinics Soared Today

Investors may not be familiar with Empower Clinics, but the little-known equity absolutely popped in Friday trading.

To start, Empower Clinics believes its mission is to provide integrative healthcare for patients in the United States and Canada, and it says it currently reaches 200,000 individuals.

Investors should also note that Empower Clinics primarily trades under the ticker CBDT on the Canadian Securities Exchange.

What actually had EPWCF stock on the move? Well, part of the Kai Medical Laboratory ties in nicely to investor interest in Covid-19.

Empower has a RT-PCR Covid-19 test, an Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay, an antibody test for Covid-19 and a variety of other toxicology and hormone tests.

So what else do you need to know about Empower Clinics? And what about EPWCF stock?

If Empower Clinics can bring peace of mind through accurate tests, it is reasonable for investors to reward shares.

Post Idea #14: Optical microscope

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

Often referred to as the “Light optical microscope,” is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples.

Optical microscopes are the oldest design of microscope and were possibly designed in their present compound form in the 17th century.

A related type of near-field microscope, the solid immersion microscope, focuses the light from a standard or confocal microscope beam onto the lower surface of a high-refractive-index solid transparent material, called a solid immersion lens, shown in Fig.

In order to put the performance of these microscopes into the proper context, we will discuss the operating principles of the standard optical microscope in the next section.

Following the section on the standard optical microscope, the CSOM and the optical interference microscope will be described, with emphasis on the CSOM because of its simplicity of use and its wide range of applications.

Concludes with a discussion comparing scanning optical microscopes with other types of scanning microscopes, such as the tunneling and force microscopes, the scanning electron microscope, and the scanning acoustic microscope.

The major microscope manufacturers now offer options for automation of their optical microscopes with a range of functions being controlled via a touch-sensitive screen.

Optical Microscope

The optical microscope, also referred to as a light microscope, is a type of microscope that commonly uses visible light and a system of lenses to generate magnified images of small objects.

A compound microscope uses a lens close to the object being viewed to collect light which focuses a real image of the object inside the microscope.

Student microscope – an often low-power microscope with simplified controls and sometimes low quality optics designed for school use or as a starter instrument for children.

Tip-enhanced Raman microscope, is a variant of optical microscope based on tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, without traditional wavelength-based resolution limits.

This microscope primarily realized on the scanning-probe microscope platforms using all optical tools.

A digital microscope is a microscope equipped with a digital camera allowing observation of a sample via a computer.

In 1625, Giovanni Faber coined the name microscope for the compound microscope Galileo submitted to the Accademia dei Lincei in 1624.

What Are Optical Microscopes?

Optical microscopes are categorized on a structure basis according to the intended purpose.

An optical system for implementing these functions is referred to as an observation optical system.

An optical system for implementing these functions is referred to as an illumination optical system.

In other words, the observation optical system projects a sample through an optical system and moreover leads a projection image to eyes or a pickup device such as CCD.On the other hand, the illumination optical system effectively collects light emitted from the light source and leads the light to a specimen to illuminate it.

The layout of observation and illumination optical systems in an optical microscope is as in the figure below for an upright microscope.

An optical microscope creates a magnified image of an object specimen with an objective lens and magnifies the image further more with an eyepiece to allow the user to observe it by the naked eye.

The observation optical system in an optical microscope is commonly standardized on this compound microscope.

Optical Microscopes

Before exploring how such a lens works, crucial terms and definitions of a lens have to be clarified.

Everybody who everused a magnifying glass as a burning glass has discovered that a lens creates a “Hot spot” when pointed at the sun.

The distance from the center of the lens to this focal point is called focal length.

With this conclusion we have already defined two of the most important benchmark data of a lens: focal length and opening.

To simplify the handling of the lens diameter it is generally expressed in relation to the focal length.

Numerical aperture is defined NA = n sin α, where n is the refractive index of the medium filling the space between the object and the lens, and is the half-angle of the maximum cone of light that can enter the lens.

This is defined as the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the lens.

How Does An Optical Microscope Work

The eyepiece lens lets you see the magnified image of the specimen in clear detail.

Like the objective lens, the eyepiece lens also magnifies, and it can be adjusted, or moved slightly, to bring the image of the specimen into sharp focus.

The objective lens magnifies the image of the specimen.

The stage is a flat part of the microscope where the specimen, on a glass slide, is placed.

The slide is positioned over a hole in the stage, so that light can travel from the mirror, through the specimen, and into the objective lens.

What does a microscope show you? Viewer’s eyeViewer’s eye.

The eye sees a clear, magnified image of the specimen.

Basic Concepts In Optical Microscopy

Adjustment of a transmitted light microscope for Köhler illumination is a relatively easy process as each time a microscope is turned on, it should be carefully inspected to ensure proper alignment of all optical components.

Microscope objectives are the most important components of an optical microscope because they determine the quality of images that the microscope is capable of producing.

In optical microscopes, image formation occurs at the intermediate image plane through interference between direct light that has passed through specimen unaltered and light diffracted by minute features in the specimen.

Microscope optical trains typically suffer from five common aberrations: spherical, chromatic, curvature of field, comatic, and astigmatic.

The mechanical tube length of an optical microscope is defined as the distance from the nosepiece opening, where the objective is mounted, to the top edge of the observation tubes where the eyepieces are inserted.

The modulation transfer function of a lens, microscope objective, or other optical system is a measurement of its ability to transfer contrast at a particular resolution level from the object to the image.

Perhaps the most poorly understood component in the optical train, the condenser is nevertheless one of the most important factors in obtaining high quality images in the microscope.

Early in the twentieth century, microscope manufacturers began parfocalizing objectives, allowing the image to remain in focus when the microscopist exchanged objectives on the rotating nosepiece.

Aberrations were partially corrected by the mid-nineteenth century with the introduction of Lister and Amici achromatic objectives that reduced chromatic aberration and raised numerical apertures to around 0.65 for dry objectives and up to 1.25 for homogeneous immersion objectives.

The object is placed a short distance outside of the objective’s front focal length, such that z + f = a. The intermediate image of the object, O’, is located at distance b, which equals the back focal length of the objective plus, the optical tube length of the microscope.

As a result, an oil immersion objective can capture more diffracted orders and yield better resolution than a dry objective (Figure 5(b. Moreover, because blue light is diffracted at a lesser angle than green light or red light, a lens of a given aperture may capture more orders of light when the wavelengths are in the blue region of the visible light spectrum.

Conoscopic image of objective back focal plane diffraction spectra when air is the medium between the cover slip and the objective front lens.

Microscope Objectives, Eyepieces, Condensers, and Optical Aberrations Finite microscope objectives are designed to project a diffraction-limited image at a fixed plane that is dictated by the microscope tube length and located at a pre-specified distance from the rear focal plane of the objective.

Microscope manufacturers offer a wide range of objective designs to meet the performance needs of specialized imaging methods, to compensate for cover glass thickness variations, and to increase the effective working distance of the objective.

Post Idea #15: Varicose veins

Related Articles – Summarized

Symptoms And Causes

Varicose veins most commonly affect the veins in the legs.

For many people, varicose veins and spider veins – a common, mild variation of varicose veins – are simply a cosmetic concern.

Spider veins are similar to varicose veins, but they’re smaller.

Tiny valves in the veins open as blood flows toward the heart, then close to stop blood from flowing backward.

If these valves are weak or damaged, blood can flow backward and pool in the veins, causing the veins to stretch or twist.

Aging causes wear and tear on the valves in the veins that help control blood flow.

Improving blood flow and muscle tone might reduce the risk of developing varicose veins.

Varicose Veins: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Spider veins are smaller and thinner than varicose veins.

Symptoms and Causes What are the symptoms of varicose veins?

Varicose veins occur when the walls of your veins weaken.

Half of the people who have surgical stripping get varicose veins again within five years, and varicose veins can happen again after endovenous ablation as well.

With sclerotherapy, new varicose veins can happen and need treatment.

Try compression stockings: Support socks and pantyhose compress your veins and help blood circulate, which can prevent varicose veins from getting worse.

Just keep in mind that varicose veins can happen again, even after treatment.

Johns Hopkins Medicine

Spider veins, a milder type of varicose veins, are smaller than varicose veins and often look like a sunburst or “Spider web.” They are red or blue in color and are commonly found on the face and legs, just under the skin.

Varicose veins are caused by increased blood pressure in the veins.

Varicose veins happen in the veins near the surface of the skin.

Increased pressure in the veins may cause varicose veins.

Deep vein thrombosis is a serious condition with blood clots in the deep veins.

With severe varicose veins, there is a small chance of developing blood clots in the deep veins.

If you have mild to moderate varicose veins, elevating your legs can help reduce leg swelling and relieve other symptoms.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins are a common condition caused by weak or damaged vein walls and valves.

Varicose veins may form whenever blood pressure increases inside your veins.

This health topic focuses primarily on varicose veins in the legs, but sometimes varicose veins form in other parts of the body.

Varicose veins can also develop in the esophagus, stomach, or liver.

The veins may grow larger and become distorted, resulting in varicose veins.

You may be at increased risk for varicose veins if you are older, sit or stand for long periods, have an inactive lifestyle, have overweight or obesity, or have a family history of varicose veins or deep vein thrombosis, a type of venous thromboembolism.

Bleeding from varicose veins is a medical emergency.

What Is The Cause And What Treatment

Varicose veins can make our legs painful, heavy, itchy and swollen.

Our veins contain one-way valves to stop the blood falling back towards your toes.

The pressure in our veins becomes higher than the pressure in our arteries and the blood flows backwards and collects in the vein.

What do varicose veins look like? Getting your varicose veins diagnosed.

If your varicose veins are bleeding your GP practice should refer you to a vascular service immediately.

Your GP should also refer you to a vascular service if your varicose veins are hard and painful, or causing skin discoloration or itchiness and eczema.

If you are referred to a specialist vascular clinic you will probably be offered a duplex ultrasound scan to diagnose your varicose veins.

Varicose Veins

Varicose veins in the legs could be due to ovarian vein reflux.

This condition affects 14% of women with varicose veins or 20% of women who have had vaginal delivery and have leg varicose veins.

There is increasing evidence for the role of incompetent perforator veins in the formation of varicose veins.

Vein ligation is done at the saphenofemoral junction after ligating the tributaries at the sephanofemoral junction without stripping the long saphenous vein provided the perforator veins are competent and absent DVT in the deep veins.

A commonly performed non-surgical treatment for varicose and “Spider leg veins” is sclerotherapy, in which medicine is injected into the veins to make them shrink.

Sclerotherapy is often used for telangiectasias and varicose veins that persist or recur after vein stripping.

The Australian Medical Services Advisory Committee in 2008 determined that endovenous laser treatment/ablation for varicose veins “Appears to be more effective in the short term, and at least as effective overall, as the comparative procedure of junction ligation and vein stripping for the treatment of varicose veins.” It also found in its assessment of available literature, that “Occurrence rates of more severe complications such as DVT, nerve injury, and paraesthesia, post-operative infections, and haematomas, appears to be greater after ligation and stripping than after EVLT”.

Varicose Veins: Causes, Symptoms, And Treatments

Varicose veins occur when veins aren’t functioning properly.

The primary symptoms of varicose veins are highly visible, misshapen veins, usually on your legs.

Your doctor will likely examine your legs and visible veins while you’re sitting or standing to diagnose varicose veins.

In general, doctors are conservative when treating varicose veins.

If you already have varicose veins, you should take these steps to prevent new varicose veins.

If lifestyle changes aren’t working, or if your varicose veins are causing a lot of pain or damaging your overall health, your doctor might try an invasive procedure.

In some cases, varicose veins can lead to ulcers or sores on your legs, blood clots, or chronic inflammation.

Post Idea #16: Telangiectasia

Related Articles – Summarized

Telangiectasia: Causes, Diagnosis, Prevention & Treatment

How is telangiectasia connected to scleroderma, dermatomyositis and lupus?

All of these chronic, connective tissue diseases can cause telangiectasia to develop on the face and on fingernail or toenail folds.

Limited scleroderma – also called CREST syndrome, which stands for Calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, Esophageal dysmotility, Sclerosis and Telangiectasia.

One study found that body image dissatisfaction was higher in scleroderma patients with numerous telangiectasia.

Tips to help prevent telangiectasia Protect your skin from the sun by applying sunscreen, and wearing sunglasses and a hat.

Superficial facial telangiectasia are amenable to laser treatment.

In scleroderma, due to thickened collagen fibers, telangiectasia are more resistant to laser therapy, but can be effectively cleared with multiple treatments.

Telangiectasia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

Telangiectasias may develop anywhere within the body.

They are most easily seen on the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eyes.

Some telangiectasias bleed and cause significant problems.

Telangiectasias may also occur in the brain or intestines and cause major problems from bleeding.

Tests may be needed to diagnose or rule out a medical condition.

Sclerotherapy is the treatment for telangiectasias on the legs.

Laser treatment is typically used to treat telangiectasias of the face.

Telangiectasia: Causes, Symptoms, And Diagnosis

Telangiectasia is a condition in which widened venules cause threadlike red lines or patterns on the skin.

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare genetic condition that causes telangiectases that can be life-threatening.

Researchers believe several causes may contribute to the development of telangiectases.

The causes of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia are genetic.

Telangiectasia is a common skin disorder, even among healthy people.

Telangiectasia is easily visible from the threadlike red lines or patterns it creates on the skin.

Sclerotherapy: focuses on causing damage to the inner lining of the blood vessel by injecting it with a chemical solution that causes a blood clot that collapses, thickens, or scars the venule.


Telangiectasia is a condition in which there are visible small linear.

Note that telangiectasia may be noted as a normal feature of facial skin in some families.

Hereditary telangiectasia Acquired telangiectasiaTelangiectasia due to disease.

Telangiectasia in skin tumours Sebaceous hyperplasia.

CTCL. Certain medications may give rise to telangiectasia.

Telangiectasia related to topical steroid use What is the treatment of telangiectasia?

On DermNet NZOther websites Books about skin diseases.


Dilated blood vessels can also develop on the legs, although when they occur on the legs, they often have underlying venous reflux or “Hidden varicose veins”.

Many patients who suffer with spider veins seek the assistance of physicians who specialize in vein care or peripheral vascular disease.

Telangiectasia in the legs is often related to the presence of venous reflux within underlying varicose veins.

Flow abnormalities within the medium-sized veins of the leg can also lead to the development of telangiectasia.

Later in pregnancy, the enlarged uterus can compress veins, causing higher vein pressure leading to dilated veins.

Research has shown that 88% to 89% of women with telangectasia have refluxing reticular veins close, and 15% have incompetent perforator veins nearby.

Varicose veins and reticular veins are often treated before treating telangiectasia, although treatment of these larger veins in advance of sclerotherapy for telangiectasia may not guarantee better results.

ScienceDirect Topics

From: Sclerotherapy, 2007.Lasers and Pulsed-Light Devices : Leg Telangiectasia Long-Pulse Nd:YAG LaserThe 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser is probably the most effective laser available to treat leg telangiectasia.

FA in early disease shows bilateral perifoveal telangiectasia with early leakage from the abnormal vessels progressing to diffuse leakage, though without CMO. The cystoid spaces identifiable on OCT do not show hyperfluorescence on FA. FA is also used to confirm CNV.Macular pigment optical density imaging shows a possibly pathognomonic pattern of oval reduction in density corresponding to the late distribution of hyperfluorescence on FA. MPOD is preserved from 6° outwards.

Various vasculitic factors or other immunologic factors associated with these diseases may lead to the appearance of telangiectasias, particularly in areas where other physical factors are prominent.

In some conditions, a component of the disease itself, such as the release of mast cell vasoactive factors including histamine or heparin, may lead to the development of telangiectasias.

While complex classifications have been used, there are essentially two basic and distinct forms: a developmental or congenital, usually unilateral vascular anomaly, which may be part of the larger spectrum of Coats disease and now often called mac tel type 1; and a presumably acquired bilateral form found in middle-aged and older persons, which has been termed macular, juxtafoveal, or perifoveal telangiectasia and is now known as mac tel type 2.

Secondary telangiectasia, such as collagen vascular diseases.

So-called familial hemorrhagic telangiectasia or Weber-Osler-Rendu syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with multiple “Telangiectasias” elsewhere in the body, which actually constitute tiny vascular nodules with AV shunting.

Telangiectasia: Causes, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Telangiectasia is a condition in which broken or widened small blood vessels that sit near the surface of the skin or mucous membranes create visible patterns of lines.

Connective tissue diseases can cause telangiectasia to develop on the face and the part of the hands and feet where the skin meets the nail.

A spider telangiectasia is a telangiectasia that has a red, central feeding vessel with outward branches.

People should also seek treatment as soon as possible if they become aware of a family history of telangiectasia or have any bleeding or lesions in the mouth or eye area.

Laser therapy is minimally invasive and generally the most straightforward treatment for facial telangiectasia and broken capillaries.

There are several treatment options for telangiectasia.

Occasionally, telangiectasia may be a symptom of a more severe medical condition that requires treatment.

Post Idea #17: Computational fluid dynamics

Related Articles – Summarized

Computational Fluid Dynamic

CFD uses algorithms and other mathematical techniques to analyze and predict fluid flow.

Because the heat exchange and interaction of the worker’s body with the surrounding air mass is essentially a fluid dynamics issue, CFD offers a sophisticated modeling approach that may also be applied to protective clothing.

It should be remembered that the human micro-E is extremely complex and dynamic and accurately modeling the micro-E under protective clothing using CFD presents a daunting challenge.

In CFD the underlying physical laws describing fluid flow are expressed mathematically as a system of partial differential equations.

CFD code is often used in the form of a so-called numerical wave tank to simulate a WEC. A NWT is a CFD model that includes not only the WEC itself, but also the boundaries defining the dimensions of the surrounding water.

The most important question to ask is ‘Does the CFD model capture all of the relevant physics of the situation to be simulated?’, ie, do the underlying equations describe all the important physical processes that will occur? No CFD model can capture every aspect of the physics and decisions have to be made as to what physics to model and what physics to ignore.

CFD computational tools can be found qualified in computing three-dimensional phenomena in case of some experiments without proving consistency with experimental data of pressure drops in the same experiments.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational fluid dynamics is the numerical study of steady and unsteady fluid motion.

CFD is used throughout the design process, from conceptual-to-detailed, to inform initial concepts and refine advanced concepts.

CFD is used to predict the drag, lift, noise, structural and thermal loads, combustion.

CFD is also a means by which the fundamental mechanics of fluids can be studied.

By using massively parallel supercomputers, CFD is frequently used to study how fluids behave in complex scenarios, such a boundary layer transition, turbulence, and sound generation, with applications throughout and beyond aerospace engineering.

What is going on in computational fluid dynamics research at Illinois?

The University of Illinois has a strong and vibrant research community in CFD. Active research areas include the prediction and control of boundary layer instability and transition on rigid and flexible surfaces, shock impingement on flexible surfaces, sound generation by turbulence, multiphase flows, plasma-coupled combustion, biological flows and sound generation, advanced CFD algorithms, and programming models and algorithm selection for performing CFD on future supercomputers.

What Is Computational Fluid Dynamics?

Computational Fluid Dynamics is the process of mathematically modeling a physical phenomenon involving fluid flow and solving it numerically using the computational prowess.

With the rise of computers and ever-growing computational power, the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics became a commonly applied tool for generating solutions for fluid flows with or without solid interaction.

The central mathematical description for all theoretical fluid dynamics models is given by the Navier-Stokes equations, which describe the motion of viscous fluid domains.

Lagrangian description of fluid motion is based on the theory to follow a fluid particle that is large enough to detect properties.

Fluid flow over a sphere/cylinder is a repetitive issue that has been taught by the lecturer as an example in fluids courses.

Computational Fluid Dynamics tools diversify in accordance with mathematical models, numerical methods, computational equipment, and post-processing facilities.

Computational Fluid Dynamics is the branch of CAE that allows you to simulate fluid motion using numerical approaches.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

In the field of Tribology research focuses on experimentally verified computational film flow models for the prediction of the static and dynamic force response of fluid film bearings; in particular hydrostatic bearings, tilting pad bearings, annular pressure seals, squeeze film dampers, floating ring bearings, gas damper bearings and seals, foil gas bearings and porous-carbon bearings.

In the Rotordynamics field, research deals with the measurement and prediction of the dynamic lateral vibration characteristics of turbomachinery, encompassing both the traditional aspects of rotordynamics analysis and investigations into the fluid film-structure interaction forces that influence rotordynamics, with a major emphasis in fluid film dampers and gas bearings.

Computational Fluid Dynamics

The fundamental basis of almost all CFD problems is the Navier-Stokes equations, which define many single-phase fluid flows.

Probably the first work using computers to model fluid flow, as governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, was performed at Los Alamos National Lab, in the T3 group.

CFD can be seen as a group of computational methodologies used to solve equations governing fluid flow.

The physical modeling is defined – for example, the equations of fluid motion + enthalpy + radiation + species conservation.

The FEM formulation has been adapted for use with fluid dynamics governing equations.

Unlike the traditional CFD methods, which solve the conservation equations of macroscopic properties numerically, LBM models the fluid consisting of fictive particles, and such particles perform consecutive propagation and collision processes over a discrete lattice mesh.

In addition to the wide range of length and time scales and the associated computational cost, the governing equations of fluid dynamics contain a non-linear convection term and a non-linear and non-local pressure gradient term.

Post Idea #18: Mentor Graphics

Related Articles – Summarized

Mentor Graphics

Mentor Graphics is a US-based electronic design automation multinational corporation for electrical engineering and electronics, headquartered in Wilsonville, Oregon.

Since 2021, the former Mentor Graphics operates as a division at Siemens named Siemens EDA. Mentor Graphics was noted for distributing products that assist in electronic design automation, simulation tools for analog mixed-signal design, VPN solutions, and fluid dynamics and heat transfer tools.

Based in Chelmsford, Massachusetts, Apollo was less than a year old and had only announced itself to the public a few weeks prior to when the founders of Mentor Graphics began their initial meetings.

In November 2016, Mentor Graphics announced that it was to be acquired by Siemens for $4.5 billion, at $37.25 per share, a 21% premium on Mentor’s closing price on the previous Friday.

Mentor Graphics started to operate as “Mentor, a Siemens Business”.

In January 2021, Mentor became a division of Siemens and was renamed as Siemens EDA. Mentor product development was located in the US, Taiwan, Egypt, Poland, Hungary, Japan, France, Canada, Pakistan, UK, Armenia, India and Russia.

Neil Henderson joined Mentor Graphics in 2002 with the acquisition of Accelerated Technology Inc. Stephen Mellor, a leader in the UML space and co-originator of the Shlaer-Mellor design methodology, joined Mentor Graphics in 2004 following the acquisition of Project Technology.

Mentor Graphics Careers And Employment

Software DevelopmentInformation Design & DocumentationBenefitsEmployees at Mentor Graphics have reported receiving these benefits.

Corporate Marketing Engineer in Wilsonville, OR.on April 19, 2021.My time at Mentor Graphics has been a lot of fun.

Questions and answersPeople have asked 11 questions about working at Mentor Graphics.

See the answers, explore popular topics and discover unique insights from Mentor Graphics employees.

Interview insightsInsights from 14 Indeed users who have interviewed with Mentor Graphics within the last 5 years.

Mentor Graphics locations Wilsonville, OR.Fremont, CA.Huntsville, AL.San Jose, CA.Waltham, MA.Longmont, CO. What’s being discussed at Mentor Graphics?Select a topic to see what people are saying about different issues.

Explore work from home during COVID-19, remote work support and work-life balance.

Mentor Graphics Corporation

Mentor Graphics Corporation is among the world leaders in electronic design automation, the use of computer software to design and analyze electronic components and systems.

During Mentor Graphics’ first year of operation, two small companies, Daisy Systems and Valid Logic Systems, emerged in the Silicon Valley with CAE products and proved to be Mentor Graphics’ stiffest competition.

From the fall of 1982 until about 1985, Mentor Graphics and Daisy engaged in a brutal war for domination of the CAE business, with nearly every decision made at Mentor Graphics aimed at gaining market share from its rival.

In 1983 Mentor Graphics made its first acquisition of another company, California Automated Design, Inc. CADI was developing software similar to Daisy’s, and the purchase both strengthened Mentor Graphics’ position against its chief rival and nipped another potential competitor in the bud.

1983 also marked Mentor Graphics’ move into the international market with the formation of Mentor Graphics Ltd. Subsidiaries were added in France, Italy, the Netherlands, West Germany, Japan, and Singapore by the following year.

Because Mentor Graphics’ industry-standard workstations built by Apollo were experiencing no such delays in upgrading, Mentor Graphics was able to move into the industry lead for the first time.

The rivalry between Mentor Graphics and Cadence became fierce, with each company aggressively courting the other’s customers.

Siemens Closes Mentor Graphics Acquisition

With the recent closing of its acquisition of electronic design automation software leader, Mentor Graphics Corporation, Siemens sets out to underscore the significant customer value it envisions for both Electronic Systems and Integrated Circuit design tools.

Mentor is now part of Siemens’ product lifecycle management software business, making the combined organization the world’s leading supplier of industrial software used for product design, simulation, verification, testing and manufacturing.

“The entire suite of EDA offerings from Mentor are critically important to our vision of growing our customer base and delivering the world’s most comprehensive portfolio of software solutions to build the Digital Enterprise,” said Tony Hemmelgarn, President and CEO, Siemens PLM Software.

Now, with the acquisition of Mentor, Siemens will continue its proven track record of effectively merging new organizations and technology into the industry’s leading Digital Enterprise Suite.

“Joining the Siemens family presents tremendous opportunity, not only for the Mentor Graphics team, but also for existing, new and future customers,” said Walden C. Rhines, CEO, Mentor Graphics.

Mentor Graphics Corporation, a Siemens Business, is a world leader in electronic hardware and software design solutions, providing products, consulting services, and award-winning support for the world’s most successful electronic, semiconductor, and systems companies.

Siemens PLM Software, a business unit of the Siemens Digital Factory Division, is a leading global provider of product lifecycle management and manufacturing operations management software, systems and services with over 15 million licensed seats and more than 140,000 customers worldwide.

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A prominent and robust search experience enables you to refine your search by version and content type for a specific product, or a global search across all your products.

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Getting Started resources speed your adoption of Siemens Software Each Product Center offers a Getting Started section of curated resources to help accelerate your time to productivity with our products.

It’s official- we’re moving! Follow for our latest news and updates.

Meet some of the faces behind Siemens EDA. Siemens EDA combines electronic design automation innovation with the #digitalization of everything to deliver the world’s most comprehensive portfolio of EDA software, hardware, and services.

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Post Idea #19: Thermometer

Related Articles – Summarized

National Geographic Society

Liquid thermometers often include both Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales, which are displayed on either side of the tube.

In a maximum thermometer, the liquid is pushed up the glass tube, but cannot fall easily when the temperature lowers.

Maximum thermometers are commonly used to measure a person’s body temperature.

Astronomers use infrared thermometers to measure temperatures in space, for instance.

Infrared thermometers detect infrared radiation at great distances and correlate it to a specific surface temperature.

In 1965, an infrared thermometer detected radiation with a temperature of 3 kelvins in all directions in space.

Located outside of Las Vegas, the world’s largest thermometer measures 134 feet high and commemorates the highest temperature ever recorded in North America: 134 degrees Fahrenheit.


There are a wide variety of thermometers that you can choose, from digital thermometers to an infrared ear thermometer to forehead thermometers that require no physical contact with the ear, forehead or any body parts.

There are also thermometers with silent mode for minimum disturbance.

Non-contact infrared versus axillary and tympanic thermometers in children attending primary care, or the backlit display ones are best for anytime of the day for recording an accurate reading.

Infrared Thermometer measures temperature easily and accurately in 1 second.

Thermometers with large LED screens make it easy to read the results, and the built-in fever warning lets you know when someone has a fever.

Higher-end thermometers also include a temperature memory feature to easily track wellness and fluctuations in normal body temperature.

So walk in to a Target store or buy online from a wide range of thermometers for at home or professional use.


French entomologist René Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur invented an alcohol thermometer and, temperature scale in 1730, that ultimately proved to be less reliable than Fahrenheit’s mercury thermometer.

If the non-registering thermometer was removed from the hot liquid, then the temperature indicated on the thermometer would immediately begin changing to reflect the temperature of its new conditions.

Registering thermometers are designed to hold the temperature indefinitely, so that the thermometer can be removed and read at a later time or in a more convenient place.

In contrast, “Secondary thermometers are most widely used because of their convenience. Also, they are often much more sensitive than primary ones. For secondary thermometers knowledge of the measured property is not sufficient to allow direct calculation of temperature. They have to be calibrated against a primary thermometer at least at one temperature or at a number of fixed temperatures. Such fixed points, for example, triple points and superconducting transitions, occur reproducibly at the same temperature.”

Most thermometers are originally calibrated to a constant-volume gas thermometer.

The expansion of mercury in a glass thermometer is slightly different from the change in resistance of a platinum resistance thermometer, so these two will disagree slightly at around 50 °C. There may be other causes due to imperfections in the instrument, e.g. in a liquid-in-glass thermometer if the capillary tube varies in diameter.

Alternative designs using this principle are the reversing thermometer and Beckmann differential thermometer.

5 Best Thermometers

Things have come a long way since the mercury-laden glass thermometers of yore, and trying to pick out the right thermometer for your household can get overwhelming.

Ear thermometers use an infrared ray to measure the temperature just inside the ear canal.

Non-contact thermometers use the same infrared technology as ear thermometers, but require no contact whatsoever, making them perfect for tricky patients.

If you want a thermometer that’s extremely simple to use, a digital stick thermometer is your best bet.

Thermometers can vary significantly in price, and the cost generally depends on which type of thermometer you choose.

You can find ear thermometers for as little as $10 and as much as $40. We recommend spending at least $20 to get one that gives an accurate reading, but more expensive models will have more bells and whistles.

If you want a thermometer that’s going to make it easy for you to take a restless child’s temperature, without making him or her stay still for too long, a non-contact thermometer would be your best bet.

Post Idea #20: Hydrofluoric acid

Related Articles – Summarized

Facts About Hydrogen Fluoride

FACT SHEET. What hydrogen fluoride is Hydrogen fluoride is a chemical compound that contains fluorine.

Where hydrogen fluoride is found and how it is used Hydrogen fluoride is used to make refrigerants, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, high-octane gasoline, aluminum, plastics, electrical components, and fluorescent light bulbs.

How you could be exposed to hydrogen fluoride In a natural disaster, you could be exposed to high levels of hydrogen fluoride when storage facilities or containers are damaged and the chemical is released.

How hydrogen fluoride works Hydrogen fluoride goes easily and quickly through the skin and into the tissues in the body.

Immediate signs and symptoms of exposure to hydrogen fluoride Swallowing only a small amount of highly concentrated hydrogen fluoride will affect major internal organs and may be fatal.

Long-term health effects of acute exposure to hydrogen fluoride People who survive after being severely injured by breathing in hydrogen fluoride may suffer lingering chronic lung disease.

How you can protect yourself, and what to do if you are exposed to hydrogen fluoride First, if the hydrogen fluoride was released into the air, get fresh air by leaving the area where the chemical was released.

Hydrofluoric Acid

Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water.

In similar manner, this acid is used in acid macerations to extract organic fossils from silicate rocks.

In a standard oil refinery process known as alkylation, isobutane is alkylated with low-molecular-weight alkenes in the presence of an acid catalyst derived from hydrofluoric acid.

The acid is also a by-product of the production of phosphoric acid from apatite and fluoroapatite.

Although hydrofluoric acid is regarded as a weak acid, it is very corrosive, even attacking glass when hydrated.

The acidity of hydrofluoric acid solutions varies with concentration owing to hydrogen-bond interactions of the fluoride ion.

In an episode of Titans titled “Jason Todd”, a young Dick Grayson claims that his parents’ murderer used hydrofluoric acid to burn their trapeze ropes.

ScienceDirect Topics

In order to improve decomposition of inorganic compounds, hydrofluoric acid is routinely mixed with other acids.

HF + H2O H3O+ + F−.Due to its low degree of ionization in dilute solution, hydrofluoric acid is the only hydrohalic acid that is not considered a strong acid.

Diluted hydrofluoric acid is used in the “Oil Patch” in a mixture with other acids in order to stimulate the production of water, oil and gas wells specifically where sandstone is involved.

In a standard oil-refinery process known as Alkylation, isobutane is alkylated with low-molecular weight alkenes in the presence of a strong acid catalyst, hydrofluoric acid.

The reaction is exothermic and the temperatures can reach 150 °C. The materials used here must therefore be able to resist hot concentrated sulfuric acid as well as hydrofluoric acid and possess adequate erosion resistance to fluorspar and calcium sulfate crystals.

The residue is an aqueous mixture of hydrofluoric acid and sulfuric acid.

If the hydrofluoric acid is decanted from the precipitate and the process repeated, the final lead content in the acid is less than 0.003ppm.

Office Of Environmental Health And Safety

Hydrofluoric acid is an aqueous inorganic acid solution commonly used in research and industry for its ability to etch silicon compounds.

In addition to its useful properties, hydrofluoric acid also poses severe health risks upon exposure.

Common mineral acids such as hydrochloric, phosphoric, nitric and sulfuric acid can cause surface burns when a dermal exposure occurs.

An additional quirk of hydrofluoric acid is that dermal burns may not be readily noticed or painful, unlike the warning properties of other acids.

Speed and thoroughness in washing off the acid is of primary importance! Immediately start rinsing under safety shower or other water source even before removing contaminated clothing.

Small spills of hydrofluoric acid may be absorbed with a universal absorbent material such as Hazorb® or Chemsorb® spill pillows.

Large spills of hydrofluoric acid must be soaked up with PowerSorb® or PolySorb® HF resistant spill materials as universal absorbents will degrade quickly.

Occupational Health & Safety

At a concentration of 0.1% or greater, HF is a hazardous substance under the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations 1999.

Each department/school/centre is responsible for completing a risk assessment of any task involving work with solutions containing HF using the Risk management program.

Specimen storage areas must be marked as containing HF solutions.

Solutions containing HF must be stored in polyethylene or Teflon containers.

HF reacts with glass and solutions containing HF are incompatible with glass storage vessels and equipment.

Where practical, neutralise used HF solutions as soon as possible, putting waste into a correctly labelled, compatible container.

A solution of calcium carbonate and calcium carbonate chips must be available and used in amounts sufficient to neutralise the acid in the spill area.

Post Idea #21: PostgreSQL

Related Articles – Summarized

PostgreSQL: The World’S Most Advanced Open Source Database

PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system with over 30 years of active development that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, feature robustness, and performance.

There is a wealth of information to be found describing how to install and use PostgreSQL through the official documentation.

The PostgreSQL community provides many helpful places to become familiar with the technology, discover how it works, and find career opportunities.


In 1996, the project was renamed to PostgreSQL to reflect its support for SQL. After a review in 2007, the development team decided to keep the name PostgreSQL and the alias Postgres.

Because PostgreSQL is immune to dirty reads, requesting a Read Uncommitted transaction isolation level provides read committed instead. PostgreSQL supports full serializability via the serializable snapshot isolation method.

For connecting to applications, PostgreSQL includes the built-in interfaces libpq and ECPG. Third-party libraries for connecting to PostgreSQL are available for many programming languages, including C++, Java, Julia, Python, Node.js, Go, and Rust.

PostgreSQL Studio PostgreSQL Studio allows users to perform essential PostgreSQL database development tasks from a web-based console.

LibreOffice, OpenOffice.org LibreOffice and OpenOffice.org Base can be used as a front-end for PostgreSQL. pgBadger The pgBadger PostgreSQL log analyzer generates detailed reports from a PostgreSQL log file.

Adminer Adminer is a simple web-based administration tool for PostgreSQL and others, written in PHP. pgBackRest pgBackRest is a backup and restore tool for PostgreSQL that provides support for full, differential, and incremental backups.

Pgaudit pgaudit is a PostgreSQL extension that provides detailed session and/or object audit logging via the standard logging facility provided by PostgreSQL. wal-e Wal-e is a backup and restore tool for PostgreSQL that provides support for physical backups, written in Python.

What Is PostgreSQL?

PostgreSQL possesses robust feature sets including Multi-Version Concurrency Control, point in time recovery, granular access controls, tablespaces, asynchronous replication, nested transactions, online/hot backups, a refined query planner/optimizer, and write ahead logging.

PostgreSQL is highly scalable both in the quantity of data it can manage and in the number of concurrent users it can accommodate.

PostgreSQL’s write ahead logging makes it a highly fault tolerant database.

PostgreSQL is ACID compliant, and has full support for foreign keys, joins, views, triggers, and stored procedures, in many different languages.

PostgreSQL source code is available under an open source license, granting you the freedom to use, modify, and implement it as you see fit, at no charge.

PostgreSQL carries no licensing cost, which eliminates the risk for over-deployment.

PostgreSQL’s dedicated community of contributors and enthusiasts regularly find bugs and fixes, contributing to the overall security of the database system.

PostgreSQL Tutorial

PostgreSQL is a powerful, open source object-relational database system.

It has more than 15 years of active development and a proven architecture that has earned it a strong reputation for reliability, data integrity, and correctness.

PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX, and Windows.

This tutorial will give you quick start with PostgreSQL and make you comfortable with PostgreSQL programming.

This tutorial has been prepared for the beginners to help them understand the basic to advanced concepts related to PostgreSQL Database.

Before you start practicing with various types of examples given in this reference, I’m making an assumption that you are already aware of what a database is, especially RDBMS and what a computer language is.

What Is PostgreSQL

PostgreSQL is an advanced, enterprise-class, and open-source relational database system.

PostgreSQL is a highly stable database backed by more than 20 years of development by the open-source community.

PostgreSQL is used as a primary database for many web applications as well as mobile and analytics applications.

In 1996, the POSTGRES project was renamed to PostgreSQL to clearly illustrate its support for SQL. Today, PostgreSQL is commonly abbreviated as Postgres.

The PostgreSQL Global Development Group, a dedicated community of contributors continues to make the releases of the open-source and free database project.

LAPP stands for Linux, Apache, PostgreSQL, and PHP. PostgreSQL is primarily used as a robust back-end database that powers many dynamic websites and web applications.

PostgreSQL with the PostGIS extension supports geospatial databases for geographic information systems.

Download PostgreSQL

Version 10.x and below will be supported until their end of life.

PostgreSQL is the world’s most advanced open source database and the fourth most popular database.

In development for more than 20 years, PostgreSQL is managed by a well-organized and highly principled and experienced open source community.

It is an object-oriented database that is fully ACID compliant and highly extensible, enabling the community to add new features and capabilities as workload demands evolved.

Because of its extensibility, PostgreSQL offers a wide variety of built-in PostgreSQL data types including JSON, XML, HSTORE, Geo-spatial, IPv6; flexible indexing, featuring composite indexes, GiST, SP- GiST, GIN; full Text Search, online index reorganization; background workers such as a managed process known as Mongress, which accepts MongoDB queries to interface with Postgres data; a contrib module interface: pgcrypto, pg trgm, HSTORE; and extensive SQL support.

PostgreSQL runs on all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX, and Windows.

Postgres also offers the following Library interfaces: OCI, libpq, JDBC, ODBC,.NET, Perl, Python, Ruby, C/C+, PHP, Lisp, Scheme, and Qt. PostgreSQL databases provide enterprise-class database solutions and are used by a wide variety of enterprises across many industries, including financial services, information technology, government and media and communications.

Post Idea #22: Luna Innovations Inc

Related Articles – Summarized

Fiber Optic Sensing And Measurement Systems

Solutions for your most challenging physical, mechanical and temperature measurement needs.

Innovative technology for design and test of photonic components and systems.

Luna Innovations Inc. Stock Quote

Luna Innovations, Inc. engages in the development and manufacture of fiber optic test and measurement, sensing and instrumentation products for the automotive, aerospace, energy and infrastructure industries.

It operates through the following segments: Lightwave and Luna Labs.

The Lightwave segment develops, manufactures and markets distributed fiber optic sensing products and fiber optic communications test and control products.

The Luna Labs segment performs applied research principally in the areas of sensing and instrumentation, advanced materials and health science.

The company was founded by Kent A. Murphy in July 1990 and is headquartered in Roanoke, VA..

Luna Innovations

Luna Innovations is an American developer and manufacturer of fiber-optics- and terahertz-based technology products for the aerospace, automotive, communications, defense, energy, infrastructure, security, and silicon photonics industries.

Luna Innovations holds more than 450 U.S. and international patents in fiber optics and specializes in products for fiber-optic testing of components, modules and networks, as well as integrated optics and distributed fiber-optic sensor solutions.

Luna Labs works with government agencies on technology development in these four core areas: sensors and systems; health sciences; and advanced materials including corrosion inhibitors, self-cleaning and self-healing coatings, impact indicators, flame retardant additives and nanomaterials; and secure computing using hardware-based anti-tamper technologies.

Luna Innovations was founded by an electrical engineering professor at Virginia Tech and was originally headquartered in Blacksburg, Virginia, and still has a manufacturing facility there.

Luna Innovations had an initial public offering in June 2006 with the NASDAQ trading symbol LUNA. Two companies developed from Luna Innovations have been sold to other companies.

Luna Energy, which developed pipeline monitoring sensors for the oil and gas industry, was acquired by oilfield services firm Baker Hughes.

Luna i-Monitoring, which developed a suite of integrated wireless sensors for remote monitoring for the oil and gas industry, was acquired by IHS Energy.

Post Idea #23: Greenland Holdings

Related Articles – Summarized

Greenland Holdings

Greenland Holdings Corp., Ltd. known as Greenland Group is a Chinese real estate developer.

Greenland Holdings was created in 1992 to develop green belts around Shanghai.

As of 2014, these include Metropolis Los Angeles in Los Angeles, Spire London, a 235-metre residential skyscraper in the London Docklands, Greenland Centre Sydney in Sydney, Atlantic Yards in New York, and an 872 unit condo plus 122 room hotel complex in Toronto.

Greenland Group are the current majority shareholder of the Chinese Super League club Shanghai Shenhua F.C., having officially taken over the operation of the club after purchasing the 28.5% share owned by previous majority shareholder Zhu Jun in January 2014.

Both Greenland Holdings and the employee-owned private equity fund are represented by Zhang Yuliang as the legal representative.

The 15-person board of directors consists of 5 independent directors, as well as Zhang Yuliang, Tan Jiancheng, vice-chairman of Greenland Holdings and vice-president of Shanghai Municipal Investment Group), Cai Shunming, vice-chairman of Greenland Holdings and vice-president of Shanghai Land Group), Xu Jing, executive vice-president), Zhang Yun, executive vice-president), Tian Bo, ex-vice president of Greenland Holdings), Ji Guanglin, Greenland Holdings director and chairman of associate company Shanghai SMI Holding, a subsidiary of Shanghai Municipal Investment Group), He Qiju, Zhou Qing and Song Chengli, Greenland Holdings director and vice-chairman of Ping An Trust).

Management board and employee of Greenland Holdings via a private equity fund, 28.99%). Shenzhen Ping’an Innovation Capital Investment, a subsidiary of Ping An Trust of Ping An Group.


2020 – Greenland USA today announced the refinancing of THEA at Metropolis on November 25, 2020.

The new $340,000,000 financing was issued by a combination of a first mortgage from funds managed by Apollo Global…..

A Bailout In China’S Distressed Property Sector

SHANGHAI/HONG KONG, March 16 – Greenland Holdings Corp Ltd, a major Shanghai-based Chinese state-backed property developer responsible for marquee projects at home and abroad, was scrambling for funds late last year, people with direct knowledge of the matter said.

In danger of defaulting on a $500 million offshore bond in December, it was rescued after Shanghai authorities told local state-owned enterprises to step in and buy new Greenland debt, sources told Reuters.

Greenland’s financial straits and subsequent bailout, details of which are previously unreported, mark the first known example where Chinese SOEs have been directly ordered to participate in a property sector bond offering – highlighting more active and targeted action being taken by authorities as they seek to limit risks posed by the industry.

Greenland, China’s No. 7 property developer and highly leveraged, became swept up in a sector-wide debt crisis that roiled international markets last year amid fears that a large-scale developer collapse could derail the world’s second-largest economy.

Then in early December, the Shanghai government’s state asset administrator held a meeting with representatives of seven SOEs, ordering them to buy new dollar bonds issued by Greenland, according to four people briefed about the gathering.

The order to SOEs to support Greenland only pertained to the $350 million purchase of new debt, the sources said.

The written instructions with a Shanghai SASAC letterhead that ordered the purchase of Greenland’s bonds are being kept in a safe place in case Greenland defaults and SOE officials are called to account for their actions, said one person with knowledge of the matter.

China’S Greenland Holding Group Co Adds Hotel, Museum To Downtown Toronto Complex

Greenland, owned by the Chinese government, is expanding in North America through developments such as the Toronto buildings and projects in downtown Los Angeles and Brooklyn.

Greenland Holding Group Co. is adding a hotel and museum to a planned downtown Toronto residential complex that’s the Chinese developer’s first project in Canada.

Greenland, owned by the Chinese government, will build a Primus-brand boutique hotel along with the two condominium towers it’s developing on King Street in Toronto.

The company is expanding in North America through developments such as the Toronto buildings and large residential projects in downtown Los Angeles and Brooklyn, New York, where demand for high-rise living is growing.

We have projects in New York and L.A. and we thought the next city had to be Toronto.

Greenland is wagering it will be helped by Canada’s relatively stable economy and population growth in Toronto, the country’s financial capital, creating demand for more homes.

Greenland’s Toronto project, already approved by the city and scheduled for completion in 2018, will have two condo towers.

Post Idea #24: Fisher & Paykel

Related Articles – Summarized

Defenders Of Wildlife

Despite their name, fishers do not hunt or eat fish, but have a varied diet consisting mostly of small to mid-sized mammals including squirrels, wood rats and hares.

Rampant loss of forest habitat due to aggressive logging of the past remains a problem, and unsustainable logging continues to impact fisher habitat today.

In both the northern Rockies and their West Coast range, Defenders is working to secure adequate federal protections for fishers and their habitats, actively influencing policies and decisions affecting them – such as trapping in Montana and logging important habitat in California’s southern Sierra Nevada – and preparing for changes to fisher habitat caused by climate change.

Defenders successfully advocated for protecting the highly isolated fisher population in the southern Sierra Nevada under both the federal and California endangered species acts.

Fishers are common in the Northeast and Midwest U.S., but rare in the northern Rockies and Northwest into California’s southern Sierra Nevada, where they are one of the rarest carnivores.

Researchers believe there may be fewer than 300 adult fishers in the southern Sierra Nevada population.

Fishers prefer large areas of dense mature coniferous or mixed forest and are solitary animals.

NYS Dept. Of Environmental Conservation

The plan advances two primary goals for managing fisher populations in New York: Maintain or enhance fisher populations in all areas of the state where suitable habitat exists; and Provide for the sustainable use and enjoyment of fishers by the public.

The plan summarizes existing data on fisher populations and defines more specific objectives and strategies for Northern, Southeastern, and Central/Western New York including proposals to adjust current fisher trapping regulations and establish new trapping opportunities in some parts of the state.

The Fisher Management Plan formed the basis for regulatory changes to provide sustainable fisher harvest opportunities in many areas of the state.

See the Assessment of Public Comment on Fisher Trapping to view a summary of the comments submitted and DEC’s response.

See the Assessment of Public Comment on Fisher Trapping Revised to view a summary of the comments submitted and DEC’s response.

Reducing the fisher trapping season from 46 days to 30 days in select Adirondack Wildlife Management Units in the Northern Zone.

Establishing a 6-day fisher trapping season in selected WMUs in Central/Western New York.


Despite the name “Fisher”, the animal is not known to eat fish.

“Fishers are generalist predators. Although their primary prey is snowshoe hares and porcupines, they are also known to supplement their diet with insects, nuts, berries, and mushrooms. Since they are solitary hunters, their choice of prey is limited by their size. Analyses of stomach contents and scat have found evidence of birds, small mammals, and even deer-the latter indicating that they are not averse to eating carrion. While the behavior is not common, fishers have been known to kill larger animals, such as wild turkey, bobcat and Canada lynx. Researchers in Maine have found”about a dozen” cases of confirmed fisher predation on Canada lynx, and several more suspected cases, in a four township area of Maine.

In June 2011, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service recommended that fishers be removed from the endangered list in Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.

Fishers became extirpated in many northern U.S. states after 1930, but were still abundant enough in Canada to maintain a harvest over 3,000 fishers per year.

In some areas, fishers can become pests to farmers when they raid chicken coops, and instances of fishers preying on cats and small dogs have been reported.

A 2015 follow-up study building on these data determined that the trend of exposure and mortality from these toxicants increased to 85%, that California fishers were now exposed to an average of 1.73 different anticoagulant rodenticides, and that 9 more fishers died, bringing the total to 13.

The extent of marijuana cultivation within fishers’ home ranges was highlighted in a 2013 study focusing on fisher survival and impacts from marijuana cultivation within the Sierra National Forest.

About Fishers

In the 1950s, with permission from each state, logging companies reintroduced fishers into northern New England to control porcupines.

At the time, porcupines were decimating seedlings planted by the timber companies to reestablish trees in logged areas-and fishers are the only species to deliberately target porcupines as prey.

In eastern North America, fishers are now found in southern Canada, New England, and New York, and in scattered locations in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Virginia.

Like most members of the Mustelidae found in New England, fishers are pretty quiet creatures unless they are in the grip of a predator.

Even though fishers do not catch live fish, they will eat dead fish found on the shore of a lake or pond.

Fishers are one of the few mammals that prey on porcupines.

Since females are able to mate again within just a few days after giving birth, mothers must guard against male fishers as well.

Thermo Fisher Scientific

The Fisher Scientific channel keeps science moving forward by offering over 2 million products and extensive support services to the scientific research, healthcare and science education markets.

Leading the industry with more than 1,000 product-assistance specialists, plus a purpose-built global warehouse and distribution network designed around the safe handling, storage and transportation of scientific products, the Fisher Scientific team delivers the tailored logistics solutions, state-of-the-art inventory management strategies, and on-site operational support customers need to work more efficiently and innovate more productively.

Fisher College

Fisher College is more than a doorway to education – it’s a pathway to your future.

Offering over 30 different Bachelor and Graduate-level programs on campus, online, and on your time.

My favorite thing about Fisher is how the staff and faculty treat each student with respect and genuinely want to see students achieve their best.

Post Idea #25: RNA extraction

Related Articles – Summarized

ScienceDirect Topics

2.1 ReagentsRNA extraction:Total RNA Purification Kit.RNA quantification:Qubit RNA HS Assay Kit.Library construction:Ion Total RNA-Seq Kit v2, includes all reagents and magnetic beads described in the procedure below.

The integrity of the RNA preparations was tested on a Bioanalyzer 2100, using Agilent RNA 6000 nano-kit, as suggested by the manufacturer.

Washes are stopped when ribosomal RNAs and ladder bands can be visualized under UV.The RNAs are blotted onto a positive membrane by capillarity in 2× SSC for 16 hr.

Critical-After isopropanol precipitation, macrophage RNA needs to be incubated at 80 °C for a minimum of 4 h, but the optimum time is 16 h.-Avoid to dry the RNA completely to facilitate resuspension.

3.Quantify RNA concentration with a fluorescent dye-based method such as the Qubit RNA HS Assay Kit.

Briefly, dilute 1 μL resuspended RNA in a solution containing RNA HS reagent in a 1:200 dilution with Qubit RNA HS Buffer, incubate at RT for 2 min and quantify the RNA in a Qubit fluorometer.

Pause point: RNA can be kept at 80 °C for 2 weeks before proceeding with library construction; if samples are kept any further, we recommend to check RNA quality on a electrophoretic chip such as RNA 6000 Pico Kit, or to run an RNase-free 0.8% agarose gel to confirm RNA integrity, visualizing the gel on a UV trans illuminator such as GelDoc or similar imaging system.

RNA Extraction

DNA extraction methods cannot be directly applied to RNA as RNA is structurally very different from DNA. RNA is single-stranded, while DNA is mostly double-stranded.

RNAlater solutions from Thermo Fisher and QIAGEN are used by many researchers during RNA isolation, both for stabilizing cellular RNA in tissue samples, and for stabilizing final purified RNA. Ambient storage of tissue samples in RNAlater preserves RNA integrity similarly as storage at low temperature [4, 5]. RNAlater is based on the inhibition of RNAses by sulfate salts such as ammonium sulfate at specific pH. RNA quality can be checked using agarose gel electrophoresis.

RNAqueous kit, Micro-to-midi total RNA purification system, NucleoSpin RNA II, GenElute mammalian total RNA kit, RNeasy mini kit, and TRIzol LS reagent were evaluated for RNA extraction on blood, tonsil, liver, kidney, spleen, bladder, heart, submandibular lymph node from pig infected with classical swine fever virus.

Other Thermo Fisher kits that have been used for RNA isolation include PureLink Plant , MagMax-96 Total RNA Isolation Kit , LeukoLOCK total RNA 448 isolation system with MagMax technology , Purelink RNA Mini kit , Dynabeads mRNA Purification Kit and Arcturus PicoPure RNA isolation kit [66, 67]. For example, Nagamatsu G et al isolated mRNA from mouse oocytes with the Dynabeads mRNA DIRECT Micro Kit from Invitrogen for RNA-seq analysis to investigate the dormancy of immature oocytes in primordial follicles.

QIAGEN RNA extraction products cited in the survey include QIAzol , RNase-free DNase and AllPrep DNA/RNA Micro Kit [70, 71], miRNeasy kit [10, 37, 72], Oligotex kit [73, 74], mRNA isolation/purification kit , RNA protect Bacteria Reagent , and QIAamp kits [77, 78]. For example, Abbink P et al extracted RNA from rhesus macaque plasma and viral stock using QIAamp Viral RNA mini kit for viral sequencing.

Kits supplied by MilliporeSigma that have been used for RNA isolation include GenElute Mammalian Total RNA Miniprep kit , Plant Total RNA Kit , Spectrum Plant Total RNA kit [16, 17], and TRI reagents [80, 81]. MilliporeSigma also distributes kits and reagents provided by Roche, such as RNase free DNase and High Pure RNA Isolation kit.

RNeasy kitsProvides purified RNA for RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR, differential display, cDNA synthesis, northern blotting, dot and slot blot, primer extension, poly A RNA selection, RNase/S1 nuclease protection and microarraysCan be used to isolate up to 100 µg of total RNA using the mini kit, or up to 45 µg of total RNA using the micro kit.

Thermo Fisher Scientific

For over two decades, our scientists have developed innovative and robust RNA extraction products that make your job as a scientist easier.

Our goal is to provide unique and reliable products, services, and support.

RNA isolation is a crucial step in the journey to discovery.

Whatever downstream application you are attempting to do, you can be confident that our portfolio of products and support can support you.

Our RNA extraction products include organic, silica spin columns, crude lysate, and magnetic beads.

Some of these familiar products include Ambion Cells-to-CT Kits, TRIzol reagents, PureLink purification kits, MagMAX extraction kits, mirVana isolation kits, and Dynabeads mRNA isolation technologies.

All products are developed based on our desire for you to have maximum confidence in your results.

RNA Isolation And Purification

When purifying RNA, it is critical to use an optimized method for your sample type.

Our trusted RNA extraction kits ensure high yields of high-quality RNA free of contaminants and inhibitors.

Streamlined protocols with optimized RNA extraction reagents simplify handling and are optimized for your specific sample types, formats and throughputs, as well as for manual and automated processing.

RNA PRECIPITATION. Transfer the aqueous phase to a fresh tube, and save the organic phase if isolation of DNA or protein is desired.

Precipitate the RNA from the aqueous phase by mixing with isopropyl alcohol.

Incubate samples at 15 to 30°C for 10 minutes and centrifuge at no more than 12,000xg for 10 minutes at 2 to 8°C. The RNA precipitate, often invisible before centrifugation, forms a gel-like pellet on the side and bottom of the tube.

REDISSOLVING THE RNA. At the end of the procedure, briefly dry the RNA pellet.

Dissolve RNA in RNase-free water or 0.5% SDS solution by passing the solution a few times through a pipette tip, and incubating for 10 minutes at 55 to 60°C. RNA can also be redissolved in 100% formamide and stored at -70°C. RNA Isolation Notes: 1.

Prior to precipitating the RNA with isopropyl alcohol, add 5-10 Ïg RNase-free glycogen as carrier to the aqueous phase.

Glycogen remains in the aqueous phase and is co-precipitated with the RNA. It does not inhibit first-strand synthesis at concentrations up to 4 mg/ml and does not inhibit PCR. 4.

What Is RNA Extraction?

Extraction of RNA allows scientists to study the pathway from DNA information to protein production and cell function.

Processes that facilitate RNA extraction and ensure sample stability provide researchers with a means to follow the path between DNA and RNA. During RNA extraction, biological samples are reduced and purified to such an extent that RNA is isolated for later examination.

Molecular components, such as proteins, RNA, and DNA, partition or isolate at different times, allowing for the extraction of specific types of RNA. Different tissue and cell types require different methods of RNA extraction.

One common method of RNA extraction is phenol-chloroform extraction, also known as PC or PCIA. Using this method, tissue samples are mixed with equal parts phenol and chloroform.

Other methods for extracting RNA vary, depending on sample size, tissue type, and whether total or partial RNA is required.

Complications with RNA extraction are common and generally relate to the degradation of RNA after extraction.

In response, many methods of RNA extraction include steps for the preparation of samples for storage, both before and after extraction, to reduce or slow the breakdown of RNA..

Protocol For Total RNA Extraction/Purification – CD Genomics

Acquisition of high-quality RNA is the first and critical step in performing RNA analysis, including PCR, reverse transcription real-time PCR, gene expression profiling with microarray, RNA sequencing, and northern analysis, etc.

Total RNA extraction is the process to extract RNA molecules from biological samples, such as cell culturing, tissue, FFPE, blood.

The most important issues involved in the RNA purification process include RNA integrity, purity, and sufficient amount.

High-quality RNA is free of genomic DNA or inhibitors, and is not degraded.

Next, we will introduce a manual method of RNA extraction/purification that is suitable for all types of tissues from a majority of plant and animal species.

RNA is very unstable, so all the reagents and materials should be free of RNase.

Freeze 2ml Eppendorf microcentrifuge tube with tissue sample and glass ball at -80°C and then grind the sample in the MM300 Mixer Mill at 30Hz for two minutes.

Post Idea #26: Russian ruble

Related Articles – Summarized

EXPLAINER: What Would A Russian Bond Default Mean?

The possibility of default loomed larger after the head of the International Monetary Fund, Kristalina Georgieva, conceded that a Russian default is no longer an “Improbable event.”

Ratings agencies have downgraded Russia’s credit rating to below investment grade, or “Junk.” Fitch said its “C” rating means that “a default or a default-like process has begun.”

Bondholders who have credit default swaps – derivatives that act like insurance policies against default – can ask a “Determinations committee” of financial firm representatives to decide whether a failure to pay should trigger a payout, which still isn’t a formal declaration of default.

Investment analysts are cautiously reckoning that a Russia default would not have the kind of impact on global financial markets and institutions that the 1998 default did.

Russia’s default on ruble bonds came on top of a financial crisis in Asia.

“That said, a Russian default would no longer be any great surprise for the market as a whole. … If there were going to be big shock waves, you would see that already. That doesn’t mean that there won’t be significant problems in smaller sectors.”

Once a country defaults, it can be cut off from bond-market borrowing until the default is sorted out and investors regain confidence in the government’s ability and willingness to pay.

Russia Faces Debt Payment Amid Default Fears

Russia is due to make an interest payment on its foreign debt Wednesday as sanctions over the Ukraine conflict have raised concerns that Moscow could default.

Sanctions over Russia’s operation in Ukraine have targeted $300 billion of its foreign currency reserves held abroad. Without access to these funds, concern has mounted that Russia could find itself forced to default.

Finance Minister Anton Siluanov denied on Monday that Russia would not be able to make the payments and accused the West of pushing the country towards an “Artificial default”.

He warned that Russia was prepared to service the debt in rubles, according to the exchange rate of Russia’s central bank on the day of the payment.

A payment in rubles would constitute a default at the end of a 30-day grace period, according to Fitch Ratings.

Russia last defaulted on foreign currency-held debt in 1918, when Russian revolution leader Vladimir Lenin refused to recognise the debts of the tsar deposed by the uprising.

“This will constitute a default if not cured within 30 days of the payments falling due,” said the debt ratings agency.

YouTuber Offers 1 Million Rubles To Pay Photobombing Russian TV Editor’S Fine

Kevin Paffrath, known as Meet Kevin on YouTube, is offering 1 million rubles to cover the fines of a Russian TV editor who interrupted her network’s broadcast with an anti-war message in protest of Russian President Vladimir Putin’s invasion of Ukraine.

Marina Ovsyannikova of Channel One, a state-owned Russian news network, held a sign behind the anchor over the weekend, which read, “Stop the war! Don’t believe propaganda! They’re lying to you here!”.

‘LYING TO YOU’: RUSSIAN TV EMPLOYEE INTERRUPTS NEWS BROADCAST WITH ANTI-WAR SIGN. “That’s the kind of bravery that we should be encouraging,” Paffrath said of the stunt.

“It’s what we need to help wake up that middle and older age group in Russia that’s brainwashed by the Russian media, who actually think that this is some form of liberation for Ukrainians,” he said.

Apparently, a woman just ran onto the stage during a Russian state television news broadcast with a sign that said, “Stop the war! Don’t believe propaganda! They’re lying to you here!” pic.

In a video that appeared to have been filmed before the incident, Ovsyannikova said her father is Ukrainian and expressed shame for parroting Kremlin propaganda.

Marina Ovsyannikova, the woman who ran onto a live state TV news broadcast, even recorded a message beforehand.

A Russian Bond Default Is Likely. What Would A Default Mean?

Politics The head of the International Monetary Fund has said a Russian default is no longer an “Improbable event.” By The Associated Press, Associated Press.

The possibility of default loomed larger after the head of the International Monetary Fund, Kristalina Georgieva, conceded that a Russian default is no longer an “Improbable event.”

Bondholders who have credit default swaps – derivatives that act like insurance policies against default – can ask a “Determinations committee” of financial firm representatives to decide whether a failure to pay should trigger a payout, which still isn’t a formal declaration of default.

Investment analysts are cautiously reckoning that a Russia default would not have the kind of impact on global financial markets and institutions that the 1998 default did.

Russia’s default on ruble bonds came on top of a financial crisis in Asia.

“That said, a Russian default would no longer be any great surprise for the market as a whole. If there were going to be big shock waves, you would see that already. That doesn’t mean that there won’t be significant problems in smaller sectors.”

Once a country defaults, it can be cut off from bond-market borrowing until the default is sorted out and investors regain confidence in the government’s ability and willingness to pay.

Russian Ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble is the official currency of the Russian Federation.

The first Russian ruble replaced the Soviet ruble in September 1993 at parity or 1 SUR = 1 RUR. In 1998, preceding the financial crisis, the current ruble was redenominated with the new code “RUB” and was exchanged at the rate of 1 RUB = 1,000 RUR. The ruble was the currency of the Russian Empire and of the Soviet Union.

The ruble has seen several incarnations and redenominations during its history, the latest of which is the introduction in 1998 of the current Russian ruble at the rate of 1 RUB = 1,000 old rubles.

The Russian ruble with the ISO 4217 code RUR and number 810 replaced the Soviet ruble at the rate 1 SUR = 1 RUR. The ruble’s exchange rate versus the U.S. dollar depreciated significantly from $1 = 125 RUR in January 1992 to approximately $1 = 6,000 RUR when the currency was redenominated in 1998.

In 1998 the Russian ruble was redenominated with the new ISO 4217 code “RUB” and number 643, and was exchanged at the rate of 1 RUB = 1,000 RUR. All Soviet coins issued between 1961 and 1991, as well as 1-, 2- and 3-kopek coins issued before 1961, also qualified for exchange into new rubles.

The trading of the Chinese yuan against the ruble has started in the Chinese interbank market, while the yuan’s trading against the ruble was set to start on the Russian foreign exchange market in December 2010.

A decline in confidence in the Russian economy caused investors to sell off their Russian assets, which led to a decline in the value of the Russian ruble and sparked fears of a Russian financial crisis.

1996-2021 Historical

The Russian ruble firmed up around 108 per dollar on Wednesday, rising further from a record low of 150 hit last week as diplomatic efforts between Russia and Ukraine showed every intention of continuing, while holders of Russian sovereign bonds awaited clarity on coupon payments due today.

Russia’s finance ministry said it will make payments on $117 million worth of Eurobonds in rubles if sanctions prevent it from paying in dollars, a move Fitch Ratings said would constitute a sovereign default.

The ruble continued to recoup losses after a sharp depreciation triggered by crippling international sanctions, with the Bank of Russia so far responding with a more than double policy rate hike to 20% and a range of capital control measures to defend its currency.

Historically, the Russian Ruble reached an all time high of 150 in March of 2022.

Russian Ruble – data, forecasts, historical chart – was last updated on March of 2022.

The Russian Ruble is expected to trade at 129.43 by the end of this quarter, according to Trading Economics global macro models and analysts expectations.

Looking forward, we estimate it to trade at 138.66 in 12 months time.

Ruble Crashes After West Tightens Russia Sanctions

Russia’s currency is tumbling after Western nations on Saturday agreed to put crippling sanctions on the country’s financial sector in retaliation for its invasion of Ukraine.

The ruble fell about 30% against the U.S. dollar Monday after the U.S., European Union and United Kingdom announced moves to block some Russian banks from the SWIFT international payment system and to restrict Russia’s use of its massive foreign currency reserves.

The ruble recovered ground after Russia’s central bank sharply raised its key interest rate Monday to shore up the currency and prevent a run on banks.

Delegates from the two countries sat down Monday for their first direct negotiations since Russia launched its invasion five days earlier.

Capital Economics estimated in a report that Russia’s gross domestic product is likely to shrink roughly 5% as a result of the sanctions on the country’s economy.

The ruble lost much of its value in the early 1990s after the end of the Soviet Union, with inflation and loss of value leading the government to lop three zeros off ruble notes in 1997.

Then came a further drop after a 1998 financial crisis in which many depositors lost savings and yet another plunge in 2014 due to falling oil prices and sanctions imposed after Russia seized Ukraine’s Crimea peninsula.

Post Idea #27: Samurai bond

Related Articles – Summarized

Overview, Purpose, Benefits, And Limitations

A samurai bond is a corporate bond issued by foreign companies in the Japanese market and is required to abide by the Japanese regulations.

Samurai bonds provide issuers access to the Financial Markets.

SummarySamurai bond is a yen-denominated corporate bond issued in Japan by foreign companies.

Samurai bonds attract investors in Japan since the bonds hedge the currency variation risk.

Since the issuers of samurai bonds are mostly from Europe and the U.S., they seek the stability from the Japanese market as an alternate financial source.

Limitations of a Samurai BondThe samurai bond market comes with high tax rates and an unclear fiscal environment.

The samurai bond market growth is stagnant since the bond issuing procedure is difficult, and tax rules are complicated.

Samurai Bond Definition

A Samurai bond is a yen-denominated bond issued in Tokyo by a non-Japanese company and subject to Japanese regulations.

Simply put, a foreign bond is issued in a domestic market by a foreign issuer in the currency of the domestic country.

A foreign issuer who wants access to the Japanese debt market would issue a bond referred to as a Samurai bond.

Issuers may simultaneously convert proceeds from the issue into another currency in order to take advantage of lower costs that may result from investor preferences that differ across segmented markets or from temporary market conditions that differentially affect the swaps and bond markets.

The bonds are subject to Japanese bond regulations, attracting investors from Japan and providing capital to foreign issuers.

Since investors bear no currency risk from holding these bonds, Samurai bonds are attractive investment opportunities for Japanese investors.

The Samurai bond is not to be confused with the Shogun bond, which is issued in Japan by a non-Japanese issuing entity but denominated in a currency other than the yen.

What Are Samurai Bonds? And How Do Samurai Bonds Work?

Samurai bonds are Japanese Yen denominated bonds that are issued in Tokyo by foreign entities.

Samurai bonds are regulated by Japanese regulation as these are Yen denominated bonds.

Important: Foreign Bond issuers may offer bonds in other currencies than Yen, for example, Shogun Bonds are issued in foreign currencies.

Local investors may be attracted to Samurai bonds with an intention of capital gains on maturity or selling the bonds in the market above par value.

Bond issuers’ prime objective with Samurai bonds can be raising capital in a foreign market.

Investors look to make investments in Samurai bonds offering regular coupon payments and make capital gains on the sale of bonds in the secondary market.

Lack of flexibility in Samurai bonds may hold investors back from investing in these bonds.

Russia Redeeming Samurai Bonds In Roubles Will Be Seen As Default

TOKYO : Russia’s Gazprom will likely be considered as defaulting on its debt if it redeems yen-denominated samurai bonds in roubles, Tadashi Maeda, governor of state-affiliated Japan Bank for International Cooperation, said on Wednesday.

As of March 2021, JBIC offers guarantees to about 65 billion yen worth of yen-denominated samurai bonds issued by Gazprom, Maeda told parliament.

I Bond Returns: Almost Too Good To Be True

I’m going to argue high I Bond returns are the real reason for making us not try so hard!

Investing in an I Bond today is almost too good to be true.

The true risk-free rate is the 10-year bond yield since there is no cap on how much one can purchase.

Take all your risk assets and multiply their value by 100% + the I Bond rate.

We know the average return for the S&P 500 is about 10%. We also know the average return for the aggregate bond market is around 5%. Therefore, if you construct a simple 60/40 portfolio, the expected return based on historical figures is about 8%. But of course, there is risk involved and the portfolio could lose value.

Based on my asset allocation model between stocks and bonds, we can assume the target I Bond investor is age 40 and over.

Readers, how do you stay motivated to keep earning and producing when I Bond rates are so high? The government is also providing so much support that it feels harder to work harder.

Post Idea #28: Medidata Solutions

Related Articles – Summarized


02/22Plus Therapeutics, Inc. s’associe Medidata pour appliquer une solution innovante de b. 02/04Parexel étend son partenariat stratégique avec Medidata pour améliorer la fourniture d’. 2019EN DIRECT DES MARCHES : Dassault Systèmes, Orange, Renault, Unibail, SES, Recylex, Boeing,.

2019DASSAULT SYSTEMES : le rachat de Medidata est finalisé 2019DASSAULT SYSTÈMES : acquisition de Medidata finalisée.

Medidata Solutions

Medidata Solutions is an American technology company that develops and markets software as a service for clinical trials.

In 1994, de Vries and Ikeguchi created OceanTek, a startup that developed Web applications for conducting clinical trials and was the precursor to Medidata.

Medidata offers a cloud-based platform for clients to build their own clinical trials and perform medical research.

Medidata Rave EDC, its flagship product, introduced in 2001, is a single system for electronic data capture and clinical data management, allowing client data to be accessible in one place.

Medidata Rave Clinical Cloud, introduced in 2013, is a platform used for data capture and management of patient-related data for clinical operations.

In February 2018, Medidata announced plans to launch virtual trials as a part of its platform’s clinical trial products, allowing patients to participate remotely in drug development trials.

The complaint alleges that Veeva induced former Medidata employees to reveal confidential information and trade secrets that belong to Medidata.

Medidata Solutions Stock Forecast, Price & News

Medidata Solutions, Inc. provides cloud-based solutions for life sciences worldwide.

It offers the Medidata Clinical Cloud, a platform, pioneering analytics, and clinical technology for the development and commercialization of new therapies.

The company’s platform solutions include data capture and management, and trial planning and management.

It also provides professional services, such as implementation, sponsor enablement, strategic consulting, partner support, and e-learning and training.

The company markets and sells its cloud-based solutions through a direct sales force and through relationships with channel and strategic partners.

It serves pharmaceutical, biotechnology, medical device, and diagnostics companies; academic research centers, government, and other non-profit organizations; and other non-profit organizations; and contract research organizations and other entities engaged in clinical trials.

The company was founded in 1999 and is headquartered in New York, New York.

Post Idea #29: Mesenchymal stem cell

Related Articles – Summarized

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Doi: 10.3727/096368910X. Stem cells have two features: the ability to differentiate along different lineages and the ability of self-renewal.

Two major types of stem cells have been described, namely, embryonic stem cells and adult stem cells.

Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst and are associated with tumorigenesis, and the use of human ESCs involves ethical and legal considerations.

The use of adult mesenchymal stem cells is less problematic with regard to these issues.

Mesenchymal stem cells are stromal cells that have the ability to self-renew and also exhibit multilineage differentiation.

Recently, MSCs have been found in new sources, such as menstrual blood and endometrium.

There are likely more sources of MSCs waiting to be discovered, and MSCs may be a good candidate for future experimental or clinical applications.

What Are Mesenchymal Stem Cells?

Mesenchymal stem cells are adult stem cells isolated from different sources that can differentiate into other types of cells.

For years, researchers believed that mesenchymal stem cells only existed within bone marrow.

In general, a stem cell is only as good as its source, and if the cells come from an older individual, no amount of expansion will increase their potency.

Stem cells from a person in their twenties are not nearly as high quality as the brand new cells sourced from cord tissue.

By sourcing mesenchymal stem cells from donated cord tissue and expanding them to higher numbers, the medical community has created the ability to supplement a person’s stem cell count through transplantation with younger, highly competent cells.

Mesenchymal stem cells can treat a variety of conditions.

Mesenchymal stem cells have little adverse side effects.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Biology

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stem cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including bone cells, cartilage cells, muscle cells and fat cells that give rise to marrow adipose tissue.

Bone marrow has a limited MSC pool that depletes with age and after disease.

This is one major reason bones fail to regenerate in osteoporotic conditions.

Dr. Chandra focuses on therapeutic options to regulate bone marrow adiposity.

His research aims to define the cues that regulate mesenchymal cell fate and assign them to an osteogenic or adipogenic fate.

Dr. Chandra utilizes lineage-tracing methods to accurately characterize the mesenchymal fate and identify the pathways that regulate cell fate.

He has used age- and radiation-related bone marrow adiposity in vivo and in vitro to determine if senescence plays a role in MSC depletion due to fate conversion to adipocytes.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Tissue engineering Mesenchymal stem cellsClassically, MSCs were derived from bone marrow and used as connective tissue progenitors.

Biologics for Spinal Fusion Allograft Containing Mesenchymal Stem CellsAnother bone graft material marketed for fusion is allograft containing mesenchymal stem cells.

The article will discuss the potential relevance of MSC aging during age-related alterations in skeletal remodeling and hematopoietic stem cell aging.

Due to the heterogeneity of this cell population, the International Society for Cellular Therapy recommends the term MSC as opposed to mesenchymal stem cell.

Authentic mesenchymal stem cells occur; however, for clarity and accuracy the ISCT reserves the designation “Stem” for cells uniformly demonstrating stem cell properties.

In the BM, MSCs control hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis in the endosteal and the perivascular niche.

In the endosteal niche, MSCs mainly mediate HSC retention, maintenance, and quiescence, via various factors including CXCL12, stem cell factor, angiopoeietin-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule.

MSC Home

Discovered by Dr. Arnold Caplan of Case Western University, mesenchymal stem cells were first identified and named in the 1980s when Caplan realized that there were stem cells in the body that could respond to powerful inductive molecules that exist in adult tissue.

These special cells can make several types of cells belonging to our skeletal tissues, such as cartilage, bone and fat.

They are also being explored as a new therapeutic for treating a variety of immune-mediated diseases.

During 30 years of scientific inquiry, Dr. Caplan and colleagues discovered that MSCs are more accurately medicinal signaling cells that monitor and protect virtually every vessel in our bodies.

That encompasses 60,000-100,000 miles of vessels that transport oxygen, nutrition and waste to and from every one of our cells.

When an MSC detects an infection or an injury to those vessels, it transforms into a bio-factory to secrete and recruit immune modulating and vessel repair agents.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Mesenchymal stem cells also known as mesenchymal stromal cells or medicinal signaling cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes and adipocytes.

Mesenchymal stem cells are characterized morphologically by a small cell body with a few cell processes that are long and thin.

These distinctive morphological features of mesenchymal stem cells can be visualized label-free using live cell imaging.

These bone marrow stem cells do not contribute to the formation of blood cells and so do not express the hematopoietic stem cell marker CD34. They are sometimes referred to as bone marrow stromal stem cells.

MSCs reduce T cell proliferation between G0 and G1 cell cycle phases and decrease the expression of IFNγ of Th1 cells while increasing the expression of IL-4 of Th2 cells.

New research titled Transplantation of human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell spheroids ameliorates spontaneous osteoarthritis in rhesus macaques Various chemicals and methods including low level laser irradiation have been used to increase proliferation of stem cell.

Most mesenchymal cell or “MSC” preps only contain a minority fraction of true multipotent stem cells, while most cells are instead stromal in nature.

Post Idea #30: Mesenchyme

Related Articles – Summarized

The Embryo Project Encyclopedia

Although most mesenchyme derives from the middle embryological germ layer, the mesoderm, the outer germ layer known as the ectoderm also produces a small amount of mesenchyme from a specialized structure called the neural crest.

Platt’s 1893 publication, “Ectodermic Origin of the Cartilages of the Head,” and her conclusions about the ectodermal origins of mesenchyme in the head region, and thus skeletal and cartilaginous tissues of the skull, went against the entrenched germ-layer theory and the mesodermal origins of mesenchyme advocated by the Hertwig brothers in their 1881 Die Coelomtheorie.

Soon after the debate over ectodermal mesenchyme ended, research on the role of mesenchyme during development erupted.

While some still investigate mesenchyme at the tissue level, the two current focuses reflect a trend towards the analysis and understanding of molecular-level mechanisms by which mesenchyme functions during development.

Beginning with the definition by the Hertwig brothers, mesenchyme research has moved from anatomical investigations in developing embryos, to cellular contributions for organ formation and tissue level interactions, and now to the genetic mechanisms of development and tissue repair.

Mesenchyme of ectodermal origins she specified by the term mesectoderm, while mesodermal mesenchyme she called mesendoderm.

The study of mesenchyme has a long history, from mesenchyme’s recognition within the framework of germ-layer theory, to controversy about mesenchyme’s origins, to uncovering mesenchyme’s roles in morphogenesis and its capacity to produce stem cells.

Definition Of Mesenchyme By Medical Dictionary

Mesenchyma the meshwork of embryonic connective tissue in the mesoderm; from it are formed the connective tissues of the body as well as blood vessels and lymph vessels.

An aggregation of mesenchymal or fibroblastlike cells.

Primordial embryonic connective tissue consisting of mesenchymal cells, usually stellate in form, supported in interlaminar jelly.

The part of the embryonic mesoderm, consisting of loosely packed, unspecialized cells set in a gelatinous ground substance, from which connective tissue, bone, cartilage, and the circulatory and lymphatic systems develop.

Mesenchyme can be thought of as the animal equivalent of PARENCHYMA in plants.


Mesenchyme is a type of loosely organised animal embryonic connective tissue of undifferentiated cells that gives rise to blood and lymph vessels, bone, and muscle.

Mesenchyme is characterized morphologically by a prominent ground substance matrix containing a loose aggregate of reticular fibers and unspecialized mesenchymal stem cells.

The mesenchyme develops into the tissues of the lymphatic and circulatory systems, as well as the musculoskeletal system.

The first cells of the embryo to undergo EMT and form mesenchyme are the extra-embryonic cells of the trophectoderm.

Primary mesenchyme is the first embryonic mesenchymal tissue to emerge, and it is produced from EMT in epiblast cells.

Neural mesenchyme forms soon after primary mesenchyme formation.

The interaction with ectoderm and somite-forming morphogenic factors cause some primary mesenchyme to form neural mesenchyme, or paraxial mesoderm, and contribute to somite formation.

ScienceDirect Topics

Based on fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis of 11.5 dpc kidneys from Six2GFP mice, which facilitates the isolation of CM, the starting population is around 10,000 cells.

Anatomy Mesenchymal CellsVascular endothelial cells of both pulmonary and bronchial vessels are continuous endothelial cells.

203 Although all vascular endothelial cells share core properties, there are differences among the endothelial cells in large blood vessels versus capillaries.

Myofibroblasts differentiate from different precursor cells in disease, being the principal cell in the fibrotic foci.213,214Lipofibroblasts are characterized by the presence of lipid droplets and specific molecular markers and are located close to AT2 epithelial cells, which is consistent with lipofibroblast support of growth and differentiation of AT2 cells by providing the lipids for surfactant production.

22 Of note, the phosphorylation status, and hence activity, of myc within the CM was shown to be regionally diverse, also implicating a heterogeneous cell state within the CM.22 Other studies have shown evidence of functional heterogeneity within the CM. EdU infusion studies quantifying cell cycle length within the mouse CM showed that, as for the ureteric tip progenitors, average cell cycle length increased across developmental time.

65 While there was a tendency for the slower cycling cells to be more peripheral, this was not a clear regional localization and hence fast and slow cycling CM cells did not appear to represent Cited1+ versus Cited1− cells.

There are initially more CM cells than tip cells in each niche, but the ratio of CM cells to tip cells per niche decreases over time.


Cellular organization In cell: The extracellular matrixThe first type, mesenchymal tissue, is made up of clusters of cells grouped together but not closely adherent to one another.

They synthesize a highly hydrated gel, rich in salts, fluid, and fibres, known as the interstitial matrix.

Connective tissue is a mesenchyme that fastens together other more.

What Is Mesenchyme?

Cells within mesenchyme are undifferentiated, meaning that they can develop into any type of mature cell.

The mesenchyme also can differentiate into hematopoietic cells, or cells that produce blood and circulatory tissue, thus developing into the mature circulatory system.

Another related term, “Mesenchymal stem cells,” sometimes is used interchangeably with the term “Marrow stromal cells” to describe undifferentiated stem cells.

Referring to these as mesenchymal cells is not entirely accurate, because mesenchyme can differentiate into blood cells, and the stem cells most often called mesenchymal stem cells generally can become bone cells, fat cells or cartilage cells.

Another term, considered somewhat more accurate when used to describe this type of stem cell, is “Multipotent stromal cells.”

Unlike mesenchyme, ectomesenchyme arises a bit later in the development process from a group of cells called neural crest cells.

Neural crest cells form in the region of the embryo’s cranium and become bones and muscles of the head and neck, as well as forming the branchial or pharyngeal arches, which become gills in fish and develop into the trachea and larynx in mammals.

Futura Santé

Le mésenchyme correspond un tissu de soutien embryonnaire l’origine de certains tissus chez l’adulte, principalement les muscles, les vaisseaux.

Par abus de langage, on oppose souvent le mésenchyme au , ce dernier correspondant aux tissus composant les régions fonctionnelles d’un organe.

Dans ce sens, on confond le mésenchyme avec le stroma.

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Post Idea #31: Neuromuscular-blocking drug

Related Articles – Summarized

Neuromuscular-Blocking Drug

Neuromuscular Blocking DrugsNeuromuscular blocking drugs are frequently used to facilitate mechanical ventilation, both short term in the operating room and for longer periods in the ICU. It is essential to ensure that recovery or reversal from neuromuscular blockade is achieved before either airway support or mechanical ventilation is removed.

In addition to their predictable effects on the phrenic nerve-diaphragm neuromuscular junction, neuromuscular blocking drugs also have deleterious effects on both chemoreception and upper airway patency.

58.It is currently generally accepted that the neuromuscular blocking drugs act to block the neuromuscular junction nicotinic receptors, but they have little effect on neuronal nicotinic receptors.

66.Train-of-four stimulation can be used to monitor the depth of neuromuscular blockade, avoiding excessive paralysis and reducing the quantity of drug used, as well as the recovery time of neuromuscular function in critically ill patients.

Clinical uses of drugs affecting neuromuscular transmissionThe neuromuscular blocking drugs are used as an adjunct to general anaesthesia where muscular relaxation or paralysis is desirable.

Nondepolarizing Neuromuscular-blocking DrugsPancuroniumPancuronium is a steroid-based neuromuscular blocking drug that has been in widespread use since the 1960s.

Reversal of Nondepolarizing Muscle RelaxantsResidual neuromuscular blockade caused by nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs can be reversed by intravenous neostigmine.

Depolarizing Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

Identify the two basic mechanisms of action of depolarizing neuromuscular blockade drugs.

Explain the indications where depolarizing neuromuscular blockade agents are appropriate.

Outline the adverse events and monitoring necessary when using depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.

Review the importance of improving care coordination among interprofessional team members to improve outcomes for patients undergoing procedures where depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents are used.

The most well-known depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent is succinylcholine.

There are 2 types of neuromuscular blocking agents that work at the neuromuscular junction: depolarizing and non-depolarizing.

Depolarizing agents are absolutely contraindicated in patients with degenerative neuromuscular disorders or a history of malignant hyperthermia.

List Of Neuromuscular Blocking Agents

What are Neuromuscular blocking agents? List of Neuromuscular blocking agents: Filter by.

Further informationAlways consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.

Neuromuscular-Blocking Drug

Neuromuscular-blocking drugs block neuromuscular transmission at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis of the affected skeletal muscles.

Non-depolarizing blocking agents: These agents constitute the majority of the clinically relevant neuromuscular blockers.

A neuromuscular non-depolarizing agent is a form of neuromuscular blocker that does not depolarize the motor end plate.

Comparison of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents Agent Time to onset Duration Side effects Clinical use Storage Rapacuronium Bronchospasm Withdrawn due to Bronchospasm risk Mivacurium 90 12-18 No longer manufactured secondary to marketing, manufacturing, and financial concerns refrigerated Atracurium 90 30 min or less hypotension, transiently, by release of histamine.

A depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent is a form of neuromuscular blocker that depolarizes the motor end plate.

Two functional groups contribute significantly to aminosteroidal neuromuscular blocking potency, it is presumed to enable them to bind the receptor at two points.

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors increase the amount of acetylcholine in the neuromuscular junction, so a prerequisite for their effect is that the neuromuscular block is not complete, because in case every acetylcholine receptor is blocked then it does not matter how much acetylcholine is present.

Interactions Of Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

Many drugs interact with neuromuscular blocking drugs and often enhance the induced block; this is of clinical importance for volatile anaesthetics, antimicrobials, magnesium and some more specific drugs.

Phenytoin, carbamazepine and other anticonvulsants may cause resistance to neuromuscular blocking drugs.

Clinically important interactions are found between individual neuromuscular blockers.

Giving succinylcholine after a non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug prolongs the onset of succinylcholine; when non-depolarizing drugs are administered after succinylcholine their effects are prolonged.

Finally, liver dysfunction, renal failure, disturbances of acid-base balance, change in temperature and neurological diseases all have an effect on the profile of the neuromuscular blocking drugs; the response to an induced block may be altered in patients under intensive care and those with cancer.

Although knowledge of the most important theoretical interactions of neuromuscular blocking drugs is favourable, the anaesthetist should be aware that pharmacological interactions can lead to an unpredictable induced neuromuscular block in many cases in daily clinical practice.

Therefore anaesthetists should become familiar with the use of neuromuscular transmission monitoring in order to manage the block correctly.

Post Idea #32: Interventional pulmonology

Related Articles – Summarized

Interventional Pulmonology

People with lung and airway or chest diseases benefit from the services of our interventional pulmonology specialists.

Our interventional pulmonology doctors work closely with a multispecialty team that includes thoracic surgeons, cancer specialists, pathologists and other specialists as needed.

Our interventional pulmonologists are at the forefront of innovation in advanced diagnostic and treatment technology, such as robotic bronchoscopy.

Another innovation in care used at Mayo Clinic is endoscopic lung volume reduction with endobronchial valves.

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., and Mayo Clinic in Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz., are ranked among the Best Hospitals for pulmonology by U.S. News and World Report.

Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Fla., is ranked highly performing for pulmonology by U.S. News & World Report.

Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn. and Mayo Clinic in Phoenix/Scottsdale, Ariz., are ranked among the Best Hospitals for respiratory disorders by U.S. News & World Report.

Interventional Pulmonology: Types Of Procedures, Purpose, And Risks

Interventional pulmonology uses endoscopy and other tools to diagnose and treat conditions in the lungs and chest.

Using these tools, the doctor can perform several other interventional pulmonology procedures.

For people with lung cancer or other cancers, interventional pulmonology biopsies can often accurately identify spread of cancer into lymph nodes.

Bronchoscopy is the preferred interventional pulmonology procedure to remove inhaled foreign objects that are lodged in an airway.

Interventional pulmonology procedures offer the potential advantage of avoiding more invasive surgery.

Although interventional pulmonology procedures carry low risks, they are not risk-free.

Interventional pulmonology procedures are generally safer and have a shorter recovery time compared to surgery.

Pulmonary & Critical Care Medicine

We provide multidisciplinary care for patients with all aspects of central airway obstruction due to either malignant or non-malignant disease.

Our goal is to provide expeditious care in a multidisciplinary fashion with outstanding communication to both the patient and the referring physicians.

To help achieve these goals, patients are discussed at a Multidisciplinary Complex Airway Conference.

In addition to airway obstruction from malignancy, we treat non-malignant central airway obstruction due to diseases such as tracheobronchomalacia, tracheal or sub-glottic stenosis, relapsing polychondritis, amyloidosis, tracheobronchial papillomatosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis.

We are fortunate to have all modalities for central airway intervention available to us, allowing treatment to be tailored to each patient.

Patients with pleural effusions, mediastinal adenopathy and lung nodules or masses are also evaluated and treated in a multidisciplinary approach with members of Interventional Pulmonology, Thoracic Surgery, Medical Oncology and Radiation Oncology.

Johns Hopkins Medicine does not necessarily endorse the views expressed or the information presented in the video, other than its own.

Interventional Pulmonology

Interventional pulmonology has revolutionized the field of pulmonary medicine by providing the most advanced minimally invasive procedures to diagnose and treat both malignant and non-malignant disorders of the lungs and airways.

Airway ablation: Removes obstructions and opens the airways for patients with blocked or scarred airways.

Bronchial thermoplasty: Delivers controlled thermal energy via bronchoscope to the airways, reducing the amount of smooth muscle that narrows the airways in patients with severe asthma.

Interventional Pulmonology Clinic: Our dedicated Interventional Pulmonary Clinic offers therapeutic bronchoscopy for individuals with airway narrowing.

The Michigan Medicine Interventional Pulmonology Program is actively involved in clinical trials in conjunction with our world-renowned pulmonologists, medical and radiation oncologists, thoracic and ENT surgeons and interventional radiologists.

If you are a physician who would like to refer a patient to the Michigan Medicine Interventional Pulmonology Program or one of our clinics, please complete the referral form and fax it to us at 734-539-0317 or call M-Line at 962-3555.

If you are a physician who would like to refer a patient to the Interventional Pulmonology Program or one of our clinics, please complete the referral form and fax it to us at 734-539-0317 or call M-Line at 962-3555.

Interventional Pulmonology

Bronchoscopy presents a unique challenge and need for collaboration between anesthesia providers and bronchoscopists.

The approach to topical anesthesia, analgesia, and sedation must be customized based on complexity, duration, and setting.

The bronchoscopy team must work together in each phase of the procedure to ensure patient safety and allow completion of a quality bronchoscopy.

Airway access may change depending on the type of procedure planned and must be discussed before each case.

Intraprocedural difficulties with ventilation, airway pressure, and sedation may arise that must be addressed together.

This review highlights an approach to these common challenges.

Keywords: Bronchoscopy; Interventional pulmonology; Jet ventilation; Total intravenous anesthesia.

Interventional Pulmonology

Interventional Pulmonology uses the latest technology to diagnose and treat a variety of lung conditions using minimally invasive techniques.

At Weill Cornell Medicine, interventional pulmonologists are part of a team of experts that provide comprehensive care to patients with complex chest disorders.

Lung Cancer Screening Program – This program provides comprehensive evaluation for patients with pulmonary nodules.

Endobronchial Ultrasound – EBUS assists in diagnosing lung nodules and enlarged lymph nodes in the chest without surgery.

Complex Airway Disease Program – We provide customized care for patients with cancer or non-cancer airway disorders.

Pleural effusions occur when fluid accumulates between the lung and the pleura, the thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity.

A pleuroscopy is a direct examination of the outer layer of the lung using a small camera through a single incision which allows physicians to determine the cause of fluid buildup.

Interventional Pulmonology

Interventional pulmonology is a maturing medical sub-specialty from its parent specialty of pulmonary medicine.

With these developments, interventional pulmonology became much more firmly established on the map of distinct subspecialties.

In 1992, the Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology was formed as a representative society of interventional pulmonologists based in North America.

The World Association for Bronchology was founded by Dr. Ikeda in 1978 and renamed as the World Association for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology in 2010.

It holds a biennial scientific meeting known as the World Congress for Bronchology and Interventional Pulmonology.

The Association for Interventional Pulmonology Program Directors, dedicated to the advancement of IP education in the United States, was created in 2012.

For purposes of formal training in interventional pulmonology, dedicated training programs only became available in the early 21st century.

Post Idea #33: Autonomous robot

Related Articles – Summarized

Autonomous Robot

An autonomous robot is a robot that acts without recourse to human control.

Industrial robot arms that work on assembly lines inside factories may also be considered autonomous robots, though their autonomy is restricted due to a highly structured environment and their inability to locomote.

There are several open problems in autonomous robotics which are special to the field rather than being a part of the general pursuit of AI. According to George A. Bekey’s Autonomous Robots: From Biological Inspiration to Implementation and Control, problems include things such as making sure the robot is able to function correctly and not run into obstacles autonomously.

As autonomous robots have grown in ability and technical levels, there has been increasing societal awareness and news coverage of the latest advances, and also some of the philosophical issues, economic effects, and societal impacts that arise from the roles and activites of autonomous robots.

The Seekur robot was the first commercially available robot to demonstrate MDARS-like capabilities for general use by airports, utility plants, corrections facilities and Homeland Security.

Lethal autonomous weapons are a type of autonomous robot military system that can independently search for and engage targets based on programmed constraints and descriptions.

A delivery robot is an autonomous robot used for delivering goods.

Autonomous Robots

These robots can gather information and use that information to make a decision, then follow through on that decision.

They can accomplish a variety of tasks, such as object identification, traveling to coordinates, following designated objects, and more.

These platforms support ROS, ROS2, and CubePilot/ArduPilot that can be leveraged to achieve autonomy in multiple operating environments.

We’ve listed several standard platforms, but we specialize in custom requests! We can provide custom solutions, and can build any custom inspection robot you need.

Just send your requirements, and we will be glad to help.

A Guide To Autonomous Robots & 8 AMR Applications

Not only are Automated Guided Vehicles being used to move materials in factories and warehouses, but flying robots are being used for disaster response, and underwater robots are being used to search and discover shipwrecks in the deepest depths of our oceans.

While this use of robots has proven incredibly effective over the years, these examples in no way represent the use of truly autonomous robots.

The same concepts apply to industrial robots – if an AMR encounters an obstacle while it is performing set tasks on the warehouse floor, it will navigate around the issue and continue without human interference.

This combination of the cart transport and loading/unloading in one AMR is a relatively new capability, but one that will create more potential applications for autonomous robots.

As the capabilities and ease-of-use improves for AMRs, many industries are finding innovative applications for robots.

Today we are seeing more autonomous robots being utilized in the healthcare field for a variety of tasks.

Autonomous mobile robots combined with robotic arms can be used to control valuable process inputs, perform regular monitoring tasks, andr safely manage waste removal from the production line.

6 Examples Of Autonomous Robots

An autonomous robot is a machine that acts and behaves with a high degree of independence.

By definition, robots are at least semi-autonomous meaning that they can react to some events and conditions without need of direction.

The term autonomous robot suggests a machine that can accomplish complex objectives without need of external control.

Delivery RobotA robot that can deliver a package to an address given real world conditions such as traffic, pedestrians, urban landscapes, emergencies and weather.

Ideally, such a robot would be designed to exhibit polite behavior to humans and avoid hurting people above all other priorities.

Social RobotsA robot designed to socialize with humans such as a pet robot.

Industrial robots could potentially do the same with abilities to solve problems when unusual things happen.

What Is An Autonomous Robot?

An autonomous robot is a robot that is designed and engineered to deal with its environment on its own, and work for extended periods of time without human intervention.

Autonomous robots often have sophisticated features that can help them to understand their physical environment and automate parts of their maintenance and direction that used to be done by human hands.

Some examples of autonomous robots include autonomous cleaning robots like Roomba, medical delivery robots, and other robots that move freely around a physical space without being physically guided by humans.

Autonomous robots typically go about their work without any human interaction unless that human interaction is necessary as part of their task.

Many of these robots have sensors and other functional gear that helps them to see any obstacles in their way, or navigate rooms, hallways or some other sort of environment.

Complex delivery robots can even be programmed to use elevators and move throughout a multi-story building with complete autonomy.

Autonomous robots still need to be maintained physically.

Post Idea #34: eXp World Holdings

Related Articles – Summarized

EXp World Holdings, Inc. Stock Price, Quote & News

BELLINGHAM, Wash., March 15, 2022 – eXp Realty ®, the fastest-growing global real estate brokerage and the core subsidiary of eXp World Holdings, Inc., has expanded into…. 23 hours ago – GlobeNewsWire.

BELLINGHAM, Wash., March 14, 2022 – eXp Realty®, the fastest-growing global residential real estate company and a subsidiary of eXp World Holdings, Inc., today announced…. 1 day ago – GlobeNewsWire.

BELLINGHAM, Wash., Feb. 08, 2022 – eXp Realty ®, the fastest-growing global real estate brokerage and the core subsidiary of eXp World Holdings, Inc., has expanded into …. 1 month ago – GlobeNewsWire.

EXp World Sets New 52-Week Low At $21.46

eXp World Holdings, Inc.’s share price hit a new 52-week low during trading on Monday.

eXp World had a return on equity of 44.57% and a net margin of 2.15%. eXp World’s quarterly revenue was up 76.7% compared to the same quarter last year.

The ex-dividend date is Thursday, March 10th. This represents a $0.16 dividend on an annualized basis and a yield of 0.69%. eXp World’s dividend payout ratio is currently 30.77%. In other eXp World news, CEO Glenn Darrel Sanford sold 9,000 shares of the firm’s stock in a transaction on Friday, December 17th. The stock was sold at an average price of $34.37, for a total value of $309,330.

Covestor Ltd purchased a new stake in eXp World in the fourth quarter worth $30,000.

PFG Private Wealth Management LLC purchased a new position in shares of eXp World in the third quarter valued at $34,000.

TAP Consulting LLC purchased a new position in shares of eXp World in the fourth quarter valued at $38,000.

Finally, Nisa Investment Advisors LLC grew its position in shares of eXp World by 202.0% in the fourth quarter.

What Do Wall Street Analysts Think About EXp World Holdings Inc. Stock? – Stocks Register

eXp World Holdings Inc. traded at $21.32 at close of the session on Monday, 03/14/22, made a downward move of -6.41% on its previous day’s price.

Looking at the stock we see that its previous close was $22.78 and the beta reads 3.11 with the day’s price range being $21.21 – $23.27.

Based on estimates by 4 analysts, where scores have ranged from 1.00 for a strong buy to 5.00 for a strong sell, 1 have rated the eXp World Holdings Inc. stock as a Hold, while 3 rate it as a Buy.

The stock has an overall rating of Overweight and investors could take advantage and scoop up stock of the company.

Looking further, we note that the PEG ratio for the EXPI stock currently stands at 4.13, and the current price level is -18.04% off its SMA20 and -21.76% from its 50-day simple moving average.

The average price target for the stock over the next 12 months is $52.33, with the estimates having a low of $45.00 and a high of $62.00.

Investors should be excited about this stock as its upside potential is great, with current price pushing the stock -36.72% down in year-to-date price movement.

BELLINGHAM, Wash., March 14, 2022 – eXp Realty®, the fastest-growing global residential real estate company and a subsidiary of eXp World Holdings, Inc., today announced it has been named the exclusive brokerage to provide real estate services for Bundle Select®, a real estate benefit platform.

Together, eXp Realty and the real estate benefit platform will deliver streamlined real estate experiences, savings and exceptional service to consumers.

eXp Realty’s global coverage, innovative technology and certified agents align with Bundle Select’s commitment to updating the real estate experience for modern times.

“eXp Realty has a national certified network of agents who deliver exceptional real estate services for employees and their families,” said Dawn Conciatori, eXp Realty, Director.

The Bundle Select platform combined with eXp Relocation services creates smooth and stress-free real estate transactions for employees.

As a publicly traded company, eXp World Holdings provides real estate professionals the unique opportunity to earn equity awards for production goals and contributions to overall company growth.

These statements include, but are not limited to, statements about the continued growth of our agent and broker base; expansion of our residential real estate brokerage business into foreign markets; demand for remote working and distance learning solutions and virtual events; development of our commercial brokerage and our ability to attract commercial real estate brokers; and revenue growth and financial performance.

A Deep Dive Into EXp World Holdings

You know, in a lot of cases, I mean, let’s face it as consumers, you know the old adage, you get what you pay for.

I mean, the number of agents and brokers on the eXp Realty platform grew 54% from a year ago to 31,091, and that was up from 20,162 from a year ago.

We were talking a little bit before taping, my wife and I have, we’ve gone through and actually purchased homes based on virtual tours, that really initiated our search, right? I mean, we found a house, you could go through a virtual tour and really learn everything that you needed to know about that house from the virtual tours that exist all the way back to 2005.

From an investor’s point-of-view, that’s a real – seeing not only their management, we’re used to seeing CEOs and management teams with a lot of skin in the game, would you say that’s fair? I mean, I’ve seen a lot of -.

I mean, eXp could be a takeover target, who knows? I mean, Zillow could conceivably buy them.

I mean, it would be well within their means to be able to bring something like an eXp into their fold if they really wanted to.

I mean, if I ask you where you can save over the traditional brokerage commission, sure, you could call a local realtor, try to negotiate something, you could try to find an eXp agent or you can just go to Redfin, because you know it’s going to be cheaper than the traditional business model.

Post Idea #35: NASDAQ:EXPI

Related Articles – Summarized

EXp World Sets New 52-Week Low At $21.46

eXp World Holdings, Inc.’s share price hit a new 52-week low during trading on Monday.

eXp World had a return on equity of 44.57% and a net margin of 2.15%. eXp World’s quarterly revenue was up 76.7% compared to the same quarter last year.

The ex-dividend date is Thursday, March 10th. This represents a $0.16 dividend on an annualized basis and a yield of 0.69%. eXp World’s dividend payout ratio is currently 30.77%. In other eXp World news, CEO Glenn Darrel Sanford sold 9,000 shares of the firm’s stock in a transaction on Friday, December 17th. The stock was sold at an average price of $34.37, for a total value of $309,330.

Covestor Ltd purchased a new stake in eXp World in the fourth quarter worth $30,000.

PFG Private Wealth Management LLC purchased a new position in shares of eXp World in the third quarter valued at $34,000.

TAP Consulting LLC purchased a new position in shares of eXp World in the fourth quarter valued at $38,000.

Finally, Nisa Investment Advisors LLC grew its position in shares of eXp World by 202.0% in the fourth quarter.

What Do Wall Street Analysts Think About EXp World Holdings Inc. Stock? – Stocks Register

eXp World Holdings Inc. traded at $21.32 at close of the session on Monday, 03/14/22, made a downward move of -6.41% on its previous day’s price.

Looking at the stock we see that its previous close was $22.78 and the beta reads 3.11 with the day’s price range being $21.21 – $23.27.

Based on estimates by 4 analysts, where scores have ranged from 1.00 for a strong buy to 5.00 for a strong sell, 1 have rated the eXp World Holdings Inc. stock as a Hold, while 3 rate it as a Buy.

The stock has an overall rating of Overweight and investors could take advantage and scoop up stock of the company.

Looking further, we note that the PEG ratio for the EXPI stock currently stands at 4.13, and the current price level is -18.04% off its SMA20 and -21.76% from its 50-day simple moving average.

The average price target for the stock over the next 12 months is $52.33, with the estimates having a low of $45.00 and a high of $62.00.

Investors should be excited about this stock as its upside potential is great, with current price pushing the stock -36.72% down in year-to-date price movement.

EXp World Holdings Stock Price, News & Info

The internet real estate giant has triple-digit revenue growth and the stock is incredibly cheap right now.

Are you interested in low stock prices and big returns?

The cloud-based real estate services stock is now up nearly 50% year to date.

The online real estate brokerage is rapidly growing its sales, and the stock is now up 25.5% year to date.

Even with recent sell-offs, eXp stock is up roughly 1,110% over the last year.

eXp has posted incredible gains over the last year, but volatility could be ahead. Why eXp World Holdings Stock Skyrocketed 68.9% in January.

The cloud real estate software company’s stock has soared roughly 1,050% over the last year.

Post Idea #36: Metering pump

Related Articles – Summarized

Metering Pumps

Graco’s electrically operated chemical metering pumps are designed to transfer fluids for chemical dosing applications including water treatment, agricultural, swimming pools and pulp and paper manufacturing as well as a multitude of other uses.

This pump is ideal in situations where very small volumes of liquid need to be continuously metered.

Our portable chemical dosing pumps operate at low pressures and are designed to work in harsh environments.

Easily select your pump model with specific fluid sections to handle a variety of different chemicals.

You have total control over the pumps feed rates, which gives you more flexibility when planning your chemical dosing.

Easily adjust the stroke length for your metering pump to meet your technical requirements.

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Metering Pumps

Most metering pumps are oscillating displacement pumps.

The pump settings can be changed to achieve consistently accurate metering.

The accurate control of the pumps is made possible by microprocessor technology.

Sophisticated monitoring functions ensure operational reliability and guarantee minimal chemical consumption yet optimum disinfection.

Interfaces integrate the pumps into a fully automated process.

Over one million ProMinent pumps are in use all over the globe, delivering reliable, accurate performance under the toughest conditions.

Our proven design principles guarantee a high standard of quality and precision.

Metering Pump Principles

The liquid end, which is referred to as the wetted part of the pump, is selected to meet the specific service conditions of the application.

First, the liquid is drawn into the wetted end by the rearward motion of a piston, and expelled by the forward motion.

To achieve this, the metering pump is supplied with check valves at the suction and discharge connection points.

The check valves contain and release the chemical based on system conditions and gravity.

During the suction portion of the stroke, the motion of the piston lifts the suction ball check from its seat allowing liquid into the pump.

At the same time, the piston’s motion and system back pressure hold the upper check valve closed.

Check valves are available in several different designs and configurations.

Chemical Metering Pumps

What is a Chemical Metering Pump? The metering pump is a positive displacement chemical dosing device with the ability to vary capacity manually or automatically as process conditions require.

Approximately 90% of all pumps sold are transfer pumps, which are designed to move liquids from point A to point B. But metering pumps are specialty pumps: They’re designed for precision-injection of chemicals, acids, bases, corrosives or viscous liquids and slurries.

Metering pumps are required for applications where one or more of the following conditions exist: High accuracy feed rate is demanded Low flow rates in ml/hr or GPH are required High system pressure exists Flow rates vary, and must be controlled by computer, microprocessor, DCS or PLC. Corrosive, hazardous, or high temperature fluids are handled Viscous fluids or slurries need to be pumped.

Unlike a centrifugal pump, the flow rate for a metering pump is not greatly affected by changes in discharge pressure.

Most metering pumps are supplied with a micrometer screw adjustment, or an electronic or pneumatic actuator to adjust pump flow rate in response to process signal.

Although a metering pump can generally be adjusted to pump at any flow rate between 0 and its maximum capacity, its accuracy is measured over a range determined by the pump’s turndown ratio.

Today’s hydraulically actuated metering pumps have a turndown ratio of 1,000-1, which means the pump will accurately dose chemicals anywhere between.

Metering Pump

Although metering pumps can pump water, they are often used to pump chemicals, solutions, or other liquids.

Many metering pumps are rated to be able to pump into a high discharge pressure.

Some single-piston pumps may have a constant slow piston motion for discharge and a quick retract motion for refilling the pump head. In such cases, the overall metering rate is practically equal to the pumping rate during the discharge stroke.

Either a single piston pump with a quick refill is used or a double pump head with coordinated piston strokes is used to provide as constant a pumping rate as possible.

The maximum pressure rating of a metering pump is actually the top of the discharge pressure range the pump is guaranteed to pump against at a reasonably controllable flow rate.

A metering or similar pump has to be primed before operation, i. e. the pump head filled with the liquid to be pumped.

When gas bubbles enter a pump head, the compression motion compresses the gas but has a hard time forcing it out of the pump head. The pump may stop pumping liquid with gas bubbles in the pump head even though mechanically the pump is going through the motions, repeatedly compressing and decompressing the bubbles.

Welcome To TKM Industries LLC

TKM Industries manufactures high-quality, custom-engineered metering pumps for the chemical, wastewater and mining industries, and is based in Marietta, Georgia.

The pumps utilize a modular design using common components across the product line, providing the customer with a highly reliable product, low maintenance costs and extended pump longevity.

TKM Pumps have been designed for specific applications with quick delivery and superior service reliability for the chemical, water, wastewater, oil & gas, mining, pulp & paper and agricultural industries.

We’ll be out and about at various trade shows throughout the year.

We’re also on Twitter, Facebook and YouTube – click on the logos below.

Post Idea #37: Deep packet inspection

Related Articles – Summarized

What Is Deep Packet Inspection? DPI Explained

Deep packet inspection refers to the method of examining the full content of data packets as they traverse a monitored network checkpoint.

Whereas conventional forms of stateful packet inspection only evaluate packet header information, such as source IP address, destination IP address, and port number, deep packet inspection looks at fuller range of data and metadata associated with individual packets.

Deep packet inspection will not only scrutinize the information in the packet header, but also the content contained within the payload of the packet.

Deep packet inspection capabilities have evolved to overcome the limitations of traditional firewalls that rely upon stateful packet inspection.

Analysis of traffic flows through deep packet inspection opens up a range of new and improved security use cases.

Deep packet inspection can be used not only for inbound traffic, but also outbound network activity.

While some firewalls do claim to perform deep packet inspection on HTTPS traffic, the process of decrypting data and inspecting it inline with traffic flows is a processor-intensive activity that overwhelms many hardware-based security devices.

What Is Deep Packet Inspection?

DPI examines a larger range of metadata and data connected with each packet the device interfaces with.

In this DPI meaning, the inspection process includes examining both the header and the data the packet is carrying.

As a result, DPI provides a more effective mechanism for executing network packet filtering.

In addition to the inspection capabilities of regular packet-sniffing technologies, DPI can find otherwise hidden threats within the data stream, such as attempts at data exfiltration, violations of content policies, malware, and more.

Not only can DPI identify the existence of threats but, using the contents of the packet and its header, it can also figure out where it came from.

With DPI, you can program a firewall to inspect data moving through your network and manage how certain data flows, where it is routed, and how it gets processed.

You can also benefit from seeing not just where a data packet is coming from but also what is inside its payload. DPI can identify dangerous data packets that may slip by regular firewalls.

Deep Packet Inspection is a technology through which internet service providers can track the network traffic and the real-time flow of data packets through their network using payload encryption.

Deep packet inspection is used to check for malicious files, internet censorship policies that may transfer illegally across the network to ensure sufficient network performance, data analysis, and application behaviour.

DPI may perform large-scale operations like network packet filtering which involves finding vulnerabilities and threats present on the network.

Advanced Network Management technology, data packets mining, and internet censorship & interception process are a part of Deep Packet Inspection in advanced form.

Content Optimization -DPI has the ability to compress the size of media and documents on the network communication in case of less network bandwidth to ensure reasonable and efficient performance.

Content Regulations -It is used to identify, authenticate and remove access to harmful activities on the network as a part of network censorship policies that may harm the users on the network.

Deep packet inspection can complex the firewall and network security system settings that harm the PC in a wrong way and make it more complicated to use and the data packets transfer process becomes slower.

What Is Deep Packet Inspection?

To understand how DPI works and why it’s used, we first need to understand how data packets are transferred and filtered.

Any information you send or receive online, whether it would be an email or you connecting to a website, is divided into packets.

These packets consist of headers and payloads that tell devices where these packets are from and where they are going.

Your router, for example, protects your devices by performing basic packet filtering, also known as Static/Stateless packet filtering.

It checks the incoming packets headers against a set of rules like specific source/destination IP addresses/port numbers and dismisses the ones that don’t.

It does a good job, but packet filtering is usually not enough.

First of all, hackers have found ways to overcome it.

Deep Packet Inspection

Essential DPI functionality includes analysis of packet headers and protocol fields.

More specifically, DPI can be effective against buffer overflow attacks, denial-of-service attacks, sophisticated intrusions, and a small percentage of worms that fit within a single packet.

Many DPI devices can identify packet flows, allowing control actions based on accumulated flow information.

DPI was one of the platforms essential to meeting this requirement and has been deployed for this purpose throughout the U.S. The National Security Agency, with cooperation from AT&T Inc., has used Deep Packet Inspection to make internet traffic surveillance, sorting, and forwarding more intelligent.

A concurrent article in The New York Times stated the NSN sale had been covered in a “Spate of news reports in April , including The Washington Times,” and reviewed censorship of the Internet and other media in the country, but did not mention DPI. According to Walid Al-Saqaf, the developer of the internet censorship circumventor Alkasir, Iran was using deep packet inspection in February 2012, bringing internet speeds in the entire country to a near standstill.

OpenBSD’s packet filter specifically avoids DPI for the very reason that it cannot be done securely with confidence.

A comprehensive comparison of various network traffic classifiers, which depend on Deep Packet Inspection, is shown in the Independent Comparison of Popular DPI Tools for Traffic Classification.

What Is Deep Packet Inspection? How It Works, Use Cases For DPI, And More

Deep packet inspection, which is also known as DPI, information extraction, IX, or complete packet inspection, is a type of network packet filtering.

Deep packet inspection evaluates the data part and the header of a packet that is transmitted through an inspection point, weeding out any non-compliance to protocol, spam, viruses, intrusions, and any other defined criteria to block the packet from passing through the inspection point.

In short, deep packet inspection is able to locate, detect, categorize, block, or reroute packets that have specific code or data payloads that are not detected, located, categorized, blocked, or redirected by conventional packet filtering.

Unlike plain packet filtering, deep packet inspection goes beyond examining packet headers.

Deep packet inspection is a form of packet filtering usually carried out as a function of your firewall.

Deep packet inspection evaluates the contents of a packet that is going through a checkpoint.

Deep packet inspection can slow down your network by dedicating resources for your firewall to be able to handle the processing load. Aside from privacy concerns and the inherent limitations of deep packet inspection, some concerns have arisen due to the use of HTTPS certificates and even VPNs with privacy tunneling.

If you’re in the networking industry, you’ve probably heard about DPI. If you’re also a designer or have worked with graphics, you’ve probably been confused as to what Dots Per Inch has to do with networks.

Every production network is different and no network does the same thing all the time because the traffic is always changing.

Think of a network packet like an envelope from the post office.

Every packet on a network has a source and destination address, too.

If there’s a bunch of network packets coming from a YouTube address, what’s happening? Somebody’s watching videos! What if there’s a bunch of packets going to a YouTube address? Somebody’s uploading a video.

Looking at the addresses alone is not very “Deep” – that’s what your network devices have to do anyway to get packets where they need to go, albeit without the analysis.

Because our implementation only looks at the source and destination addresses – information gathered anyway when routing packets across a network – and handles analysis separately, it does not create additional latency on networks.

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